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Sample records for persistent mullerian duct

  1. Laparoscopic management of persistent mullerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parelkar, Sandesh V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Oak, Sanjay; Sanghvi, Beejal; Kaltari, Deepak; Patil, Raj Shekhar; Prakash, Advait; Shimoga, Pradeep

    2009-09-01

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS), characterized by the presence of mullerian structures in a virilized male, frequently presents as undescended testis, either intraabdominal or within a hernial sac. We describe a 10-month-old infant with PMDS successfully managed by the laparoscopic approach. At the age of 1.5 months, the patient presented with a left inguinal hernia and bilateral nonpalpable gonads in another center and underwent left inguinal exploration. The uterus and a gonadlike structure along with the hernia sac were found in the inguinal canal. Left inguinal herniotomy was performed after reduction of the uterus and gonadlike structure. No gonadal biopsy was obtained. The patient was further investigated in the same center. His karyotype was 46,XY. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a uterinelike structure posterior to the urinary bladder, but neither testis nor ovaries were visualized. At 10 months of age, he was referred to our department for further management. A laparoscopic single-stage orchiopexy was performed. Both testes were identified and brought to the scrotum by splitting the uterus in the midline and then bringing the testes with the vas and attached uterine tissue into the scrotum. The aim of placement of well-vascularized testes in the scrotum was achieved as confirmed on follow-up color Doppler ultrasound study 6 months postoperatively, which showed normal vascularity. Laparoscopic surgical techniques for this condition are also discussed.

  2. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia: rare entity.

    PubMed

    Deepika; Kumar, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    We are reporting on a 35-year-old male from low socio-economic strata, who presented with a left-sided inguinal hernia. Intraoperatively, a uterus and two fallopian tubes were found in the hernial sac which was adjacent to the two gonads, which received their blood supply partly, along with Mullerian duct remnants (Persitent Mullerian duct Syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia). The gonads were testes by histological examination, with features of degeneration and fibrosis. Complete excision of the mass was done and mesh hernioplasty was done.The diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia was confirmed. Persistent Mullerian duct Syndrome is a rare entity and itís association with Transverse testicular ectopia is even more rare.

  3. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  4. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with testicular seminoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Inuganti, Renuka V.; Bala, G. Salia; Kumar, Y. Kiran; Bharathi, Y. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, characterized by the presence of the Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically as well as genotypically normal male. We report two cases of males with cryptorchidism, and seminoma in the undescended abdominal testis along with Mullerian duct derivatives (uterus and fallopian tube). PMID:22022070

  5. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome presenting as retractile testis with hypospadias: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna V; Nigam, Lovelesh A; Patel, Rashmi D; Kanodia, Kamal V; Suthar, Kamlesh S; Thakkar, Umang G

    2016-01-01

    A rare entity of persistent mullerian duct syndrome usually presents with a common symptom of undescended testis (UDT) or hernia. Male pseudo-hermaphroditism with persistent internal mullerian duct structures can present with a 46, XY karyotype with normal external genitalia and. It arises due to deficiency of anti-mullerian substance, resulting from reduced production/responsiveness to mullerian duct, leading to persistence of mullerian duct along with normal development of Wolffian duct structures. Presence of mullerian structure prevents testicular descent increasing the risk of testicular vanishing syndrome. The authors here report a case of 16 years old phenotypical male who came with retractile right sided testis and left side UDT in the urology out-patient department. Explorative laparotomy was performed and an ill-defined mass was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathology revealed presence of mullerian structures. The serum testosterone level was normal, buccal smear cytology and karyotyping revealed a 46, XY genotype of the patient. PMID:27326401

  6. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome in a patient with bilateral cryptorchid testes with seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Chamrajan, Shrinivasan; Vala, Nidhi H; Desai, Jatin R; Bhatt, Niraj N

    2012-01-01

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which mullerian duct derivatives are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. We report a case of a 33-year-old male with PMDS operated for postchemotherapy seminoma. A diagnosis of PMDS was made on subsequent histopathological evaluation. PMID:23162363

  7. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia and seminoma.

    PubMed

    Alp, Bilal Fırat; Demirer, Zafer; Gürağaç, Ali; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Sarı, Erkan; Sarı, Sebahattin; Yavan, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of the 46 XY disorders of sexual differentiation, characterized by the presence of a uterus and fallopian tubes due to the failure of Mullerian duct regression in genotypically normal males. More than 150 cases have been recorded, most of them in adults. In most cases, the PMDS is discovered during surgery for inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism, or by the presence of transverse testicular ectopia (TTE). The presence of PMDS with TTE is even more uncommon. In TTE, both testes descend through the same inguinal canal into the same scrotal sac. Patients with TTE present with symptoms of unilateral cryptorchidism and a contralateral inguinal hernia. For patients with inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism associated with TTE, PMDS should be kept in mind, and radiologic evaluation such as ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging of the genitourinary system and karyotyping are recommended. Whereas radiologic evaluation could be helpful in the diagnosis of TTE, it cannot diagnose the malignancy itself. The case explained in this report will offer urologists additional useful treatment strategies for patients with inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism.

  8. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Ovarian Endometriosis-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hippargi, Surekha B.; Mestri, Namrata B.; Mehrotra, Nikhil M.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, characterised by presence of Mullerian duct derivatives in a genotypic and phenotypic male. It is caused by absence of anti- Mullerian hormone or defective functioning of its receptors. We report a case of 19-year-old cryptorchid male with history of orchideopexy who was clinically and radiologically diagnosed as left sided chylocele. A definitive diagnosis of PMDS with ovarian endometriosis was made on histopathological examination which is important for genetic counselling and to reduce complications like infertility and neoplastic transformation. We report this case of PMDS with ovary showing evidence of endometriosis for its rarity. PMID:27042476

  9. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral orchidectomy for Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with seminoma testes: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Senthilnathan; Patel, Nikunj D.; Sabnis, Sandeep C.; Palanisamy, Nalankilli; Vijay, Anand; Chinnusamy, Palanivelu

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is one of the three rare intersex disorders caused by defective anti-mullerian hormone or its receptor, characterized by undescended testes with presence of underdeveloped derivatives of mullerian duct in genetically male infant or adult with normal external genitals and virilization. This population will essentially have normal, 46(XY), phenotype. We hereby present a case of PMDS, presented with incarcerated left inguinal hernia associated with cryptorchidism and seminoma of right testes. Patient underwent laparoscopic hernia repair with bilateral orchidectomy and hysterectomy with uneventful postoperative recovery. Here we highlight the importance of minimal access approach for this scenario in terms of better visualization, less blood loss, combining multiple procedures along with early return to work and excellent cosmetic outcome. PMID:26622120

  10. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome: a rare entity with a rare presentation in need of multidisciplinary management

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Lin Da; Zain, Murizah M.; Esteves, Sandro C.; Humaidan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Main findings: A typical male looking adolescent with a legal female gender assignment presented with haematuria. Investigations led to the diagnosis of Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome. The condition is indeed a rare entity that needs a multidisciplinary team management. Case hypothesis: A case of Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome undiagnosed at birth because karyotyping was defaulted, thus resulting in a significant impact on the legal gender assignment and psychosocial aspects. Promising future implications: The reporting of this case is important to create awareness due to its rarity coupled with the rare presentation with hematuria as a possible masquerade to menstruation. There were not only medical implications, but also psychosocial and legal connotations requiring a holistic multidisciplinary management. PMID:27532119

  11. A Rare Case Report of Inguinal Hernia with Persistent Mullerian Duct and Klinefelter Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dadheech, Darpan; Om, Prabha; Shridatt, Sharma Ankit; Patni, Ankur; Verma, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    Inguinal hernia in male is a common problem but having female reproductive organs in hernial sac is rare. It occur because of failure of mullerian duct to regress in a male fetus during embryonic development, result in a syndrome known as Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), which is a rare entity of male pseudohermaphroditism. We hereby present a case of 21-year-old male patient reported with complains of cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. Generally diagnosis of PMDS was established during investigation like ultrasonography, MRI for localization of undescended testis and during surgical exploration for inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism. Our patient was operated by bilateral inguinal incision; hernial sac contained adult size uterus fallopian tube and upper 2/3(rd) of vagina. On karyotyping it was found that he was a case of klinefelter syndrome also. Association of PMDS with klinefelter syndrome is very rare.

  12. A Rare Case Report of Inguinal Hernia with Persistent Mullerian Duct and Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Om, Prabha; Shridatt, Sharma Ankit; Patni, Ankur; Verma, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal hernia in male is a common problem but having female reproductive organs in hernial sac is rare. It occur because of failure of mullerian duct to regress in a male fetus during embryonic development, result in a syndrome known as Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), which is a rare entity of male pseudohermaphroditism. We hereby present a case of 21-year-old male patient reported with complains of cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. Generally diagnosis of PMDS was established during investigation like ultrasonography, MRI for localization of undescended testis and during surgical exploration for inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism. Our patient was operated by bilateral inguinal incision; hernial sac contained adult size uterus fallopian tube and upper 2/3rd of vagina. On karyotyping it was found that he was a case of klinefelter syndrome also. Association of PMDS with klinefelter syndrome is very rare. PMID:27504355

  13. Laparoscopic management of transverse testicular ectopia with persistent mullerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamble, R S; Gupta, R K; Gupta, A R; Kothari, P R; Dikshit, K V; Kesan, K K

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old male child presented with right undescended testis and left inguinal hernia with funiculitis. Ultrasonography showed funiculitis on the left side testis along with presence of 1.5 × 1 cm testis like structure just above left testis and empty right scrotal sac without any evidence of mullerian structures. On diagnostic laparoscopy, right testicular vessels were crossing from right to left and had uterus with both testes in left hernia sac. Mobilization of vessels, division of uterus, and hernia repair was done laparoscopically. On the review of literature, there is only one case report of total laparoscopic repair of transversetesticular ectopia (TTE) with hernia without persistent mullerian duct (PMDS). The uniqueness of our case is that it had TTE with hernia and PMDS, which were totally managed by laparoscopy. On 6 months of follow-up, both the testes are palpable in scrotum.

  14. Laparoscopic management of transverse testicular ectopia with persistent mullerian duct syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, RS; Gupta, RK; Gupta, AR; Kothari, PR; Dikshit, KV; Kesan, KK

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old male child presented with right undescended testis and left inguinal hernia with funiculitis. Ultrasonography showed funiculitis on the left side testis along with presence of 1.5 × 1 cm testis like structure just above left testis and empty right scrotal sac without any evidence of mullerian structures. On diagnostic laparoscopy, right testicular vessels were crossing from right to left and had uterus with both testes in left hernia sac. Mobilization of vessels, division of uterus, and hernia repair was done laparoscopically. On the review of literature, there is only one case report of total laparoscopic repair of transversetesticular ectopia (TTE) with hernia without persistent mullerian duct (PMDS). The uniqueness of our case is that it had TTE with hernia and PMDS, which were totally managed by laparoscopy. On 6 months of follow-up, both the testes are palpable in scrotum. PMID:26195884

  15. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Embryonal Cell Carcinoma along with Ectopic Cross Fused Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, NR Manju; Narayana, V; Raja, V Om Pramod Kumar; Jambula, Pranav Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, where there is normal development of male secondary sexual characters, along with the presence of bilateral fallopian tubes and uterus. Majority of these cases go undetected and some cases are accidentally diagnosed while investigating for other problems. Cross fused renal ectopia is a condition where one kidney lies in the opposite side, fused to the other kidney. We present an extremely rare case of a phenotypical male presenting with mass per abdomen and bilateral cryptorchidism, turned out to have uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes, ectopic cross fused right kidney and Embryonal cell carcinoma of left undescended testis. PMID:26894123

  16. Symptomatic Mullerian Duct Cyst in a Male Infant

    PubMed Central

    Chinya, Abhishek; Raj, Prince; Sinha, Shandip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic Mullerian duct cyst is a rare entity in children. A 9-month-old male infant presented with bowel and urinary obstructive symptoms. Imaging investigations revealed a cystic mass in the rectovesical pouch compressing bladder neck and rectum. At laparotomy, a Mullerian duct cyst was found. Most of the cyst was excised and the remaining cyst mucosa was cauterized. The child improved thereafter. PMID:27672581

  17. Persistent müllerian duct syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Chang, K W

    1991-10-01

    An eighteen month old phenotypically and genotypically normal male child was admitted with a left inguinal hernia and a right undescended testis. At operation, he was found to have a uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes, and a vagina in the left hernial sac. Bilateral orchidopexies and excision of the persistent Mullerian duct structures were carried out. This rare case of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is due to a defect in Mullerian regression, which is in turn controlled by the Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS). Orchidopexy with excision of the persistent Mullerian duct structures is usually not possible without damage to the vas deferens which is closely adherent to the wall of the uterus. The alternative of leaving the persistent Mullerian duct structures alone and performing a staged or primary orchidopexy has been suggested.

  18. 17 alpha-Hydroxylase deficiency with persistence of müllerian ducts in a genotypic male and paradoxical aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, N. S.; Yeung, V. T.; Chan, J. C.; Shek, C. C.; Nicholls, M. G.; Cockram, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency in a Chinese genotypic male patient. Despite the male genotype, normal female external genitalia were present and with the introduction of cyclical oestrogen therapy withdrawal bleeding occurred, confirming the presence of functional endometrial tissue. We believe this to be the first report of persistent Mullerian duct structures in a genotypic male with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. It could be explained by either impaired secretion or impaired action of anti-Mullerian hormone. Further, contrary to the usual finding of suppressed aldosterone secretion, this patient had measurable levels of plasma aldosterone. PMID:8506204

  19. The MURCS Association: Mullerian Duct Aplasia, Renal Hypoplasia and Cervicothoracic Somite Dysplasia - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akhter, N; Begum, B N; Newaz, M

    2015-07-01

    We report on a 22 years old lady with aplasia of uterus and most of the vagina with normal secondary sexual characteristics, unilateral renal hypoplasia and anomalies of cervico throacic somites (MURCS Association), growth retardation, cardiac defect and congenital urethrovaginal fistula. Although there is a broad spectrum of anomalies described with MURCS association genitourinary fistula is not yet reported and reviewed in published articles. The relevance of this paper is to show the importance of further investigation in cases of primary amenorrhoea with mullerian agenesis to establish that the patient has MURCS association and not simply MRKH (Mayer Rokitansky-Kusterhauser Syndrome) syndrome. Consequently we should provide guidance to the patients and their families about the best way to conduct the case including genetic counseling and family screening.

  20. Persistent müllerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Köksal, S; Tokmak, H; Tibet, H B; Olgun, E

    1995-01-01

    Persistent müllerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism. It is usually diagnosed in the early years of life. A case is reported of normal male appearance with bilateral undescended testicles and a right inguinal hernia. On exploration a uterus, two fallopian tubes and a testis were found in the hernial sac. As these patients have an increased risk of gonadal tumours they should be kept under long-term review.

  1. [The persistent müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia. A hypothesis on the role of müllerian inhibiting factor in the process of testicular migration].

    PubMed

    Asero, L; Meli, R

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) with transverse testicular ectopia and inguinal hernia in a 2-year-old child with family history for this syndrome. At operation the observation of a very long and thin gubernaculum and extreme mobility of both testes and uterus, which are located in the same hernial sac, allowed the Authors to propose a hypothesis to explain the role of MIF (Mullerian Inhibiting Factor) in testicular descent. Patients with PMDS present a normal outgrowth and migration phases of the gubernaculum but lack of the gubernacular regression phase. These data suggest an important function of the MIF in this phase of testicular descent.

  2. Persistent metanephric ducts in a geriatric white tiger.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Alain; Wack, Ray; Weisbrode, Steven E

    2005-01-01

    An 18-year-old male intact white Tiger (Panthera tigris) was euthanized after a clinical diagnosis of severe renal failure. Postmortem macroscopic examination of the kidneys revealed unilateral hydronephrosis with renal calculi and bilateral cortical and medullary fibrosis and papillary coagulation necrosis. Interestingly, multiple large persistent metanephric ducts were found at the corticomedullary junctions accompanied by marked interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of persistent metanephric ducts in cats.

  3. Intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small-bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Pauleau, Ghislain; Commandeur, Diane; Andro, Christophe; Chapellier, Xavier

    2012-07-11

    Persistent omphalomesenteric duct as a cause of small-bowel obstruction is an exceptional finding. A neonate presented with occlusion due to intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Remnants of the duct were successfully resected, and the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss the presentation of omphalomesenteric duct and its management.

  4. The persistent Müllerian duct syndrome: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, D; Tran, D; Vanderwinden, J M; Hideux, S; Van Outryve, L; Legeai, L; Bouchard, M; Van Vliet, G; De Laet, M H; Picard, J Y

    1989-01-01

    A rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism is characterized by the persistence of Müllerian derivatives in phenotypic males. To determine the etiology of this syndrome, we studied the expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in six boys, including three brothers, with the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. All except one presented with an inguinal hernia containing the Müllerian derivatives, and in two boys the hernial sac contained the contralateral testis. AMH was normally expressed in the testicular tissue of two patients, as shown by bioassay of anti-Müllerian activity and immunocytochemistry. The testicular tissue of the other patients had no detectable bioactive or immunoreactive AMH, yet they expressed AMH mRNA with a normal transcription initiation site and in the amount expected for their age. These results prove the heterogeneity of the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome and suggest that it may sometimes involve peripheral insensitivity to AMH.

  5. Persistent müllerian duct syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vijaya; Muktinaini, Sunilkrishna; Patil, Rashmi; Verma, Ashish

    2013-06-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism caused by defects in synthesis or action of Müllerian-inhibiting factor, due to which Müllerian duct derivatives, such as uterus, fallopian tube, and upper vagina, are normally present in 46XY males. Here, we report a 26-year-old male with right-sided obstructed inguinal hernia with left undescended testis. On exploration, hernial sac containing bowel loops, uterus with fallopian tubes, upper vagina, and testes were present.

  6. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 in the chicken developing gonads and Mullerian ducts.

    PubMed

    Omotehara, T; Smith, C A; Mantani, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Tatsumi, A; Nagahara, D; Hashimoto, R; Hirano, T; Umemura, Y; Yokoyama, T; Kitagawa, H; Hoshi, N

    2014-04-01

    Sex of birds is genetically determined by the inheritance of sex chromosomes (ZZ for male and ZW for female), and the Z-linked gene named doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) is a candidate sex-determining gene in avian species. However, the mechanisms underlying sex determination in birds are not yet understood, and the expression patterns of the DMRT1 protein in urogenital tissues have not been identified. In the current study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the detailed expression patterns of the DMRT1 protein in the urogenital systems (including Müllerian ducts) in male and female chicken embryos throughout embryonic development. Gonadal somatic cells in the male indifferent gonads showed stronger expressions of DMRT1 compared with those in the female indifferent gonads well before the presumptive period of the sex determination, and Sertoli cells forming testicular cords expressed DMRT1 in the testes after sex determination. Germ cells expressed DMRT1 equally in males and females after sex determination. The expression was continuous in males, but in females it gradually disappeared from the germ cells in the central part of the cortex of the left ovary toward both edges. The DMRT1 was also detected in the tubal ridge, which is a precursor of the Müllerian duct, and at the mesenchyme and outermost coelomic epithelium of the Müllerian duct in both sexes. Strong expression was observed in the males, but it was restricted to coelomic epithelium after the regression of the duct started. Thus, we observed the detailed spatiotemporal expression patterns of DMRT1 in the developing chicken urogenital systems throughout embryonic development, suggesting its various roles in the development of urogenital tissues in the chicken embryo.

  7. The management of the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mahmoud M.; Kurkar, Adel; Zarzour, Mohamed A.; Faddan, Amr A.; Khalil, Mahmoud; Abdelhafez, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report the findings and management of patients with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). Patients and methods Nineteen phenotypically male patients (aged 8 months to 27 years) presented with testicular maldescent. All of them had normal male external genitalia. Two of them had had a previous diagnosis of persistent Müllerian structures. All patients were karyotyped, and had a hormonal profile, diagnostic laparoscopy, retrograde urethrocystogram, gonadal biopsies, and surgical management according to the findings. The follow-up was based on a clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography (US) and scrotal colour-Doppler US at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and every 6 months thereafter. Results Diagnostic laparoscopy showed the presence of persistent Müllerian structures in all 19 patients. All patients had a normal male karyotype (46XY). Ten patients had a laparoscopic excision of their Müllerian structures while the remaining nine patients had their Müllerian structures left in place. No malignant changes were found in the excised Müllerian tissues. Of the 37 gonadal biopsies taken, 31 (84%) indicated normal testes. Conclusions The incidence and prevalence of PMDS are not well estimated. Müllerian structures should be removed whenever possible to avoid the risk of malignant transformation. The early diagnosis of PMDS makes possible the excision of Müllerian structures and a primary orchidopexy. A long-term follow-up is needed for patients with intact Müllerian structures and magnetic resonance imaging might be a better method than US for that purpose. Most of the patients had normal testicular histology, which might allow fertility. PMID:26019957

  8. Mullerian inhibiting substance fractionation by dye affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Budzik, G P; Powell, S M; Kamagata, S; Donahoe, P K

    1983-08-01

    Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a large glycoprotein secreted by the fetal and neonatal testis, is responsible for regression of the Mullerian ducts in the male embryo. This fetal growth regulator has been purified more than 2000-fold from crude testicular incubation medium following fractionation on a triazinyl dye affinity support. A high yield of 60% recovered activity was achieved in the absence of exogenous carrier protein by stabilizing MIS with 2-mercaptoethanol, EDTA, and Nonidet-P40 and eliminating losses in the handling and concentration of MIS fractions. Although affinity elution with nucleotides has proved successful in other systems, MIS could not be eluted with ATP, GTP, or AMP, with or without divalent metal ions. Nucleotide elution, however, does remove contaminating proteins prior to MIS recovery with high ionic strength. The 2000-fold-purified MIS fraction, although not homogeneous, shows a reduction-sensitive band after SDS-gel electrophoresis that has been proposed to be the MIS dimer.

  9. Retrospective study of neonatal ligation during 2002 in the United Kingdom of persistently patent arterial ducts.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Vidheya; Lee, Lleona; White, Deborah; Kelsall, Wilf

    2009-08-01

    Our aim was to ascertain the number of neonatal ligations of the patent arterial duct performed in the United Kingdom in 2002, and to determine the survival of the neonates after 30 days. A postal questionnaire was sent to the lead paediatician in every hospital in the United Kingdom possessing a special care or neonatal intensive care unit, requesting information on the number of babies referred for ligation of a persistently patent arterial duct. A separate questionnaire was sent to the paediatric cardiothoracic centres for information on babies who underwent the procedure. Cross-referencing the responses identified neonates who were not reported in the separate questionnaires. Additional information was requested from the central cardiac audit database. The overall response rate was 74%, with 172 forms returned of 234 distributed. From the combined responses, we ascertained that ligation has been performed in 244, with survival at 30 days of 94%. There were problems in identifying some babies because of the incomplete nature of the information received from both referring hospitals and specialist cardiothoracic centres. We would recommend a joint prospective study is conducted by paediatricians and paediatric cardiologists to determine the short and long term outcomes in this population known to be at high risk.

  10. Bilateral Cryptorchidism, a rare presentation for persistent Müllerian duct syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Abdullah; Jabari, Mosleh; Al-Sayed, Mohammed; Al-Shehri, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare, sex-limited, autosomal recessive disorder representing male pseudo-hermaphroditism. It is observed in males with the presence of female reproductive organs such as the uterus, cervix, and bilateral fallopian tubes along with normally developed male reproductive organs. It generally occurs during embryogenesis due to mutation in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) gene, i.e., AMH gene or AMH receptor (AMHR2) gene. The present case reports a male infant with inflammation in the right groin who was admitted to Security Forces Hospital in 2015. During surgery, his testis was pulled down to the scrotum in the normal anatomical position, but full orchidopexy was not performed due to fragile capsule and edematous area. After a year, a right orchidopexy was performed. During left testis laparoscopic exploration, a small left intra-abdominal gonad in a position similar to the ovary, Müllerian structures in the form of a small uterus and vagina in the midline were observed. Biopsy of left gonad showed immature testicular tissues. The MRI findings of the pelvis showed normal male urethra with the presence of a vagina and small uterus, but no definite ovaries or testicle. Based on the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and primarily operative findings, the boy was diagnosed with PMDS. This was confirmed using genetic testing, which revealed biallelic mutations in the AMHR2 gene. The patient is currently under clinical observation to decide further management of PMDS through left testis orchidopexy, either with or without surgical excision of persistent Müllerian duct structures. The key message, which needs to be spread from this case report, is that the infant with bilateral undescended testes or inguinal hernia on one side and cryptorchidism on the other side should be thoroughly investigated to exclude any underlying disorder of sex development (DSD) before any further intervention. PMID:28163853

  11. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes.

  12. Mixed germ cell tumor after bilateral orchidopexy in persistent Müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Manassero, Francesca; Cuttano, Maria Giuseppa; Morelli, Girolamo; Salinitri, Giuseppe; Spurio, Michela; Selli, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    The persistent müllerian duct syndrome is characterized by the retention of müllerian derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus) in patients otherwise normally virilized, usually with cryptorchidism or an inguinal hernia. Very rarely, this syndrome is associated with transverse testicular ectopia, which designates the condition when both testes descend through the same inguinal canal into the same scrotal sac. We report on a patient with both conditions, who had T1N2M0 scrotal mixed germ cell tumor of the testis (teratoma and embryonal carcinoma), 18 years after bilateral orchidopexy. The literature concerning this uncommon association is reviewed.

  13. Male pseudohermaphoditism with Leydig cell agenesis and persistent muellerian ducts associated with partial deletion of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Potocki, L.; Oyer, C.E.; Tantravahi, U.

    1994-09-01

    Two chromosomally male infants with partial monosomy 13q were found to have Leydig cell agenesis (LCA) and persistent muellerian ducts (PMD). Post mortem examination in each case revealed cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and central nervous system abnormalities, characteristic of monosomy 13q. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of muellerian derivatives within the pelvis, and the absence of Leydig cells within the testes. Sertoli cells were present. Karyotypes revealed partial monosomy 13q secondary to an unbalanced translocation, der(13)t(1;13)(q43;q21), in one infant, and to a ring chromosome 13 involving a deletion of 13q31-qter, in the other. The etiology of male pseudohermaphroditism is heterogeneous and included PMD due to absence of antimuellerian hormone (AMH) and LCA. Genitourinary abnormalities such as undescended testicles, hypospadias and micropenis have been described in monosomy 13q; however, testicular pathology in these cases has not been described. The cases presented here are the first reported cases in which male pseudohermaphroditism due to LCA and PMD is associated with monosomy 13q. This suggests the genetic locus involved in Leydig cell development may be located on the long arm of chromosome 13. The gene for AMH has been mapped to 19p13.3-13.2. The presence of muellerian structures and Sertoli cells, in the absence of abnormalities of chromosome 19p. suggests there may be genes on 13q coding for an enzyme in the pathway of AMH synthesis or for the AMH receptor. Based on these two cases, the critical region could possibly involve 13q13-qter.

  14. A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding a Premature Stop Codon in the MIS type II receptor is Responsible for Canine Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiufeng; Wan, Shengqin; Pujar, Shashikant; Haskins, Mark E.; Schlafer, Donald H.; Lee, Mary M.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.

    2008-01-01

    Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a secreted glycoprotein in the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of growth factors, mediates regression of the Müllerian ducts during embryonic sex differentiation in males. In Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), rather than undergoing involution, the Müllerian ducts persist in males, giving rise to the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and upper vagina. Genetic defects in MIS or its receptor (MISRII) have been identified in patients with PMDS. The phenotype in the canine model of PMDS derived from the miniature schnauzer breed is strikingly similar to that of human patients. In this model, PMDS is inherited as a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait. Previous studies indicated that a defect in the MIS receptor or its downstream signaling pathway was likely to be causative of the canine syndrome. In this study the canine PMDS phenotype and clinical sequelae are described in detail. Affected and unaffected members of this pedigree are genotyped, identifying a single base pair substitution in MISRII that introduces a stop codon in exon 3. The homozygous mutation terminates translation at 80 amino acids, eliminating much of the extracellular domain and the entire transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains. Findings in this model may enable insights to be garnered from correlation of detailed clinical descriptions with molecular defects, which are not otherwise possible in the human syndrome. PMID:18723470

  15. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type) with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Manisha; Subramanya, Yerraguntla Sarma

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by retention of Müllerian duct derivatives in a phenotypically and karyotypically male patient. Deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secretion or resistance to AMH action due to defective AMH-II receptor is presumed to cause such syndrome in the majority of cases. About 158 PMDS cases have been reported so far, out of which 31 cases are associated with testicular neoplasms. Herein, we describe an interesting case of young male initially diagnosed and treated for inguinal hernia, but finally diagnosed as "PMDS of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type) with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis" comprising components of seminoma and yolk sac tumor and treated successfully.

  16. B-Lynch suture technique to control postpartum hemorrhage in a patient with mullerian anomaly.

    PubMed

    Boyar, Ibrahim Hakan; Boynukalın, Fazilet Kübra; Boyar, Nuray; Vural, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the uterus may cause gynecologic, obstetric and fertility problems. Obstetrical complications are reported to occur more commonly with mullerian duct anomalies, such as postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Uterine compression sutures may be effective in controlling PPH in these conditions as an alternative to hysterectomy, especially if the patient has a desire to conceive. As the shape of the uterus is changed in congenital malformation, the usage of compression sutures such as B-Lynch can be more difficult. In this study we report a case of PPH accompanying a large septae, treated with B-Lynch suture. A 24 year old, multigravid and nulliparous patient (G:3) was admitted to our clinic with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain at 31 weeks of gestation. Emergency cesarean section was performed for abruptio placenta and PPH occurred subsequently. A deep uterine septum was revealed during operation. Intermittent fundal massage and intravenous uterotonics were used to improve uterine tonicity without any improvement. After the B-Lynch suture was performed, the bleeding diminished dramatically. As the shape of the uterus is changed in congenital malformation, the application of secondary interventions in postpartum hemorrhage can be more difficult. There can be slippage or overlapping of the suture while using a B-Lynch suture. Because the uterine shape is not completely distorted, patients with septate uterus can be candidates for a B-Lynch suture. There is no such reported case from the literature regarding efficacy of B-Lynch suture in mullerian anomalies. his case illustrates the potential benefits of B-Lynch compression suture in an uterus with mullerian anomalies.

  17. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of

  18. [Retroprostatic cyst draining ejaculatory ducts with secondary obstructive azoospermia].

    PubMed

    Sarkis, P; Nawfal, G; Salloum, L; Kamel, G; Zanati, M; Saad, E; Karam, R; Chemaly, A

    2013-12-01

    Obstructive azoospermia constitutes 35 to 40% of azoospermia. Etiologies may be acquired or rarely congenital. Congenital utricular or Mullerian duct cyst may result in compression of ejaculatory ducts. However, they must be differentiated from exceptional wolffian or urogenital cysts, which are located at the same site but in which ejaculatory ducts may drain inside. We report a case of retroprostatic duct cyst diagnosed during work up of male infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the drainage of both ejaculatory ducts inside and the presence of a thin canal ended blindly in the wall of prostatic urethra. Transurethral resection guided by MRI has been performed resulting in urethral drainage of the cyst, relieving of obstruction and normalization of spermogramm.

  19. Decreased apoptosis and persistence of the common nephric duct during the development of an aberrant vesicoureteral junction in Dlg1 gene-targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Akiyama, Tetsu; Senda, Takao

    2013-12-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract occur at a frequency of 1 in 500 live births in humans. Mutant mice null for Dlg1 (Dlg1(-/-) mice), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase containing PDZ domains, exhibit various urogenital malformations, including hypoplasia of the kidney and ureter, megaureter, hydronephrosis, and aplasia of the seminal vesicle and the vagina. The common nephric duct (CND) is a distal part of the Wolffian duct between the ureteric branch and the opening to the urogenital sinus, and normally disappears by embryonic day (E) 12.5 by a downward shift of the ureteric branch. Although retardation of the disappearance of the CND is apparent during urogenital development in Dlg1(-/-) mice, its pathogenesis and prognosis are unclear. In the present study, we found a decrease in apoptotic cells in the CND epithelium in Dlg1(-/-) mice at E11.5. Cell proliferation did not change. Additionally, histological observation of the development of the ureteral orifice indicated that the CND remained at E15.5 and was widely open to the vesical lumen in Dlg1(-/-) mice, in contrast to the complete disappearance of the CND and a narrow ureteric orifice in control mice. The dilatation of the vesicoureteral junction remained at E18.5. Opening of the vesicoureteral junction is known to cause vesicoureteral reflux and subsequent megaureter and hydronephrosis. Therefore, our present observation demonstrates that lack of the Dlg1 gene induces a decrease in apoptotic epithelial cell death and the persistence of the CND, which result in a dysfunctional vesicoureteral junction and cause megaureter or hydronephrosis through vesicoureteral reflux.

  20. Mullerian Agenesis Associated with Turner’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rudrappa Ramesh; Sivaranjinie, Selvakkalanjiyam; Sibhithran, Rajakumar

    2017-01-01

    Turner’s syndrome is a chromosomal disorder with 45 X0 due to absence of a set of gene from the short arm of X chromosome. The incidence of Turner’s syndrome is 1 in 2500 live births. Primary amenorrhea is well known in Turner’s syndrome, the reason being streak ovaries; but mullerian agenesis as a cause of primary amenorrhea in Turner’s syndrome is a very rare entity. The incidence of Turner’s syndrome associated with mullerian agenesis is extremely rare as there is only a hand full of cases reported in literature. We report a rare case of adolescent female who presented with primary amenorrhea and found to have Turner’s syndrome with mullerian agenesis. PMID:28384960

  1. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  2. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  3. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. , Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  4. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  5. Scissors Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers are preparing to conduct water tests on an updated version of the scissors duct component of the J-2X engine. Measuring about 2 feet long and about 8 inches in diameter, the duct on the J-2X predecessor, the J-2, connected its fuel turbo pumps to the flight vehicle's upper stage run tanks. According to NASA's J-2X project manager at SSC, Gary Benton, the water tests should establish the limits of the duct's ability to withstand vibration.

  6. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  7. Anti-mullerian hormone is expressed by endometriosis tissues and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in endometriosis cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, which is responsible of the regression of the mullerian duct. AMH is expressed in the normal endometrium, where, acting in a paracrine fashion, negatively regulates cellular viability. Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the treatment with AMH of endometriosic cells. Methods AMH expression in human endometriosis glands was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR has been used to quantify the expression levels of AMH and AMH RII isoforms, as well as of cytochrome P450 in both endometriosis epithelial and stromal cells Effects of AMH and AMH-cleaved treatment in endometriosis cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry analysis. Finally, it has been evaluated the effect of plasmin-digested AMH on cytochrome P450 activity. Results AMH and AMH RII isoforms, as well as cytochrome P450, were expressed in both endometriosis epithelial and stromal cells. Treatment of endometriosis stromal and epithelial cell growth with AMH was able to induce a decrease in the percentage of cells in S phase and increase percentage of cells in G1 and G2 phase; coherently, decreased cell viability and increased percentage of cells death fraction was observed. The plasmin-digested AMH was able to suppress most of the cytochrome P450 activity, causing an increase of pre-G1 phase and of apoptosis induction treating with plasmin-digested AMH in both cell lines, most marked in the epithelial cells. Conclusions The data produced suggest a possible use of AMH as therapeutic agents in endometriosis. PMID:24886254

  8. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to choose ...

  9. Mammary Duct Ectasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tenderness or inflammation of the clogged duct (periductal mastitis). Mammary duct ectasia most often occurs in women ... that's turned inward (inverted) A bacterial infection called mastitis also may develop in the affected milk duct, ...

  10. Adenocarcinoma of Mullerian origin: review of pathogenesis, molecular biology, and emerging treatment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Lauren Patterson; Gaillard, Stephanie; Wang, Yihong; Shih, Ie-Ming; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers have been viewed as separate entities with disparate origins, pathogenesis, clinical features, and outcomes. Additionally, previous classification systems for ovarian cancer have proposed two primary histologic groups that encompass the standard histologic subtypes. Recent data suggest that these groupings no longer accurately reflect our knowledge surrounding these cancers. In this review, we propose that epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal carcinomas represent a spectrum of disease that originates in the Mullerian compartment. We will discuss the incidence, classification, origin, molecular determinants, and pathologic analysis of these cancers that support the conclusion they should be collectively referred to as adenocarcinomas of Mullerian origin. As our understanding of the molecular and pathologic profiling of adenocarcinomas of Mullerian origin advances, we anticipate treatment paradigms will shift towards genomic driven therapeutic interventions.

  11. Mclndoe Neovagina in patients with Mullerian Agenesis: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Abdulrahim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the surgical feasibility and the long-term anatomical and functional results and complication rates in patients with Mullerian aplasia who underwent vaginal reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective observational case series study over 8 years was conducted in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre – Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All cases diagnosed as Mullerian aplasia and who underwent surgical correction were included. Painless and satisfactory vaginal intercourse after surgery were the main outcome measured. Results: A total of 19 patients were diagnosed with Mullerian agenesis and underwent vaginal reconstruction by Mclndoe technique with minor modification. All of our patients who were sexually active and were compliant with mold use postoperatively were able to achieve 100% painless and satisfactory sexual intercourse. Conclusions: Minor modification in McIndoe technique provides easier, safer and deeper dissection that minimizes the complications and helps in maximizing the vaginal length. It provides satisfactory and functional vagina in the majority of the patients. PMID:28367207

  12. Decrease of anti-Mullerian hormone in genetic spermatogenic failure.

    PubMed

    Plotton, I; Garby, L; Morel, Y; Lejeune, H

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) plasma levels in patients with azoospermia according to the physiopathology. In a prospective clinical study from April 2008 to March 2009 in University Hospital, we measured AMH levels in 49 consecutive patients with azoospermia. AMH plasma levels were correlated with FSH, inhibin B, bioavailable testosterone plasma levels and testicular volume and compared between nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA) and within four physiopathological subgroups of NOA: genetic, cryptorchidism, cytotoxic and unexplained. AMH, FSH, inhibin B, bioavailable testosterone plasma levels and testicular volumes were all related to each other. AMH plasma levels were lower in NOA relatively to OA. Lowest values were observed in cases of genetic NOA and on the other hand, the values observed in case of cytotoxic NOA were as high as the values observed in OA. FSH, inhibin B, bioavailable testosterone and testicular volume were not different between genetic and cytotoxic NOA. These results suggest that the decrease in AMH plasma levels is related to the origin of NOA, with low values in genetic NOA and values similar to OA in cytotoxic NOA. Further studies will be useful to understand the fine regulation of AMH production.

  13. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  14. Duct joining system

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.; deKieffer, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  15. Hollow lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  16. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. ... and wastes. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of ...

  17. Bile duct stricture

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur after surgery to remove the gallbladder. Other causes of this condition include: Cancer of the bile duct, liver or pancreas Damage and scarring due to a gallstone in the bile duct Damage or scarring after ...

  18. Duct Flow Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is ejected under pressure tangentially of local duct surfaces through Coanda affected slots at the trailing edge of the duct from which only the...channel passages in order to modify the flow stream through the duct so as to perform certain functions such as thrust control and steerage control effects enhancing vehicle maneuverability.

  19. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  20. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  1. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected

  2. Duct Tape Durability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2004-04-01

    Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).

  3. Loft duct project report

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    On October 16, 1992, during a routine examination of the loft of Building 332, the Building Coordinator observed cracks in the welds of the duct work that services the fume hoods for Rooms 1313, 1321, and 1329. Further examination revealed cracks in the weld of the duct work that services the gloveboxes in Rooms 1321 and 1329. Upon discovery of the cracked welds, facility management immediately took the following two actions: Because one crack in the fume hood exhaust extended 70% around the duct circumference, a 1-ton chain fall was used to secure the duct to the roof support structure to prevent the duct from falling if the duct completely fractured. The Facility Manager suspended plutonium handling operations in the gloveboxes and work in the fume hoods in the affected rooms until the situation could be thoroughly investigated. Building 332 is ventilated by drawing conditioned air from the building hallways into the laboratories, hoods, and gloveboxes. This air is filtered through two sets of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being exhausted from the facility. Figure 1 is a schematic of the typical air flow pattern for the facility. All affected duct work is located in the loft of the facility or pressure zone 4. This ducting is fabricated from 12-, 14- and 16-gauge, 304 stainless-steel sheet stock and joined by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process.

  4. Ducted auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1982-01-01

    Certain discrete, intense wave signals attributed to auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) were observed with ISEE-l while it was within the plasmaspheric shadow zone for direct propagation. It is believed that wave ducting by thin depletions of the plasma density aligned with the magnetic field accounts for such signals, and that their discrete nature is caused by the satellite intercepting individual ducts. These ducts, which were also observed as coincident decreases of the upper hybrid resonance frequency, appeared to be twenty-percent depletions roughly one hundred kilometers across. The AKR, which is emitted approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field, apparently entered these ducts equatorward of the source after the waves had been refracted parallel to the duct axis. A diffuse background was also observed which is consistent with the leakage from similar ducts at lower L-values. These observations establish the existence of ducted AKR, its signature on the satellite wave spectrograms, and new evidence for depletion ducts within the plasmasphere.

  5. Low loss duct burner

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, H. M.; Reider, S. B.

    1985-07-09

    A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded position to increase duct turbulence for mixing air flow therethrough with a fuel supply and into a retracted position against each other to reduce pressure drop under nonafterburning operation. Each of the flame stabilizer blades has a platform that controls communication between a hot air source and a duct for improving fuel vaporization during afterburner operation thereby to increase afterburning limits; the platforms close communication between the hot air source and the duct during nonafterburning operation when flame stabilization is not required.

  6. Effects of steroids and dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) on the developing wolffian ducts of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    PubMed

    Vajda, Alan M; Norris, David O

    2005-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate effects of the prototypical dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on steroid-dependent development of the wolffian ducts of an amphibian, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Larvae with immature gonads and undeveloped mullerian ducts were injected with the steroid hormones estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or vehicle alone. Additionally, steroid-treated and vehicle-control larvae were immersed in sub-lethal solutions of technical grade TCDD (0, 0.0003, 0.003, 0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 microg TCDD/L). Both steroid treatments stimulated hypertrophy of the wolffian duct epithelium and an increase in mean epithelial cell size. Only DHT treatment stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. TCDD stimulated wolffian duct hypertrophy through an increase in mean epithelial cell size. TCDD acted as an androgen agonist on wolffian duct epithelial area and epithelial cell size. TCDD had no effect on wolffian duct epithelium among E2-injected animals. Stimulatory effects on cell size were observed at 0.0003 microg/L TCDD in saline-injected animals and at 0.003 microg/L TCDD in DHT-injected animals. Both E2 and DHT stimulated growth of the wolffian ducts early in development. Technical grade TCDD alone mimics E2 and DHT action but exhibits an androgen-agonistic action in the presence of exogenously administered DHT. Implications of possible interactions between TCDD and xenosteroids are discussed.

  7. Case Report of Successful Childbearing after Conservative Surgery for Cervical Mullerian Adenosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masako; Oi, Hidekazu; Sugimoto, Sumire; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Uchiyama, Tomoko; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Mullerian adenosarcoma (MA) is a rare tumor variant with low malignancy potential and is reported to account for 8% of all uterine sarcomas. Cervical MAs are reported to occur in relatively younger patients with the mean age of 27 years, while those in the uterine corpus generally present in postmenopausal women. Due to the rarity of cervical MAs, optimal management for these patients (especially younger women) is still under exploration. Here, we describe a case of cervical MA in a woman of reproductive age who was treated by fertility-preserving surgery and successfully delivered a child 18 months later. PMID:28154764

  8. Cystic duct carcinoma mimicking a middle bile duct tumour

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Elsa; Mendes, Miguel; Vale, Sílvio; Esteves, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Cystic duct carcinoma was defined by Farrar as a tumour restricted to the cystic duct, making it a rare disease. The authors describe a case of a cystic duct carcinoma that fulfils Farrar’s strict diagnostic criteria and that became clinically relevant by compressing the common hepatic duct, thus causing cholestasis. A cholecystectomy was performed with en bloc resection of the cystic and extrahepatic bile duct with a regional lymphadenectomy. PMID:25819819

  9. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2016-11-04

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid.

  10. CORNICE DUCT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd; TC Howard

    2002-12-01

    SYNERGETICS, INC., is in the process of designing, developing, and testing an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building. Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. A patent has been submitted, refined based on feedback from the patent office, and resubmitted. Additional refinements to the design will lead to additional claims being added to the patent in the near future. Designs are being finalized for a refined version that will be fabricated and tested in the same residential laboratory house. Work is expected to be complete on this project in April of 2003.

  11. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark Raymond

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  12. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  13. Effectiveness of duct cleaning methods on newly installed duct surfaces.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Asikainen, V; Tuomainen, M; Björkroth, M; Pasanen, P; Seppänen, O

    2003-09-01

    Two kinds of air duct cleaning methods, mechanical brushing with different brushes and compressed air cleaning, were compared in the laboratory and in newly built buildings. The ducts were contaminated either with test dust or with dust originated from a construction site. The amount of dust on the duct surface was measured with the vacuum test method and estimated visually before and after the cleaning. In addition, the cleaning times of the different techniques were compared and the amount of residual oil in the ducts was measured in the laboratory test. The brushing methods were more efficient in metal ducts, and compressed air cleaning was more efficient in plastic ducts. After the duct cleaning the mean amount of residual dust on the surface of the ducts was ducts contaminated at construction site and ducts cleaned in the laboratory or in the building site, respectively. The oil residues and the dust stuck onto the oil were difficult to scrape off and remove, and none of the cleaning methods were capable of cleaning the oily duct surfaces efficiently enough. Thus new installations should consist only of oil-free ducts.

  14. Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bile Duct Cancer Radiation therapy uses ... of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy uses ...

  15. Prediction of ducted fan performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program to predict performance of ducted fan combination at specified advance ratio and angle of attack is described. Parameters affecting performance of ducted fan are presented. Information obtained from computer program is explained for various conditions considered.

  16. Isolated Pancreatic Uncinate Duct IPMN.

    PubMed

    Maker, Ajay V; Maker, Vijay K

    2017-04-01

    The ventral pancreas originally forms as an evagination of the common bile duct at 32 days gestation and its duct, the uncinate duct, eventually rotates with the ventral anlage to join the dorsal pancreas and fuse with the main pancreatic duct. Thus, though often considered a "branch" duct of the pancreas, embryologically, the uncinate duct is the "main" pancreatic duct of the ventral pancreas. This concept is not fully addressed in the current definitions of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) where international consensus guidelines consider the main-duct IPMN as high risk for malignancy and most small branch-duct IPMN as low risk for malignancy. Thus, it is important to recognize that isolated uncinate-duct IPMN can occur and, based on its embryologic origin and increased association with high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer, may be managed conceptually as a main duct type of disease rather than a branch duct until better biomarkers of malignancy are discovered. The images provide an example of this unique disease process.

  17. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  18. Cornice Duct System

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  19. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  20. Persistent Persister Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically. PMID:28082974

  1. Proliferation indices and p53-immunocytochemistry in uterine mixed mullerian tumors.

    PubMed

    Nicòtina, P A; Ferlazzo, G; Vincelli, A M

    1997-10-01

    Mixed mullerian tumor (MMT) is a biphasic malignancy of elderly women. It, including both a carcinomatous and a sarcomatous component (CC and SC), is regarded as a female genital tract carcinosarcoma (FGTCS). Since current methods to grade CC and SC are not still univocal, the authors estimate mitotic index (MI) and MIB 1-immunolabeling index (MIB 1-LI) as common prognostic indices for the MMT components. They also compare above prognostic indices with p-53 immunocytochemistry, in MMTs. The present study thus points out that: (a) MI of CC and SC areas is consistent with the respective conventional tumor grades; (b) MI averages of CC are higher than those observed in the SC areas; (c) MI and MIB 1-LI of the CC-tumor cells correlate reciprocally in a very significant fashion; (d) A diffuse strong p53 nuclear immunostaining (> 50% cells) is often patent where the highest MI and MIB 1-LI are found. In conclusion, the authors propose MI and MIB 1-LI as two complementary useful indices to assess prognosis of MMTs. They also suggest p53 nuclear immunolabeling should be regarded as an independent biomarker of unfavourable MMT behaviour.

  2. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A Marker of Ovarian Reserve and its Association with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anil Kumar; Rajbhar, Sarita; Gupta, Mayank; Sharma, Mratunjai; Deshmukh, Geeta; Ali, Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a useful endocrine marker for assessing the ovarian reserve. AMH serum level reflects the number of follicles that have made the transition from the primordial pool into the growing follicle pool, and it is not controlled by gonadotropins. Aim The present study was conducted to correlate serum AMH levels with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and type of treatment protocol. Materials and Methods Serum AMH levels were performed in the early follicular phase (on 2nd day of menstrual cycle) both in infertile females including PCOS and control women. The results were analyzed in relation to age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ovarian volume, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels, Antral Follicle Count (AFC), type of treatment protocols and also in association with PCOS patients. The serum levels of AMH were measured in all the participants on 2nd day of menstrual cycle using ultra sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results The plasma AMH levels were significantly higher in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The significant association was seen between FSH and AFC with AMH. However, no significant association was observed between AMH levels with age, BMI, ovarian volume and type of treatment protocols. Conclusion The serum AMH measurement was significantly higher in PCOS patients. No association with type of treatment protocol was obtained. PMID:28208941

  3. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: Above and Beyond Conventional Ovarian Reserve Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Ahmed, Khalid; Malik, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Management of ovarian dysfunctions requires accurate estimation of ovarian reserve (OR). Therefore, reproductive hormones and antral follicle count (AFC) are assessed to indicate OR. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a unique biomarker that has a critical role in folliculogenesis as well as steroidogenesis within ovaries. Secretion from preantral and early antral follicles renders AMH as the earliest marker to show OR decline. In this review we discuss the dynamics of circulating AMH that remarkably vary with sex and age. As it emerges as a marker of gonadal development and reproductive disorders, here we summarize the role of AMH in female reproductive physiology and provide evidence of higher accuracy in predicting ovarian response to stimulation. Further, we attempt to compile potential clinical applications in children and adults. We propose that AMH evaluation has a potential role in effectively monitoring chemotherapy and pelvic radiation induced ovarian toxicity. Furthermore, AMH guided ovarian stimulation can lead to individualization of therapeutic strategies for infertility treatment. However future research on AMH levels within follicular fluid may pave the way to establish it as a marker of “quality” besides “quantity” of the growing follicles. PMID:26977116

  4. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Surgery for Bile Duct Cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  5. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-09-15

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole.

  6. Cutaneous ciliated cyst: a case report with focus on mullerian heterotopia and comparison with eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Bivin, William W; Heath, Jonathon E; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Strauch, Eric D; Papadimitriou, John C

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst is an exceedingly rare, benign lesion most commonly found in the dermis or subcutis of the lower extremities of young female patients in their second and third decades. The pathogenesis of the cyst is unknown. We report a cutaneous ciliated cyst in the lower extremity of a 13-year-old female patient. On histologic examination, clusters of eccrine sweat glands were observed adjacent to the cyst. Upon comparison of the immunohistochemical profile of the cutaneous ciliated cyst and the eccrine sweat glands, they appeared almost completely unrelated. The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings of this case and the literature provide evidence in favor of the Mullerian heterotopia theory.

  7. Noise from a Supersonic Round Jet Discharging Into a Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand an 'unwanted noise' problem occasionally encountered in ground test facilities, the interaction of a jet flow with a duct is studied in a model scale experiment. While the interaction of subsonic jets was studied earlier, that of supersonic jets is considered in this paper. The effect of the presence of a cylindrical duct in the path of the jet is studied through sound pressure level spectral measurements as well as schlieren flow visualization. When the jet involves screech tones the placement of the duct is found to make only minor effects on the tones themselves as well as on the high frequency noise. However, there is increased energy at low frequencies. The increase in low frequency noise becomes clearer when screech is eliminated from the jet by two small tabs placed at the nozzle exit. It is shown that spectral peaks and increased sound pressure levels occur at frequencies corresponding to the axial acoustic resonance modes of the duct. These peaks persist into the supersonic regime, however, their amplitudes diminish relative to increasing spectral amplitudes at other frequencies with increasing jet Mach number. A wire-mesh screen attached to the end of the duct effectively suppresses such unwanted noise at subsonic as well as supersonic conditions.

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Bile Duct Cancer? For some people with bile duct cancer, ... Bile Duct Cancer Stops Working More In Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  9. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  10. Assessment of ovarian reserve: Anti-Mullerian hormone versus follicle stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Cheema, Zahra; Baig, Safia; Choudhary, Roha Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the strength of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in reflecting the antral follicle count (AFC) in infertile females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 females, visiting infertility clinic for assisted reproduction. Serum samples collected on the 3rd day of the cycle were assayed for FSH, luteinizing hormone, and AMH while AFC was assessed via transvaginal ultrasound. The study cohort was segregated into three groups based on AFC. Results: Chronological age and FSH was significantly high in females with very low AFC (P < 0.01 and 0.009, respectively), yet they failed to discriminate patients with normal and higher follicle count (P = 0.65 and 0.84). Conversely, AMH reported highly significant difference between very low AFC and with those having either normal AFC (P = 0.002) or higher AFC (P = 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference in AMH was observed between normal and higher AFC group (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Compared to female’s age and FSH, AMH is superior in clustering study cohort on the bases of antral follicular pool, especially in setups with nonavailability of technological expertise to assess AFC. Incorporation of AMH along with other biomarkers improves estimation of baseline ovarian reserve, required to standardize dose for optimum response; avoiding the risk of failure to retrieve oocyte or inappropriate stimulation leading to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Further prospective studies are required to ascertain its role in predicting the outcomes of ART in such patients. PMID:28163746

  11. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  13. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  14. Sound propagation in choked ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The linearized equations describing the propagation of sound in variable area ducts containing flow are shown to be singular when the duct mean flow is sonic. The singularity is removed when previously ignored nonlinear terms are retained. The results of a numerical study, for the case of plane waves propagating in a one-dimensional converging-diverging duct, show that the sound field is adequately described by the linearized equations only when the axial mean flow Mach number at the duct throat M sub th 0.6. For M sub th 0.6, the numerical results showed that acoustic energy flux was not conserved. An attempt was made to extend the study to include the nonlinear behavior of the sound field. Meaningful results were not obtained due, primarily, to numerical difficulties.

  15. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  16. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    turbofan engine shutoff scheme, the ram duct flow conditions, and the Ian duct shutoff vane area transi- tion schedule. This loss will be...airflow. The performance of the turbofan is neglected until the main engine burner is ignited. At that time it is assumed that the turbo - fan...B. Transient Operation . . .. TRANSIENT TRANSITION TEST CASES A. Turbofan to Ramjet B. Ramjet to Turbo fan CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  17. Flow duct for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Straalsund, Jerry L.

    1978-01-01

    Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

  18. Hernia uterine inguinale with transverse testicular ectopia and mixed germ cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jaka, Rajshekhar C.; Shankar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of uterus and fallopian tube in 46XY phenotypic males and is ascribed to defects in the synthesis or action of anti-mullerian hormone. We report a rare case of hernia uterine inguinale, transverse testicular ectopia associated with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis with metastasis. Transverse testicular ectopia should be suspected preoperatively in patients who have unilateral inguinal hernia associated with contralateral nonpalpable testis. In such cases ultrasonography should be done prior to repair of hernia to evaluate the possible presence of mullerian structures and testicular malignancy, for better management. PMID:19675770

  19. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  20. Turbofan aft duct suppressor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, A. A.; Motsinger, R. E.; Fiske, G. H.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Suppressions due to acoustic treatment in the annular exhaust duct of a model fan were theoretically predicted and compared with measured suppressions. The predictions are based on the modal analysis of sound propagation in a straight annular flow duct with segmented treatment. Modal distributions of the fan noise source (fan-stator interaction only) were measured using in-duct modal probes. The flow profiles were also measured in the vicinity of the modal probes. The acoustic impedance of the single degree of freedom treatment was measured in the presence of grazing flow. The measured values of mode distribution of the fan noise source, the flow velocity profile and the acoustic impedance of the treatment in the duct were used as input to the prediction program. The predicted suppressions, under the assumption of uniform flow in the duct, compared well with the suppressions measured in the duct for all test conditions. The interaction modes generated by the rotor-stator interaction spanned a cut-off ratio range from nearly 1 to 7.

  1. A SYSTEMIZATION AND PENETRATION STUDY FOR STRAIGHT CYLINDRICAL DUCTS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DUCTS, *NEUTRON BEAMS, DUCTED BODIES, ALUMINUM, NEUTRON DETECTORS, POLONIUM , BERYLLIUM, SOURCES, NEUTRON SCATTERING, SHIELDING, WATER, NEUTRON TRANSPORT THEORY, ISOTROPISM, DUCT BENDS, NEUTRON FLUX, PENETRATION.

  2. Duct leakage measurement and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swim, W.B.; Griggs, E.I.

    1995-08-01

    Leakage measurements were made on 6-in. (150-mm) and 10-in. (250-mm) round and 14-in. by 6-in. (350-mm by 150-mm) and 22-in. by 8-in. (560-mm by 200-mm) rectangular ducts for both positive and negative internal pressures. The data were found to fit a power law model, with the leakage rate (Q) increasing with a power, n, of static pressure difference ({Delta}p), i.e., Q {proportional_to} ({Delta}p){sup n}. A convenient leakage prediction equation, Q = C ({Delta}p*){sup n}, uses a normalized pressure difference, {Delta}p* = {Delta}p/{Delta}p{sub ref}, with {Delta}p in in. wg (Pa) and a reference pressure difference, {Delta}p{sub ref}, of 1 in. wg (250 Pa). C{sub D}, the recommended design values of C for a repetitive element of a duct system--one duct section and one joint, ranged from 0.01 cfm (0.005 L/s) for a Vanstone flanged joint to 18.5 cfm (8.7 L/s) for an unsealed 22-in. by 8-in (560-mm by 200-mm) duct with a slip-and-drive joint. Most test ducts had C{sub D} values of 6 to 8 cfm (3 to 4 L/s) and had values of n close to 0.58. Joints were found to account for most of the leakage, and thus most of the value of C{sub D}, in unsealed ducts, with seams contributing only 10% to 38% of the total.

  3. Partial Müllerian Duct Retention in Smad4 Conditional Mutant Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Fabrice G.; Deng, Chuxia; Jamin, Soazik P.

    2016-01-01

    Müllerian duct regression is a complex process which involves the AMH signalling pathway. We have previously demonstrated that besides AMH and its specific type II receptor (AMHRII), BMPR-IA and Smad5 are two essential factors implicated in this mechanism. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) is a transcription factor and the common Smad (co-Smad) involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway superfamily. Since Smad4 null mutants die early during gastrulation, we have inactivated Smad4 in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme. Specific inactivation of Smad4 in the urogenital ridge leads to the partial persistence of the Müllerian duct in adult male mice. Careful examination of the urogenital tract reveals that the Müllerian duct retention is randomly distributed either on one side or both sides. Histological analysis shows a uterus-like structure, which is confirmed by the expression of estrogen receptor α. As previously described in a β-catenin conditional mutant mouse model, β-catenin contributes to Müllerian duct regression. In our mutant male embryos, it appears that β-catenin expression is locally reduced along the urogenital ridge as compared to control mice. Moreover, the expression pattern is similar to those observed in control female mice. This study shows that reduced Smad4 expression disrupts the Wnt/β-catenin signalling leading to the partial persistence of Müllerian duct. PMID:27194944

  4. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer What’s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment? Bile ... is tumor blood vessels. Bile duct tumors need new blood vessels to grow beyond a certain size. ...

  5. What Are the Key Statistics about Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Bile Duct Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Bile Duct Cancer? Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) ... it is when it is found. For survival statistics, see “ Survival statistics for bile duct cancers .” Visit ...

  6. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Bile Duct Cancer? It is important to have frank, open ... Doctor About Bile Duct Cancer? More In Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  7. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Misk, N.A.; Misk, T.N.; Semieka, M.A.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side. PMID:26623341

  8. Laparoscopic management of enlarged cystic duct.

    PubMed

    Nowzaradan, Y; Meador, J; Westmoreland, J

    1992-12-01

    After laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct, or when a patient has acute cholecystitis, the cystic duct is sometimes edematous and too large to be ligated safely with an Endoclip. In such cases, ligation of the cystic duct with an Endoloop offers a solution to the problem. The standard technique for application of an Endoloop consists of dividing the cystic duct and then applying the Endoloop. This becomes more difficult if, after the cystic duct is divided, loss of traction on the common bile duct results in retraction of the divided cystic stump outside of the laparoscopic field of view. To avoid this difficulty, the authors apply an Endoloop with the grasping forceps on the cystic duct before the duct is divided so that it cannot retract from operative view and for this task developed an instrument that allows simultaneous introduction of both grasping forceps and the Endoloop through a single port.

  9. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Misk, N A; Misk, T N; Semieka, M A; Ahmed, A F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  10. Performance Study of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with the objective of determining the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The model was an annular duct with a 38-in diameter, 10-in chord, and a 5-bladed fixed-pitch fan. Model variations included duct angle of attack, exit vane flap length, flap deflection angle, and duct chord length. Duct performance data were obtained for axial and forward flight test conditions. Axial flow test data showed figure of merit decreases with increasing advance ratio. Forward flight data showed an increasing propulsive force with decreasing duct angle of attack. Exit vane flap deflection angle and flap chord length were shown to be an effective way of providing side force. Extending the duct chord did not effect the duct performance.

  11. Marsupial anti-Mullerian hormone gene structure, regulatory elements, and expression.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Whitworth, Deanne J; Mao, Chai-An; Wei, Ke-Jun; Sankovic, Natasha; Graves, Jennifer A M; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B; Behringer, Richard R

    2004-01-01

    During male sexual development in reptiles, birds, and mammals, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) induces the regression of the Müllerian ducts that normally form the primordia of the female reproductive tract. Whereas Müllerian duct regression occurs during fetal development in eutherian mammals, in marsupial mammals this process occurs after birth. To investigate AMH in a marsupial, we isolated an orthologue from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and characterized its expression in the testes and ovaries during development. The wallaby AMH gene is highly conserved with the eutherian orthologues that have been studied, particularly within the encoded C-terminal mature domain. The N-terminus of marsupial AMH is divergent and larger than that of eutherian species. It is located on chromosome 3/4, consistent with its autosomal localization in other species. The wallaby 5' regulatory region, like eutherian AMH genes, contains binding sites for SF1, SOX9, and GATA factors but also contains a putative SRY-binding site. AMH expression in the developing testis begins at the time of seminiferous cord formation at 2 days post partum, and Müllerian duct regression begins shortly afterward. In the developing testis, AMH is localized in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells but is lost by adulthood. In the developing ovary, there is no detectable AMH expression, but in adults it is produced by the granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles. It is not detectable in atretic follicles. Collectively, these studies suggest that AMH expression has been conserved during mammalian evolution and is intimately linked to upstream sex determination mechanisms.

  12. Endoscopic Nasobiliary Drainage for Bile Leak Caused by Injury to the Ducts of Luschka.

    PubMed

    Ko, Soon Young; Lee, Jeong Rok; Wang, Joon Ho

    2017-02-25

    A 51-year-old man underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder stones. He had developed fever, chills, and abdominal pain four days after the procedure. In the drain tube, bile was persistently observed. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed a leakage from the small duct into the right intrahepatic duct. We determined that the bile leak was caused by an injury to the ducts of Luschka. An endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) using a 5-F nasobiliary tube (NBT) was performed, and the leak was resolved in five days. Herein, we report a bile leak caused by an injury to the ducts of Luschka after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The leak was treated with ES using 5-F NBT, and the resolution of the leak was confirmed without repeated endoscopy.

  13. Design and performance of duct acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motsinger, R. E.; Kraft, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    The procedure for designing acoustic treatment panels used to line the walls of aircraft engine ducts and for estimating the resulting suppression of turbofan engine duct noise is discussed. This procedure is intended to be used for estimating noise suppression of existing designs or for designing new acoustic treatment panels and duct configurations to achieve desired suppression levels.

  14. Duct injection technology prototype development

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L. . Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  16. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  17. Potassium transport in the mammalian collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Muto, S

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian collecting duct plays a dominant role in regulating K(+) excretion by the nephron. The collecting duct exhibits axial and intrasegmental cell heterogeneity and is composed of at least two cell types: collecting duct cells (principal cells) and intercalated cells. Under normal circumstances, the collecting duct cell in the cortical collecting duct secretes K(+), whereas under K(+) depletion, the intercalated cell reabsorbs K(+). Assessment of the electrochemical driving forces and of membrane conductances for transcellular and paracellular electrolyte movement, the characterization of several ATPases, patch-clamp investigation, and cloning of the K(+) channel have provided important insights into the role of pumps and channels in those tubule cells that regulate K(+) secretion and reabsorption. This review summarizes K(+) transport properties in the mammalian collecting duct. Special emphasis is given to the mechanisms of how K(+) transport is regulated in the collecting duct.

  18. Parotid salivary duct sialocele associated with glandular duct stenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Jardel, Nicolas; El Mrini, Meryem; Stambouli, Fouzia; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Feline parotid salivary duct sialocele is an uncommon disorder that has been previously reported in association with traumatic rupture of the duct in only two cats. Both cases were successfully treated by proximal duct ligation. We describe the successful surgical treatment of a parotid duct sialocele, secondary to spontaneous salivary duct stenosis, in an adult domestic shorthair cat. The cat was referred for assessment of a recurrent fluid-filled swelling on the left side of the face. Cytology of the aspirated fluid was consistent with serous saliva. The anatomical localisation of the lesion and the nature of the fluid were indicative of parotid gland/duct involvement. Retrograde sialography by parotid duct cannulation was unsuccessful because the left parotid duct opening was stenosed and obstructed by scar tissue. Surgical exploration revealed a parotid salivary duct sialocele, which was completely removed along with the parotid gland without complications.

  19. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram

    2011-01-04

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  20. Tear-ducts in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John W. M.

    1999-11-01

    We examine the radial spoke pattern evident in the meniscus region in glasses of strong alcoholic beverages exhibiting the `tears-in-wine' phenomenon. We demonstrate that the pattern results from ridge-like elevations of the free surface which are supported by evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection in the meniscus region. Vortices associated with the convective motions are aligned in the radial direction by the surface tension gradient responsible for the generation of tears. The radial flow is focussed into the ridges, which thus serve as the principal conduits of fluid for the tears; consequently, we refer to the ridges as `tear-ducts'. The phenomenon is examined experimentally, and a numerical model of evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection is developed which reproduces the salient features of the tear-duct phenomenon.

  1. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  2. On the neutrons streaming in straight duct

    PubMed

    Jehouani; Boulkheir; Ichaoui

    2000-10-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal neutron streaming through a straight cylindrical duct by using the Monte Carlo method and evaluating the neutron reflection by the duct wall to the total flux at the exit of the duct. The duct walls are made separately of iron and aluminum. We have considered 10 groups of energy between 10(-5) and 10 eV. For a point source at the mouth of the duct, we have determined the direct and the reflected part of the total thermal neutron flux at the exit of the duct for different lengths and different radii of the duct. For a punctual source, we have found that the major contribution to the total flux of neutrons at the exit is due to the neutron reflection by walls, and the reflection contribution decreases when the neutron energy decreases. For a constant length of the duct, the reflected part decreases when the duct radius increases, while for the disk shaped source, we have found the opposite phenomenon. The transmitted neutron flux distribution at the exit of the duct is determined for a disk shaped source for different neutron energies and different distances from the exit center.

  3. A novel endoscopic treatment of major bile duct leak☆

    PubMed Central

    Wahaibi, Aiman Al; AlNaamani, Khalid; Alkindi, Ahmed; Qarshoubi, Issa Al

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bile leak is a serious complication of hepatobiliary surgery. The incidence has remained the same over the last decade despite significant improvement in the results of liver surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 21-year-old man was a passenger in a motor vehicle and sustained a blunt abdominal trauma in a high-speed collision leading to major liver laceration. He had right lobe hepatectomy complicated by major bile leak. He was not fit for further surgery and he, therefore, had ERCP and obliteration of the leaking bile duct using a combination of metallic coil and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. DISCUSSION Endoscopic therapy has become the modality of choice in the treatment of biliary tract injuries. Different modalities of management of persistent bile leak such as sphincterotomy, plastic biliary stents, and nasobiliary drainage have been described. Obliteration of bile duct leak using N-butyl cyanoacrylate and coil embolization has been described but most of these reports used the percutaneous transhepatic approach. CONCLUSION In this paper, we describe the second reported case in English literature of a novel endoscopic technique using a combination of metallic coil embolization and N-butyl cyanoacrylate in a patient with major bile leak who was not a candidate for surgery as well as a third report of the late complication of coil migration to the common bile duct. PMID:24636979

  4. Cholecystokinin cholescintigraphic findings in the cystic duct syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; DeRidder, P.; Kolozsi, W.; Gordon, R.; Rapp, J.

    1985-10-01

    Fourteen patients with a cystic duct syndrome (CDS) underwent cholecystokinin (CCK) cholescintigraphy. All patients presented with persistent postprandial right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic. None of the patients had an abnormal oral cholecystography, gallbladder (GB) ultrasound exam or upper GI series. Each patient received 5 mCi of technetium-99m disofenin. When the GB maximally filled, 0.02 microgram/kg CCK was administered (3 min) intravenously. Background corrected gallbladder ejection fractions (GBEFs) were determined every 5 min X 4 by rationing the pre-CCK GB counts minus post-CCK GB counts to pre-CCK GB counts. GBEFs were: 12% (3 patients), 17% (2), 0%, 1.3%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 11%, 14%, 18.5%, and 22% (1 each). All patients underwent a surgical exploration and all had macro- or microscopically abnormal cystic ducts with (12 patients) or without (2 patients) concomitant chronic cholecystitis. No patient with a partially occluded cystic duct with or without concomitant chronic cholecystitis had an ejection fraction that exceeded 22%. In an appropriate clinical setting, a low EF response to CCK should alert the physician to the presence of either chronic acalculous cholecystitis, CDS, or the combination of both.

  5. Risk Factors associated with Paraurethral Duct Dilatation following Gonococcal Paraurethral Duct Infection in Men

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenge; Zhang, Qingsong; Wang, Lin; Ye, Xun; Jiang, Tingwang

    2016-01-01

    No studies have explored the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy. The present study was performed to explore the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy and thus guide clinical interventions. We compared the demographic, behavioral, and clinical data of men with paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae with and without dilatation of the paraurethral duct. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in age, disease course of the infected paraurethral duct, Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae between the patient and control groups (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed consistent results (P<0.05). This study that shows delayed treatment may be a major risk factor for paraurethral duct dilatation secondary to paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae in men. Age, C. trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae are also risk factors. Thus, educating patients to undergo timely therapy and treating the C. trachomatis infection may be effective interventions. PMID:27861521

  6. Balloon Catheter Dilation and Nasolacrimal Intubation for Treatment of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Following a Failed Probing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal intubation as treatments for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) after a failed probing in children less than 4 years of age Methods We conducted a prospective, non-randomized multicenter study which enrolled 159 children aged 6 to <48 months who had a history of a single failed nasolacrimal duct probing and had at least one of the following clinical signs of NLDO present: epiphora, mucous discharge and/or increased tear lake. One hundred ninety-nine eyes underwent either balloon catheter nasolacrimal duct dilation or nasolacrimal duct intubation. Treatment success was defined as no epiphora, mucous discharge or increased tear lake present at the outcome visit six months after surgery. Results Treatment success was reported in 65 of 84 eyes (77%, 95% CI = 65% to 85%) in the balloon group compared with 72 of 88 eyes (84%, 95% CI = 74% to 91%) eyes in the intubation group (risk ratio for success for intubation vs. balloon = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusions Balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal duct intubation each alleviate the clinical signs of persistent nasolacrimal duct obstruction in a similar proportion of patients. PMID:19433712

  7. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  8. Fibreoptic choledochoscopy in common bile duct surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fibreoptic choledochoscopy permits visual examination of the interior of the bile ducts during operations for gallstones. But it does not replace operative cholangiography, and the common bile duct should not be opened simply to perform choledochoscopy. Operative choledochoscopy following conventional exploration and removal of stones ensures that the ducts are clear before insertion of a T tube and closure, avoiding the problem of the retained stone. Exploratory choledochoscopy with stone retrieval under direct vision is less traumatic to the ducts than conventional blind methods, and visual confirmation that the lower end of the duct is clear and the papilla patent may allow the common bile duct to be closed without a T tube, shortening the patient's convalescent period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:697297

  9. Specific transduction and labeling of pancreatic ducts by targeted recombinant viral infusion into mouse pancreatic ducts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ping; Xiao, Xiangwei; El-Gohary, Yousef; Criscimanna, Angela; Prasadan, Krishna; Rymer, Christopher; Shiota, Chiyo; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iliana; Esni, Farzad; Gittes, George K

    2013-11-01

    Specific labeling of pancreatic ducts has proven to be quite difficult. Such labeling has been highly sought after because of the power it would confer to studies of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, as well as studies of the source of new insulin-producing β-cells. Cre-loxp recombination could, in theory, lineage-tag pancreatic ducts, but results have been conflicting, mainly due to low labeling efficiencies. Here, we achieved a high pancreatic duct labeling efficiency using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) with a duct-specific sox9 promoter infused into the mouse common biliary/pancreatic duct. We saw rapid, diffuse duct-specific labeling, with 50 and 89% labeling in the pancreatic tail and head region, respectively. This highly specific labeling of ducts should greatly enhance our ability to study the role of pancreatic ducts in numerous aspects of pancreatic growth, development and function.

  10. Ramjet bypass duct and preburner configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A combined turbofan and ramjet aircraft engine includes a forward bypass duct which allows the engine to operate more efficiently during the turbofan mode of operation. By mounting a ramjet preburner in the forward duct and isolating this duct from the turbofan bypass air, a transition from turbofan operation to ramjet operation can take place at lower flight Mach numbers without incurring pressure losses or blockage in the turbofan bypass air.

  11. Anatomical assessment of bile ducts of Luschka in human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kocabiyik, Necdet; Yalcin, Bülent; Kilbas, Zafer; Karadeniz, Sinan R; Kurt, Bülent; Comert, Ayhan; Ozan, Hasan

    2009-08-01

    Bile ducts of Luschka (also called subvesical or supravesicular ducts) can cause bile leakage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially if surgery is carried out in ignorance of such variations. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical anatomy of these ducts in human fetuses and frequency of the ducts locating near gallbladder fossa. Thirty-two fetal cadaver livers were dissected and the gallbladders were separated from the livers and ducts were investigated under a surgical microscope. All observed ducts were examined microscopically and connective tissue cords were excluded. Bile ducts of Luschka locating near cystic fossa were found in 7 of 32 fetuses (21.9%). Three of the seven ducts ran towards to liver segment 5 (S5); three ducts were found in the gallbladder fossa; and one duct ran towards to liver segment 4 (S4). Also it was found that three of the seven ducts drained into the subsegmental duct of S5, two ducts drained into the right hepatic duct, one duct drained into the right anterior branch bile duct, and one duct drained into the subsegmental duct of S4. Subvesical ducts running along the gallbladder fossa between the gallbladder and the liver parenchyma were found in a relatively high incidence in fetuses than adults. Awareness and knowledge about incidence of such ducts alerts the surgeon during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore morbidity due to bile leaks can be reduced.

  12. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, John Wesley; Tong, Wei

    2003-06-24

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  13. Circumportal pancreas with retroportal main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Ross, Andrew S; Traverso, L William

    2009-08-01

    There have been 6 cases of circumportal pancreas reported, and 2 of them had the main pancreatic duct in a retroportal dorsal portion. This extremely uncommon anomaly is asymptomatic and therefore incidentally discovered. For the surgeon, it is important to discover this during pancreatic resection so the pancreatic duct can be closed and fistula is avoided. We describe the third case where a circumportal pancreas had its main pancreatic duct passing under the portal vein. The duct was identified and ligated. A fistula did not occur.

  14. Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

  15. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LN1) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate Containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered TradeMark)Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark)a software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  16. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Elliott, T. F.; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LNI) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered Trademark) Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark) software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  17. Dirty ducting poses significant risks.

    PubMed

    Norman, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Richard Norman, managing director of ventilation system cleaning specialist Indepth Hygiene, discusses the importance of ensuring that such systems are properly cleaned in healthcare facilities, especially, he argues, as dust and debris on internal surfaces of ducting are potentially "ideal nutrients" for the growth of microorganisms such as MRSA and Clostridium difficile. In addition he warns that, if not properly and regularly cleaned, grease extract ventilation systems linked to catering facilities are a potential source of danger to hospital patients, staff, and visitors alike.

  18. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  19. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  20. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  1. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... but it can affect people who travel to Asia. Abnormalities where the bile duct and pancreatic duct ... duct cancer is much more common in Southeast Asia and China, largely because of the high rate ...

  3. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  4. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  5. Predicting vibrational failure of flexible ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Technique applies to liquid or gas transfer through flexible ducting and proves valuable in high velocity fluid flow cases. Fluid mechanism responsible for free bellows vibrational excitation also causes flexible hose oscillation. Static pressure stress influences flexible ducting fatigue life and is considered separately.

  6. Rocket-in-a-Duct Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1999-01-01

    An axisymmetric, 110 N class, rocket configured with a free expansion between the rocket nozzle and a surrounding duct was tested in an altitude simulation facility. The propellants were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen and the hardware consisted of a heat sink type copper rocket firing through copper ducts of various diameters and lengths. A secondary flow of nitrogen was introduced at the blind end of the duct to mix with the primary rocket mass flow in the duct. This flow was in the range of 0 to 10% of the primary massflow and its effect on nozzle performance was measured. The random measurement errors on thrust and massflow were within +/-1%. One dimensional equilibrium calculations were used to establish the possible theoretical performance of these rocket-in-a-duct nozzles. Although the scale of these tests was small, they simulated the relevant flow expansion physics at a modest experimental cost. Test results indicated that lower performance was obtained at higher free expansion area ratios and longer ducts, while, higher performance was obtained with the addition of secondary flow. There was a discernable peak in specific impulse efficiency at 4% secondary flow. The small scale of these tests resulted in low performance efficiencies, but prior numerical modeling of larger rocket-in-a-duct engines predicted performance that was comparable to that of optimized rocket nozzles. This remains to be proven in large-scale, rocket-in-a-duct tests.

  7. Fluidic-Driven Ducted Heat Ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerty, Donavon; Mahalingam, Raghav; Glezer, Ari

    2003-11-01

    A high-aspect ratio miniature air duct is developed for forced convection heat rejection from electronic hardware within sealed enclosures. Relatively high heat transfer coefficient is achieved at low volume flow rates by a thin oscillating reed that is mounted across the span of the duct, parallel to its (wide) walls. The flow is induced by the time-periodic shedding of tip vortices at the edge of the reed which continue to propagate downstream along the duct. The interaction of these vortices with vorticity concentrations along the duct surfaces and the structure of the ensuing flow are investigated using high-resolution phase-locked and time-averaged particle image velocimetry. The dependence of the global flow and heat transfer from the duct walls on the frequency and amplitude of the reed motion are also characterized.

  8. Uniformly spaced field-aligned ionization ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Muldrew, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A number of interesting cases of combination mode ducted echoes for mid- and low-latitude regions are presented that show nearly uniformly spaced multiple combination mode traces on the ionograms in the frequency range above 1 MHz. These traces suggest that a parallel system of field-aligned ducts is present. Ray tracing studies are made to determine the structure that would explain the observations using the electron density profile derivable from the vertical trace and assuming field-aligned ducts. Spacing perpendicular to the ducts is found to be as much as 70 km. Some of these parallel duct structures are found to extend to the conjugate hemisphere, possibly to the F peak.

  9. Electromagnetic propagation in PEC and absorbing curved S-ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study transverse magnetic (TM) wave propagation in 2-D S-curved ducts with both perfectly conducting and absorbing walls. The reflection and transmission at the entrances and the exits of the curved ducts are determined by coupling the finite-element solutions in the curved ducts to the eigenfunctions of an infinite, uniform, perfectly conducting duct. Example solutions are presented for a double mitred and S-ducts of various lengths. The length of the S-duct is found to significantly effect the reflective characteristics of the duct. Also, the effect of curvature on an absorbing duct is illustrated.

  10. - - and Cross-Joints of Lined Ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechel, F. P.

    1998-10-01

    Much effort has been spent to increase the attenuation of lined ducts at low frequencies with only a minor increase of the blocking of the duct by thick silencers, in order to keep the stationary flow of the resistance of the silencer at low values. There exists a similar problem at high frequencies, where the attenuation goes down at about the square of the inverse frequency as soon as the frequency limit of ray formation is exceeded at which the free duct is about half a wavelength wide. The principal remedy of the problem, to choose narrow ducts, would increase the aerodynamic resistance. The ray-acoustical background of the low attenuation at high frequency suggests using the existing corners of the ductwork into which the silencer is inserted for the generation of high-frequency attenuation. A naı̈ve idea is to assume that the exciting sound ray of the inlet duct should be absorbed by an absorber on the corner wall opposite this duct, thereby avoiding the excitation of the outlet branch of the duct. Such a corner absorber could be applied in wide ducts also. This paper presents theories of joints of acoustically lined ducts with separate sound absorbers at the corner walls. The numerical results will show that high transmission losses can indeed be achieved at high frequencies, but the mechanism of the corner attenuation is not so much the absorption by the corner absorber, but more the (cut-off) attenuation of higher modes in the lined outlet branch of the duct.

  11. Iatrogenic salivary duct injury in head and neck cancer patients: Report of four cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulyapina, Alena; Ochandiano-Caicoya, Santiago; Navarro-Cuellar, Carlos; Navarro-Vila, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lesions of the salivary ducts may be idiopathic, post- traumatic, or iatrogenic and lead to sialocele formation with persistent painful facial swelling or cutaneous fistula formation. No consensus on treatment of this condition exists: the options of treatment include needle aspiration, pressure dressings, antisialogogue therapy, radiotherapy, botulinum toxin and surgical approaches as duct repair, diversion, ligation, different drainage systems and even parotidectomy/submaxilectomy. The management and special features of iatrogenic salivary duct injury in patients with oral cancer who underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery has not been described yet. Material and Methods: We present four cases of iatrogenic lesions of salivary ducts and its management in patients with oral cancer. Conclusions: The iatrogenic lesions of salivary ducts are to be taken into account in patients with oral cancer as the distal ends of salivary ducts could be involved in the margins of surgical resection. Different options of treatment of this complication are described. Key words:Sialocele, oral cancer, salivary duct. PMID:25136433

  12. Complex bile duct injuries: management

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, V.; Pekolj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the present treatment of choice for patients with gallbladder stones, despite its being associated with a higher incidence of biliary injuries compared with the open procedure. Injuries occurring during the laparoscopic approach seem to be more complex. A complex biliary injury is a disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. We considered complex injuries: 1) injuries that involve the confluence; 2) injuries in which repair attempts have failed; 3) any bile duct injury associated with a vascular injury; 4) or any biliary injury in association with portal hypertension or secondary biliary cirrhosis. The present review is an evaluation of our experience in the treatment of these complex biliary injuries and an analysis of the international literature on the management of patients. PMID:18695753

  13. Specific ranges of anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count correlate to provide a prognostic indicator for IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kevin; Cruzat, Vincius Fernandes; Wagle, Susbin; Chaudhary, Nitin; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John

    2017-03-01

    Advanced female age correlates with reduced ovarian reserve (OR) and is the primary factor underlying the limitation of success rates in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Currently, predicted ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation is determined using transvaginal ultrasound to measure antral follicle count (AFC), an indirect measure of OR. However, assessing the level of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has more recently been shown to correlate with OR, and its application has been adopted widely. This retrospective study was designed to determine the relationship between novel ranges of AMH and AFC in patients undergoing ART. There was a positive correlation between AMH and AFC category (r=0.458, P<0.01), with an 87% linear concordance observed for specific AFC ranges and mean serum AMH levels. Both OR markers were inversely correlated with female age (r=-0.428 and r=-0.392, respectively). Pregnancy and live birth rates were influenced by both AMH (P<0.05) and AFC categories (P<0.05). Conversely, miscarriage rates appeared to be more dependent on AFC categories (P >0.05), but even more reliant on female age. Finally, the number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with AMH and AFC grading, while oocyte and embryo utilization rates were negatively correlated. Overall, both OR markers were positively and strongly related with each other, and when individual AMH readings were categorised into specific novel ranges, they demonstrated a more robust correlation with AFC groupings. Taken together, applying patient AMH within specific ranges may lead to a better estimation of OR and IVF outcomes.

  14. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p < 0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance.

  15. Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, Gerald W.; Premo, John W.; Hersh, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program goal is to reduce aircraft noise by 10 EPNdB by the year 2000 relative, to 1992 technology. The improvement goal for nacelle attenuation is 25% relative to 1992 technology by 1997 and 50% by 2000. The Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts Task work by Boeing presented in this document was in support of these goals. The basis for the technical approach was a Boeing study conducted in 1993-94 under NASA/FAA contract NAS1-19349, Task 6, investigating broadband acoustic liner concepts. As a result of this work, it was recommended that linear double layer, linear and perforate triple layer, parallel element, and bulk absorber liners be further investigated to improve nacelle attenuations. NASA LaRC also suggested that "adaptive" liner concepts that would allow "in-situ" acoustic impedance control also be considered. As a result, bias flow and high-temperature liner concepts were also added to the investigation. The major conclusion from the above studies is that improvements in nacelle liner average acoustic impedance characteristics alone will not result in 25% increased nacelle noise reduction relative to 1992 technology. Nacelle design advancements currently being developed by Boeing are expected to add 20-40% more acoustic lining to hardwall regions in current inlets, which is predicted to result in and additional 40-80% attenuation improvement. Similar advancements are expected to allow 10-30% more acoustic lining in current fan ducts with 10-30% more attenuation expected. In addition, Boeing is currently developing a scarf inlet concept which is expected to give an additional 40-80% attenuation improvement for equivalent lining areas.

  16. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Cholangiopancreatography Demonstration of the Cystic Duct Entering the Right Hepatic Duct

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Tommaso; Racchiusa, Sergio; Mazziotti, Silvio; Cicero, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Cystic duct draining into the right hepatic biliary duct Symptoms: Recurrent abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MR-cholangiopancreatography Specialty: Radiology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: MR cholangiopancreatography is widely performed before laparoscopic cholecystectomy to rule out choledocholithiasis and to avoid iatrogenic injuries that may be related to the high frequency of anatomical variations of the biliary tree. Although most of these variants have already been demonstrated surgically and by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and CT cholangiography, there are no references in which MR cholangiopancreatography has shown a cystic duct draining into the right hepatic biliary duct. Case Report: A 51-year-old woman with a history of recurrent abdominal pain underwent an abdominal ultrasound in an outside center, which revealed gallbladder cholelithiasis. In this patient, an MR cholangiopancreatography was performed and the laboratory data were obtained. Laboratory findings showed only a mild increase of cholestasis. MRCP did not reveal significant dilatation of intra- or extrahepatic biliary ducts, while the cystic duct showed an atypical insertion, draining directly into the right hepatic duct. Conclusions: To avoid unintentional bile duct injuries, MRCP evaluation of the biliary anatomy is particularly important for pre-operative evaluation of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In particular, in the case we describe, the right hepatic duct might have been mistaken for the cystic duct, with potentially severe surgical complications and clinical consequences. PMID:28275221

  17. Thrust control system design of ducted rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Juntao; Li, Bin; Bao, Wen; Niu, Wenyu; Yu, Daren

    2011-07-01

    The investigation of the thrust control system is aroused by the need for propulsion system of ducted rockets. Firstly the dynamic mathematical models of gas flow regulating system, pneumatic servo system and ducted rocket engine were established and analyzed. Then, to conquer the discussed problems of thrust control, the idea of information fusion was proposed to construct a new feedback variable. With this fused feedback variable, the thrust control system was designed. According to the simulation results, the introduction of the new fused feedback variable is valid in eliminating the contradiction between rapid response and stability for the thrust control system of ducted rockets.

  18. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Moralioğlu, Serdar; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah; Şahin, Ceyhan

    2013-01-01

    Paraurethral or Skene's duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene's duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene's duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage. PMID:24049387

  19. Magnetospheric whistler ducts observed by ISIS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondoh, T.

    1976-01-01

    The latitudinal width of the magnetospheric whistler duct has been estimated by the first and final invariant latitudes of whistler echoes and the conservation of the magnetic flux for the centered dipole field, using 105 whistler echoes in ISIS VLF data received at Kashima, Japan for 1972-1973. The latitudinal distribution of whistler duct occurrence shows a maximum at invariant latitudes of 40-45 degrees near the maximum occurrence latitude of ground whistlers. The radial width of magnetospheric whistler duct in the geomagnetically equatorial plane increases with invariant latitude of the geomagnetic flux tube in which whistlers propagate.

  20. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  1. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  2. Silencing using flexible plate in a duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Grosh, Karl; Nawar, Tony G.

    2002-11-01

    A flexible plate interacting with air in a duct can provide passive means for low frequency broadband transmission loss. The sensitivity of the system to various parameters including unintentionally applied tension, effect of external fluid loading, lateral plate cross modes, structural and acoustic boundary condition are analyzed through experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. In order to avoid breakout noise, a backing cavity can be introduced below the plate. This introduces differences in filtering characteristics. Compared to plate in a single duct, the two-duct system will have higher plate resonance frequencies due to cavity loading on the plate. Means to achieve low frequency broadband transmission loss using two-duct silencers will be discussed. Significance of three dimensionality of the problem will be brought out by comparing the results of three-dimensional finite-element analysis with experimental data. Successful designs and experiments for low frequency attenuation will be presented. [Work supported by NSF and ONR.

  3. Development testing of throttleable ducted rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besser, Hans-Ludwig

    1992-09-01

    Throttleability, being a current requirement for modern air-breathing missile propulsion systems, adds considerable complexity to the development of ducted rockets. Problems are especially inherent in the development of the following: (1) pressure sensitive propellants; (2) hot gas valves (especially for particle laden flow); and (3) ramcombustors featuring high performance over widely varying operating conditions. The use of propellant ingredients with high heating value but unfavorable combustion characteristics, like boron, is an additional challenge in the development of high energy ducted rocket systems. Extensive testing and a well conceived test philosophy are needed to achieve satisfactory development results. MBB, together with its subsidiary Bayem-Chemie, has been engaged in the field of throttleable ducted rockets for more than a decade. This paper summarizes test procedures which were established to address the strongly interrelated development problems and presents examples of test results derived from the development of a ducted rocket engine for a supersonic antiship missile.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  5. Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  6. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  7. Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  8. Rotating Rake Turbofan Duct Mode Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental measurement system was developed and implemented by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the 1990s to measure turbofan duct acoustic modes. The system is a continuously rotating radial microphone rake that is inserted into the duct. This Rotating Rake provides a complete map of the acoustic duct modes present in a ducted fan and has been used on a variety of test articles: from a low-speed, concept test rig, to a full-scale production turbofan engine. The Rotating Rake has been critical in developing and evaluating a number of noise reduction concepts as well as providing experimental databases for verification of several aero-acoustic codes. More detailed derivation of the unique Rotating Rake equations are presented in the appendix.

  9. Unusually large sialolith of Wharton's duct

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Ali; Gupta, Anup K.; Natu, Subodh S.; Gupta, Atul K.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of calcific concretions in the salivary duct or glands is a common disorder, especially in the submandibular glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in size, in contrast to those that reach several centimeters, which are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and the submandibular gland. This report presents clinical and radiographical sign of an unusually large sialolith. There was painless swelling on the floor of the edentulous mouth and patient was unaware of it. Radiographical examination revealed large irregular radio-opaque mass superimposed on right canine and premolar areas. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the aetiology, diagnosis and its treatment. PMID:23483770

  10. Transition duct assembly with modified trailing edge in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Schott, Carl Gerard; Ingram, Clint Luigie; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Pierre, Sylvain

    2016-10-04

    Transition duct assemblies for turbine systems and turbomachines are provided. In one embodiment, a transition duct assembly includes a plurality of transition ducts disposed in a generally annular array and comprising a first transition duct and a second transition duct. Each of the plurality of transition ducts includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of each transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct assembly further includes an aerodynamic structure defined by the passages of the first transition duct and the second transition duct. The aerodynamic structure includes a pressure side, a suction side, and a trailing edge, the trailing edge having a modified aerodynamic contour.

  11. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  12. Duct Liner Optimization for Turbomachinery Noise Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    AD-A279 441lIIIflhIh* NASA TECHNICAL NASA TMA X-72789 MEMORANDUM oo £ 00 r-:. DUCT LINER OPTIMIZATION FOR TURBOMACHINERY w NOISE SOURCES By Harold C...Recipient’s r.atalog No. NASA TM X-72789! 4 Title diid Subtitle 5. Rewrt Date Duct Liner Optimization for Turbomachinery Noise Sources November 1975...profiles is combined wit., a numerical minimization algorithm to predict optimal liner configurations having one, two, and three sections. Source models

  13. Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-26

    Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction February 26, 2004 Rich Glatt – Lindab Inc. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Wall – DW that installs like SW - easiest installing DW system on the market – Eliminates the need for costly flanged connections – SMACNA Leakage

  14. Effect of shear on duct wall impedance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M.; Rice, E.

    1973-01-01

    The solution to the equation governing the propagation of sound in a uniform shear layer is expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. This result is used to develop a closed-form solution for acoustic wall impedance which accounts for both the duct liner and the presence of a boundary layer in the duct. The effective wall impedance can then be used as the boundary condition for the much simpler problem of sound propagation in uniform flow.

  15. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A.; Smith, Matt K.; Gu, Lixing; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  16. Sound radiation from a flanged inclined duct.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Alan; Daymond-King, Alex P; Kempton, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    A simple method to calculate sound radiation from a flanged inclined duct is presented. An inclined annular duct is terminated by a rigid vertical plane. The duct termination is representative of a scarfed exit. The concept of a scarfed duct has been examined in turbofan aero-engines as a means to, potentially, shield a portion of the radiated sound from being transmitted directly to the ground. The sound field inside the annular duct is expressed in terms of spinning modes. Exterior to the duct, the radiated sound field owing to each mode can be expressed in terms of its directivity pattern, which is found by evaluating an appropriate form of Rayleigh's integral. The asymmetry is shown to affect the amplitude of the principal lobe of the directivity pattern, and to alter the proportion of the sound power radiated up or down. The methodology detailed in this article provides a simple engineering approach to investigate the sound radiation for a three-dimensional problem.

  17. Development of the Bile Ducts: Essentials for the Clinical Hepatologist

    PubMed Central

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Several cholangiopathies result from a perturbation of developmental processes. Most of these cholangiopathies are characterised by the persistence of biliary structures with foetal configuration. Developmental processes are also relevant in acquired liver diseases, as liver repair mechanisms exploit a range of autocrine and paracrine signals transiently expressed in embryonic life. We briefly review the ontogenesis of the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree, highlighting the morphogens, growth factors and transcription factors that regulate biliary development, and the relationships between developing bile ducts and other branching biliary structures. Then we discuss the ontogenetic mechanisms involved in liver repair, and how these mechanisms are recapitulated in ductular reaction, a common reparative response to many forms of biliary and hepatocellular damage. Finally, we discuss the pathogenic aspects of the most important primary cholangiopathies related to altered biliary development i.e. polycystic and fibropolycystic liver diseases, Alagille syndrome. PMID:22245898

  18. Cholecystokinin (CCK) functional cholescintigraphic findings in patients with a partial cystic duct obstruction - the cystic duct syndrome (CDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; DeRidder, P.; Kolozsi, W.; Gordon, R.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen patients (pts.) with a CDS underwent CCK functional cholescintigraphy (FC). All pts. presented with persistent post-prandial right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic. None had an abnormal OCG, gallbladder (GB) ultrasound exam or upper G.I. series. All had macro- or microscopically abnormal cystic ducts (5 fibrotic, 7 elongated and narrow, 2 kinked) with (12) or without (2) concomitant chronic cholecystitis. Each pt. (NPO after 12 A.M.) received 5 mCi of technetium (TC)-99m Hepatolite. When the GB max. filled, .02 ug/kg CCK was administered (3 min.) I.V. Background corrected GBEFs were determined q.5 min. x 4 by ratioing the pre-CCK GB cts. minus post-CCK GB cts. to pre-CCK GB cts. GB EFRs were: 3 (12%), 2 (17%), and 1 each 0%, 1.3%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 11%, 14%, 18.5% and 22%. No pt. with a partially occluded cystic duct with or without concomitant chronic cholecystitis had an ejection fraction that exceeded 22%. In an appropriate clinical setting, a low ejection fraction response to CCK should alert the physician to the presence of either chronic acalculous cholecystitis, CDS, or the combination of both.

  19. Common bile duct injury by fibrin glue: report of a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wu, Ping; Ma, Yue-Feng; Lin, Mei-Ju; Shi, Li-Jun; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Mu

    2015-03-07

    Fibrin glue is widely used in clinical practice and plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications. We report a case of a 65-year-old man, whose common bile duct was injured by fibrin glue, with a history of failed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open operation for uncontrolled laparoscopic bleeding. In view of the persistent liver dysfunction, xanthochromia and skin itching, the patient was admitted to us for further management. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed multiple stones in the common bile duct, and liver function tests confirmed the presence of obstructive jaundice and liver damage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was unsuccessfully performed to remove choledocholithiasis, but a small amount of tissue was removed and pathologically confirmed as calcified biliary mucosa. This was followed by open surgery for suspicious cholangiocarcinoma. There was no evidence of cholangiocarcinoma, but the common bile duct wall had a defect of 8 mm × 10 mm at Calot's triangle. A hard, grid-like foreign body was removed, which proved to be solid fibrin glue. Subsequently, the residual choledocholithiasis was removed by a choledochoscopic procedure, and the common bile duct deletion was repaired by liver round ligament with T-tube drainage. Six months later, endoscopy was performed through the T-tube fistula and showed a well-repaired bile duct wall. Eight months later, MRCP confirmed no bile duct stenosis. A review of reported cases showed that fibrin glue is widely used in surgery, but it can also cause organ damage. Its mechanism may be related to discharge reactions.

  20. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... stage of the engine supercharger and of the auxiliary power unit compressor must have a drain to prevent... resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within...

  1. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  2. Size limitations in semicircular duct systems

    PubMed

    Muller

    1999-06-07

    The present article discusses mechanical requirements and limitations which are applicable to the construction of the system of semicircular ducts, especially to its size. The simplified case of a single, uniform duct system has been considered which can be described by a second order equation of motion. The principal functional quantities for this rotation-sensor are: (1) response speed; (2) sensitivity; and (3) regular flow. The response speed of a single, uniform semicircular duct is characterized by the short time constant (T2) which is dependent on the duct radius (r). Its estimated range is from 0.04 ms in the smallest to 140 ms in the largest known labyrinth. The sensitivity is characterized by the maximal endolymph displacement after a step stimulus (xmax). Its estimated range is from 0.0016 &mgr;m to 5.97 mm (6.56 decades!), assuming an input angular velocity of omega=1 rad s-1. The Reynolds number is a measure for an undisturbed laminar flow. Its estimated range varies from 7.38.10(-4)to 45.1 for omega=1 rad s-1. The above data follow from graphs in which, for a single uniform duct, circuit radius (R) is plotted against duct radius (r) for labyrinths of 233 species belonging to different vertebrate-groups. A relation R =38.9. r1.60was determined. The smallest labyrinth was found in a carp larva (Cyprinus), the largest in a whale shark (Rhincodon). Large whales possess labyrinths of average mammalian size. It is revealed that semicircular duct size is bound by requirements concerning regular flow and by a too low response speed for large labyrinths, and by a too low sensitivity for small labyrinths. Other important quantities are mechanical amplification factors which are a consequence of more complex vestibular constructions than a single uniform duct circuit. Allometric relationships are interpreted as compromises between the quantities mentioned. A hypothesis for the relatively large semicircular duct sizes of fishes, especially Elasmobranchii, compared

  3. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct.

    PubMed

    Paick, J S

    2000-05-01

    Complete bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction has long been recognized as an uncommon, treatable form of male infertility. Partial ejaculatory duct obstruction reflects a disturbance of ejaculation where sperm quality is impaired during transit through the distal vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts. With the advent and increased use of high-resolution transrectal ultrasonography, abnormalities of the distal ejaculatory ducts related to infertility have been well documented. Although there are no pathognomonic findings associated with ejaculatory duct obstruction, several clinical findings are highly suggestive. In an infertile man with oligospermia or azoospermia with low ejaculate volume, normal secondary sexual characteristics, testes and hormonal profile and dilated seminal vesicles, midline cyst, or calcification on transrectal ultrasonography, ejaculatory duct obstruction is suggested. Of course, other causes of infertility may be concomitantly present and need to be searched for and treated as well. In selected cases, transurethral resection has resulted in marked improvement in semen parameters and pregnancies have been achieved. As is the case with all surgical procedures, proper patient selection and surgical experience are necessary to obtain optimal results. However, it appears that the treatments currently available for relief of ejaculatory obstruction are not optimally effective. Only approximately one half of treated patients will have an improvement in semen parameters and only about one quarter of treated patients will contribute to a pregnancy. What remains to be determined is how to manage the additional nearly 50% of patients who do not benefit from transurethral resection of ejaculatory obstruction. Based on my experience, I suggest that transrectal ultrasonography should be the first diagnostic procedure used when infertile men are suspected of having ejaculatory duct obstruction; however, vasography should still be considered for a more

  4. Endoscopic management of ejaculatory duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Aggour, A; Mostafa, H; Maged, W

    1998-01-01

    A total of 191 patients were evaluated at our department for azoospermia, and 11 were found to have azoospermia due to ejaculatory duct obstruction as proved by normal serum hormones, normal testicular biopsy, low ejaculate volume and absence of fructose in semen. Also transrectal ultrasound was performed, revealing distended seminal vesicles and dilated ejaculatory ducts. All these criteria together suggested ejaculatory duct obstruction as a cause of azoospermia. All patients underwent endoscopic management for treatment of their ejaculatory duct obstruction in the form of resection and/or incision of the ejaculatory duct ostium inside the urethra and patency was checked intraoperatively by injection of sterile methylene blue in the vas and visualizing the efflux of the blue dye endoscopically. Intraoperative patency was documented in 10 patients and postoperative patency by follow-up semen analysis in 7 patients (70% patency rate) of which 2 (20% pregnancy rate) were able to conceive within 2 years of endoscopic treatment. Postoperative complications included acute urinary retention in 1 patient, haematuria in 5 and recurrent epididymitis in 2 patients.

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  6. Characterization of flow in a scroll duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.

  7. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-05-26

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface feature for interfacing with an adjacent transition duct. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface feature to provide a seal between the interface feature and the adjacent transition duct.

  8. In vivo reprogramming of Sox9+ cells in the liver to insulin-secreting ducts.

    PubMed

    Banga, Anannya; Akinci, Ersin; Greder, Lucas V; Dutton, James R; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2012-09-18

    In embryonic development, the pancreas and liver share developmental history up to the stage of bud formation. Therefore, we postulated that direct reprogramming of liver to pancreatic cells can occur when suitable transcription factors are overexpressed. Using a polycistronic vector we misexpress Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in the livers of NOD-SCID mice rendered diabetic by treatment with streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetes is relieved long term. Many ectopic duct-like structures appear that express a variety of β-cell markers, including dense core granules visible by electron microscopy (EM). Use of a vector also expressing GFP shows that the ducts persist long after the viral gene expression has ceased, indicating that this is a true irreversible cell reprogramming event. We have recovered the insulin(+) cells by cell sorting and shown that they display glucose-sensitive insulin secretion. The early formed insulin(+) cells can be seen to coexpress SOX9 and are also labeled in mice lineage labeled for Sox9 expression. SOX9(+) cells are normally found associated with small bile ducts in the periportal region, indicating that the duct-like structures arise from this source. This work confirms that developmentally related cells can be reprogrammed by suitable transcription factors and also suggests a unique therapy for diabetes.

  9. User's Manual for DuctE3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis of Ducted Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.

  10. Unusual giant sialolith of Wharton's duct

    PubMed Central

    Gadve, Vandana; Mohite, Apurva; Bang, Kshitij; Shenoi, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in size. Some calculi that reach several centimeters are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and in the submandibular gland. This report presents clinical and radiographical sign of an unusually large sialolith. A patient came with pain in the floor of mouth. There was a swelling on floor of mouth on the left side. Radiographical examination revealed large irregular radio-opaque mass superimposed on left lateral incisor to molar areas. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the etiology, diagnosis, and its treatment. PMID:27795655

  11. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries in kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Chowdri, Nisar A; Dar, Farooq A; Naikoo, Zahoor A; Wani, Nazir A; Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Khurshid A

    2010-08-01

    Cholecystectomy is one of the commonest operations performed throughout the world and bile duct injury is the worst complication of this procedure. In a prospective and retrospective study 25 patients were seen in a tertiary care hospital over a period of 10 years. 72% of patients were referred from other hospitals. 48% of patients presented within one month of injury. Pain was the commonest presentation (92%) followed by jaundice (80%). Liver functions were deranged in 70% of patients, USG revealed biliary dilatation in 69.6% of patients. ERCP was done in 16 patients and revealed cut off of the common hepatic duct in 43.8% of patients. Intraoperative findings revealed adhesions in 96% of patients. 48% of patients had bile duct stricture. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was the commonest procedure performed. All patients showed improvement in liver function after surgery. Wound infection was the commonest complication seen in 32% patients. 3 patients died in our series.

  12. Unusual giant sialolith of Wharton's duct.

    PubMed

    Gadve, Vandana; Mohite, Apurva; Bang, Kshitij; Shenoi, S R

    2016-09-01

    Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in size. Some calculi that reach several centimeters are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and in the submandibular gland. This report presents clinical and radiographical sign of an unusually large sialolith. A patient came with pain in the floor of mouth. There was a swelling on floor of mouth on the left side. Radiographical examination revealed large irregular radio-opaque mass superimposed on left lateral incisor to molar areas. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the etiology, diagnosis, and its treatment.

  13. Acoustic energy in ducts - Further observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, W.

    1979-01-01

    The transmission of acoustic energy in uniform ducts carrying uniform flow is investigated with the purpose of clarifying two points of interest. The two commonly used definitions of acoustic 'energy' flux are shown to be related by a Legendre transformation of the Lagrangian density exactly as in deriving the Hamiltonian density in mechanics. In the acoustic case the total energy density and the Hamiltonian density are not the same which accounts for two different 'energy' fluxes. When the duct has acoustically absorptive walls neither of the two flux expressions gives correct results. A reevaluation of the basis of derivation of the energy density and energy flux provides forms which yield consistent results for soft walled ducts.

  14. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular duct was experimentally and analytically investigated. To prevent the dripping of condensate on the film, the experiment was conducted inside a horizontal rectangular duct with vapor condensing only on the bottom cooled plate of the duct. R-113 and FC-72 (Fluorinert Electronic Fluid developed by the 3M Company) were used as the condensing fluids. The experimental program included measurements of film thickness, local and average heat transfer coefficients, wave length, wave speed, and a study of wave initiation. The measured film thickness was used to obtain the local heat transfer coefficient. The wave initiation was studied both with condensation and with an adiabatic air-liquid flow. The test sections used in both experiments were identical.

  15. Evaluation of PEGIT duct connection system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Brenner, Douglas E.; Sherman, Max H.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2003-08-01

    Most air duct system components are assembled in the field and are mechanically fastened by sheet metal screws (for sheet metal-to-sheet metal) or by drawbands (for flex duct-to-sheet metal). Air sealing is separate from this mechanical fastening and is usually achieved using tape or mastic products after mechanical fastening. Field observations have shown that mechanical fastening rarely meets code or manufacturers requirements and that sealing procedures are similarly inconsistent. To address these problems, Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) is developing a system of joining ducts (called PEGIT) that combines the mechanical fastening and sealing into a single self-contained procedure. The PEGIT system uses a shaped flexible seal between specially designed sheet metal duct fittings to both seal and fasten duct sections together. Figure 1 shows the inner duct fitting complete with rubber seal. This seal provides the air seal for the completed fitting and is shaped to allow the inner and outer fittings to slide together, and then to lock the fittings in place. The illustration in Figure 2 shows the approximate cross section of the rubber seal that shows how the seal has a lip that is angled backwards. This angled lip allows the joint to be pushed together by folding flat but then its long axis makes it stiff in the pulling apart direction. This study was undertaken to assist PEG in some of the design aspects of this system and to test the performance of the PEGIT system. This study was carried out in three phases. The initial phase evaluated the performance of a preliminary seal design for the PEGIT system. After the first phase, the seal was redesigned and this new seal was evaluated in the second phase of testing. The third phase performed more detailed testing of the second seal design to optimize the production tolerances of the sheet metal fittings. This report summarizes our findings from the first two phases and provides details about the third phase of testing.

  16. Imaging approach to persistent neonatal jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Kirks, D.; Coleman, R.E.; Filston, H.C.; Rosenberg, E.R.; Merten, D.F.

    1984-03-01

    Fifteen patients with persistent neonatal jaundice were evaluated by sonography and radionuclide scintigraphy. The sonographic features of both neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia are nonspecific. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy after phenobarbital pretreatment in patients with neonatal hepatitis demonstrates normal hepatic extraction and delayed tracer excretion into the gastrointestinal tract. If there is neonatal hepatitis with severe hepatocellular damage, the hepatic extraction of tracer activity is decreased and excretion may be delayed or absent. Patients under 3 months of age with biliary atresia have normal hepatic extraction of tracer with no excretion into the gastrointestinal tract. Sonography in patients with a choledochal cyst shows a cystic mass in the porta hepatis with associated bile-duct dilatation. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirms that the choledochal cyst communicates with the biliary system. Initial sonography demonstrates hepatobiliary anatomy; subsequent phenobarbital-enhanced radionuclide scintigraphy determines hepatobiliary function. An expedient diagnostic approach is recommended for the evaluation of persistent neonatal jaundice.

  17. Congenital Atresia of Wharton’s Duct

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, Anne; Anne, Premchand

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a three-month-old male who presented to clinic with a cystic lesion under the tongue. On clinical examination, a cystic lesion was observed in the, floor-of-mouth. The patient was referred to Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology service for further management. The differential diagnoses for floor-of-mouth lesions should be reviewed with primary focus on the Wharton’s duct atresia and its management. It is crucial to recognize submandibular duct atresia in the primary Paediatric clinic in order to expedite management of lesion before complications arise including infection, enlargement of cyst, and feeding and breathing difficulties. PMID:27042492

  18. Duct disruption, a new explanation of miliaria.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    1997-01-01

    From argument and a few personal observations, the hypothesis has crystallised that the miliaria commonly occurring in unacclimatised Caucasians visiting hot climates is caused by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, by an effect on the cells of the upper epidermis, which eventually allows a split to develop between them and the new stratum corneum that grows up beneath, into which sweat from the disrupted ducts can collect as microcysts. This dehiscence is the probable explanation of sunburn peeling and photo-onycholysis. It is concluded that duct disruption, not blockage or dysfunction, is the immediate cause of the miliarias.

  19. Congenital abnormalities of the ovine paramesonephric ducts.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    1995-01-01

    A 15 month survey of ovine reproductive tracts was undertaken in slaughterhouses in southwest England. A total of 33506 tracts were examined; 23536 from lambs and 9970 from adults. In total, 3.4% of tracts were pregnant and 3.3% exhibited abnormalities. Twenty cases of uterus unicornis, six of uterus didelphys and 11 of segmental aplasia were encountered, such that partial aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 3.3% of all abnormalities. Although developmental abnormalities of the ovine female genital system are relatively uncommon, a substantial proportion of these can be accounted for by development defects of the paramesonephric ducts.

  20. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  1. Pressure Loss in Ducts with Compound Elbows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-02-01

    Report LOSS IN DUCTS WITH COMPOUND ELBOWS By John R. Weske Case School of Applied Science NACA N A c JI LE&.lJ/J \\ 9 **Y @woti AERONAUT WASHINGTON...AEROHATJTICS ADVANCE RESTRICTED REPORT ● -. PRESWRE U)SS IN DUCTS WITH C-ND ELBOWS By John R; Weske SUMMARY . Results are presented of’measurmneut of the...pressure drop and, h some oases, of the velooity distribution in ocxupound elbows WRS undertaken for the purposo of furnishing to the designer of duetIng

  2. Computing Propagation Of Sound In Engine Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Frequency Domain Propagation Model (FREDOM) computer program accounts for acoustic loads applied to components of engines. Models propagation of noise through fluids in ducts between components and through passages within components. Used not only to analyze hardware problems, but also for design purposes. Updated version of FREQPL program easier to use. Devised specifically for use in analyzing acoustic loads in rocket engines. Underlying physical and mathematical concepts implemented also applicable to acoustic propagation in other enclosed spaces; analyzing process plumbing and ducts in industrial buildings with view toward reducing noise in work areas.

  3. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A. ); Durham, M.D. ); Sowa, W.A. . Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. ); Mahaffey, W.A. )

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  4. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  5. Do We Know What Causes Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflame the bile ducts, whether it’s bile duct stones, infestation with a parasite, or something else. Scientists ... Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News and Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals Programs & Services Breast ...

  6. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    Higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow was investigated. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which referred to as 'circular cosh duct.' Numerical results are presented in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to multimodal propagation, single mode propagation, and sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  7. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  8. 15. CELLAR. Underside of 1852 duct at east end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CELLAR. Underside of 1852 duct at east end of cellar. Note access panel. Note plaster on underside of duct and between joists. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Is spontaneous closure of a patent arterial duct common?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-01-01

    As closing a patent arterial duct is relatively simple, safe, and successful, most children with a patent arterial duct have it closed soon after diagnosis. The larger ducts are closed to prevent congestive heart failure, pulmonary vascular disease, or aneurysmal dilatation of the ductus, and smaller ducts are closed to prevent infective endocarditis. Consequently, there is no opportunity to determine whether spontaneous closure or diminution in size of the patent arterial duct is common. If the duct does become smaller, flow through it may be so low that no murmur is produced - the silent ductus. The frequency and best management of the silent patent arterial duct are unknown, and we do not know whether these tiny ducts are the last stage before spontaneous closure.

  10. Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Duct cleaning generally refers to the cleaning of various heating and cooling system components of forced air systems, including the supply and return air ducts and registers, grilles and diffusers, heat exchangers heating and cooling coils.

  11. Propagation of waves of acoustic frequencies in curved ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    The propagation of waves of acoustic frequencies in curved ducts is studied for the first four modes. The analysis makes use of Bessel functions to construct curves of wave number in the duct versus imposed wave number. The results apply to ducts of arbitrary width and arbitrary radii of curvature. The characteristics of motion in a bend are compared with propagation of waves in a straight duct, and important differences in the behavior of waves are noted.

  12. Recent classifications of the common bile duct injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now a gold standard treatment modality for gallstone diseases. However, the incidence rate of bile duct injury has not been changed for many years. From initial classification published by Bismuth, there have been many classifications of common bile duct injury. The initial classification, levels and types of bile duct injury, and currently combined vascular injuries are reviewed here. PMID:26155253

  13. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  14. Turbofan aft duct suppressor study program listing and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the structure of the Annular Flow Duct Program (AFDP) for the calculation of acoustic suppression due to treatment in a finite length annular duct carrying sheared flow is presented. Although most appropriate for engine exhaust ducts, this program can be used to study sound propagation in any duct that maintains annular geometry over a considerable length of the duct. The program is based on the modal analysis of sound propagation in ducts with axial segments of different wall impedances. For specified duct geometry, wall impedance, flow and acoustic conditions in the duct (including mode amplitude distribution of the source) and duct termination reflection characteristics, the program calculates the suppression due to the treatment in the duct. The presence of forward and backward traveling modes in the duct due to the reflection and redistribution of modes at segment interfaces and duct end terminations are taken into account in the calculations. The effects of thin wall boundary layers (with a linear or mean flow velocity profile) on the acoustic propagation are also included in the program. A functional description of the major subroutines is included and a sample run is provided with an explanation of the output.

  15. Whistler waves guided by density depletion ducts in a magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, P. V.; Zaboronkova, T. M.; Kudrin, A. V.; Krafft, C.

    2010-11-15

    The guided propagation of whistler waves along cylindrical density depletion ducts in a magneto-plasma is studied. It is shown that, under certain conditions, such ducts can support volume and surface eigenmodes. The dispersion properties and field structure of whistler modes guided by density depletion ducts are analyzed. The effect of collisional losses in the plasma on the properties of modes is discussed.

  16. Ontogeny of the nasopalatine duct in primates.

    PubMed

    Shimp, Kristin L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Bonar, Christopher J; Smith, Timothy D

    2003-09-01

    Ecological explanations have been put forward to account for the precocious or delayed development of patency in ducts leading to the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in certain mammals. Perinatal function may be related, in part, to the patency or fusion of the vomeronasal and nasopalatine (NPD) ducts. However, few studies have focused on NPD development in primates, which generally have a prolonged period of dependence during infancy. In this study we examined 24 prenatal primates and 13 neonatal primates, and a comparative sample of fetal mice and insectivores. In embryonic and early fetal Microcebus murinus, the NPD was completely fused, whereas in fetuses of later stages the duct was partially fused or completely patent. M. myoxinus of all stages demonstrated some degree of NPD fusion. In all other prenatal primates, the NPD was fused to some extent. Four prenatal insectivores (Tenrec ecaudatus) showed some degree of NPD fusion. In Mus musculus at 19 days gestation, the NPD was patent, although the anatomically separate VNO duct was fused. T. ecaudatus and most of the neonatal primates revealed complete NPD patency. An exception was Saguinus geoffroyi, which exhibited fusion of the NPD near the VNO opening. These observations may relate to differences in perinatal VNO function. The differences noted in our study suggest that M. murinus and M. myoxinus may differ in perinatal VNO functionality and perhaps in related behavior. Observations of neonatal primates suggest that NPD patency may be relatively common at birth and could serve other purposes in addition to being an access route for VNO stimuli.

  17. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... side of the boundary. A fire damper blade need not be insulated; and (7) Ducts serving cargo spaces... at least 11 USSG and not more than 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) gap between the blade and casing; (2... damper springs, blades, and hinges must be of stainless steel construction or of steel suitably coated...

  18. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... side of the boundary. A fire damper blade need not be insulated; and (7) Ducts serving cargo spaces... at least 11 USSG and not more than 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) gap between the blade and casing; (2... damper springs, blades, and hinges must be of stainless steel construction or of steel suitably coated...

  19. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... side of the boundary. A fire damper blade need not be insulated; and (7) Ducts serving cargo spaces... at least 11 USSG and not more than 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) gap between the blade and casing; (2... damper springs, blades, and hinges must be of stainless steel construction or of steel suitably coated...

  20. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... side of the boundary. A fire damper blade need not be insulated; and (7) Ducts serving cargo spaces... at least 11 USSG and not more than 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) gap between the blade and casing; (2... damper springs, blades, and hinges must be of stainless steel construction or of steel suitably coated...

  1. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... side of the boundary. A fire damper blade need not be insulated; and (7) Ducts serving cargo spaces... at least 11 USSG and not more than 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) gap between the blade and casing; (2... damper springs, blades, and hinges must be of stainless steel construction or of steel suitably coated...

  2. Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treating Blocked Tear Ducts Surgical Treatments en español Obstrucción y cirugía del conducto nasolagrimal Many babies are ... of the eyes (between the eyes and the nose). From the lacrimal sacs, tears move down through ...

  3. Sound attenuation of fiberglass lined ventilation ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Jacob

    Sound attenuation is a crucial part of designing any HVAC system. Most ventilation systems are designed to be in areas occupied by one or more persons. If these systems do not adequately attenuate the sound of the supply fan, compressor, or any other source of sound, the affected area could be subject to an array of problems ranging from an annoying hum to a deafening howl. The goals of this project are to quantify the sound attenuation properties of fiberglass duct liner and to perform a regression analysis to develop equations to predict insertion loss values for both rectangular and round duct liners. The first goal was accomplished via insertion loss testing. The tests performed conformed to the ASTM E477 standard. Using the insertion loss test data, regression equations were developed to predict insertion loss values for rectangular ducts ranging in size from 12-in x 18-in to 48-in x 48-in in lengths ranging from 3ft to 30ft. Regression equations were also developed to predict insertion loss values for round ducts ranging in diameters from 12-in to 48-in in lengths ranging from 3ft to 30ft.

  4. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  5. Solving FRP piping and ducting problems

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, F.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach to the design and installation of FRP piping and duct systems that can be used by piping designers and engineers to prevent failures. Design, installation, testing, and start up procedures will be presented that have proven to provide safe and long lasting service. Procedures offered will insure the most cost effective system based on operational requirements.

  6. Congenital Cystic Malformation of the Bile Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Jean; Laird, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman had a cyst of the proximal part of the common bile duct and a cyst of the left hepatic duct; these lesions were diagnosed preoperatively by intravenous cholangiography and successfully operated upon. At the time of writing, she has been followed up for one year. Congenital defects in the biliary system are rare and, in a review of the literature, only two cases were found similar to this one. It is generally accepted that these lesions are congenital, but the exact pathogenesis is unknown. Alonso-Lej, Rever and Pessagno2 reviewed the literature in 1959 and found 403 authentic congenital cysts of the hepatic ducts. The most common congenital defect is a single choledochal cyst of the lower end of the common bile duct. Pain, jaundice and tumour are the main symptoms. Until the advent of intravenous cholangiography, these lesions were seldom recognized preoperatively. Means of operative repair as well as complications and prognosis are reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5937201

  7. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  8. Starting flow in regular polygonal ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The starting flows in regular polygonal ducts of S = 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 sides are determined by the method of eigenfunction superposition. The necessary S-fold symmetric eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation are found either exactly or by boundary point match. The results show the starting time is governed by the first eigenvalue.

  9. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game,…

  10. Inherently Ducted Propfans and Bi-Props

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The terms inherently ducted propfan (IDP) and inherently ducted biprop (IDBP) denote members of a proposed class of propfan engines that would be quieter and would weigh less than do other propfan engines that generate equal amounts of thrust. The designs of these engines would be based on novel combinations of previously established aerodynamic-design concepts, including those of counter-rotating propfans, swept-back and swept-forward fixed wings, and ducted propfans. Heretofore, noise-reducing propfan designs have provided for installation of shrouds around the blades. A single propeller surrounded by such a shroud is denoted an advanced ducted propeller (ADP); a pair of counter-rotating propellers surrounded by such a shroud is denoted a counter-rotating integrated shrouded propeller (CRISP). In addition to adding weight, the shrouds engender additional undesired rotor/stator interactions and cascade effects, and contribute to susceptibility to choking. An IDP or IDBP would offer some shielding against outward propagation of noise, similar to shielding by a shroud, but without the weight and other undesired effects associated with shrouds. An IDP would include a pair of counter-rotating propellers. The blades of the upstream propeller would be swept back, while those of the downstream propeller would be swept forward (see figure). The downstream blades would have a geometric twist such that their forward-swept tips could act as winglets extending over the tips of the upstream blades. In principle, the resulting periodic coverage of the upstream-blade tips by the downstreamblade tips would suppress outward propagation of noise, as though a short noise-shielding duct were present. Furthermore, it is anticipated that an IDP would be less susceptible to some of the operational limitations of a CRISP during asymmetric flow conditions or reverse thrust operation.

  11. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  12. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  13. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  14. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

  15. Rationale for Measuring Duct Leakage Flows in Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Diamond, Richard C.; Sherman, Max H.

    2005-07-01

    Industry-wide methods of assessing duct leakage are based on duct pressurization tests, and focus on ''high pressure'' ducts. Even though ''low pressure'' ducts can be a large fraction of the system and tend to be leaky, few guidelines or construction specifications require testing these ducts. We report here on the measured leakage flows from ten large commercial duct systems at operating conditions: three had low leakage (less than 5% of duct inlet flow), and seven had substantial leakage (9 to 26%). By comparing these flows with leakage flows estimated using the industry method, we show that the latter method by itself is not a reliable indicator of whole-system leakage flow, and that leakage flows need to be measured.

  16. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  17. Coupled parametric design of flow control and duct shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florea, Razvan (Inventor); Bertuccioli, Luca (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for designing gas turbine engine components using a coupled parametric analysis of part geometry and flow control is disclosed. Included are the steps of parametrically defining the geometry of the duct wall shape, parametrically defining one or more flow control actuators in the duct wall, measuring a plurality of performance parameters or metrics (e.g., flow characteristics) of the duct and comparing the results of the measurement with desired or target parameters, and selecting the optimal duct geometry and flow control for at least a portion of the duct, the selection process including evaluating the plurality of performance metrics in a pareto analysis. The use of this method in the design of inter-turbine transition ducts, serpentine ducts, inlets, diffusers, and similar components provides a design which reduces pressure losses and flow profile distortions.

  18. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Katabi, Nora; Torres, Javiera; Klimstra, David S

    2012-11-01

    Although most tumors of the bile ducts are predominantly invasive, some have an exophytic pattern within the bile ducts; these intraductal papillary neoplasms usually have well-formed papillae at the microscopic level. In this study, however, we describe a novel type of intraductal neoplasm of the bile ducts with a predominantly tubular growth pattern and other distinctive features. Ten cases of biliary intraductal neoplasms with a predominantly tubular architecture were identified in the files of the Pathology Department at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1983 to 2006. For each of these cases we studied the clinical presentation, histologic and immunohistochemical features (9 cases only), and the clinical follow-up of the patients. Three male and 7 female patients (38 to 78 y) presented with obstructive jaundice or abdominal pain. Eight of the patients underwent a partial hepatectomy; 2 underwent a laparoscopic bile duct excision, followed by a pancreatoduodenectomy in one of them. The tumors range in size from 0.6 to 8.0 cm. The intraductal portions of the tumors (8 intrahepatic, 1 extrahepatic hilar, 1 common bile duct) were densely cellular and composed of back-to-back tubular glands and solid sheets with minimal papillary architecture. The cells were cuboidal to columnar with mild to moderate cytologic atypia. Foci of necrosis were present in the intraductal component in 6 cases. An extraductal invasive carcinoma component was present in 7 cases, composing <25% of the tumor in 4 cases, and >75% in 1 case. It was observed by immunohistochemical analysis that the tumor cells expressed CK19, CA19-9, MUC1, and MUC6 in most cases and that SMAD4 expression was retained. MUC2, MUC5AC, HepPar1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, p53, and CA125 were negative in all cases and most were negative for CEA-M and B72.3. Four patients were free of tumor recurrence after 7 to 85 months (average, 27 mo). Four patients with an invasive carcinoma component suffered

  19. SNM holdup assessment of Los Alamos exhaust ducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    Fissile material holdup in glovebox and fume hood exhaust ducting has been quantified for all Los Alamos duct systems. Gamma-based, nondestructive measurements were used to quantify holdup. The measurements were performed during three measurement campaigns. The first campaign, Phase I, provided foot-by-foot, semiquantitative measurement data on all ducting. These data were used to identify ducting that required more accurate (quantitative) measurement. Of the 280 duct systems receiving Phase I measurements, 262 indicated less than 50 g of fissile holdup and 19 indicated fissile holdup of 50 or more grams. Seven duct systems were measured in a second campaign, called Series 1, Phase II. Holdup estimates on these ducts ranged from 421 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing a shut-down uranium-machining facility to 39 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct servicing an active plutonium-processing facility. Measurements performed in the second campaign proved excessively laborious, so a third campaign was initiated that used more efficient instrumentation at some sacrifice in measurement quality. Holdup estimates for the 12 duct systems measured during this third campaign ranged from 70 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing analytical laboratories to 1 g of {sup 235}U and 1 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct carrying exhaust air to a remote filter building. These quantitative holdup estimates support the conclusion made at the completion of the Phase I measurements that only ducts servicing shut-down uranium operations contain about 400 g of fissile holdup. No ventilation ducts at Los Alamos contain sufficient fissile material holdup to present a criticality safety concern.

  20. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  1. Theoretical analysis of HVAC duct hanger systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods are presented which, together, may be used in the analysis of duct hanger systems over a wide range of frequencies. The finite element method (FEM) and component mode synthesis (CMS) method are used for low- to mid-frequency range computations and have been shown to yield reasonably close results. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) method yields predictions which agree with the CMS results for the 800 to 1000 Hz range provided that a sufficient number of modes participate. The CMS approach has been shown to yield valuable insight into the mid-frequency range of the analysis. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to conduct an analysis of a duct/hanger system in a cost-effective way for a wide frequency range, using several methods which overlap for several frequency bands.

  2. Particulate mixing in a turbulent serpentine duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Durbin, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of particles in a serpentine duct were conducted at bulk flow Stokes numbers between 0.125 and 6. The geometrical curvature causes particles to depart direction from the mean flow. Above a Stokes number of about unity, a reflection layer forms along the outer curve of the bend. Reflectional mixing creates regions of nearly uniform particle mean velocity and kinetic energy. Particles leave the inner bend in a plume that separates from the inner wall at low Stokes number. At higher Stokes number, the plume splits in two, adding an upper part consisting of ballistic particles, that do not follow the geometrical curvature. When the Stokes number is low, the instantaneous 3-D distribution of particles visualizes wall streaks. But at higher Stokes number, particles disperse out of the reflection layer and form large scale puffs in the central portion of the duct.

  3. Chlorpromazine-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome leading to biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, D; Altorfer, J; Flury, R; Greminger, P; Meyenberger, C; Jost, R; Schmid, M

    1994-12-01

    We describe a 33-yr-old pregnant woman in whom a primary biliary cirrhosis-like syndrome developed after 2 wk of chlorpromazine therapy. The clinical course was characterized by severe jaundice lasting 22 mo, intense pruritus, fever, steatorrhea, high alkaline phosphatase levels and hypercholesterolemia. Jaundice resolved with initiation of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, but subclinical cholestasis and low-level inflammatory activity persisted and ultimately evolved into biliary cirrhosis. The pathological substrate of this severe and prolonged cholestatic reaction was found to be the vanishing bile duct syndrome with a marked transient pseudoxanthomatosis.

  4. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors.

  5. Zero leakage separable and semipermanent ducting joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischel, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    A study program has been conducted to explore new methods of achieving zero leakage, separable and semipermanent, ducting joints for space flight vehicles. The study consisted of a search of literature of existing zero leakage methods, the generation of concepts of new methods of achieving the desired zero leakage criteria and the development of detailed analysis and design of a selected concept. Other techniques of leak detection were explored with a view toward improving this area.

  6. Extrahepatic bile duct neurilemmoma mimicking Klatskin tumor.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Fereshteh; Dorudinia, Atosa; Goravanchi, Farhood; Rahimi, Farzaneh

    2007-04-01

    Neurilemmoma rarely develops in the biliary tree. Here, we report a 39-year-old Iranian woman with neurilemmoma in the extrahepatic bile duct presenting with progressively deepening jaundice. On the basis of clinical and radiological features, this tumor was initially suspected as Klatskin tumor. Histologically, the tumor was a typical neurilemmoma. Immunostaining showed that tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100 protein, which supported the diagnosis of neurilemmoma. Neurilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice.

  7. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    part of the regions. 25 REFERENCES Bean, B. R. and E. J. Dutton, 1967: Radio meteorology. NBS monograph 92. National Bureau of Standards, Washington...lower boundary. Radio Sci., 13, 3, p. 489. Hitney, H. V., 1975: Propagation modeling in the evaporation duct. NELC TR-1947. Naval Electronics...Laboratory Center, San Diego, CA 92152. Jeske, H., 1971. The state of radar range propagation over sea. Tropospheric radio wave propagation, part II. NATO

  8. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor. PMID:20677347

  9. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  10. Radiative interactions in laminar duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, P. A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented for infrared radiative energy transfer in gases when other modes of energy transfer occur simultaneously. Two types of geometries are considered, a parallel plate duct and a circular duct. Fully developed laminar incompressible flows of absorbing-emitting species in black surfaced ducts are considered under the conditions of uniform wall heat flux. The participating species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O. Nongray as well as gray formulations are developed for both geometries. Appropriate limiting solutions of the governing equations are obtained and conduction-radiation interaction parameters are evaluated. Tien and Lowder's wide band model correlation was used in nongray formulation. Numerical procedures are presented to solve the integro-differential equations for both geometries. The range of physical variables considered are 300 to 2000 K for temperature, 0.1 to 100.0 atm for pressure, and 0.1 to 100 cm spacings between plates/radius of the tube. An extensive parametric study based on nongray formulation is presented. Results obtained for different flow conditions indicate that the radiative interactions can be quite significant in fully developed incompressible flows.

  11. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  12. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, Dave

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  13. Dilated common duct sign. A potential indicator of a sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia

    SciTech Connect

    DeRidder, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1984-05-01

    The cholescintigraphic findings of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (SOD) in a 45-year-old woman with persistent right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic are reported. After an overnight fast, the patient was injected with 5 mCi of Tc-99 disofenin and .02 micrograms/kg of cholecystokinin (CCK) post maximal gallbladder filling. Pre and postcholescintiscans were obtained and gallbladder ejection fractions determined. The hepatobiliary scan was normal, except for a delay in biliary-bowel transit. The gallbladder responded normally to CCK, however, the Sphincter of Oddi responded abnormally, as there was a paradoxical response to CCK manifested by a marked dilatation of the common bile duct. It was postulate that this dilatation (the dilated common duct sign) was due to an inappropriate response of the smooth muscle of the Sphincter of Oddi (contraction vs relaxation) to CCK and was the cause of this patient's biliary colic. The dilated common duct sign should alert the physician to the possibility of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

  14. Mullerian-Type Ciliated Cyst of the Thigh with PAX-8 and WT1 Positivity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fabien-Dupuis, Corinthia; Cooper, Brian; Upperman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Shengmei

    2016-01-01

    Mullerian-type ciliated cysts are uncommon lesions usually found in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. They have however been reported in males and in other anatomic sites. The cyst lining is typically positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), PAX-8, and WT1 immunohistochemical stains. This staining pattern has led to the notion that these cysts are of Müllerian origin. The vast majority of cases are located in the dermis where the preferred nomenclature is cutaneous ciliated cyst (CCC). We report a case of Müllerian-type ciliated cyst in the thigh of a 16-year-old girl. Unlike most of the cases reported in the English literature, this cyst was not centered in the dermis. Only a few other cases of Müllerian-type ciliated cysts with no cutaneous connection have been reported. We propose the term ectopic Müllerian cyst for this rare subset of lesions that are not skin based as is the current case. PMID:28070193

  15. Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Shahenda M; Malik, Mohammad T; Martin, Alvin; Moore, Joseph P; Proctor, Mary; Hamid, Tariq; Kakar, Sham S

    2007-07-01

    The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)/securin is an oncogene that is involved in cell cycle regulation and sister chromatid separation. PTTG is highly expressed in various tumors including ovarian tumors, suggesting that PTTG may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis. Overexpression of PTTG resulted in induction of cellular transformation in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. To ascertain PTTG function in ovarian tumorigenesis, we generated a transgenic mouse model of PTTG by cloning PTTG cDNA downstream of Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor gene promoter (MISIIR) in order to target the ovarian surface epithelium. By screening of transgenic animals, we identified five founders (four males and one female). Using the four male founders, we developed four transgenic lines. PTTG expression was increased in ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian granulosa cells, as well as in the pituitary gland. Transgenic females did not develop any visible ovarian tumors at 8-10 months of age; however, there was an overall increase in the corpus luteum mass in transgenic ovary, suggesting increased luteinization. These changes were associated with an increase in serum LH and testosterone levels. In addition, there was a generalized hypertrophy of the myometrium of MISIIR-PTTG transgenic uteri with cystic glandular and hyperplasia of the endometrium. Based on these results, we conclude that the overexpression of PTTG may be required to initiate precancerous conditions but is not sufficient to induce ovarian tumorigenesis and may require another partner to initiate cellular transformation.

  16. The effect of serum and follicular fluid anti-Mullerian hormone level on the number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and clinical pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Seda Eymen; Ozdemirci, Safak; Kasapoglu, Taner; Duran, Bulent; Goktas, Levent; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between oocyte yield, fertilization, and clinical pregnancy (CP), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in serum and follicular fluid during in vitro fertilization treatment. METHODS: Forty-four infertile women who underwent IVF treatment using multiagonist protocol were included in this study. Baseline level of AMH in serum and follicular fluid was measured on third day of menstrual cycle. AMH level in serum and follicular fluid was then measured again on day of oocyte pick-up. Pearson correlation and binary regression tests were used for statistical analysis. For Type 1 error, p=5% was selected as cut-off value for statistical significance. RESULTS: Serum AMH level was positively correlated with total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP (r=0.397, p=0.008; r=0.401, p=0.007; and r=0.382, p=0.011, respectively). There was significantly negative correlation between serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and fertilization rate (r=-0.320; p=0.034), as well as serum FSH level and CP rate (r=-0.308; p=0.042). There were no significant correlations between AMH level in follicular fluid and IVF treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Serum AMH levels may be more reliable for prediction of total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP than AMH levels in follicular fluid. PMID:28058394

  17. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  18. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  19. Aberrant bile ducts, 'remnant surface bile ducts,' and peribiliary glands: descriptive anatomy, historical nomenclature, and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    El Gharbawy, Ramadan M; Skandalakis, Lee J; Heffron, Thomas G; Skandalakis, John E

    2011-05-01

    The term "aberrant bile ducts" has been used to designate three heterogeneous groups of biliary structures: (1) bile ducts degenerating or disappearing (unknown etiology, diverse locations); (2) curious biliary structures in the transverse fissure; and (3) aberrant right bile ducts draining directly into the common hepatic duct. We report our observations on these three groups. Twenty-nine fresh human livers of stillborns and adults were injected differentially with colored latex and dissected. Adult livers showed portal venous and hepatic arterial branches, and bile ducts not associated with parenchyma, subjacent to and firmly adherent with the liver capsule: elements of ramifications of normal sheaths were present on the liver's surface. These ramifications, having lost parenchyma associated with them, then sequentially lost their portal branches, bile ducts and arterial branches. This process affected the ramifications of the sheaths in the left triangular ligament, adjacent to the inferior vena cava, in the gallbladder bed and anywhere else on the liver's surface and resulted in the presence of bile ducts accompanied by portal venous and/or hepatic arterial branches and not associated with parenchyma for a period of time. This first group represented normal bile ducts that do not meet the criteria of aberration and could be appropriately designated "remnant surface bile ducts." Such changes were not found in the transverse fissures and review of the literature revealed that the curious biliary structures are the microscopic peribiliary glands. The third group met the criteria of aberration and the anatomy of a representative duct is described.

  20. Hydrodynamic Modeling, Optimization and Performance Assessment for Ducted and Non-ducted Tidal Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shives, Michael Robert

    This thesis examines methods for designing and analyzing kinetic turbines based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The underlying goal of the work was to assess the potential augmentation of power production associated with enclosing the turbine in an expanding duct. Thus, a comparison of the potential performance of ducted and non-ducted turbines was carried out. This required defining optimal turbine performance for both concepts. BEM is the typical tool used for turbine optimization and is very well established in the context of wind turbine design. BEM was suitable for conventional turbines, but could not account for the influence of ducts, and no established methodology for designing ducted turbines could be found in the literature. Thus, methods were established to design and analyze ducted turbines based on an extended version of BEM (with CFD-derived coefficients), and based on CFD simulation. Additional complications arise in designing tidal turbines because traditional techniques for kinetic turbine design have been established for wind turbines, which are similar in their principle of operation but are driven by flows with inherently different boundary conditions than tidal currents. The major difference is that tidal flows are bounded by the ocean floor, the water surface and channel walls. Thus, analytical and CFD-based methods were established to account for the effects of these boundaries (called blockage effects) on the optimal design and performance of turbines. Additionally, tidal flows are driven by changes in the water surface height in the ocean and their velocity is limited by viscous effects. Turbines introduced into a tidal flow increase the total drag in the system and reduce the total flow in a region (e.g. a tidal channel). An analytical method to account for this was taken from the field of tidal resource assessment, and along with the methods to account for ducts and blockage effects, was

  1. On the calculation of ducted propeller performance in axisymmetric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcao de Campos, J. A. C.

    Some of the most important influences on the performance of ducted propellers in uniform and nonuniform axisymmetric flows are demonstrated. The viscous flow past an axisymmetric duct is analyzed for uniform axial flow and for the case when the flow can be regarded as being a part of the ducted propeller. The flow past an annular airfoil and a ducted propeller in axisymmetric shear flow is considered, and approximate numerical solutions of Euler's equation are given using a discrete vortex method. These methods are then applied to the interaction problem of a ducted propeller behind a body of revolution. The design of ducted propellers is discussed, and the results of the basic flow models developed in the paper are verified by correlation with experimental results.

  2. Design of optimum acoustic treatment for rectangular ducts with flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motsinger, R. E.; Kraft, R. E.; Zwick, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A design optimization technique for acoustic treatment in rectangular ducts with uniform mean flow is presented. The technique is based on the acoustic wave solution in terms of series of characteristic duct modes. The analysis allows multiple axial treatment sections along the length of the duct and requires a known modal characterization of the sound source. Conditions of acoustic pressure and acoustic velocity continuity are used to match modal solutions at planes of impedance discontinuity in the duct. Experimental techniques for obtaining this modal characterization are presented. Using duct modes measured at the source plane, the optimization technique is exercised to design an optimized single element liner in a case without mean flow, and optimized single and dual element liners in cases with mean flow. The validity of the program for predicting noise suppression is demonstrated by comparing analytical predictions with measured data for several (non-optimum) cases. Application to treatment design in turbomachinery exhaust ducts is considered.

  3. Pancreatic duct cells as a source of VEGF in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Guo, Ping; El-Gohary, Yousef; Fischbach, Shane; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for proper pancreatic development, islet vascularisation and insulin secretion. In the adult pancreas, VEGF is thought to be predominantly secreted by beta cells. Although human duct cells have previously been shown to secrete VEGF at angiogenic levels in culture, an analysis of the kinetics of VEGF synthesis and secretion, as well as elucidation of an in vivo role for this ductal VEGF in affecting islet function and physiology, has been lacking. Methods We analysed purified duct cells independently prepared by flow cytometry, surgical isolation or laser-capture microdissection. We infected duct cells in vivo with Vegfa short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in an intrapancreatic ductal infusion system and examined the effect of VEGF knockdown in duct cells in vitro and in vivo. Results Pancreatic duct cells express high levels of Vegfa mRNA. Compared with beta cells, duct cells had a much higher ratio of secreted to intracellular VEGF. As a bioassay, formation of tubular structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was essentially undetectable when cultured alone and was substantially increased when co-cultured with pancreatic duct cells but significantly reduced when co-cultured with duct cells pretreated with Vegfa shRNA. Compared with islets transplanted alone, improved vascularisation and function was detected in the islets co-transplanted with duct cells but not in islets co-transplanted with duct cells pretreated with Vegfa shRNA. Conclusions/interpretation Human islet preparations for transplantation typically contain some contaminating duct cells and our findings suggest that the presence of duct cells in the islet preparation may improve transplantation outcomes. PMID:24535231

  4. Surgical treatment option of the patent nasopalatine duct: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Werder, Peter; Bassetti, Renzo; Kuttenberger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The nasopalatine duct (NPD) is a bilateral, epithelium-lined oronasal communication formed in the early fetal period. It connects the oral cavity with the nasal cavity within the primary palatal process. Mostly, the NPD obliterates during prenatal development and only epithelial remnants can be found after birth. A persistent NPD is therefore considered a developmental abnormality that often exists undetected without any clinical signs of discomfort. The presence of a persisting NPD, however, can be associated with pain sensation in the anterior maxilla. Differential diagnosis of the patent NPD is of importance, in order to prevent unnecessary therapy, such as endodontic treatment or tooth extractions. The present case report describes the diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment and follow-up of the patent NPD in a 53-year-old female patient suffering from maxillary pain caused by a patent NPD. PMID:27197612

  5. Successful Pancreatic Duct Stent Placement for Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Patient with Polysplenia with Agenesis of the Dorsal Pancreas and Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Shintaro; Itoi, Takao; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Hosoe, Naoki; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with relapsing acute pancreatitis. A contrast CT scan revealed polysplenia, agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, preduodenal portal vein, inferior vena cava with persistent continuity of the azygos vein, abnormal lung lobation with bilateral left bronchial morphology, and intestinal malrotation (non-rotation type). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which successful pancreatic duct stent placement for the treatment of recurrent pancreatitis was performed in a polysplenia patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, separate bile and pancreatic ducts and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

  6. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  7. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  8. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  9. Thermal performance of residential duct systems in basements

    SciTech Connect

    Treidler, B.; Modera, M.

    1994-02-01

    There are many unanswered questions about the typical effects of duct system operation on the infiltration rates and energy usage of single- family residences with HVAC systems in their basements. In this paper, results from preliminary field studies and computer simulations are used to examine the potential for improvements in efficiency of air distribution systems in such houses. The field studies comprise thermal and flow measurements on four houses in Maryland. The houses were found to have significant envelope leakage, duct leakage, and duct conduction losses. Simulations of a basement house, the characteristics of which were chosen from the measured houses, were performed to assess the energy savings potential for basement house. The simulations estimate that a nine percent reduction in space conditioning energy use is obtained by sealing eighty percent of the duct leaks and insulating ducts to an R-value of 0.88 {degree}C{center_dot}m{sup 2}/W (5{degree}F{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h/BTU) where they are exposed in the basement. To determine the maximum possible reduction m energy use, simulations were run with all ducts insulated to 17.6 {degree}C{center_dot}m{sup 2}/W (100 {degree}F{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h/BTU) and with no duct leakage. A reduction of energy use by 14% is obtained by using perfect ducts instead of nominal ducts.

  10. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  11. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  12. Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-hong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Yu Sun; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Heung Moon; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and to identify the prognostic factors that influence survival in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 101 patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who had undergone postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Of the 101 patients, 52 (51%) had undergone complete resection (R0 resection) and 49 (49%) had microscopic or macroscopic residual tumors (R1 or R2 resection). The median radiation dose was 50 Gy. Also, 85 patients (84%) underwent concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil. Results: The median follow-up period was 47 months for the surviving patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 34% for all patients. A comparison between patients with R0 and R1 resection indicated no significant difference in the 5-year overall survival (44% vs. 33%, p = .2779), progression-free survival (35% vs. 22%, p = .3107), or locoregional progression-free survival (75% vs. 63%, p = .2784) rates. An analysis of the first failure site in the 89 patients with R0 or R1 resection indicated isolated locoregional recurrence in 7 patients. Elevated postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = .001) and progression-free survival (p = .033). A total of 3 patients developed Grade 3 or greater late toxicity. Conclusion: Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy appears to improve locoregional control and survival in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients with R1 resection. The postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level might be a useful prognostic marker to select patients for more intensified adjuvant therapy.

  13. Radiation of sound from unflanged cylindrical ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartharan, S. L.; Bayliss, A.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of sound radiated from unflanged cylindrical ducts are presented. The numerical simulation models the problem of an aero-engine inlet. The time dependent linearized Euler equations are solved from a state of rest until a harmonic solution is attained. A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme is used and solutions are obtained from a fully vectorized Cyber-203 computer program. Cases of both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Spin modes model the sound generated by a turbofan engine. Boundary conditions for both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Solutions obtained are compared with experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.

  14. Anatomy of the nipple and breast ducts

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cícero; Vallejo, André

    2016-01-01

    Over time, variations of mastectomy came up and started allowing the oncological safety and the possibility of an immediate breast reconstruction. Nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) procedures have strongly increased in frequency and have become one of the best alternatives to treat breast cancer, also improving overall aesthetic outcomes and the achievement of contralateral breast symmetry. The nipple areola-complex (NAC) must be considered the identity of the breast concerning self-esteem of patients. This paper will remind the main anatomical topics around the nipple and breast ducts. PMID:26855906

  15. Acoustic systems containing curved duct sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of waves in bends in acoustical ducting of rectangular cross section is extended to the study of motion near discontinuities. This includes determination of the characteristics of the tangential and radial components of the non-propagating modes. It is established that attenuation of the non-propagating modes strongly depends on frequency and that, in general, the sharper the bend, the less attenuation may be expected. Evaluation of a bend's impedance and of impedance-generated reflections is also presented in detail.

  16. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  1. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Ultrasound imaging of the mouse pancreatic duct using lipid microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; McKeown, K. R.; Skovan, B.; Ogram, E.; Ingram, P.; Ignatenko, N.; Paine-Murrieta, G.; Witte, R.; Matsunaga, T. O.

    2012-03-01

    Research requiring the murine pancreatic duct to be imaged is often challenging due to the difficulty in selectively cannulating the pancreatic duct. We have successfully catheterized the pancreatic duct through the common bile duct in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice and imaged the pancreatic duct with gas filled lipid microbubbles that increase ultrasound imaging sensitivity due to exquisite scattering at the gas/liquid interface. A SCID mouse was euthanized by CO2, a midline abdominal incision made, the common bile duct cut at its midpoint, a 2 cm, 32 gauge tip catheter was inserted about 1 mm into the duct and tied with suture. The duodenum and pancreas were excised, removed in toto, embedded in agar and an infusion pump was used to instill normal saline or lipid-coated microbubbles (10 million / ml) into the duct. B-mode images before and after infusion of the duct with microbubbles imaged the entire pancreatic duct (~ 1 cm) with high contrast. The microbubbles were cavitated by high mechanical index (HMI) ultrasound for imaging to be repeated. Our technique of catheterization and using lipid microbubbles as a contrast agent may provide an effective, affordable technique of imaging the murine pancreatic duct; cavitation with HMI ultrasound would enable repeated imaging to be performed and clustering of targeted microbubbles to receptors on ductal cells would allow pathology to be localized accurately. This research was supported by the Experimental Mouse Shared Service of the AZ Cancer Center (Grant Number P30CA023074, NIH/NCI and the GI SPORE (NIH/NCI P50 CA95060).

  3. Aspect ratio effect on particle transport in turbulent duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Vinuesa, R.; Brandt, L.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of dilute micron-sized spherical inertial particles in turbulent duct flows is studied by means of direct numerical simulations of the carrier phase turbulence with one-way coupled Lagrangian particles. The geometries are a square and a rectangular duct with width-to-height aspect ratio AR of 3 operating at Reτ,c = 360 (based on the centerplane friction velocity and duct half-height). The present study is designed to determine the effect of turbulence-driven secondary motion on the particle dynamics. Our results show that a weak cross-flow secondary motion significantly changes the cross-sectional map of the particle concentration, mean velocity, and fluctuations. As the geometry of the duct is widened from AR = 1 to 3, the secondary vortex on the horizontal wall significantly expands in the spanwise direction, and although the kinetic energy of the secondary flow increases close to the corner, it decays towards the duct centreplane in the AR = 3 case so as the turbulent carrier phase approaches the behavior in spanwise-periodic channel flows, a fact that significantly affects the particle statistics. In the square duct the particle concentration in the viscous sublayer is maximum at the duct centreplane, whereas the maximum is found closer to the corner, at a distance of |z/h| ≈ 1.25 from the centreplane, in the AR = 3 case. Interestingly the centreplane concentration in the rectangular duct is around 3 times lower than that in the square duct. Moreover, a second peak in the accumulation distribution is found right at the corners for both ducts. At this location the concentration increases with particle inertia. The secondary motion changes also the cross-stream map of the particle velocities significantly in comparison to the fluid flow statistics. These directly affect the particle velocity fluctuations such that multiple peaks appear near the duct walls for the particle streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations.

  4. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  5. Common bile duct involvement in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Angelini, G; Sgarbi, D; Castagnini, A; Cavallini, G; Bovo, P

    1994-03-01

    The features of the common bile duct (CBD) have been checked in 78 chronic pancreatitis patients in order to evaluate the frequency of extrahepatic bile duct changes, possible associated factors and effects on the outcome of the disease. Fifty of the 78 patients had an intrapancreatic stricture of the CBD and 24 of them also showed an upstream dilatation. No relationship was found between the features of the CBD and the severity of the pancreatitis, the presence of calcifications and the length of the disease. Humoral signs of impaired bile flow were found in 20 subjects, 19 of whom had an intra-pancreatic stricture of the CBD. Sixteen of these 19 patients also showed an upstream dilatation and five of them had overt jaundice. A surgical intervention on the biliary tree was carried out in 7 patients, all with a biliary stricture. Six of them also had a CBD dilatation over the stricture (p < 0.02 versus patients without CBD stricture). In conclusion CBD involvement during chronic pancreatitis is quite frequent but poorly predictable and should be checked in all patients with humoral cholestasis in order to prevent further complications.

  6. Collecting Duct Intercalated Cell Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankita; Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Intercalated cells are kidney tubule epithelial cells with important roles in the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. However, in recent years the understanding of the function of the intercalated cell has become greatly enhanced and has shaped a new model for how the distal segments of the kidney tubule integrate salt and water reabsorption, potassium homeostasis, and acid-base status. These cells appear in the late distal convoluted tubule or in the connecting segment, depending on the species. They are most abundant in the collecting duct, where they can be detected all the way from the cortex to the initial part of the inner medulla. Intercalated cells are interspersed among the more numerous segment-specific principal cells. There are three types of intercalated cells, each having distinct structures and expressing different ensembles of transport proteins that translate into very different functions in the processing of the urine. This review includes recent findings on how intercalated cells regulate their intracellular milieu and contribute to acid-base regulation and sodium, chloride, and potassium homeostasis, thus highlighting their potential role as targets for the treatment of hypertension. Their novel regulation by paracrine signals in the collecting duct is also discussed. Finally, this article addresses their role as part of the innate immune system of the kidney tubule. PMID:25632105

  7. Imaging characteristics and findings in thyroglossal duct cyst cancer and concurrent thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shemen, Larry; Sherman, Craig Harvey; Yurovitsky, Alyssa

    2016-04-20

    Thyroglossal duct cyst cancer is rare, while synchronous thyroglossal duct cyst cancer with thyroid cancer is still rarer. The radiographic features of this case are instructive and crucial when evaluating a thyroglossal duct cyst.

  8. Aggressive nasopalatine duct cyst with complete destruction of palatine bone

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, D.; Muthusubramanian, Veerabahu; Nathan, J. A.; Nutalapati, Ravi Sankar; Jose, Yasmin Mary; kumar, Y. Naren

    2016-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cyst is the nonodontogenic developmental cyst, frequently occurring in the midline of the anterior maxillary region. The clinical presentation of the cyst is often varied and presents a diagnostic difficulty and frequently misdiagnosed as developmental or inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesion. This paper represents a large infected nasopalatine duct cyst presenting with complete destruction of anterior palate and pyriform rim. PMID:27829777

  9. Thermal performance of residential duct systems in basements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treidler, Burke; Modera, Mark

    1994-01-01

    There are many unanswered questions about the typical effects of duct system operation on the infiltration rates and energy usage of single-family residences with HVAC systems in their basements. Results from preliminary field studies and computer simulations are used to examine the potential for improvements in efficiency of air distribution systems in such houses. The field studies comprise thermal and flow measurements on four houses in Maryland. The houses were found to have significant envelope leakage, duct leakage, and duct conduction losses. Simulations of a basement house, the characteristics of which were chosen from the measured houses, were performed to assess the energy savings potential for basement house. The simulations estimate that a nine percent reduction in space conditioning energy use is obtained by sealing eighty percent of the duct leaks and insulating ducks to an R-value of 0.88 (C x sq. m)/W(100 F x sq. ft x h/BTU) where they are exposed in the basement. To determine the maximum possible reduction in energy use, simulations were run with all ducts insulated to (17.6 C x sq m)/W(100 F x sq. ft x h/BTU) and with no duct leakage. A reduction of energy use by 14% is obtained by using perfect ducts instead of normal ducts.

  10. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  11. 11. VIEW OF A HEATING DUCT SITUATED SOUTHWEST OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A HEATING DUCT SITUATED SOUTHWEST OF THE FAN HOUSE, ALONG THE MINE ROAD. THE BURNED RUINS OF THE MINE OFFICE ARE LOCATED ON THE FAR SIDE OF THE HEATING DUCT, TO THE NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  12. IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows mounting brackets, concrete braces, divided portion of duct, other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 429. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106980 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 91. VIEW OF OBSOLETE AIRCONDITIONING DUCTS LOCATED IN NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF OBSOLETE AIR-CONDITIONING DUCTS LOCATED IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, ABOVE SLC-3E AUTOPILOT EQUIPMENT. DIGITAL COUNTDOWN AND HOLD CLOCKS ON WALL LEFT OF DUCTS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. A rare case of persistent muellerian duct syndrome presenting as inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Shankar Das; Karmakar, Nisith Chandra; Sengupta, Ritankar; Sengupta, Tamal Kanti; Biswas, Ravi Shankar; Mukherjee, Rina

    2011-10-01

    Irreducible inguinal hernia is a very common emergency surgical problem. In most of the cases the content is either bowel or omentum. Testis, as a content of hernial sac is also found in undescended testis presenting as obstructed or irreducible congenital inguinal hernia. Here a case is reported of a phenotypically normal looking male presenting with irreducible left sided inguinal hernia which on exploration revealed uterus, fallopian tubes and testis. The case is presented because of its rarity of presentation.

  15. Age-related changes in transcriptional abundance and circulating levels of anti-Mullerian hormone and Sertoli cell count in crossbred and Zebu bovine males.

    PubMed

    Rajak, S K; Kumaresan, A; Attupuram, N M; Chhillar, S; Baithalu, R K; Nayak, S; Sreela, L; Singh, Raushan K; Tripathi, U K; Mohanty, T K; Yadav, Savita

    2017-02-01

    Age-related changes in peripheral anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and transcriptional abundance of AMH gene in testicular tissue were studied in crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Tharparkar) and Zebu (Tharparkar) males. In both the breeds, basal AMH concentrations were estimated using ELISA method in blood plasma obtained from six males each at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months age. After blood collection at respective ages, all the males were castrated and expression and immunolocalization of AMH was performed in the testicular tissue. The concentration of AMH in blood plasma was found to be highest at 1 month of age in both crossbred and Zebu males, which subsequently decreased with advancing age. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower concentration of AMH was observed in crossbred as compared with Zebu males at 24 months of age. In line with peripheral AMH concentrations, the expression of AMH gene was also higher (P < 0.05) at 1 month of age, which thereafter declined significantly with advancement of age in crossbred males. Furthermore, the expression of AMH gene differed significantly between Zebu and crossbred males at all the age groups studied. Immunolocalization of AMH in testicular tissue also revealed a stronger expression at 1 month age, which gradually decreased till 24 months of age. The true Sertoli cell count was significantly higher in Zebu compared with crossbred males at all age groups studied except at 6 months age. The relationship between Sertoli cell count and circulating AMH concentrations was negative and significant (r = -0.81; P = 0.004). In conclusion, expression of AMH gene in testicular tissue and peripheral blood concentrations of AMH were higher in young compared with adults in both crossbred and Zebu males; however, the transcriptional abundance and circulating levels of AMH were higher in Zebu compared with crossbred males.

  16. Anti-mullerian hormone and inhibin B are hormone measures of ovarian function in late reproductive-aged breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Su, H. Irene; Sammel, Mary D.; Green, Jamie; Velders, Luke; Stankiewicz, Corrie; Matro, Jennifer; Freeman, Ellen W.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; DeMichele, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Background In late reproductive-aged breast cancer survivors, there is a need for “real-time” biomarkers of post-chemotherapy ovarian function. The objective was to determine if anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B are such biomarkers. We tested if AMH and inhibin B were impacted by breast cancer treatment by comparing cancer survivors to age-matched control women. We determined the association between these hormones and post-chemotherapy menstrual pattern. Methods 127 breast cancer patients with Stages I–III disease, premenopausal at diagnosis, were enrolled post-chemotherapy and followed. The primary endpoint was chemotherapy related amenorrhea (CRA, ≥12 months of amenorrhea after chemotherapy). Matched pair analyses compared AMH, inhibin B and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels between cancer and age-matched control subjects. Associations between hormones, CRA status and change in CRA status over time were assessed. Results Median age at chemotherapy was 43.2 years (range 26.7–57.8). At enrollment, median follow up since chemotherapy was 2.1 years and 55% of subjects had CRA. Compared to age-matched controls, cancer subjects had significantly lower AMH (p=0.004) and inhibin B (p<0.001) and higher FSH (p<0.001). AMH (p=0.002) and inhibin B (p=0.001) were significantly associated with risk of CRA even after controlling for FSH. AMH was significantly lower (p=0.03) and FSH was significantly higher (p=0.04) in menstruating subjects who developed subsequent CRA. Conclusions AMH and inhibin B are two additional measures of post-chemotherapy ovarian function in late reproductive-aged breast cancer survivors. With further research and validation, these hormones may supplement limited current tools for assessing and predicting post-chemotherapy ovarian function PMID:19918920

  17. Effects of GnRH agonists on the expression of developmental follicular anti-mullerian hormone in varying follicular stages in cyclic mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JILIANG; WANG, XIAOYAN; LI, ZHILING; MA, RUOWU; XIAO, WANFEN

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (GnRHa) have been widely used to induce a state of downregulation for in vitro fertilization, and its direct effects on the pituitary are well known. However, the effects of GnRHa on the expression of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) by follicles in varying stages in vivo remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study 84 cyclic mice were randomly divided equally into four GnRHa groups and three cyclic mice were used as a control group. The expression levels of AMH in follicles of varying stages between days 0 and 7 following GnRHa administration were quantified using immunohistochemistry. The expression of AMH in follicles at various stages revealed dynamic changes during the process of downregulation. AMH in primary follicles initially increased and then decreased gradually. In small and large preantral follicles and in granulosa cells (GCs) surrounding the oocyte of small antral follicles, the expression of AMH began to increase on day 1, was attenuated on day 2, and then increased to a peak. The expression levels of AMH in the GCs surrounding the basement membrane, in contrast to the GCs surrounding the oocyte, were significantly lower and did not increase on day 1. In all stages of follicles, the expression of AMH declined gradually between the peak level and last day of downregulation. On day 7, the varying follicular stages all expressed lower levels of AMH than on day 0. This decrease was more prominent in the higher dose groups, compared with the lower dose groups. In conclusion, GnRHa was observed to induce time-dependent changes in the expression of AMH at varying follicular stages, which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26126720

  18. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of

  19. The anatomy of fluid-yielding ducts in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Twelves, Dominique; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Osin, Peter; Ward, Ann; Isacke, Clare M; Gui, Gerald P H

    2012-04-01

    The concept of an intraductal approach to evaluate the breast microenvironment assumes direct access to the cancer-containing duct. Central duct access to the cancer-affected lobe is essential if cytology or cell markers are to be useful indicators of pre-malignant change. Access to the cancer-bearing lobe would be less important if field change effects of malignant change were predominantly supra-lobar. The aim of this study was to determine how often duct lavage fluid drains the breast cancer-affected segment. 58 patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer were recruited among which 47 had at least one fluid-yielding duct. Following duct lavage, fluid-yielding ducts were perfused ex vivo with Polyurethane Elastomer (PU4ii) resin. Specimens were sliced sagittally, and the extent of resin perfusion and anatomical relationship to the cancer-affected segment was recorded. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed on selected mastectomies before cut-up for a feasibility study of 3D duct reconstruction. The median number of fluid-yielding ducts cannulated per cancer-affected breast was 2 (range 1-4). 35/47 (74%) mastectomy specimens were successfully cannulated for resin perfusion. 29/35 (83%) showed tracing of the cancer-affected duct system, 6/35 resin perfusions traced duct systems unaffected by cancer and 12/35 perfusions extravasated. The proportion of sagittal breast slices perfused by resin was 13-68% (median 43%). Volume rendering CT showed it is feasible to produce a simulated image of the perfused ducts. Duct access to the cancer-containing segment is feasible in the majority of patients. Fluid-yielding ducts proportionately drain a significant volume of the breast. Large symptomatic cancers may cause obstruction with distal collapse. Further quantitative study of breast perfusion CT scans may be helpful for estimating the volume fraction of breast tissue perfused by fluid-yielding ducts. The intraductal approach is a valid concept for biomarker

  20. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  1. An electronically tunable duct silencer using dielectric elastomer actuators.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenbo; Godaba, Hareesh; Cui, Yongdong; Foo, Choon Chiang; Debiasi, Marco; Zhu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A duct silencer with tunable acoustic characteristics is presented in this paper. Dielectric elastomer, a smart material with lightweight, high elastic energy density and large deformation under high direct current/alternating current voltages, was used to fabricate this duct silencer. The acoustic performances and tunable mechanisms of this duct silencer were experimentally investigated. It was found that all the resonance peaks of this duct silencer could be adjusted using external control signals without any additional mechanical part. The physics of the tunable mechanism is further discussed based on the electro-mechanical interactions using finite element analysis. The present promising results also provide insight into the appropriateness of the duct silencer for possible use as next generation acoustic treatment device to replace the traditional acoustic treatment.

  2. Regeneratively cooled transition duct with transversely buffered impingement nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Crawford, Michael E

    2015-04-21

    A cooling arrangement (56) having: a duct (30) configured to receive hot gases (16) from a combustor; and a flow sleeve (50) surrounding the duct and defining a cooling plenum (52) there between, wherein the flow sleeve is configured to form impingement cooling jets (70) emanating from dimples (82) in the flow sleeve effective to predominately cool the duct in an impingement cooling zone (60), and wherein the flow sleeve defines a convection cooling zone (64) effective to cool the duct solely via a cross-flow (76), the cross-flow comprising cooling fluid (72) exhausting from the impingement cooling zone. In the impingement cooling zone an undimpled portion (84) of the flow sleeve tapers away from the duct as the undimpled portion nears the convection cooling zone. The flow sleeve is configured to effect a greater velocity of the cross-flow in the convection cooling zone than in the impingement cooling zone.

  3. A new evaporation duct climatology over the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yang; Yang, Kunde; Yang, Yixin; Ma, Yuanliang

    2015-10-01

    The climatology of evaporation ducts is important for shipborne electromagnetic system design and application. The evaporation duct climatology that is currently used for such applications was developed in the mid 1980s; this study presents efforts to improve it over the South China Sea (SCS) by using a state-of-the-art evaporation duct model and an improved meteorology dataset. This new climatology provides better evaporation duct height (EDH) data over the SCS, at a higher resolution of 0.312°×0.313°. A comparison between the new climatology and the old one is performed. The monthly average EDH in the new climatology is between 10 and 12 m over the SCS, higher than that in the old climatology. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the evaporation duct over the SCS in different months are analyzed in detail, based on the new climatology.

  4. Positive predictive value of cholescintigraphy in common bile duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Austin, A.R.; Benedetto, A.R.; Growcock, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Technetium-99m DISIDA imaging was employed in 400 patients to differentiate obstruction of the common bile duct from medical and other surgical causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Sequential anterior images demonstrated variable degrees of liver uptake, yet there was no evidence of intrabiliary or extrabiliary radioactivity for at least 4 hr after injection in 25 patients. Twenty-three patients were surgically documented to have complete obstruction of the common bile duct. One patient had hepatitis, and another had sickle cell crisis without bile duct obstruction. The remaining patients had either partial or no obstruction of the common bile duct. We conclude that the presence of liver uptake without evident biliary excretion by 4 hr on cholescintigraphy is highly sensitive and predictive of total obstruction of the common bile duct.

  5. Heat Transfer in Conical Corner and Short Superelliptical Transition Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local surface heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique on the surface of two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts. One has a transition cross section defined by conical corners (Duct 1) and the other by an elliptical equation with changing coefficients (Duct 2). Duct 1 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.75 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 1.5. Duct 2 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.0 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 2.9. Test results are reported for various inlet-diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.45 106 to 2.39 106 and two freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  6. Lacrimal Duct Occlusion Is Associated with Infectious Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guigang; Guo, Jingmin; Liu, Rong; Hu, Weikun; Xu, Lingjuan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Subo; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Yingting

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture. Diagnosis of viral keratitis was set up based on the recurrent history, deep neovascularization and typical outlook of the cornea scar. The treatment of keratitis included drugs, eye drops or surgery, while treatment of chronic dacryocystitis was lacrimal duct dredging with supporting tube implantation surgery. In the thirty-one eyes with infectious keratitis, fifteen suffered from fungal keratitis (48%), two bacterial keratitis (6%), and fourteen viral keratitis (45%). Eleven eyes (35%) from ten patients with infectious keratitis also suffered from lacrimal duct obstruction. In those cases, six eyes also suffered from lower canalicular obstruction, three nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis, one a combination of upper and lower canalicular obstruction, one upper canalicular obstruction. After local and systemic applications of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory drugs, twenty-eight eyes (90%) recovered within three weeks, while the ulceration of three patients required the lacrimal duct dredging and supporting tube implantation surgery for the healing. Conclusions: Herein, we first report that the prevalence of infectious keratitis is closely correlated to the occurrence of lacrimal duct obstruction. When both confirmed, simultaneous treatment of keratitis and lacrimal duct obstruction

  7. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  8. Flow noise from spoilers in ducts.

    PubMed

    Mak, Cheuk Ming; Wu, Jia; Ye, Chao; Yang, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Measurements of flow noise produced by strip spoilers in the air duct of a ventilation system and radiated from an open exhaust termination unit into a reverberation chamber have been made. The results agree with the previous work of Nelson and Morfey [J. Sound Vib. 79, 263-289 (1981)]. Prediction of flow noise produced by multiple spoilers requires the values of the ratio of the mean drag forces that act on the spoilers, the phase relationship between the fluctuating drag forces that act on the spoilers, and the coherence function of the noise sources. The latter is empirically derived from the measured results, where the predicted results agree well with the experimental results within 3 dB at most frequencies except for very high frequencies.

  9. Acoustic propagation in rigid ducts with blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic levitation has been suggested for moving nonmagnetic material in furnaces for heat processing in space experiments. Basically, acoustic standing waves under resonant conditions are excited in the cavity of the furnace while the material blockage is located at a pressure node and thus at a maximum gradient. The position of the blockage is controlled by displacing the node as a result of frequency change. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of blockage on the longitudinal and transverse resonances of a cylindrical cavity, taking into account the results of a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. Based on a Green's function surface element method, 3-D analysis is tested experimentally and proved to be accurate over a wide range of geometric parameters and boundary shapes. The shift in resonance depends on the change in pressure gradient and duct shortening caused by the blockage.

  10. Electro-osmotic flow in polygonal ducts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Yi; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents semi-analytical solutions to electro-osmotic (EO) flow through polygonal ducts under the Debye-Hückel approximation. Analytical series solutions assisted with numerical collocations are found to yield very fast convergence. The solutions have practical applications as the pores of EO membranes are mostly hexagonal, stacked densely in a beehive-like matrix. In addition, we develop simple asymptotic approximations that would be applicable to all EO tube flows of small as well as large dimensionless electrokinetic width. This facilitates investigation of analytical structures of general EO flows in all shapes of tubes, including the present geometries. In particular, for thick electrical double layers, the flow rate of EO is related to the corresponding viscous Poiseuille flow rate, while for thin electrical double layers, the flow rate is shown to be characterized by the cross-sectional area and the perimeter length of the tubes.

  11. Acoustic systems containing curved duct sections. [numerical analysis of wave propagation in acoustic ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of waves in bends in acoustical ducting of rectangular cross section was extended to the study of motion near discontinuities. This included determination of the characteristics of the tangential and radial components of the nonpropagating modes. It is established that attenuation of the nonpropagating modes strongly depends on frequency and that, in general, the sharper the bend, the less attenuation may be expected. Evaluation of a bend's impedance and of impedance-generated reflections is also presented in detail.

  12. Seminal Tract Amyloidosis: Synchronous Amyloidosis of the Seminal Vesicles, Deferent Ducts and Ejaculatory Ducts.

    PubMed

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Bubis, Golan; Shtrasburg, Shmuel; Shvero, Asaf; Koren, Rumelia

    2017-01-17

    Senile Seminal Vesicle Amyloidosis (SSVA) increases with age. Involvement of the whole seminal tract, i.e. the seminal vesicles, ejaculatory and deferent ducts was first reported by us in the International Symposium on Amyloidosis 1998. Since then we encountered four more cases of SSVA. In all these cases the ejaculatory and deferent ducts were also involved by amyloid. The amyloid was located mostly sub-epithelially, stained positively with Congo red, gave green birefringence under polarized light and was permanganate sensitive, slightly positive for lactoferrin immunostaining and negative for all known amyloid types. In recent years the amyloid was found to be derived from Semenogelin I, a major constituent of the seminal fluid which is present in the epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle and vas deference. This would explain the deposition of amyloid not only in the seminal vesicles but also in the deferent an ejaculatory ducts which transport the seminal fluid. In a review of the literature we found three more articles on SSVA in which the amyloid was not limited to the seminal vesicles alone. We propose to designate this type of amyloid as "Senile seminal Tract Amyloidosis" (SSTA) instead of "Senile Seminal Vesicle Amyloidosis (SSVA)".

  13. Glyphosate persistence in seawater.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

    2014-08-30

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore.

  14. Persistent heap Management library

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-17

    PERM is a C library for persistent heap management and is intended for use with a dynamic-memory allocator (e.g. malloc, free). The PERM memory allocator replaces the standard C dynamic memory allocation functions with compatible versions that provide persistent memory to application programs. Memory allocated with the PERM allocatory will persist between program invocations after a call to a checkpoint function. This function essentially saves the state of the heap and registered global variables to a file which may reside in flash memory or other node local storage. A few other functions are also provided by the library to manage checkpoint files. Global variables in an application can be marked persistent and be included in a checkpoint by using a compiler attribute defined as PERM. The PERM checkpoint methof is not dependent on the programming model ans works with distributed memory or shared memory programs.

  15. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  16. Modeling low elevation GPS signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Wu, Zhensen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Hongguang; Zhu, Qinglin

    2012-05-01

    Using the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method, we model low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts. To consider sea surface impedance, roughness, and the effects of earth's curvature, we propose a new initial field model for the GPS PWE split-step solution. On the basis of the comparison between the proposed model and the conventional initial field model for a smooth, perfectly conducting sea surface on a planar earth, we conclude that both the amplitude and phase of the initial field are influenced by surface impedance and roughness, and that the interference behavior between direct and reflected GPS rays is affected by earth's curvature. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated with examples of low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in three types of ducts: an evaporation duct, a surface-based duct, and an elevated duct. The GPS PWE is numerically implemented using the split-step discrete mixed Fourier transform algorithm to enforce impedance-type boundary conditions at the rough sea surface. Because the GPS signal is right hand circularly polarized, we calculate its power strength by combining the propagation predictions of the horizontally and the vertically polarized components. The effects of the maritime atmospheric ducts on low elevation GPS signal propagation are demonstrated according to the presented examples, and the potential applications of the GPS signals affected by ducts are discussed.

  17. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-17

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  18. Generation of Higher Order Modes in a Rectangular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Brown, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced noise control methodologies to reduce sound emission from aircraft engines take advantage of the modal structure of the noise in the duct. This noise is caused by the interaction of rotor wakes with downstream obstructions such as exit guide vanes. Mode synthesis has been accomplished in circular ducts and current active noise control work has made use of this capability to cancel fan noise. The goal of the current effort is to examine the fundamental process of higher order mode propagation through an acoustically treated, curved duct. The duct cross-section is rectangular to permit greater flexibility in representation of a range of duct curvatures. The work presented is the development of a feedforward control system to generate a user-specified modal pattern in the duct. The multiple-error, filtered-x LMS algorithm is used to determine the magnitude and phase of signal input to the loudspeakers to produce a desired modal pattern at a set of error microphones. Implementation issues, including loudspeaker placement and error microphone placement, are discussed. Preliminary results from a 9-3/8 inch by 21 inch duct, using 12 loudspeakers and 24 microphones, are presented. These results demonstrate the ability of the control system to generate a user-specified mode while suppressing undesired modes.

  19. Angioarchitecture of the rabbit extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Lametschwandtner, Alois

    2005-10-01

    The angioarchitecture of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder of the miniature rabbit was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts. Light microscopy of Masson-stained, paraffin-embedded transverse tissue sections served to attribute cast vascular structures to defined layers of bile ducts and gallbladder. In all segments of the bile tract, a mucosal and a subserosal vascular network was found. In glandular segments, the mucosal network was composed of a meshwork of subepithelial and circumglandular capillaries, which serve the mucosal functions. Differences in the angioarchitectonic patterns existed only in the subserosal networks as hepatic ducts own one supplying arteriole only, while the common bile duct owns a well-defined rete arteriosum subserosum. A well-developed dense subserosus venous plexus was present throughout the bile tract. Vascular patterns of the gallbladder body resembled those of the bile duct, whereby the dense subserous venous plexus was located close to the mucosal capillary network. The subserosal network in the neck of the gallbladder resembled that of the cystic duct. Spatial changes of the mucosal vascular network during volume changes of the gallbladder were documented. Measurements from tissue sections revealed bile tract diameters of 220-400 microm (extrahepatic ducts), 500-650 microm (cystic duct), and 4-6 mm (common bile duct). Data gained from high-powered SEM micrographs of vascular corrosion casts revealed vessel diameters of 200 microm (cystic artery), 90-110 microm (cystic vein), 30-40 microm (feeding arterioles), and 25-110 microm (subserosal venules). Crypt diameters in the filled gallbladder were 300-1,500 mum; those in the contracted organ were 100-600 microm.

  20. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  1. Subsonic Flows through S-Ducts with Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi

    An inlet duct of an aircraft connects the air intake mounted on the fuselage to the engine within the aircraft body. The ideal outflow quality of the duct is steady, uniform and of high total pressure. Recently compact S-shaped inlet ducts are drawing more attention in the design of UAVs with short propulsion system. Compact ducts usually involve strong streamwise adverse pressure gradient and transverse secondary flow, leading to large-scale harmful vortical structures in the outflow. To improve the outflow quality modern flow control techniques have to be applied. Before designing successful flow control methods a solid understanding of the baseline flow field with the duct is crucial. In this work the fundamental mechanism of how the three dimensional flow topology evolves when the relevant parameters such as the duct geometry and boundary layer thickness are varied, is studied carefully. Two distinct secondary-flow patterns are identified. For the first time the sensitivity of the flow topology to the inflow boundary layer thickness in long ducts is clearly addressed. The interaction between the transverse motion induced by the transverse pressure gradient and the streamwise separation is revealed as the crucial reason for the various flow patterns existing in short ducts. A non-symmetric flow pattern is identified for the first time in both experiments and simulations in short ducts in which the intensity of the streamwise separation and the transverse invasion are in the same order of magnitude. A theory of energy accumulation and solution bifurcation is used to give a reasonable explanation for this non-symmetry. After gaining the knowledge of where and how the harmful vortical structures are generated several flow control techniques are tested to achieve a better outflow quality. The analysis of the flow control cases also provides a deeper insight into the behavior of the three-dimensional flow within the ducts. The conventional separation control method

  2. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  3. Theoretical studies on tone noise from a ducted fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, C. V. R.; Chu, W. T.; Digumarthi, R. V.; Agarwal, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The method of computing radiated noise from a ducted rotor due to inflow distortion and turbulence are examined. Analytical investigations include an appropriate description of sources, the cut-off conditions imposed on the modal propagation of the pressure waves in the annular duct, and reflections at the upstream end of the duct. Far field sound pressure levels at blade passing frequency due to acoustic radiation from a small scale low speed fan are computed. Theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Mixing characteristics of a ducted, elliptical jet with dump

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Wilson, K.J.; Parr, D.M.; Gutmark, E.

    1986-01-01

    Mixing between elliptical ducted air-jets with dump and nitrogen radially injected through the duct walls was experimentally studied using hot-wire anemometry and gas-sampling techniques. Mixing was considerably increased when the air-jet was issued from elliptical relative to circular jet-exit cross-sections. Elliptical jets issued from orifices provided better mixing than issued from pipes. Additional mixing enhancement was achieved when the elliptical jets were acoustically forced by excited resonant pressure waves of the duct. The mean and turbulence velocity measurements provided insight into the mechanism of the observed mixing enhancement.

  5. Finite-amplitude waves in cylindrical lined ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniformly valid expansion is obtained for nonlinear waves propagating in a cylindrical duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material that consists of a porous sheet followed by honey-comb cavities and backed by the impervious walls of the duct. The effect of the liner is taken into account by coupling the waves in the duct with those in the liner. As in the two-dimensional case, the nonlinearity increases the attenuation rate at all frequencies except in narrow bandwidths around the resonant frequencies, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions of the liner or the acoustic properties of the porous sheet.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of NACA Submerged-Duct Entrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, Charles W.; Davis, Wallace F.; Randall, Lauros; Mossman, Emmet A.

    1945-01-01

    The results of an investigation of submerged-duct entrances are presented. It is shown that this type of entrance possesses the following characteristics: 1) very high-critical-compressibility speeds throughout the range of high-speed inlet velocity ratios; 2) very low pressure losses for the air entering the duct at all inlet-velocity ratios; and, 3) low external drag. These characteristics are obtained by the proper shaping of the contour of the upstream approach to the submerged inlets and by proper alignment of the duct lip. Design data are presented and the application of these data to a specific high-speed fighter-airplane design is discussed.

  7. Flow in Idealised Compliant Human Cystic Duct Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Atabi, M.; Chin, S. B.; Beck, S.; Luo, X. Y.

    The functions of the cystic duct and the role of its complicated geometry (in particular the valves of Heister), in the delivery of bile flow have always been a subject of speculation. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the flow in idealised, compliant cystic duct models. The valves of Heister were idealised using eight semi-circular alternating baffles fitted inside the compliant tubes. These tubes were arranged in configurations representing the anatomical configurations of real cystic ducts. Models both with and without baffles were tested for comparison. The results show that the valves of Heister seem to play a role in facilitating both the filling and emptying of the gallbladder.

  8. Observations of Strong Surface Radar Ducts over the Persian Gulf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Ian M.; Goroch, Andreas K.; Rogers, David P.

    1999-09-01

    Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct commonly forms due to the large gradient in specific humidity just above the sea surface; a deeper surface-based or elevated duct frequently is associated with the sudden change in temperature and humidity across the boundary layer inversion.In April 1996 the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft took part in the U.S. Navy Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring exercise (SHAREM-115) in the Persian Gulf by providing meteorological support and making measurements for the study of electromagnetic and electro-optical propagation. The boundary layer structure over the Gulf is influenced strongly by the surrounding desert landmass. Warm dry air flows from the desert over the cooler waters of the Gulf. Heat loss to the surface results in the formation of a stable internal boundary layer. The layer evolves continuously along wind, eventually forming a new marine atmospheric boundary layer. The stable stratification suppresses vertical mixing, trapping moisture within the layer and leading to an increase in refractive index and the formation of a strong boundary layer duct. A surface evaporation duct coexists with the boundary layer duct.In this paper the authors present aircraft- and ship-based observations of both the surface evaporation and boundary layer ducts. A series of sawtooth aircraft profiles map the boundary layer structure and provide spatially distributed estimates of the duct depth. The boundary layer duct is found to have considerable spatial variability in both depth and strength, and to evolve along wind over distances significant to naval operations (100 km). The depth of the evaporation duct is derived from a bulk parameterization based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

  9. Hybrid method of transurethral resection of ejaculatory ducts using holmium:yttriumaluminium garnet laser on complete ejaculatory duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Diaz, Richilda Red; Choi, Young Deuk; Cho, Kang Su

    2013-07-01

    A 32-year old single man presented with azoospermia and low semen volume which was noted one and half a year ago. Transrectal ultrasonography and seminal vesiculography were performed to evaluate ejaculatory duct obstruction, and transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct was performed using a hybrid technique of holmium:yttriumaluminium garnet laser with monopolar transurethral resection to overcome the narrow prostatic urethra. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful outcome of a hybrid technique applied for transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct.

  10. Clinical value of serum anti-mullerian hormone and inhibin B in prediction of ovarian response in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Rong, Nan; Huang, Xiao-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical value of serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B (INHB) in predicting the ovarian response of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 120 PCOS patients were enrolled and divided into three groups in terms of the ovarian response: a low-response group (n=36), a normal-response group (n=44), and a high-response group (n=40). The serum AMH and INHB levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) levels were determined by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. The correlation of the serum AMH and INHB levels with other indicators was analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was established to analyze the prediction of ovarian response by AMH and INHB. The results showed that there were significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), FSH, total gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), LH, E2, and antral follicle counts (AFCs) between the groups (P<0.05). The serum AMH and INHB levels were increased significantly with the ovarian response of PCOS patients increasing (P<0.05). The serum AMH and INHB levels were negatively correlated with the age, BMI, FSH level, Gn, and E2 levels (P<0.05). They were positively correlated with the LH levels and AFCs (P<0.05). ROC curve analysis of serum AMH and INHB in prediction of a low ovarian response showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of the serum AMH level was 0.817, with a cut-off value of 1.29 ng/mL. The sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 79.6%, respectively. The AUC value of serum INHB was 0.674, with a cut-off value of 38.65 ng/mL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 50.7% and 74.5%, respectively. ROC curve analysis showed when the serum AMH and INHB levels were used to predict a high ovarian response, the AUC value of the serum AMH level was 0.742, with a cut-off value of 2.84 ng/mL, and

  11. Enhanced Mixing in a Rectangular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscinsky, D. S.; True, B.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the mixing of non-reacting opposed rows of jets injected normal to a confined rectangular crossflow has been conducted. Planar Mie-scattering was used to measure the time-average concentration distribution of the jet fluid in planes perpendicular to the duct axis. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of closely spaced orifice configurations applicable to the mixing zone of an RQL combustor. Baseline studies were performed of mixing under "ideal" conditions, i.e., plenum fed jets injecting into a crossflow uniform in velocity and turbulence intensity. In addition, more practical ("non-ideal") issues encountered during hardware design were also studied. As in other studies, mixing effectiveness, determined using a spatial unmixedness parameter based on the variance of mean jet concentration distributions, was found to be optimum when the spacing-to-duct-height ratio was inversely proportional to the square root of the jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio. This relationship is suitable for design under ideal flow conditions. Inlet flow boundary conditions of the jet and approach flow (mainstream) were found to strongly influence mixing performance, but no attempt was made to determine optimum performance under non-ideal conditions. The tests performed do offer some guidance as to expected mixing behavior for several common variables likely to be imposed by hardware constraints. Additionally, in this study it was found that for rows of orifices with opposite centerlines inline, mixing was similar for blockages up to 89 percent (previous crossflow mixing studies concerned with dilution zone configurations, blockages were typically less than 50 percent). Lower levels of unmixedness were obtained as a function of downstream location when axial injection length was minimized. Mixing may be enhanced if orifice centerlines of opposed rows are staggered, but blockage must be =50 percent in this configuration. Round hole and "square

  12. Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark P.

    2010-12-14

    A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

  13. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  15. 12. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS ON RIGHT, DUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS ON RIGHT, DUCT FOR DUST COLLECTION SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  16. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  17. Numerical simulation of duct flow with fog droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryan, Abhilash; Lee, J. K.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    Evaporative cooling is a widely used air cooling technique. In this method, evaporation of a liquid in the surrounding air cools the air in contact with it. In the current investigation, numerical simulations are carried out to visualize the evaporation and dynamics of tiny water droplets of different diameters in a long air duct. The effect of initial droplet size on the temperature and relative humidity distribution of the air stream in the duct is investigated. Three different initial conditions of air are considered to verify the influence of ambient conditions. Droplet spray patterns are also analyzed to identify the suitable locations for the spray nozzles within the duct. The results obtained are displayed in a series of plots to provide a clear understanding of the evaporative cooling process as well as the droplet dynamics within the ducts.

  18. Flow instability in a curved duct of rectangular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belaidi, A.; Johnson, M. W.; Humphrey, J. A. C.

    1992-12-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out in a curved duct of rectangular cross section in order to study the development of flow instability in such geometries. Hot wire anemometry was used to obtain detailed measurements of velocity on the symmetry plane of the duct for different curvature ratios. As the duct Dean number is increased, a centrifugal instability develops and the Dean vortices are seen to oscillate along the inner wall. To understand the contribution of these vortices to the laminar-turbulent transition, time histories and spectra of the flow were taken on the symmetry plane of the duct for different Reynolds numbers. These data reveal a time-periodic motion along the inner wall where the secondary flows originating from the side wall boundary layers collide. The bend angle where this instability develops depends on the Reynolds number while the frequency of the instability depends on the curvature ratio of the bend.

  19. Iatrogenic nasolacrimal duct obstruction following tooth extraction in a cat.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Sávia Calline C S; Froes, Tilde R; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Machado, Marcello; Pachaly, José Ricardo; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old DSH cat was referred for a dental evaluation and extraction procedure. Subsequently, the animal developed an acute onset of ocular discharge. Ophthalmologic examination revealed presence of unilateral ocular mucoid discharge leading to a diagnosis of epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryocystorhinography was performed and confirmed the presence of a nasolacrimal duct obstruction, presumably acquired after an invasive dental procedure. Additionally, a vinyl cast in situ study of the nasolacrymal apparatus was performed to demonstrate the route of the nasolacrimal duct in the cat and its relationship to oral dental structures. This report documents an unusual case in which excessive inflammation/edema following tooth extraction caused acute epiphora secondary to extraluminal compression of the distal nasolacrimal duct.

  20. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.

    2015-07-21

    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  1. 76. DETAIL OF AIRCONDITIONING DUCT BETWEEN PORTABLE PAYLOAD AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. DETAIL OF AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT BETWEEN PORTABLE PAYLOAD AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Scattering matrices in non-uniformly lined ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ahmet

    2017-02-01

    Sudden area expansion and sudden area contraction in an infinitely long duct with discontinuous locally reacting lining are defined by respective mixed boundary value problems. In the absence of a sudden area change, a separate problem with an infinite duct having bifid lining on its wall is described. Introducing Fourier transform along the duct axis boundary value problems is solved by the well-known Wiener-Hopf technique, and then, corresponding scattering matrices are constructed. To show the proper use of scattering matrices in the case of several discontinuities and also validation and comparison purposes, transmitted field in a duct with an inserted expansion chamber whose walls are treated by acoustically absorbent material is derived by the help of the relevant scattering matrices. A perfect agreement is observed when the transmitted fields are compared numerically with a similar work exists in the literature.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  4. External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfleger, R. O.

    1966-01-01

    External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

  5. 54. DETAIL OF AIRCONDITIONING EXHAUST DUCTS ON NORTH FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF AIR-CONDITIONING EXHAUST DUCTS ON NORTH FACE OF ERECT UMBILICAL MAST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER FOR STATION 135 AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Materials for outlet ducts in wet FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Koch, G.H.; Kistler, C.W.; Beavers, J.A.; Meadows, M.L.; Stewart, D.A.; Dene, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It was found that the major materials problems are occurring with outlet ducts and stack linings. Outlet ducts and stacks are critical components in that failures may require complete boiler shutdown and loss of generating capacity for lengthy periods due to the lack of standby components or bypass capability. Accordingly, EPRI funded a study by Battelle on the performance of candidate materials in the outlet ducts of FGD systems at two utility plants. Because of the impact of materials failures on FGD system reliability, EPRI is currently funding a study by Battelle on the causes of these failures. This study involves site visits for field evaluations of the failures, laboratory analyses of samples collected in the field, and analysis of the data to establish the causes of the failures. Information on outlet ducts is presented in this paper.

  8. 68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now removed), governor (now removed), hand-operated needle valve controls (now removed). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. 23. A detailed interior view of the duct and delivery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. A detailed interior view of the duct and delivery equipment situated in the upper grain conveyor structure of Elevator and Silo Complex B (1932). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  10. Acoustic power in non-uniform lined ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversman, Walter

    2008-06-01

    A definition of acoustic power in conservation form in lined infinitely long uniform ducts is extended to include axially symmetric non-uniform ducts with potential mean flow and finite length lining. The definition includes a contribution at the lined boundary. Benchmarking is accomplished by verification of acoustic power conservation in the case of a purely reactive lining. Calculations in the case of reactively lined ducts show that intense acoustic gradients near the lined surface can occur, and contributions to acoustic power from the boundary power term become relatively large. This observed behavior diminishes as the resistive component of lining impedance is increased. Power calculations for propagation and radiation from a typical turbo-fan inlet and equivalent calculations for an infinite duct propagation model of the same inlet contour are compared. Results are remarkably similar for the case considered, though it is noted that this conclusion is geometry dependent.

  11. Equipment building and cable duct to tower, looking west. Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Equipment building and cable duct to tower, looking west. Metal shutters cover window in radio room. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Alternatives for the treatment of salivary duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Mark; Brown, Jackie

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive alternatives for treatment of salivary duct obstruction are discussed. Radiologically- and endoscopically-guided interventions using wire baskets and dilating balloons, including cutting balloons, are covered as are combined endoscopic and open approaches.

  13. Sound transmission through ducts and aircraft noise prediction, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, J. J.; Datko, J. T.; Guyton, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft engine acoustical lining impedance models, ray acoustics, hydrodynamic modes, and transient analysis of sound propagation in variable area duct studies were applied to aircraft noise prediction. The effects of several duct lining configurations in a TF33 P5 and a CFM56 engined KC-135B aircraft were predicted. The prediction was based on a model corrected to fit flight noise data and modified by including theoretical duct noise attenuation predictions. The transient solution of variable area ducts permitted the prediction of sound propgation in bullet nose inlets for no low and was moderately successful when a potential flow was included with low Mach numbers. Volume 1 contains the technical report and analysis. Volume 2 contains the user's manuals and listings of the computer codes developed.

  14. Density duct formation in the wake of a travelling ionospheric disturbance: Murchison Widefield Array observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Murphy, Tara; Erickson, Philip J.; Bell, Martin E.; Rowlinson, Antonia; Arora, Balwinder Singh; Morgan, John; Ekers, Ronald D.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetically aligned density structures with a range of sizes exist in the near-Earth plasma environment, including 10-100 km wide VLF/HF wave-ducting structures. Their small diameters and modest density enhancements make them difficult to observe, and there is limited evidence for any of the several formation mechanisms proposed to date. We present a case study of an event on 26 August 2014 where a travelling ionospheric disturbance (TID) shortly precedes the formation of a complex collection of field-aligned ducts, using data obtained by the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescope. Their spatiotemporal proximity leads us to suggest a causal interpretation. Geomagnetic conditions were quiet at the time, and no obvious triggers were noted. Growth of the structures proceeds rapidly, within 0.5 h of the passage of the TID, attaining their peak prominence 1-2 h later and persisting for several more hours until observations ended at local dawn. Analyses of the next 2 days show field-aligned structures to be preferentially detectable under quiet rather than active geomagnetic conditions. We used a raster scanning strategy facilitated by the speed of electronic beamforming to expand the quasi-instantaneous field of view of the MWA by a factor of 3. These observations represent the broadest angular coverage of the ionosphere by a radio telescope to date.

  15. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  16. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  17. AIR DUCTS STAND NEXT TO (AND OUTSIDE OF) REACTOR CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AIR DUCTS STAND NEXT TO (AND OUTSIDE OF) REACTOR CABINET AT THE SOUTHWEST AND NORTHEAST CORNERS OF THE REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. THEY WILL BE ENVELOPED IN BIOLOGICAL CONCRETE SHIELD. IN THE SUB-BASEMENT, THE TWO DUCTS WILL JOIN TOGETHER AND EXIT THE BUILDING TO THE FAN HOUSE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1625. Unknown Photographer, 3/6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  19. Beam loss by collimation in a neutralizer duct

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1980-04-03

    Beam fractions lost by collimation in a neutralizer duct are computed in x-x' phase space by using three examples of slab beam distributions under a broad range of duct dimensions, beam half-widths, and beam divergences. The results can be used to design compact neutralizers and to specify beam requirements. The computer code ILOST can be used under a broad range of beam conditions to compute the fraction lost by collimation.

  20. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home. At the same time, a duct system that is poorly designed or maintained can have a detrimental effect on the health of the people who live in the house, through the unintended distribution of indoor air pollution.

  1. Computational analysis of flow in 3D propulsive transition ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepri, Paavo

    1990-01-01

    A numerical analysis of fully three dimensional, statistically steady flows in propulsive transition ducts being considered for use in future aircraft of higher maneuverability is investigated. The purpose of the transition duct is to convert axisymmetric flow from conventional propulsion systems to that of a rectangular geometry of high aspect ratio. In an optimal design, the transition duct would be of minimal length in order to reduce the weight penalty, while the geometrical change would be gradual enough to avoid detrimental flow perturbations. Recent experiments conducted at the Propulsion Aerodynamics Branch have indicated that thrust losses in ducts of superelliptic cross-section can be surprisingly low, even if flow separation occurs near the divergent walls. In order to address the objective of developing a rational design procedure for optimal transition ducts, it is necessary to have available a reliable computational tool for the analysis of flows achieved in a sequence of configurations. Current CFD efforts involving complicated geometries usually must contend with two separate but interactive aspects: namely, grid generation and flow solution. The first two avenues of the present investigation were comprised of suitable grid generation for a class of transition ducts of superelliptic cross-section, and the subsequent application of the flow solver PAB3D to this geometry. The code, PAB3D, was developed as a comprehensive tool for the solution of both internal and external high speed flows. The third avenue of investigation has involved analytical formulations to aid in the understanding of the nature of duct flows, and also to provide a basis of comparison for subsequent numerical solutions. Numerical results to date include the generation of two preliminary grid systems for duct flows, and the initial application of PAB3D to the corresponding geometries, which are of the class tested experimentally.

  2. Visual persistence and cinema?

    PubMed

    Galifret, Yves

    2006-01-01

    In Faraday and Plateau's days, both apparent motion and the fusion of intermittent lights, two phenomena that are hardly connected, were explained by retinal persistence. The works of Exner and of the 'Gestalt' psychologists, as well as the modern works on 'sampled' motion and smooth motion, disregarded retinal persistence. One tried, originally, to measure this persistence using intermittent stimulation, but under the pressure of practical concern, what was established in 1902 was the logarithmic relation between fusion frequency and the intensity of the stimulation. One had to wait until the 1950s for the use of harmonic analysis to finally allow a renewal in which many problems that, for decades, had only given rise to discussions that led nowhere and to groundless assertions, were correctly stated and easily solved.

  3. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the common bile duct

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuisheng; Jia, Jia; Bi, Xiaoning; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhao, Yajie; Chen, Yingtai; Xu, Quan; Lan, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Chengfeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare lesion in the common bile duct (CBD). Patient concerns: We present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD in a 51-year-old woman who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain. Whipple's operation was performed successfully. Microscopically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated carcinoma containing a component of sarcoma-like differentiation. The tumor cells displayed spindle-shaped nuclei with occasional mitotic figures. Cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, CK18, and pan-CK (AE1/AE3) staining was positive on immunohistochemistry. Vimentin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) staining were also positive. Diagnoses: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD. Interventions: The patient received three cycles of chemotherapy after surgery. Outcomes: The patient has experienced no adverse events in the 3 years post-surgery. Lessons: We present here a case report of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD. The patient received chemotherapy after surgery, and was event-free for 3 years post-surgery, suggesting a relatively better prognosis, despite the infiltrative pattern of the tumor. PMID:28099333

  4. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1992-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in an annular flow regime with and without interfacial waves was experimentally investigated. The study included measurements of heat transfer rate with condensation of vapor flowing inside a horizontal rectangular duct and experiments on the initiation of interfacial waves in condensation, and adiabatic air-liquid flow. An analytical model for the condensation was developed to predict condensate film thickness and heat transfer coefficients. Some conclusions drawn from the study are that the condensate film thickness was very thin (less than 0.6 mm). The average heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing the inlet vapor velocity. The local heat transfer coefficient decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface, with the largest change at the leading edge of the test section. The interfacial shear stress, which consisted of the momentum shear stress and the adiabatic shear stress, appeared to have a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficients. In the experiment, the condensate flow along the condensing surface experienced a smooth flow, a two-dimensional wavy flow, and a three-dimensional wavy flow. In the condensation experiment, the local wave length decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface and the average wave length decreased with increasing inlet vapor velocity, while the wave speed increased with increasing vapor velocity. The heat transfer measurements are reliable. And, the ultrasonic technique was effective for measuring the condensate film thickness when the surface was smooth or had waves of small amplitude.

  5. Note on reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1981-09-01

    Simple formulas for calculating acoustic reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts are derived; they extend the method of Cho and Ingard to arbitrary, slowly varying ducts. These formulas involve two parameters. The first is a function of duct shape and the second is the ratio of the duct radius downstream of the throat to that upstream of the throat to the upstream of the throat. An extension of the method to include mean flow is made for symmetric ducts.

  6. Note on reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Simple formulas for calculating acoustic reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts are derived; they extend the method of Cho and Ingard to arbitrary, slowly varying ducts. These formulas involve two parameters. The first is a function of duct shape and the second is the ratio of the duct radius downstream of the throat to that upstream of the throat to the upstream of the throat. An extension of the method to include mean flow is made for symmetric ducts.

  7. Propagation and radiation of sound from flanged circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances. I Semi-infinite ducts. II - Finite ducts with sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Sound propagation in infinite, semiinfinite, and finite circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances is investigated analytically. The infinite case is considered, and an example demonstrates the effects of wall-admittance distribution on dispersion characteristics and mode shapes. An exact solution is obtained for the semiinfinite case, a circular duct with a flanged opening: sidelobe suppression and circumferential-mode energy scattering leading to radiated-field asymmetry are found. A finite duct system with specified hard-walled pressure sources is examined in detail, evaluating reflection coefficients, transmission losses, and radiated-field directivity. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the implications of the results obtained for the design of aircraft-turbofan inlet liners are discussed.

  8. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases.

  10. A non-local computational boundary condition for duct acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, William E.; Watson, Willie R.; Hodge, Steve L.

    1994-01-01

    A non-local boundary condition is formulated for acoustic waves in ducts without flow. The ducts are two dimensional with constant area, but with variable impedance wall lining. Extension of the formulation to three dimensional and variable area ducts is straightforward in principle, but requires significantly more computation. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite duct. It is implemented by a constant matrix operator which is applied at the boundary of the computational domain. An efficient computational solution scheme is developed which allows calculations for high frequencies and long duct lengths. This computational solution utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space while preserving the radiation boundary condition. The boundary condition is tested for several sources. It is demonstrated that the boundary condition can be applied close to the sound sources, rendering the computational domain small. Computational solutions with the new non-local boundary condition are shown to be consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wavefields in an infinite uniform duct.

  11. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  12. Energy efficient engine: Turbine transition duct model technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, K.; Thurlin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Pressure Turbine Transition Duct Model Technology Program was directed toward substantiating the aerodynamic definition of a turbine transition duct for the Energy Efficient Engine. This effort was successful in demonstrating an aerodynamically viable compact duct geometry and the performance benefits associated with a low camber low-pressure turbine inlet guide vane. The transition duct design for the flight propulsion system was tested and the pressure loss goal of 0.7 percent was verified. Also, strut fairing pressure distributions, as well as wall pressure coefficients, were in close agreement with analytical predictions. Duct modifications for the integrated core/low spool were also evaluated. The total pressure loss was 1.59 percent. Although the increase in exit area in this design produced higher wall loadings, reflecting a more aggressive aerodynamic design, pressure profiles showed no evidence of flow separation. Overall, the results acquired have provided pertinent design and diagnostic information for the design of a turbine transition duct for both the flight propulsion system and the integrated core/low spool.

  13. Sound sources in a low speed ducted rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, David Bruce

    The objective of this research was to improve the understanding of the sound source mechanisms in a low speed ducted fan through experimental and analytical efforts. To this end, a new experimental model with carefully controlled boundary conditions was developed. A new method for quantifying the net acoustic transfer function between the rotor and an observer was found. This transfer function caused by the duct can significantly affect the spectral character of the radiated sound. Quantifying this function enables the study of the rotor sound source, without need of other methods for considering duct effects. A new formulation for predicting the noise generated by a ducted rotor interacting with a casing boundary layer has been developed. The method accounts for the streamwise-elongated turbulent structures that have been recently observed in flat-plate boundary layers. An approximation for the duct boundary layer two-point correlation function allows the net sound source to be estimated. Finally, the self-noise generated by a ducted rotor was studied. The flow rate through the rotor was varied independently from the rotor rotation rate in order change the mean lift on the blades. Measurements of the flow field around the rotor were found to provide insight to the mechanisms of sound that depend on mean loading conditions.

  14. Flow control in a diffusing S-Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.; Liver, P.; Bhat, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate measurements have been made of secondary flow in a 1.51 area ratio diffusing 30 deg - 30 deg S-Duct with circulair cross section. Turbulent flow was entering the duct at Mach number of 0.6, the boundary layer thickness at the duct entrance was ten percent of the duct inlet diameter. Through measurements made, local flow velocity vector as well as static and total pressures mapping of the flow at several stations were obtained. Strong secondary flow was measured in the first bend which continued into the second bend with new vorticity produced in there in the opposite direction. Surface oil flow visualization and wall pressures indicated a region of separated flow starting at theta approximately equal to 22 deg on the inside of the first bend up to theta approximately equal to 44 deg on the outside of the second bend. The flow separated in 'cyclone' form and never reattached in the duct. As a result of the secondary flow and the flow separation, significant total pressure distortion was observed at the exit of the duct. Using flow control devices the separation was eliminated while the exit distortion was improved.

  15. Clearance of refractory bile duct stones with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R; Jenkins, A; Thompson, R; Ede, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used since the mid-1980s to fragment bile duct stones which cannot be removed endoscopically. Early machines required general anaesthesia and immersion in a waterbath.
AIMS—To investigate the effectiveness of the third generation Storz Modulith SL20 lithotriptor in fragmenting bile duct stones that could not be cleared by mechanical lithotripsy.
METHODS—Eighty three patients with retained bile duct stones were treated. All patients received intravenous benzodiazepine sedation and pethidine analgesia. Stones were targeted by fluoroscopy following injection of contrast via a nasobiliary drain or T tube. Residual fragments were cleared at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
RESULTS—Complete stone clearance was achieved in 69 (83%) patients and in 18 of 24 patients (75%) who required more than one ESWL treatment. Stone clearance was achieved in all nine patients (100%) with intrahepatic stones and also in nine patients (100%) referred following surgical exploration of the bile duct. Complications included six cases of cholangitis and one perinephric haematoma which resolved spontaneously.
CONCLUSION—Using the Storz Modulith, 83% of refractory bile duct calculi were cleared with a low rate of complications. These results confirm that ESWL is an excellent alternative to surgery in those patients in whom endoscopic techniques have failed.


Keywords: lithotripsy; bile duct calculi; extracorporeal lithotripsy PMID:11034593

  16. Post-sialendoscopy ductoplasty by salivary duct stent placements.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Hui; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Tseng, Te-Ming; Hung, Shih-Han

    2016-01-01

    With damage to a duct or papilla after sialendoscopy, a stent may be necessary to prevent re-stenosis and for maintaining the salivary duct open after complete sialendoscopy. However factors affecting outcomes and complications after stent placement remain unclear. This study aimed to report preliminary experiences in salivary duct stent placement after sialendoscopy. Data from 35 procedures in 33 patients who received sialendoscopy with salivary duct stent placements at Mackay Memorial Hospital between October 2013 and June 2014 were recorded and compared for clinical data, as well as procedural techniques, findings, and outcomes. In the 35 stent placement procedures, the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used in 27 and the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tubes were used in the remaining eight. When the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used for stenting, the stent obstruction and irritation rates were higher compared to those who used the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tube (100 vs. 0 % and 67 vs. 33 %, respectively). None of the stents secured by a 5-0 nylon suture were complicated by dislocation but when the stents were secured by 6-0 nylon sutures, the dislocation rate went as high as 47.4 %. The duration needed for salivary duct stent placement might be potentially shortened to only 2 weeks. If a salivary duct stent is intended to be placed for a certain period before its scheduled removal, a suture strength equivalent or stronger than the 5-0 nylon suture should be considered for stent fixation.

  17. Sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma of the nose with multiple cervical lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Mi-Jin; Cho, Kyu-Sup; Lee, Yoon-Se; Nam, Su-Bong

    2012-08-01

    Sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma (SSDC) in the nose, a rare occurrence with no specific symptoms, is frequently confused with rhinophyma or other inflammatory disease. In this report, we describe a 64-year-old woman who presented with a mass on her nasal dorsum for 1 year. Initially, the tumor had been misdiagnosed as a rhinophyma and followed-up for 1 year. She was referred due to a persistent nasal and neck mass. Deep incisional biopsy was performed to produce sufficient tissue and the histopathologic results showed SSDC. We performed wide local excision and reconstruction using radial forearm musculocutaneous free flaps with a costal cartilage framework followed by bilateral neck dissection. SSDC is seldom recognized and is frequently clinically confused with benign syringoma prior to pathologic diagnosis. Wide and deep incisional biopsy is necessary for the correct diagnosis and successful treatment of SSDC.

  18. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  19. The Association of Neonatal Dacryocystoceles and Infantile Dacryocystitis with Nasolacrimal Duct Cysts (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether neonatal dacryocystoceles and dacryocystitis are associated with nasolacrimal duct cysts, and to report the outcomes of treatment of these disorders. Methods: This was a retrospective medical record review of two groups of infants with nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction. The first group had dacryocystoceles with or without dacryocystitis. The second group had NLD obstruction with symptoms severe enough to require early NLD probing. All of the patients underwent NLD probing and nasal endoscopy. When present, NLD cysts were removed. Results: In the first group, 33 infants had dacryocystoceles. Acute dacryocystitis was present in 16 patients, 12 had noninfected dacryocystoceles that did not resolve, and 5 had dacryocystoceles that resolved but severe symptoms persisted. All of the patients had NLD cysts that were surgically removed. The symptoms resolved after surgery in 31 patients (94%). In the second group, 27 infants less than 6 months old without dacryocystoceles underwent early NLD probing and endoscopy due to severity of symptoms. Twelve (44%) of these patients had NLD cysts. The symptoms resolved in 11 (92%) of 12 patients following NLD probing and cyst removal. Conclusions: Neonatal dacryocystoceles are almost always associated with NLD cysts. The success rate of NLD probing and endoscopic cyst removal in these patients is excellent. Nasolacrimal duct cysts also are present in many young infants with severe symptoms of NLD obstruction. Nasal endoscopy is an important adjunct to the management of these infants. PMID:23818736

  20. The Persistence of PCBs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert H.; Highland, Joseph H.

    1979-01-01

    PCB's are one of the most persistent chemicals ever introduced into the environment by man. From very early in their history of manufacture PCB's were suspected of being hazardous to health, but public awareness of the hazard was slow in coming. (RE)

  1. A Very Persistent Mistake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, J. A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Articulated bodies with an internal energy source require to be coupled to an external mass in order to accelerate themselves but the typical text book assertion that the net force is provided by the external mass is not correct. Arguments are presented demonstrating that the assertion is incorrect and reasons are suggested for the persistence of…

  2. Persistence to Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Smart, John C.

    1986-01-01

    A study is reported of the relationship of family education and income, high school grades, academic and social self-confidence, undergraduate institutional selectivity and size, academic and social integration, overall college satisfaction, bachelor's degree attainment, and financial aid on students' persistence to graduate school. (MSE)

  3. THERMAL REGAIN FROM DISPLACEMENT OF DUCT LEAKAGE WITHIN INSULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-05-01

    In one type of duct efficiency retrofit, additional insulation is added to a duct system that is already insulated. For example, a layer of R-4 insulation might be: added to a duct system that already has R-4 installed. It is possible that--either by chance or by design--the add-on layer, while not stopping duct leaks, might cause the leakage air to flow longitudinally for a distance, parallel to the duct, before it finds a way out of the newly added outer layer. This could happen by chance if the outer and inner layers of insulation have seams at different locations. Perhaps more usefully, if such longitudinal displacement of the leakage air turned out to be useful, it might be designed into the makeup of the outer insulation layer intended to be used in the retrofit. It is plausible that this leakage air might serve a useful function in keeping the insulation layer warmer (or, in the air-conditioning mode, cooler) than it would be in the absence of the leakage. By being held close to the ducts for a while, it might establish an artificially warmer (or cooler, in air conditioning) zone around the ducts. To the extent that this effect would reduce the heat losses from the ducts, the leakage should be credited with a ''thermal regain'' in the same way that leakage into buffer zones is credited with thermal regain when the leakage air warms (or cools) the buffer zone relative to the temperature it would have in the absence of such duct leakage. The purpose of this report is to investigate whether and to what extent such thermal regain exists. The model developed below applies to a situation where there are two distinct layers of insulation around the duct, with leakage air moving between them in a longitudinal direction for a distance before it finds its way out from the outer insulation layer. It may also apply approximately where there is a single insulation layer with an air barrier on the outside. Leakage air may pass into the insulation itself and thence

  4. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  5. The Laparoscopic Re-Exploration in the Management of the Gallbladder Remnant and the Cystic Duct Stump Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satendra; Afaque, Yusuf; Bhartia, Abhishek; Bhartia, Vishnu Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gallbladder remnant and the cystic duct stump calculi are uncommon causes of post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Re-exploration is usually needed in the cases where symptom persists. Very few case series and reports are available regarding laparoscopic re-exploration. Aim To assess the safety and feasibility of Laparoscopic re-exploration in the cases of gallbladder remnant and cystic duct stump calculi leading to post cholecystectomy syndromes. Materials and Methods In this study, laparoscopic re-explorations was done in 22 patients in which 17 patients had gallbladder remnant calculi and 5 had cystic duct stump calculi. The study considered parameters like the operative time, conversion rate, post-operative complications, post-operative hospital stay and mortality in these patients. The duration of study was 15 years and the data was retrospectively reviewed. Results The median operating time was 83 minutes (range 51 to 134 minutes). Only one patient had conversion to open surgery. In postoperative period two patients had bile leak. They were managed conservatively and leak subsided in 8 and 11 days respectively. One patient had postoperative bleeding not requiring blood transfusion. There was no major complication requiring further intervention and no mortality. Patients were discharged on median day 4 (range 2-11) after the surgery. Patients were followed up every 3 months for one year. However, out of these three patients did not turn up for follow-up. Conclusion In expert hands laparoscopic re-exploration of the gallbladder remnant/cystic duct stump calculi can be performed within a reasonable operating time. The conversion to conventional re–exploration rate was very low with minimal post-operative complications and shorter hospital stay. PMID:27656498

  6. Effects of wall admittance changes on duct transmission and radiation of sound.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, D. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of changes in duct wall acoustic properties on the transmission of sound through ducts. Two special problems are considered. The first problem is that of a rectangular infinite-length duct with airflow and a single change in duct wall acoustic admittance. The second problem is that of an axisymmetric field in a finite circular duct without airflow and with an arbitrary number of duct wall acoustic admittance changes. Results for the first problem show the effect of wall admittance change and flow on the acoustic power transmission within the duct. Results for the second problem show the interactive effects of multiple duct liner sections on power radiated from a finite duct.

  7. Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  8. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and... exhaust duct system is connected to the clothes dryer, and (ii) A moisture lint exhaust duct system is... section. (2) A clothes dryer moisture-lint exhaust duct shall not be connected to any other duct, vent...

  9. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  10. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  11. Optimization and Persistence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    and production costs are amplified by first-time applica- tion of high technology , security, and lim- ited production quantities. Alternate can...stred spendmg levels, average fleet age, average " technological advantage" of the fleet, and so forth. (The persistent features we discuss have all...a precise concept when dealing with nonmonetary units, such as technological advantage, but all elastic penalties are usually adjusted by the same

  12. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  13. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  14. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, Marc; Chitwood, Rick; German, Alea; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  15. Nusselt numbers in rectangular ducts with laminar viscous dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Morini, G.L.; Spiga, M.

    1999-11-01

    The need for high thermal performance has stimulated the use of rectangular ducts in a wide variety of compact heat exchangers, mainly in tube-fin and plate-fin exchangers, in order to obtain an enhancement in heat transfer, with the same cross-sectional area of the duct. In this paper, the steady temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers are analytically determined for a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a rectangular duct, in fully developed laminar flow with viscous dissipation, for any combination of heated and adiabatic sides of the duct, in H1 boundary condition, and neglecting the axial heat conduction in the fluid. The Navier-Stokes and the energy balance equations are solved using the technique of the finite integral transforms. For a duct with four uniformly heated sides (4 version), the temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers are obtained as a function of the aspect ratio and of the Brinkman number and presented in graphs and tables Finally it is proved that the temperature field in a fully developed T boundary condition can be obtained as a particular case of the H1 problem and that the corresponding Nusselt numbers do not depend on the Brinkman number.

  16. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  17. Brunt-Doppler ducting of small-period gravity waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.Y.; Tuan, T.F. )

    1988-09-01

    The variation of the Brunt period with height lends itself to a natural ducting and filtering mechanism for low-altitude short-period gravity waves. The authors investigate this mechanism in combination with Doppler ducting produced by the variation in horizontal winds. Both the frequency dispersion at fixed propagation direction and the direction dispersion at fixed frequency have been examined in a COSPAR background atmosphere with zonal and meridional winds. The results show that not only are the low-altitude short-period gravity waves ducted, but unlike the usual ducting mechanisms due to uneven structure and dissipation which produce only partially guided modes, this mechanism produces primarily guided modes in the absence of winds and a mixture of fully and partially guided modes with winds. The wind effects are very large on the higher modes and less significant on the few lowest modes, including the Lamb mode. Investigation of viscous dissipation, nonlinearity, and instability have shown that viscosity is unimportant for most altitudes of interest and that nonlinearity and instability can play a role for all but the lowest guided modes. They propose that simultaneous continuous observation of airglow at mesospheric and ionospheric altitudes be made to verify not only the low-altitude Brunt-Doppler ducting for short-period gravity waves, but also the vertical energy distribution of the medium- and large-scale TIDs.

  18. Evaluation of simplified evaporation duct refractivity models for inversion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeger, J. T.; Grimes, N. G.; Rickard, H. E.; Hackett, E. E.

    2015-10-01

    To assess a radar system's instantaneous performance on any given day, detailed knowledge of the meteorological conditions is required due to the dependency of atmospheric refractivity on thermodynamic properties such as temperature, water vapor, and pressure. Because of the significant challenges involved in obtaining these data, recent efforts have focused on development of methods to obtain the refractivity structure inversely using radar measurements and radar wave propagation models. Such inversion techniques generally use simplified refractivity models in order to reduce the parameter space of the solution. Here the accuracy of three simple refractivity models is examined for the case of an evaporation duct. The models utilize the basic log linear shape classically associated with evaporation ducts, but each model depends on various parameters that affect different aspects of the profile, such as its shape and duct height. The model parameters are optimized using radiosonde data, and their performance is compared to these atmospheric measurements. The optimized models and data are also used to predict propagation using a parabolic equation code with the refractivity prescribed by the models and measured data, and the resulting propagation patterns are compared. The results of this study suggest that the best log linear model formulation for an inversion problem would be a two-layer model that contains at least three parameters: duct height, duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. This functional form permits a reasonably accurate fit to atmospheric measurements as well as embodies key features of the profile required for correct propagation prediction with as few parameters as possible.

  19. Performance of titanium stabilized D9 cladding and ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B J

    1986-04-01

    A series of mixed oxide UO/sub 2/-PuO/sub 2/ Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Fuel assemblies using D9 alloy cladding and/or ducts have been irradiated to high exposure in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) with very encouraging results. D9 is a titanium modified variant of 316 stainless steel. The highest burnup attained for 316 stainless steel clad driver fuel pins in FFTF has been achieved in an assembly with a cold worked D9 duct while assemblies which simultaneously utilize both D9 ducts and D9 clad pins have achieved burnups as high as 155 MWd/kgM with a corresponding fast fluence of 25 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/. The cold worked D9 ducts demonstrated less length increase and less dilation than their Cold Worked 316 SS counterparts. The D9 pins also showed less length and diameter increase than comparable 316 SS pins with less evidence of deformation due to interference between the pin bundle and the duct. Corrosion behavior at the inner and outer surface of the D9 cladding has proved to be very similar to that of 316 stainless steel.

  20. Investigations of a building-integrated ducted wind turbine module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Robert K. W.; Grant, Andrew D.

    2002-01-01

    So far, wind energy has not played a major role in the group of technologies for embedded generation in the built environment. However, the wind flow around conventional tall buildings generates differential pressures, which may cause an enhanced mass flow through a building-integrated turbine. As a first step, a prototype of a small-scale ducted wind turbine has been developed and tested, which seems to be feasible for integration into the leading roof edge of such a building. Here an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow through building-integrated ducting is presented. Pressure and wind speed measurements have been carried out on a wind tunnel model at different angles of incident wind, and different duct configurations have been tested. It was confirmed that wind speeds up to 30% higher than in the approaching freestream may be induced in the duct, and good performance was obtained for angles of incident wind up to ±60°. The experimental work proceeded in parallel with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. The geometry of the system was difficult to represent to the required level of accuracy, and modelling was restricted to a few simple cases, for which the flow field in the building-integrated duct was compared with experimental results. Generally good agreement was obtained, indicating that CFD techniques could play a major role in the design process. Predicted power of the proposed device suggests that it will compare favourably with conventional small wind turbines and photovoltaics in an urban environment.

  1. Stratified shear flow in an inclined square duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Colin; Linden, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We present results of experiments on stratified shear flow in an inclined duct. The duct connects two reservoirs of fluid with different densities, which drives a counterflow with a dense layer flowing beneath a less-dense layer moving in the opposite direction. Depending on the dimensionless Atwood number A and duct angle θ, we identify four flow states: a laminar L state, a Holmboe wavemode H state, a spatio-temporally intermittent I state, and a fully developed turbulent T state. We map a state diagram of these flows in the Atwood number - θ plane and examine the force balances that determine each of these states. We find the L and H states to be hydraulically controlled at the ends of the duct and the flow is determined by the pressure difference associated with the density difference between the reservoirs. The I and T states are associated with increasing dissipation within the duct. We replot the state-space in the Grashof number - θ phase plane and find the transition to the T -state is governed by a critical Grashof number. We then evaluate the level of turbulence by examining scalings for the thickness of interfacial region between the two layers. NSF GRF No. DGE1144152.

  2. Role of β-catenin in development of bile ducts

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Sabine; Godard, Cécile; Saandi, Thoueiba; Jacquemin, Patrick; Monga, Satdarshan P.; Colnot, Sabine; Lemaigre, Frédéric P.

    2016-01-01

    Beta-catenin is known to play stage- and cell-specific functions during liver development. However, its role in development of bile ducts has not yet been addressed. Here we used stage-specific in vivo gain- and loss-of-function approaches, as well as lineage tracing experiments in the mouse, to first demonstrate that β-catenin is dispensable for differentiation of liver precursor cells (hepatoblasts) to cholangiocyte precursors. Second, when β-catenin was depleted in the latter, maturation of cholangiocytes, bile duct morphogenesis and differentiation of periportal hepatocytes from cholangiocyte precursors was normal. In contrast, stabilization of β-catenin in cholangiocyte precursors perturbed duct development and cholangiocyte differentiation. We conclude that β-catenin is dispensable for biliary development but that its activity must be kept within tight limits. Our work is expected to significantly impact on in vitro differentiation of stem cells to cholangiocytes for toxicology studies and disease modeling. PMID:26856660

  3. Mode Propagation in Nonuniform Circular Ducts with Potential Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1982-01-01

    A previously reported closed form solution is expanded to determine effects of isentropic mean flow on mode propagation in a slowly converging-diverging duct, a circular cosh duct. On the assumption of uniform steady fluid density, the mean flow increases the power transmission coefficient. The increase is directly related to the increase of the cutoff ratio at the duct throat. With the negligible transverse gradients of the steady fluid variables, the conversion from one mode to another is negligible, and the power transmission coefficient remains unchanged with the mean flow direction reversed. With a proper choice of frequency parameter, many different modes can be made subject to a single value of the power transmission loss. A systematic method to include the effects of the gradients of the steady fluid variables is also described.

  4. The mechanical behavior of a mammalian lung alveolar duct model.

    PubMed

    Denny, E; Schroter, R C

    1995-08-01

    A model for the mechanical properties of an alveolar duct is analyzed using the finite element method. Its geometry comprises an assemblage of truncated octahedral alveoli surrounding a longitudinal air duct. The amounts and distributions of elastin and collagen fiber bundles, modeled by separate stress-strain laws, are based upon published data for dogs. The surface tension of the air-liquid interface is modeled using an area-dependent relationship. Pressure-volume curves are computed that compare well with experimental data for both saline-filled and air-filled lungs. Pressure-volume curves of the separate elastin and collagen fiber contributions are similar in form to the behavior of saline-filled lungs treated with either elastase or collagenase. A comparison with our earlier model, based upon a single alveolus, shows the duct to have a behavior closer to reported experimental data.

  5. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  6. Developing active noise control systems for noise attenuation in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Rosely V.; Ivo, Rodrigo C.; Medeiros, Eduardo B.

    2002-11-01

    The present work describes some of the research effort on Active Noise Control (ANC) being jointly developed by the Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MINAS) and the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Considerations about the implementation of Digital Signal Processing for noise control in ducts has been presented. The objective is to establish a study on Active Noise Control in ducts combining geometry and acoustic parameters modification together with adaptive digital filtering implementation. Both algorithm and digital signal processing details are also discussed. The main results for a typical application where real attenuation has been obtained are presented and considered according to their use in developing real applications. The authors also believe that the present text should provide an interesting overview for both designers and students concerned about Active Noise Control in ducts. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  7. Atypical Ormond's disease associated with bile duct stricture mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Quante, Michael; Appenrodt, Beate; Randerath, Simone; Wolff, Martin; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with suspected hilar cholangiocarcinoma presented with jaundice and dilated intrahepatic bile ducts owing to high-grade hepatic duct confluence stenosis. The suspected tumour and the entire extrahepatic bile duct system were resected and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. Histological investigations showed perihepatic fibrosis but no signs of malignancy. One year later the patient developed bilateral hydronephrosis caused by ureteral obstruction. Since the patient had a gynaecological history of widespread inflammation, she was referred for transabdominal operative ureterolysis combined with hysterectomy and adnexectomy. Histological investigations as well as fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings were compatible with retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease). Treatment with tamoxifen was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of intraperitoneal fibroses mimicking cholangiocarcinoma followed by the typical symptoms of retroperitoneal Ormond's disease have been reported.

  8. Mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts with potential flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1982-01-01

    A previously reported closed form solution is expanded to determine effects of isentropic mean flow on mode propagation in a slowly converging-diverging duct - a circular cosh duct. On the assumption of uniform steady fluid density, the mean flow increases the power transmission coefficient. The increase is directly related to the increase of the cutoff ratio at the duct throat. With the negligible transverse gradients of the steady fluid variables, the conversion from one mode to another is negligible, and the power transmission coefficient remains unchanged with the mean flow direction reversed. With a proper choice of frequency parameter, many different modes can be made subject to a single value of the power transmission loss. The paper also describes a systematic method to include the effects of the gradients of the steady fluid variables.

  9. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  10. Role of β-catenin in development of bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Cordi, Sabine; Godard, Cécile; Saandi, Thoueiba; Jacquemin, Patrick; Monga, Satdarshan P; Colnot, Sabine; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2016-01-01

    Beta-catenin is known to play stage- and cell-specific functions during liver development. However, its role in development of bile ducts has not yet been addressed. Here we used stage-specific in vivo gain- and loss-of-function approaches, as well as lineage tracing experiments in the mouse, to first demonstrate that β-catenin is dispensable for differentiation of liver precursor cells (hepatoblasts) to cholangiocyte precursors. Second, when β-catenin was depleted in the latter, maturation of cholangiocytes, bile duct morphogenesis and differentiation of periportal hepatocytes from cholangiocyte precursors was normal. In contrast, stabilization of β-catenin in cholangiocyte precursors perturbed duct development and cholangiocyte differentiation. We conclude that β-catenin is dispensable for biliary development but that its activity must be kept within tight limits. Our work is expected to significantly impact on in vitro differentiation of stem cells to cholangiocytes for toxicology studies and disease modeling.

  11. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts.

  12. Observationally constrained modeling of sound in curved ocean internal waves: examination of deep ducting and surface ducting at short range.

    PubMed

    Duda, Timothy F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones).

  13. CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Christian, Jeffrey E; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

  14. Whistler propagation in ionospheric density ducts: Simulations and DEMETER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, J. R.; Streltsov, A. V.; Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.

    2013-11-01

    On 16 October 2009, the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite observed VLF whistler wave activity coincident with an ionospheric heating experiment conducted at HAARP. At the same time, density measurements by DEMETER indicate the presence of multiple field-aligned enhancements. Using an electron MHD model, we show that the distribution of VLF power observed by DEMETER is consistent with the propagation of whistlers from the heating region inside the observed density enhancements. We also discuss other interesting features of this event, including coupling of the lower hybrid and whistler modes, whistler trapping in artificial density ducts, and the interference of whistlers waves from two adjacent ducts.

  15. Thoracic duct cyst of posterior mediastinum: a "challenging" differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Electra, Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou; Evangelia, Athanasiou; Mattheos, Bobos; Dimitris, Hatzibougias I; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsavlis, Drosos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Charalampidis, Chralampos; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; Mparmpetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Andreas, Mpakas; Stamatis, Arikas; Alexandros, Kolettas; Kosmas, Tsakiridis

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic duct cysts of the mediastinum are extremely rare entities and their pathogenesis still remains unknown. Imaging methods are not specific and show a cystic mass, however the real nature of the lesion is confirmed only with the help of histopathological examination after surgical excision. Here, we present a case of thoracic cyst in a 28-year-old female, lining in posterior lower mediastinum. The cyst was removed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the histopathological findings were that of thoracic duct cyst. Through this case, we propose an ideal surgical approach and diagnostic procedure.

  16. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Adele O.; Berenstein, Cynthia Koeppel; Fonseca, Bernardo; Martorina, Wagner José; de Souza, Andreise Laurian N. R.; Meyer de Moraes, Gustavo; Rajão, Kamilla Maria Araújo Brandão; Sousa, Bárbara Érika Caldeira Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options. PMID:28270939

  17. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  18. Penetrating foreign body in the nasal floor through nasolacrimal duct

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Mannella, Valentina Katia; Freni, Francesco; Galletti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Clinical otolaryngologists frequently encounter nasal foreign bodies (FBs) particularly among children. The removal of nasal FBs is a common otolaryngological practice. However, occasionally trauma results from FBs being lodged in the nasal cavity especially through the nasolacrimal duct. In this article we present an unusual case of a FB that from the left medial canthus went inside the nasolacrimal duct, then through the inferior turbinate and stuck in the floor of the nose. We describe the transnasal endoscopic approach used and we recommend that the treatment be done as soon as possible to avoid complications. PMID:24925531

  19. An incidental finding of carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoang U; Chan, Cyrus C; Knotts, F Barry

    2013-04-04

    Cystic duct carcinoids are extremely rare tumors. We present a 58-year-old female with carcinoid tumor found within the cystic duct margin following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She subsequently underwent surgical resection with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. No standard guidelines currently exist regarding surgical excision of these rare tumors. Therefore, we conducted a thorough review of the literature to recommend complete oncologic surgical resection with re-establishment of biliary continuity as the mainstay of definitive treatment; adjuvant therapy currently remains investigational. Long-term prognosis is good with this approach.

  20. An incidental finding of carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoang U.; Chan, Cyrus C.; Knotts, F. Barry

    2013-01-01

    Cystic duct carcinoids are extremely rare tumors. We present a 58-year-old female with carcinoid tumor found within the cystic duct margin following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She subsequently underwent surgical resection with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. No standard guidelines currently exist regarding surgical excision of these rare tumors. Therefore, we conducted a thorough review of the literature to recommend complete oncologic surgical resection with re-establishment of biliary continuity as the mainstay of definitive treatment; adjuvant therapy currently remains investigational. Long-term prognosis is good with this approach. PMID:24964431

  1. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, H.T.S.; Kaplan, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant.

  2. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváček, David

    2014-03-01

    The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  3. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Durham, M.D.; Sowa, W.A.; Himes, R.M.; Mahaffey, W.A.

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  4. Sound transmission in ducts containing nearly choked flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callegari, A. J.; Myers, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The nonlinear theory previously developed by the authors (1977, 1978) is used to obtain numerical results for sound transmission through a nearly choked throat in a variable-area duct. Parametric studies are performed for different source locations, strengths and frequencies. It is shown that the nonlinear interactions in the throat region generate superharmonics of the fundamental (source) frequency throughout the duct. The amplitudes of these superharmonics increase as the source parameters (frequency and strength) are increased toward values leading to acoustic shocks. For a downstream source, superharmonics carry about 20% of the total acoustic power as shocking conditions are approached. For the source strength levels and frequencies considered, streaming effects are negligible.

  5. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  6. Adenomas of the common bile duct in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Pan, Jun-Yong; Bai, Yan-Nan; Lai, Zhi-De; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2015-03-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner's syndrome is often accompanied by adenomas of the stomach and duodenum. We experienced a case of adenomas of the common bile duct in a 40-year-old woman with FAP presenting with acute cholangitis. Only 8 cases of adenomas or adenocarcinoma of the common bile duct have been reported in the literature in patients with FAP or Gardner's syndrome. Those patients presented with acute cholangitis or pancreatitis. Local excision or Whipple procedure may be the reasonable surgical option.

  7. Investigation of the tone-burst tube for duct lining attenuation measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffel, A. R.; Morrow, P. F.

    1972-01-01

    The tone burst technique makes practical the laboratory evaluation of potential inlet and discharge duct treatments. Tone burst apparatus requires only simple machined parts and standard components. Small, simply made, lining samples are quickly and easily installed in the system. Two small electromagnetric loudspeaker drivers produce peak sound pressure level of over 166 db in the 3-square-inch sample duct. Air pump available in most laboratories can produce air flows of over plus and minus Mach 0.3 in the sample duct. The technique uses short shaped pulses of sound propagated down a progressive wave tube containing the sample duct. The peak pressure level output of the treated duct is compared with the peak pressure level output of a substituted reference duct. The difference between the levels is the attenuation or insertion loss of the treated duct. Evaluations of resonant absorber linings by the tone burst technique check attenuation values predicted by empirical formulas based on full scale ducts.

  8. Effect of flow on the acoustic resonances of an open-ended duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingard, U.; Singhal, V. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of flow on the acoustic resonances of an open-ended, hard-walled duct is analyzed. The flow produces acoustic losses both in the interior of the duct and at the ends. Unless the duct is very long, typically 100 times the diameter, the losses at the ends dominate. At flow Mach numbers in excess of 0.4 the losses are so large that axial duct resonances are almost completely suppressed. The plane-wave Green's function for the duct with flow is expressed in terms of the (experimentally determined) pressure reflection coefficients at the ends of the duct, and the flow dependence of the complex eigenfrequencies of the duct is obtained. Some observations concerning the noise produced by the flow in the duct are also reported.

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America research teams who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of short compact duct runs, with supply registers near interior walls.

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  11. Bile duct warmer in hepatic cryosurgery--a pig liver model.

    PubMed

    Seifert, J K; Dutkowski, P; Junginger, T; Morris, D L

    1997-11-01

    Freezing of the common bile duct resulted in injury, stenosis, or perforation of the bile duct in a dog model. Biliary cutaneous fistulas and bile leaks are reported as complications of hepatic cryosurgery in man. In an ex vivo pig liver model we compared freezing close to the bile duct with and without warming the bile duct with warmed saline solution via an inserted catheter ("bile duct warmer"). The recorded temperatures at the outer wall of the bile duct were -50 degrees C after 10 min of freezing without and 5. 8 degrees C with the use of the warmer (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA). The bile duct warmer system may be a simple and inexpensive device in reducing perioperative morbidity after hepatic cryosurgery of hepatic liver lesions close to a bile duct.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF FUNGAL (PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) GROWTH ON THREE HVAC DUCT MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses laboratory experiments to evaluate the susceptibility of three ventilation duct materials (fibrous glass ductboard, galvanized steel, and insulated flexible duct) to fungal (P. chrysogenum) growth. [NOTE: Many building investigators have documented fungal bi...

  13. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  14. Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

  15. Wharton's Duct Sialolith of Unusual Size: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mathew Cherian, Nithin; Vichattu, Sankar Vinod; Thomas, Ninan; Varghese, Aabu

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased incidence of submandibular gland duct developing sialoliths. Among them the sialoliths attaining a size of more than 1.5 cms are rare. Here we present a case with an abnormally sized sialolith in Wharton's duct and a review of the literature about the abnormally sized sialoliths and various anatomical and physiological considerations of the duct which contribute to the higher incidence of sialolith in the duct. PMID:25405038

  16. 46 CFR 32.56-60 - Ventilation ducts-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation ducts-T/ALL. 32.56-60 Section 32.56-60....56-60 Ventilation ducts—T/ALL. (a) Each duct for ventilation of Category A machinery spaces that... of 5 meters (16.4 feet) beyond each machinery space boundary. (b) Each duct for ventilation...

  17. 46 CFR 32.56-60 - Ventilation ducts-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation ducts-T/ALL. 32.56-60 Section 32.56-60....56-60 Ventilation ducts—T/ALL. (a) Each duct for ventilation of Category A machinery spaces that... of 5 meters (16.4 feet) beyond each machinery space boundary. (b) Each duct for ventilation...

  18. 46 CFR 32.56-60 - Ventilation ducts-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation ducts-T/ALL. 32.56-60 Section 32.56-60....56-60 Ventilation ducts—T/ALL. (a) Each duct for ventilation of Category A machinery spaces that... of 5 meters (16.4 feet) beyond each machinery space boundary. (b) Each duct for ventilation...

  19. Extracorporeal abdominal massage may help prevent recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naohito; Hamaya, Sae; Tatsuta, Miwa; Nakatsu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective, but recurrent bile duct stones are a common late complication. Because there are still no effective therapies for preventing this complication, some patients have experienced bile duct stone recurrence many times. We describe herein a method of abdominal massage to treat patients with prior cholecystectomy who have experienced recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:27540575

  20. Fine structure of the human sweat ducts of eccrine and apocrine types.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, K

    1977-06-01

    The sweat ducts of human eccrine and apocrine (ceruminous) glands were observed with the transmission electron microscope. Both the dermal and epidermal segment of the eccrine as well as apocrine ducts consist of two epithelial layers: luminal cells and peripheral cells. Well-developed microvilli, occurrence of cored vesicles, dense granules, multivesicular bodies and phagosomes in the adluminal filamentous zone, and a strong accumulation of mitochondria in the basal part of the duct epithelium at the dermal segment, as well as an accumulation of small clear vesicles beneath the surface of the luminal cells of the epidermal segment are all prominent in the eccrine duct and concomitant with the special function of the human eccrine duct, i.e., absorption of ions to make the sweat hyotonic and an active endocytosis of some material from the sweat. All of the above enumerated characteristics of the eccrine duct are only rarely or never seen in the apocrine duct. On the other hand, lipid droplets appear in the peripheral cells in a certain level of the apocrine duct near its orifice into the hair follicle, suggesting a kind of metaplasia towards the sebaceous gland. Epidermal duct cells of both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands may keratinize. In the eccrine duct the process in the duct cells precedes the surrounding keratinocytes, while in the apocrine duct the relationship is reversed.

  1. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  2. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOEpatents

    Cromer, Robert Harold; Bechtel, William Theodore; Sutcu, Maz

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  3. Cystic Dilatation of the Parotid Duct of a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of the parotid duct of a goat was diagnosed by exploratory surgery and analysis of cyst contents. The cyst and its associated salivary gland were surgically removed. This case is compared with the more common salivary mucocele. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7397617

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  8. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics, 1980-81 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented covering finite element and finite difference analysis of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts. This review stresses the new work performed during the 1980-1981 time frame, although a brief discussion of earlier work is also included. Emphasis is placed on the latest state of the art in numerical techniques.

  9. Pressure Losses across Multiple Fittings in Ventilation Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability. PMID:24385871

  10. Obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhara, K.L.; Iyer, S.K.

    1984-10-01

    A case of obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture is reported. The patient received postoperative radiation for left adrenal carcinoma, seven years prior to this admission. The sequelae of hepatobiliary radiation and their management are discussed briefly.

  11. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  12. 27. DUCT LINES AND HOLES TO BE LEFT IN TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DUCT LINES AND HOLES TO BE LEFT IN TRANSFORMER ROOM AND GALLERY, MENTONE, MAR. 13, 1904. R.S. MASSON, CONSULTING ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, SAN FRANCISCO AND LOS ANGELES. SCE drawing no. 52319. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 16. FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) EXHAUST AND INTAKE DUCTS. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) EXHAUST AND INTAKE DUCTS. SOUTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT OF LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  15. 24. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION 85.5 OF MST. FOLDED-UP PLATFORM ON RIGHT OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Duct injection technology prototype development. Materials corrosion report, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    DOEpatents

    Craig, Edwin R.; Semken, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement.

  18. FET. Exhaust duct and stack. Plan, elevation, foundation, details. Ralph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FET. Exhaust duct and stack. Plan, elevation, foundation, details. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-10 ANP/GE-5-716-S-3. Date: February 1959. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 036-0716-00-693-107474 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. The Detection of Radiated Modes from Ducted Fan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Nark, Douglas M.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2001-01-01

    The bypass duct of an aircraft engine is a low-pass filter allowing some spinning modes to radiate outside the duct. The knowledge of the radiated modes can help in noise reduction, as well as the diagnosis of noise generation mechanisms inside the duct. We propose a nonintrusive technique using a circular microphone array outside the engine measuring the complex noise spectrum on an arc of a circle. The array is placed at various axial distances from the inlet or the exhaust of the engine. Using a model of noise radiation from the duct, an overdetermined system of linear equations is constructed for the complex amplitudes of the radial modes for a fixed circumferential mode. This system of linear equations is generally singular, indicating that the problem is illposed. Tikhonov regularization is employed to solve this system of equations for the unknown amplitudes of the radiated modes. An application of our mode detection technique using measured acoustic data from a circular microphone array is presented. We show that this technique can reliably detect radiated modes with the possible exception of modes very close to cut-off.

  20. Perturbations From Ducts on the Modes of Acoustic Thermometers

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, K. A.; Lin, H.; Moldover, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the perturbations of the modes of an acoustic thermometer caused by circular ducts used either for gas flow or as acoustic waveguides coupled to remote transducers. We calculate the acoustic admittance of circular ducts using a model based on transmission line theory. The admittance is used to calculate the perturbations to the resonance frequencies and half-widths of the modes of spherical and cylindrical acoustic resonators as functions of the duct’s radius, length, and the locations of the transducers along the duct's length. To verify the model, we measured the complex acoustic admittances of a series of circular tubes as a function of length between 200 Hz and 10 kHz using a three-port acoustic coupler. The absolute magnitude of the specific acoustic admittance is approximately one. For a 1.4 mm inside-diameter, 1.4 m long tube, the root mean square difference between the measured and modeled specific admittances (both real and imaginary parts) over this frequency range was 0.018. We conclude by presenting design considerations for ducts connected to acoustic thermometers. PMID:27504227

  1. Resolution of Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction with Nonsurgical Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine how often nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) resolves with 6 months of nonsurgical management in infants aged 6 to <10 months old. Methods As part of a randomized trial evaluating the cost effectiveness of immediate office probing versus observation with deferred probing for unresolved cases, 107 infants aged 6 to <10 months old who had NLDO and no history of prior nasolacrimal duct surgery were prescribed 6 months of nasolacrimal duct massage and topical antibiotics as needed. Resolution of the nasolacrimal duct obstruction was assessed 6 months after study entry and was defined as the absence of all clinical signs of NLDO (epiphora, increased tear lake, or mucous discharge) and not having undergone NLDO surgery. Exploratory analyses assessed whether baseline characteristics including age, gender, laterality, and prior treatment were associated with the probability of NLDO resolving without surgery. Results At the 6-month examination, which was completed for 117 of the 133 eyes (88%), the NLDO had resolved without surgery in 77 eyes (66%, 95% CI = 56% to 74%). None of the baseline characteristics we evaluated were found to be associated with resolution. Discussion In infants 6 to < 10 months of age, more than half of eyes with NLDO resolve within 6 months with nonsurgical management. Knowledge of the rate of NLDO resolution in infancy without surgery will help clinicians and parents effectively discuss treatment options. PMID:22801833

  2. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    SciTech Connect

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J.

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  3. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  4. 22. A closeup interior view of the duct work and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. A close-up interior view of the duct work and mechanical equipment used in the delivery of the grain to the upper level grain conveyor system for Elevator and Silo Complex B (1932). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  5. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.

  6. Pressure losses across multiple fittings in ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Ai, Z T; Mak, C M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability.

  7. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.

  8. Cluster Observations of Whistler Mode Ducts and Banded Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, N.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Bell et al., [2009] proposed that the source region for banded chorus consists of whistler mode ducts of depleted electron density (Ne) for upper band (UB) chorus for all wave normal angles (θ) and ducts of either enhanced or depleted Ne for lower band (LB) chorus, for small θ and θ near or greater than the Gendrin angle (θG), respectively. We provide support for this model using new high resolution (17 km) Ne observations from the Cluster WHISPER and EFW instruments. Data is examined from January 20, 2004, when strong banded chorus was observed over 3000 km of the Cluster 2 orbit, ending at the magnetic equator. Previous analysis of LB chorus on this day showed θ>θG [Santolík et al., 2009; Chum et al., 2009]. Using the Ne data, we show that the LB chorus is generated within depletion ducts in the source region and that the half-width of these ducts (˜70 km) is comparable to the transverse scale (˜100 km) of the chorus source region. Making use of the fact that the group velocity of the LB chorus waves has a significant cross-L component, we show the source region extends over 500 km near the magnetic equator.

  9. 63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic detail drawing of inlet duct cone on exhaust scrubber at building 202, June 18, 1955. NASA GRC drawing no. CD-101266. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Duct flow nonuniformities for Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Analytical capabilities for modeling hot gas flow on the fuel side of the Space Shuttle Main Engines are developed. Emphasis is placed on construction and documentation of a computational grid code for modeling an elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side hot gas manifold. Computational results for flow past a support strut in an annular channel are also presented.

  11. [Experimental microendoscopy of the milk duct system (ductoscopy)].

    PubMed

    Rimbach, S; Wallwiener, D; Fein, A; von Fournier, D; Bastert, G

    1995-01-01

    According to recent reports, the microendoscopic lactiferous duct investigation (ductoscopy) could improve diagnosis in case of pathological nipple discharge. However, the description of a reproducible and reliable methodology, suitable for thorough evaluation of the lactiferous duct is missing so far. Therefore, the pressure study developed a procedure, that may serve now as an experimental basis for further clinical evaluation. Access to the mamillary duct is primarily gained using atraumatic flexible teflon catheters. Corresponding to the diameter of the duct, either a semirigid 0.87 mm fiberendoscope can be successfully introduced via a 1.2 mm catheter, or a flexible 0.50 mm fiberendoscope via a 1.0 mm catheter. A controlled distension using few milliliters of ringer's lactate is the prerequisite for clear visualization of the intraductal space and protection against iatrogenic wall lesions. Metal microtocars are available as prototypes. They carry a somewhat higher risk to perforate, but are advantageous when pointing at an intraductal structure and using the microtrocar as a mark for microdochectomy.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of HF Ducted Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    publication. APPROVED: TERENCE J. ELKINS, Acting Chief Propagation Branch Electromagnetic Sciences Division APPROVED: ALLAN C. SCHELL , Chief Electromagnetic...irregularities are presented. The interpretation of results is facilitated by a numerical study in which raytracing through computationally specified model ...ionospheric models . The detection of ducted signals by means of an artificially induced scatter volume is shown to be possible. Unclassified SECURITY

  13. Treatment of bile duct lesions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; van den Brink, G R; Rauws, E A; de Wit, L; Obertop, H; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N; Gouma, D J

    1996-01-01

    From January 1990 to June 1994, 53 patients who sustained bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were treated at the Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre. There were 16 men and 37 women with a mean age of 47 years. Follow up was established in all patients for a median of 17 months. Four types of ductal injury were identified. Type A (18 patients) had leakage from cystic ducts or peripheral hepatic radicles, type B (11 patients) had major bile duct leakage, type C (nine patients) had an isolated ductal stricture, and type D (15 patients) had complete transection of the bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) established the diagnosis in all type A, B, and C lesions. In type D lesions percutaneous cholangiography was required to delineate the proximal extent of the injury. Initial treatment (until resolution of symptoms and discharge from hospital) comprised endoscopy in 36 patients and surgery in 26 patients. Endoscopic treatment was possible and successful in 16 of 18 of type A lesions, five of seven of type B lesions, and three of nine of type C lesions. Most failures resulted from inability to pass strictures or leaks at the initial endoscopy. During initial treatment additional surgery was required in seven patients. Fourteen patients underwent percutaneous or surgical drainage of bile collections, or both. After endoscopic treatment early complications occurred in three patients, with a fatal outcome in two (not related to the endoscopic therapy). During follow up six patients developed late complications. All 15 patients with complete transection and four patients with major bile duct leakage were initially treated surgically. During initial treatment additional endoscopy was required in two patients. Early complications occurred in eight patients. During follow up seven patients developed stenosis of the anastomosis or bile duct. Reconstructive surgery in the early postoperative phase was associated with more

  14. Persistent Temporal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  15. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  16. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  17. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  18. Modified External Dacryocystorhinostomy in Primary Acquired Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Sharma, Rajni

    2015-01-01

    Background Epiphora secondary to acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a common ophthalmic problem in adults requiring surgical management. External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a reliable but difficult surgical technique for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Purpose To evaluate the success rate and complications of modified external DCR in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Materials and Methods This hospital based prospective interventional study included 56 patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Diagnosis of nasolacrimal duct obstruction was made through irrigation of the nasolacrimal drainage system. All patients were operated by modified technique of external DCR with anastomosis of the anterior lacrimal and nasal mucosal flaps only, whereas posterior mucosal flaps were excised. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months. During the follow up, success rate and complications if any were recorded. Success was defined objectively by a patent lacrimal passage on irrigation and subjectively by the absence of watering or discharge. Results The mean age of the study population was 39.23 ± 10.66 years, and 78.6% of patients were females (male to female ratio 1:3.7). The average operation time was 36.48 ± 4.72 minutes. Objective and subjective success rates were 92.9% and 89.3%, respectively after a follow up period of 6 months. Intraoperatively, haemorrhage occurred in 3 patients (5.3%) and laceration of the nasal mucosa in 4 patients (7.1%). Postoperative complications included significant lid swelling and periorbital ecchymosis in 3 patients (5.3%), epistaxis in 2 patients (3.6%) and hypertrophic scar in 2 patients (3.6%). Conclusion These results suggest that modified external DCR with anterior flaps anastomosis only is a simple, safe, less time consuming surgical technique that is easy to perform, and the outcome is comparable to conventional DCR. PMID:26557549

  19. High prevalence of proposed Müllerian duct remnant cysts on the spermatic duct in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna M; Ågren, Erik O

    2013-01-01

    The spermatic ducts (vasa deferentia) of 235 otters (Lutra lutra) found dead between 1999 and 2012 in Sweden were examined for presence of paraductular cysts. Single or multiple elongated uni- or bilateral cysts parallel to the spermatic duct were noted in 72% of the examined males. The cysts were adjacent to, but did not communicate with the lumen of the spermatic duct, and were usually located within a few centimeters of the testis and epididymis. The cysts are proposed to be congenital Müllerian duct remnants. Other morphologic abnormalities in the reproductive organs were not noted within this study. Possible causes of the incomplete regression of the embryonic female gonadal duct are exposure to environmental contaminants such as elevated concentrations of estrogen-like compounds (endocrine disrupting chemicals), inbreeding, or a naturally occurring anatomic defect. No obvious geographical pattern was observed for otters with or without cysts. This is the first study and description of cysts on the spermatic duct in otters.

  20. Lhx1 is required in Müllerian duct epithelium for uterine development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Orvis, Grant D; Kwan, Kin Ming; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-05-15

    The female reproductive tract organs of mammals, including the oviducts, uterus, cervix and upper vagina, are derived from the Müllerian ducts, a pair of epithelial tubes that form within the mesonephroi. The Müllerian ducts form in a rostral to caudal manner, guided by and dependent on the Wolffian ducts that have already formed. Experimental embryological studies indicate that caudal elongation of the Müllerian duct towards the urogenital sinus occurs in part by proliferation at the ductal tip. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the elongation of the Müllerian duct are currently unclear. Lhx1 encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is essential for male and female reproductive tract development. Lhx1 is expressed in both the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts. Wolffian duct-specific knockout of Lhx1 results in degeneration of the Wolffian duct and consequently the non-cell-autonomous loss of the Müllerian duct. To determine the role of Lhx1 specifically in the Müllerian duct epithelium, we performed a Müllerian duct-specific knockout study using Wnt7a-Cre mice. Loss of Lhx1 in the Müllerian duct epithelium led to a block in Müllerian duct elongation and uterine hypoplasia characterized by loss of the entire endometrium (luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma) and inner circular but not the outer longitudinal muscle layer. Time-lapse imaging and molecular analyses indicate that Lhx1 acts cell autonomously to maintain ductal progenitor cells for Müllerian duct elongation. These studies identify LHX1 as the first transcription factor that is essential in the Müllerian duct epithelial progenitor cells for female reproductive tract development. Furthermore, these genetic studies demonstrate the requirement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for uterine tissue compartment differentiation.

  1. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  2. Recurrence of choledocholithiasis following endoscopic bile duct clearance: Long term results and factors associated with recurrent bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Konstantakis, Christos; Triantos, Christos; Theopistos, Vasileios; Theocharis, Georgios; Maroulis, Ioannis; Diamantopoulou, Georgia; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the rate of recurrence of symptomatic choledocholithiasis and identify factors associated with the recurrence of bile duct stones in patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for bile duct stone disease. METHODS All patients who underwent ERCP and EST for bile duct stone disease and had their bile duct cleared from 1/1/2005 until 31/12/2008 was enrolled. All symptomatic recurrences during the study period (until 31/12/2015) were recorded. Clinical and laboratory data potentially associated with common bile duct (CBD) stone recurrence were retrospectively retrieved from patients’ files. RESULTS A total of 495 patients were included. Sixty seven (67) out of 495 patients (13.5%) presented with recurrent symptomatic choledocholithiasis after 35.28 ± 16.9 mo while twenty two (22) of these patients (32.8%) experienced a second recurrence after 35.19 ± 23.2 mo. Factors associated with recurrence were size (diameter) of the largest CBD stone found at first presentation (10.2 ± 6.9 mm vs 7.2 ± 4.1 mm, P = 0.024), diameter of the CBD at the first examination (15.5 ± 6.3 mm vs 12.0 ± 4.6 mm, P = 0.005), use of mechanical lithotripsy (ML) (P = 0.04) and presence of difficult lithiasis (P = 0.04). Periampullary diverticula showed a trend towards significance (P = 0.066). On the contrary, number of stones, angulation of the CBD, number of ERCP sessions required to clear the CBD at first presentation, more than one ERCP session needed to clear the bile duct initially and a gallbladder in situ did not influence recurrence. CONCLUSION Bile duct stone recurrence is a possible late complication following endoscopic stone extraction and CBD clearance. It appears to be associated with anatomical parameters (CBD diameter) and stone characteristics (stone size, use of ML, difficult lithiasis) at first presentation. PMID:28101305

  3. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  4. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-03-01

    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guang; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Persistent or chronic pain is tightly associated with various environmental changes and linked to abnormal gene expression within cells processing nociceptive signaling. Epigenetic regulation governs gene expression in response to environmental cues. Recent animal model and clinical studies indicate that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development/maintenance of persistent pain and, possibly the transition of acute pain to chronic pain, thus shedding light in a direction for development of new therapeutics for persistent pain. PMID:24948399

  6. Developmental aspects of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jack

    1978-01-01

    The development of the mammalian reproductive system involves: (1) an indifferent or ambisexual stage, in which both the male (Wolffian) and female (Mullerian) duct systems are present; (2) sexual differentiation, in which the phenotypic sex is expressed by the enhancement of Mullerian structures in the female and Wolffian structures in the male and reciprocal suppression of the opposite duct system; (3) cytodifferentiation, in which the epithelial, stromal and muscular features are regionally established; and (4) actual response to endogenous hormones, especially in mammals, such as the human and guinea pig, in which the differentiated tissues respond according to their capability. Specifically in the male, the onset of sexual differentiation is signaled by the elaboration of an androgenlike material (possibly testosterone) and a Mullerian-inhibiting factor from the testis. In the absence of these two influences, or one of them, the reproductive tract remains essentially female in configuration, a normal situation in the female and in abnormal males in which the urogenital sinus and Wolffian structures are incapable of hormonal responses due to the lack of specific enzymes or receptors. Male differentiation in particular involves enlargement of the penis and its canalization by the urethra, scrotal development and descent of the testis, and the formation of accessory glandular structures from the urogenital sinus or Wolffian ducts (bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, ampulla, prostate). Remnants of the Mullerian system may persist at the upper pole of the testis and are normally present (uterus masculinus) in relation to the prostatic part of the urethra. The emergence of the characteristic parts of the male reproductive system in higher mammals in relation to phylogeny and the detailed origin of these in individual ontogeny are described. The use of the guinea pig as a model animal system for the study of transplacental effects of hormones (diethylstilbestrol

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, M. L.; Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  8. Study of Gas Solid Flow Characteristics in Cyclone Inlet Ducts of A300Mwe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Lai, J.; Liu, H. Z.

    Gas solid flow characteristics in cyclone's inlet duct of a 300MW CFB boiler were studied in a cold circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental setup according to a 410t/h CFB boiler with a scale of 10∶1. Tracer particles were adopted in the experiment and their motion trajectories in the two kinds of cyclone's inlet ducts were photographed by a high-speed camera. By analyzing the motion trajectories of tracer particles, acceleration performance of particle phases in the two inlet ducts was obtained. Results indicate that the acceleration performance of particles in the long inlet duct is better than that in the short inlet duct, but the pressure drop of the long inlet duct is higher. Meanwhile, under the same operating conditions, both the separation efficiency and the pressure drop of the cyclone are higher when the cyclone is connected with the long inlet duct. Figs 11, Tabs 4 and refs 10.

  9. Characterization of the secondary flow in hexagonal ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, O.; Vinuesa, R.; Obabko, A. V.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report the results of DNSs and LESs of the turbulent flow through hexagonal ducts at friction Reynolds numbers based on centerplane wall shear and duct half-height Reτ,c ≃ 180, 360, and 550. The evolution of the Fanning friction factor f with Re is in very good agreement with experimental measurements. A significant disagreement between the DNS and previous RANS simulations was found in the prediction of the in-plane velocity, and is explained through the inability of the RANS model to properly reproduce the secondary flow present in the hexagon. The kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area yz decreases with Re in the hexagon, whereas it remains constant with Re in square ducts at comparable Reynolds numbers. Close connection between the values of Reynolds stress u w ¯ on the horizontal wall close to the corner and the interaction of bursting events between the horizontal and inclined walls is found. This interaction leads to the formation of the secondary flow, and is less frequent in the hexagon as Re increases due to the 120∘ aperture of its vertex, whereas in the square duct the 90∘ corner leads to the same level of interaction with increasing Re. Analysis of turbulence statistics at the centerplane and the azimuthal variance of the mean flow and the fluctuations shows a close connection between hexagonal ducts and pipe flows, since the hexagon exhibits near-axisymmetric conditions up to a distance of around 0.15DH measured from its center. Spanwise distributions of wall-shear stress show that in square ducts the 90∘ corner sets the location of a high-speed streak at a distance zv+≃50 from it, whereas in hexagons the 120∘ aperture leads to a shorter distance of zv+≃38 . At these locations the root mean square of the wall-shear stresses exhibits an inflection point, which further shows the connections between the near-wall structures and the large-scale motions in the outer flow.

  10. Configuration Effects on Acoustic Performance of a Duct Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas; Howerton, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    Continued success in aircraft engine noise reduction necessitates ever more complete understanding of the effect that flow path geometry has on sound propagation in the engine. The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate sound propagation through a duct of comparable size (approximately the gap of GE90) and physical characteristics to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The liner test section is designed to mimic the outer/inner walls of an engine exhaust bypass duct that has been unrolled circumferentially. Experiments to investigate the effect of curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a test liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Flow paths investigated include both straight and curved with offsets from the inlet to the discharge plane of and 1 duct width, respectively. The test liners are installed on the side walls of the liner test section. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core, which design is typical of liners installed in aircraft nacelles. In addition to fully treated side walls, combinations of treated and acoustically rigid walls are investigated. While curvature in the hard wall duct is found not to reduce the incident sound significantly, it does cause mode scattering. It is found that asymmetry of liner treatment causes scattering of the incident mode into less attenuated modes, which degrades the overall liner attenuation. It is also found that symmetry of liner treatment enhances liner performance by eliminating scattering into less attenuated modes. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation (CDUCT-LaRC) have also been made and are reported in this paper. The effect of curvature in the rigid wall configuration estimated by CDUCT-LaRC is similar to the observed results, and the mode scattering seen in the measurements also occurs in the

  11. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  12. Persistence. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today's college student is not your '60s drop-out. In 2010, college students tended to stay enrolled (i.e., persist), even if it was in a different school, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. For a student enrolled in the fall, persistence is defined as either continued enrollment during the next term after the fall or…

  13. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  14. Multidimensional persistence in biomolecular data

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology has emerged as a popular technique for the topological simplification of big data, including biomolecular data. Multidimensional persistence bears considerable promise to bridge the gap between geometry and topology. However, its practical and robust construction has been a challenge. We introduce two families of multidimensional persistence, namely pseudo-multidimensional persistence and multiscale multidimensional persistence. The former is generated via the repeated applications of persistent homology filtration to high dimensional data, such as results from molecular dynamics or partial differential equations. The latter is constructed via isotropic and anisotropic scales that create new simiplicial complexes and associated topological spaces. The utility, robustness and efficiency of the proposed topological methods are demonstrated via protein folding, protein flexibility analysis, the topological denoising of cryo-electron microscopy data, and the scale dependence of nano particles. Topological transition between partial folded and unfolded proteins has been observed in multidimensional persistence. The separation between noise topological signatures and molecular topological fingerprints is achieved by the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The multiscale multidimensional persistent homology reveals relative local features in Betti-0 invariants and the relatively global characteristics of Betti-1 and Betti-2 invariants. PMID:26032339

  15. Persistent Criminality and Career Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

  16. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Extrahepatic Bile Duct: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sin Hyung; Kim, Anna; Cha, Sang Woo; Jung, Sung Hee; Go, Hoon; Lee, Woong Chul

    2007-01-01

    Most malignant tumors originating from the biliary tract are adenocarcinomas, and adenosqamous carcinoma of Klatskin's tumor is a very rare finding. An 83-yr-old man was admitted to our hospital because of jaundice. The abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed wall thickening and luminal stenosis of both the intrahepatic duct confluent portion and the common hepatic duct. These findings were compatible with Klatskin's tumor, Bismuth type III. Considering the patient's old age, palliative combined modality therapy was performed. After percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, biopsy was performed via percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy. The histopathologic findings showed adenosquamous carcinoma. External radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy through the endobiliary Y-type stent were then done. Nine months after the radiotherapy, the laboratory findings and the abdominal computed tomography revealed biliary obstruction and progressive hepatic metastasis. The combined modality therapy of external radiotherapy, intraluminal brachytherapy and stenting assisted him to live a normal life until he finally experienced biliary obstruction. PMID:17939340

  17. Active control of multi-dimensional random sound in ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, R. J.; Elliott, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated how active control may be applied to the control of random noise in ducts. These implementations, however, have been restricted to frequencies where only plane waves are propagating in the duct. In spite of this, the need for this technology at low frequencies has progressed to the point where commercial products that apply these concepts are currently available. Extending the frequency range of this technology requires the extension of current single channel controllers to multi-variate control systems as well as addressing the problems inherent in controlling higher order modes. The application of active control in the multi-dimensional propagation of random noise in waveguides is examined. An adaptive system is implemented using measured system frequency response functions. Experimental results are presented illustrating attained suppressions of 15 to 30 dB for random noise propagating in multiple modes.

  18. Common bile duct stones - their presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajendra; Shokouhi, Bahaman N

    2009-10-01

    Common Bile duct stones (CBD) continue to pose a significant problem both to the patient and the Surgeon. They increase the morbidity of a patient undergoing Cholecystectomy from less than 5% to as much as 20% and almost zero mortality to as high as 30%. Recent times have thrown up a fair share of controversy in the management of this condition both due to technological innovations and costreduction-pressures. The aim in CBD stone disease, as in any benign disease is to discover a therapeutic algorithm with minimal morbidity, no mortality and at reasonable cost. This can be achieved only by a thorough understanding of the disease and also the available diagnostic and treatment modalities.This article dicusses the diagnosis, investigation and therapy of Common Bile Duct Stones (CBD) and gives a therapeutic algorithm.

  19. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas.

  20. [Experience in thyroglossal duct pathology: clinical case series].

    PubMed

    Cieri, Patricio; Udaquiola, Julia E; Calello, Santiago E; Libero, Daniel H

    2016-10-01

    The thyroglossal duct cyst pathology represents the second cause of bening cervical anomalies in childhood. Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Sistrunk (1920) proposed a surgical technique that is still considered the gold standard for definitive treatment of this condition. A retrospective study was made including patients who underwent surgery for thyroglossal duct cyst pathology in our department between June 2008 and August 2015. In this period, we performed 54 procedures in 45 patients (39 primary cases). Median age was 4.7 years; 14/39 patients (31.1%) had pre-operative infection. All patients were studied with neck ultrasound. A Sistrunk's procedure was performed in all cases. The global recurrence rate was 17.8% (8/45).