Science.gov

Sample records for persistent object systems

  1. Considerations of persistence and security in CHOICES, an object-oriented operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Madany, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The current design of the CHOICES persistent object implementation is summarized, and research in progress is outlined. CHOICES is implemented as an object-oriented system, and persistent objects appear to simplify and unify many functions of the system. It is demonstrated that persistent data can be accessed through an object-oriented file system model as efficiently as by an existing optimized commercial file system. The object-oriented file system can be specialized to provide an object store for persistent objects. The problems that arise in building an efficient persistent object scheme in a 32-bit virtual address space that only uses paging are described. Despite its limitations, the solution presented allows quite large numbers of objects to be active simultaneously, and permits sharing and efficient method calls.

  2. Considerations of persistence and security in CHOICES, an object-oriented operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Madany, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The current design of the CHOICES persistent object implementation is summarized, and research in progress is outlined. CHOICES is implemented as an object-oriented system, and persistent objects appear to simplify and unify many functions of the system. It is demonstrated that persistent data can be accessed through an object-oriented file system model as efficiently as by an existing optimized commercial file system. The object-oriented file system can be specialized to provide an object store for persistent objects. The problems that arise in building an efficient persistent object scheme in a 32-bit virtual address space that only uses paging are described. Despite its limitations, the solution presented allows quite large numbers of objects to be active simultaneously, and permits sharing and efficient method calls.

  3. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  4. Object-oriented Persistent Homology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  5. Object-oriented persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  6. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  7. Toward a Persistent Object Base.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    toward Improving the practice of software engineering. Such environments provide support for software development, management, and maintenance. There...standardization can all contribute to the openness, In actual practice , of an environment. Integration means that the components of the environment work together...In a persistent obed base, data abstraction should be practiced so that logical concepts are decoupled from physical representations; richer

  8. Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reverbel, F.C.R.

    1997-05-01

    In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

  9. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  10. The OKS persistent in-memory object manager

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.; Ryabov, Yu.

    1998-08-01

    The OKS (Object Kernel Support) is a library to support a simple, active persistent in-memory object manager. It is suitable for applications which need to create persistent structured information with fast access but do not require full database functionality. It can be used as the frame of configuration databases and real-time object managers for Data Acquisition and Detector Control Systems in such fields as setup, diagnostics and general configuration description. OKS is based on an object model that supports objects, classes, associations, methods, inheritance, polymorphism, object identifiers, composite objects, integrity constraints, schema evolution, data migration and active notification. OKS stores the class definitions and their instances in portable ASCII files. It provides query facilities, including indices support. The OKS has a C++ API (Application Program Interface) and includes Motif based GUI applications to design class schema and to manipulate objects. OKS has been developed on top of the Rogue Wave Tools h++ C++ class library.

  11. Persistent cultural systems.

    PubMed

    Spicer, E H

    1971-11-19

    I have indicated here some features of a kind of entity which I have called a cultural identity system, and I have focused on a variety of this general type-the persistent system. In general terms it is best described as a system of beliefs and sentiments concerning historical events. I suggest using the term "a people" for the human beings who, at any given time, hold beliefs of this kind. These are phenomena with which we have been long familiar, but they have not been systematically studied by any but a few investigators. I have emphasized that a persistent system is a cumulative cultural phenomenon, an open-ended system that defines a course of action for the people believing in it. Such peoples are able to maintain continuity in their experience and their conception of themselves in a wide variety of sociocultural environments. I hold that certain kinds of identifiable conditions give rise to this type of cultural system. These may best be summarized as an oppositional process involving the interactions of individuals in the environment of a state or a similar large-scale organization. The oppositional process frequently produces intense collective consciousness and a high degree of internal solidarity. This is accompanied by a motivation for individuals to continue the kind of experience that is "stored" in the identity system in symbolic form. The persistent identity system is more stable as a cultural structure than are large-scale political organizations. When large-scale states disintegrate, they often appear to decompose into cultural systems of the persistent type. Large-scale organizations also give rise to the kind of environment that can result in the formation of new persistent systems. It is possible that, while being formed, states depend for their impetus on the accumulated energy of persistent peoples. A proposition for consideration is that states tend to dissipate the energy of peoples after transforming that energy into state

  12. Cohesion as a Constraint on Object Persistence in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheries, Erik W.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Wynn, Karen; Scholl, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    A critical challenge for visual perception is to represent objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. Across several areas of cognitive science, researchers have identified cohesion as among the most important theoretical principles of object persistence: An object must maintain a single bounded contour over time. Drawing…

  13. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  14. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  15. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  16. Cohesion as a constraint on object persistence in infancy.

    PubMed

    Cheries, Erik W; Mitroff, Stephen R; Wynn, Karen; Scholl, Brian J

    2008-05-01

    A critical challenge for visual perception is to represent objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. Across several areas of cognitive science, researchers have identified cohesion as among the most important theoretical principles of object persistence: An object must maintain a single bounded contour over time. Drawing inspiration from recent work in adult visual cognition, the present study tested the power of cohesion as a constraint as it operates early in development. In particular, we tested whether the most minimal cohesion violation - a single object splitting into two - would destroy infants' ability to represent a quantity of objects over occlusion. In a forced-choice crawling paradigm, 10- and 12-month-old infants witnessed crackers being sequentially placed into containers, and typically crawled toward the container with the greater cracker quantity. When one of the crackers was visibly split in half, however, infants failed to represent the relative quantities, despite controls for the overall quantities and the motions involved. This result helps to characterize the fidelity and specificity of cohesion as a fundamental principle of object persistence, suggesting that even the simplest possible cohesion violation can dramatically impair infants' object representations and influence their overt behavior.

  17. A Temporal Same-Object Advantage in the Tunnel Effect: Facilitated Change Detection for Persisting Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flombaum, Jonathan I.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful visual experience requires computations that identify objects as the same persisting individuals over time, motion, occlusion, and featural change. This article explores these computations in the tunnel effect: When an object moves behind an occluder, and then an object later emerges following a consistent trajectory, observers…

  18. Trustworthy persistent identifier systems of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Car, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades, persistent identifier (PID) systems have seen some significant changes in their governance policies, system capabilities, and technology. The development of most systems was driven by two main application areas, namely archives and libraries. Guidelines and criteria for trustworthy PID systems have been clearly devised (Bütikofer, 2009) and many PID system implementations for the identification of static digital objects have been built (e.g., PURL). However systems delivering persistent identifiers for dynamic datasets are not yet mature. There has been a rapid proliferation of different PID systems caused by the specific technical or organisational requirements of various communities that could not be met by existing systems such as DOI, ISBN, and EAN. Many of these different systems were limited by their inability to provide native means of persistent identifier resolution. This has prompted a decoupling of PID-associated data from the resolution service and this is where the Handle system has played a significant role. The Handle allowed to build a distributed system of independently managed resolver services. A trustworthy PID system must be designed to outlive the objects it provides persistent identifiers for, which may cease to exist or otherwise be deprecated, and the technology used to implement it, which will certainly need to change with time. We propose that such a system should rest on four pillars of agreements - (i) definitions, (ii) policies, (iii) services, and (iv) data services, to ensure longevity. While we believe all four pillars are equally important, we intentionally leave regulating aspects of issuing of identifiers and their registration out of the scope of this paper and focus on the agreements that have to be established between PID resolver services and the data sources indicated by the persistent identifiers. We propose an approach to development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system

  19. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  20. Persistent Identification of Agents and Objects of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Waple, A.; Zednik, S.

    2012-12-01

    "Global Change" includes climate change, ecological change, land-use changes and host of other interacting complex systems including societal and institutional implications. This vast body of information includes scientific research, data, measurements, models, analyses, assessments, etc. It is produced by a collection of multi-disciplinary researchers and organizations from around the world and demand for this information is increasing from a multitude of different audiences and stakeholders. The identification and organization of the agents and objects of global change information and their inter-relationships and contributions to the whole story of change is critical for conveying the state of knowledge, its complexity as well as syntheses and key messages to researchers, decision makers, and the public. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will organize and present our best understanding of global change, and all the contributing information that leads to that understanding, including the provenance needed to trust and use that information. The first implementation will provide provenance for the National Climate Assessment (NCA). (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA must integrate, evaluate, and interpret the findings of the USGCRP; analyze the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyze current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. It also assesses information at the regional scale across the Nation. A synthesis report is required not less frequently than every four years and the next

  1. Scalable persistent identifier systems for dynamic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodoniuc, P.; Cox, S. J. D.; Klump, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and persistent identification of objects, whether tangible or not, is essential in information management. Many Internet-based systems have been developed to identify digital data objects, e.g., PURL, LSID, Handle, ARK. These were largely designed for identification of static digital objects. The amount of data made available online has grown exponentially over the last two decades and fine-grained identification of dynamically generated data objects within large datasets using conventional systems (e.g., PURL) has become impractical. We have compared capabilities of various technological solutions to enable resolvability of data objects in dynamic datasets, and developed a dataset-centric approach to resolution of identifiers. This is particularly important in Semantic Linked Data environments where dynamic frequently changing data is delivered live via web services, so registration of individual data objects to obtain identifiers is impractical. We use identifier patterns and pattern hierarchies for identification of data objects, which allows relationships between identifiers to be expressed, and also provides means for resolving a single identifier into multiple forms (i.e. views or representations of an object). The latter can be implemented through (a) HTTP content negotiation, or (b) use of URI querystring parameters. The pattern and hierarchy approach has been implemented in the Linked Data API supporting the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI) initiative and later in the implementation of geoscientific data delivery for the Capricorn Distal Footprints project using International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN). This enables flexible resolution of multi-view persistent identifiers and provides a scalable solution for large heterogeneous datasets.

  2. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  3. The Design and Implementation of Persistence in the Annex System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    design. Amongst these we can count the Annex software system developed at DSTO. In this technical note we consider the design and implementation of...location moves from the address space in which it was created).” [Booch 1994] A software system is said to implement persistence if all its objects are...projects, have implemented orthogonal persistence as an essential part of their design. Among these is the Annex software system developed at DSTO. In

  4. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  5. Objective Color Measuring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., Comparative performance of color measuring instruments, Appl. Optics 8, 775-783 (1969). 3 F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., E. D. Campbell...comments, Appl. Optics 14, 265 (1975). 4 R. T. Marcus and F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., Statistical study of color-measurement instrumentation, Appl. Optics 13... Billmeyer , Jr. and P. J. Alessi, Assessment of color-manuring instruments for objective textile acceptability judgment, NATICK/TR-79/044, US Army Natick R

  6. Causal Video Object Segmentation From Persistence of Occlusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    spond to “objects” is elusive absent an explicit definition of objects that has a measurable correlate in the image. Gestalt principles [33] provide...by Gestalt principles to arrive at a con- vex optimization scheme that can be efficiently solved with primal-dual methods. To compare with existing

  7. Robust object matching for persistent tracking with heterogeneous features.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanlin; Hsu, Steve; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Kumar, Rakesh; Shan, Ying

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matching vehicles across multiple sightings under variations in illumination and camera poses. Since multiple observations of a vehicle are separated in large temporal and/or spatial gaps, thus prohibiting the use of standard frame-to-frame data association, we employ features extracted over a sequence during one time interval as a vehicle fingerprint that is used to compute the likelihood that two or more sequence observations are from the same or different vehicles. Furthermore, since our domain is aerial video tracking, in order to deal with poor image quality and large resolution and quality variations, our approach employs robust alignment and match measures for different stages of vehicle matching. Most notably, we employ a heterogeneous collection of features such as lines, points, and regions in an integrated matching framework. Heterogeneous features are shown to be important. Line and point features provide accurate localization and are employed for robust alignment across disparate views. The challenges of change in pose, aspect, and appearances across two disparate observations are handled by combining a novel feature-based quasi-rigid alignment with flexible matching between two or more sequences. However, since lines and points are relatively sparse, they are not adequate to delineate the object and provide a comprehensive matching set that covers the complete object. Region features provide a high degree of coverage and are employed for continuous frames to provide a delineation of the vehicle region for subsequent generation of a match measure. Our approach reliably delineates objects by representing regions as robust blob features and matching multiple regions to multiple regions using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD). Extensive experimentation under a variety of real-world scenarios and over hundreds of thousands of Confirmatory Identification (CID) trails has demonstrated about 95 percent accuracy in vehicle

  8. Design notes for the next generation persistent object manager for CAP

    SciTech Connect

    Isely, M.; Fischler, M.; Galli, M.

    1995-05-01

    The CAP query system software at Fermilab has several major components, including SQS (for managing the query), the retrieval system (for fetching auxiliary data), and the query software itself. The central query software in particular is essentially a modified version of the `ptool` product created at UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago) as part of the PASS project under Bob Grossman. The original UIC version was designed for use in a single-user non-distributed Unix environment. The Fermi modifications were an attempt to permit multi-user access to a data set distributed over a set of storage nodes. (The hardware is an IBM SP-x system - a cluster of AIX POWER2 nodes with an IBM-proprietary high speed switch interconnect). Since the implementation work of the Fermi-ized ptool, the CAP members have learned quite a bit about the nature of queries and where the current performance bottlenecks exist. This has lead them to design a persistent object manager that will overcome these problems. For backwards compatibility with ptool, the ptool persistent object API will largely be retained, but the implementation will be entirely different.

  9. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  11. Persistent Insomnia: the Role of Objective Short Sleep Duration and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Measurements: Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: < 6 h sleep (short sleep duration) and ≥ 6 h sleep (longer sleep duration). Results: The rates of insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Conclusions: Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia. Citation: Vgontzas AN; Fernandez-Mendoza J; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Liao D; Basta M; Chrousos GP. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health. SLEEP 2012;35(1):61-68. PMID:22215919

  12. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, R.; Qin, Xiao; Lifka, D.

    1992-12-31

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation. storage and access of very large persistent object stores.

  13. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, R.; Qin, Xiao . Lab. for Advanced Computing); Lifka, D. . High Energy Physics Div.)

    1992-01-01

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation. storage and access of very large persistent object stores.

  14. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert; Qin, Xiao; Lifka, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation, storage, and access of very large persistent object stores.

  15. Predicting medication persistence to buprenorphine transdermal system.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Ben-Joseph, Rami; Chang, Chun-Lan; Hess, Gregory

    2015-02-01

    Persistence, the duration a patient remains on therapy, in chronic, symptomatic conditions plays an important role in therapy effectiveness. Understanding the duration and patient factors associated with prescribed medication persistence is, therefore, an important step toward better treatment and health outcomes for patients. In the following study, an analysis of such factors associated with buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) persistence was conducted utilizing a large US private practitioner and pharmacy claims database and is herein reported. Patients aged ≥ 18 years initiating BTDS during January 1, 2011-November 30, 2011 were identified in the IMS Private Practitioner Medical Claims and Pharmacy Claims databases. An index date was defined as the first prescription of BTDS during the studied interval. During the preindex period, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), chronic pain-related conditions, and prior medication use were assessed. Concomitant medications and various treatment patterns (eg, last dose strength and dose adjustments) were assessed in the postindex 6-month period. Persistence was measured as the duration of BTDS from initiation to the 1st >28-day refill gap in the postindex 6-month period. Descriptive statistical and survival analysis was used to assess the predictors of BTDS persistence. During the study period, 10,457 patients newly treated with BTDS were identified. Patients' mean (± SD) age was 54.5 (± 15.2) years; 69.9% were women, and the mean (± SD) CCI was 1 (± 1.4). Utilizing a hierarchical approach, patients were separated into different cohorts based on the initial analgesic prescription identified during postindex period with 91.7%, 34.7%, and 59.0% of the patients using opioids, NSAIDs and adjuvant analgesics, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses showed that patients with prior opioid and adjuvant analgesic use were 21% and 5% less likely to discontinue BTDS (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared to patients not

  16. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  17. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

    PubMed

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: < 6 h sleep (short sleep duration) and ≥ 6 h sleep (longer sleep duration). The rates of insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.

  18. AVNG system objectives and concept

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  19. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi; Rajković, Milan

    2016-05-15

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1–16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  20. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi; Rajković, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1-16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  1. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi; Rajković, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1-16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  2. Object detection and tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Tian J.

    2017-05-30

    Methods and apparatuses for analyzing a sequence of images for an object are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the method identifies a region of interest in the sequence of images. The object is likely to move within the region of interest. The method divides the region of interest in the sequence of images into sections and calculates signal-to-noise ratios for a section in the sections. A signal-to-noise ratio for the section is calculated using the section in the image, a prior section in a prior image to the image, and a subsequent section in a subsequent image to the image. The signal-to-noise ratios are for potential velocities of the object in the section. The method also selects a velocity from the potential velocities for the object in the section using a potential velocity in the potential velocities having a highest signal-to-noise ratio in the signal-to-noise ratios.

  3. Persisting perfusion defects after bronchoscopic removal or spontaneous expulsion of aspirated foreign objects.

    PubMed

    Kassner, E G; Solomon, N A; Steiner, P; Rao, M; Klotz, D H

    1976-10-01

    Follow-up lung scans were obtained in 9 children to determine whether perfusion lung scanning could be used to verify completeness of foreign-body removal. In 4 patients, extensive perfusion defects were present 4-19 days after removal of the object. In 1 patient, the area of hypoperfusion was larger than the territory served by a persistently obstructed lobar bronchus. Follow-up lung scans are of limited value for verifying completeness of foreign-body removal and localization of retained fragments.

  4. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  5. Mentat: An object-oriented macro data flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentat, an object-oriented macro data flow system designed to facilitate parallelism in distributed systems, is presented. The macro data flow model is a model of computation similar to the data flow model with two principal differences: the computational complexity of the actors is much greater than in traditional data flow systems, and there are persistent actors that maintain state information between executions. Mentat is a system that combines the object-oriented programming paradigm and the macro data flow model of computation. Mentat programs use a dynamic structure called a future list to represent the future of computations.

  6. Mobile User Objective System (MUOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    MILSATCOM system. The constellation of four operational satellites and ground network control will provide greater than ten times the system capacity of...the current UHF Follow-On (UFO) constellation . MUOS includes the satellite constellation , a ground control and network management system, and a new...waveform for user terminals. The space segment is comprised of a constellation of four geosynchronous satellites, plus one on-orbit spare. The ground

  7. Mobile User Objective System (MUOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    system capacity of the current UHF Follow-On ( UFO ) constellation. MUOS includes the satellite constellation, a ground control and network management...terminals able to support the MUOS CAI. Each MUOS satellite carries a legacy payload similar to that flown on UFO -11. These legacy payloads will...Antecedent Information: The antecedent system to MUOS was the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-on ( UFO ) satellite communications program. Comparisons of O

  8. Persistence in periodic and almost periodic Lotka-Volterra systems.

    PubMed

    Gopalsamy, K

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a strongly self-regulating (or resource limited) Lotka-Volterra population system can "persist" in a periodic or almost periodic environment if and only if the system tracks the environmental variations.

  9. Development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Persistent Chemical Agent Simulation System was developed (PCASS) to simulate, for force-on-force training exercises, the field environment produced by the presence of persistent chemical agents. Such a simulant system must satisfy several requirements to be of value as a training aid. Specifically, it must provide for realistic training which will generate competency in at least the following areas: (1) detection of the persistent agent presence; (2) proper use of protective equipment and procedures; (3) determination of the extent of contamination; and (4) decontamination of equipment and personnel.

  10. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding ”hot-spots”, and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations. PMID:19096530

  11. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-08-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding "hot-spots", and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations.

  12. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes.

  13. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  14. System and method for disrupting suspect objects

    DOEpatents

    Gladwell, T. Scott; Garretson, Justin R; Hobart, Clinton G; Monda, Mark J

    2013-07-09

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system includes a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image therefrom, a weapon having a discharge deployable therefrom, and a targeting unit. The targeting unit displays the image(s) of the suspect object and aims the weapon at a disruption point on the displayed image such that the weapon may be positioned to deploy the discharge at the disruption point whereby the suspect object is disabled.

  15. Definition and Implementation of the Integrated Modular Persistent Object Representation Translator (IMPORT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    a programming language devel- oped as part the Integrated Systems Language Environ- ment (ISLE), and intended to provide software engineer- ing...programs as data, like a CAD system manipulates design artifacts. It is implemented as an object-oriented framework that models the language and...provided based on the framework. This report defines the 93 -29352 language , describes its implementation, and outlines re- UM search directions within the

  16. The Design and Implementation of a Parallel Persistent Object System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Semantica JilP L Add descriptor (FP.L) to active pool JMPF r L If Frames, FP+r.O-0 Add descriptor (FP,L) to active pool Else Add descriptor (FP, IP+l...Syntax Semantica STARTO rl r2 Let FP’ = Frames[FP+rl] Let IP’ - Frames[FP+r2] Add (FP.IP+I) to active pool Add (FP I, P’ ) to active pool STARTI rl r2 r3...deadlock. 119 Syntaz Semantica ALLOCFRANE ri rj Let CallerFP - Frames [FP+ri] Let ResultIP - Frames [FP+ri+1] Let SignalIP = Frames [FP+ri+2] Let ResSlot

  17. A Neural Network Object Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    useful for exploring different neural network configurations. There are three main computation phases of a model based object recognition system...segmentation, feature extraction, and object classification. This report focuses on the object classification stage. For segmentation, a neural network based...are available with the current system. Neural network based feature extraction may be added at a later date. The classification stage consists of a

  18. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  19. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  20. Schlieren System and method for moving objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system and method are provided for recording density changes in a flow field surrounding a moving object. A mask having an aperture for regulating the passage of images is placed in front of an image recording medium. An optical system is placed in front of the mask. A transition having a light field-of-view and a dark field-of-view is located beyond the test object. The optical system focuses an image of the transition at the mask such that the aperture causes a band of light to be defined on the image recording medium. The optical system further focuses an image of the object through the aperture of the mask so that the image of the object appears on the image recording medium. Relative motion is minimized between the mask and the transition. Relative motion is also minimized between the image recording medium and the image of the object. In this way, the image of the object and density changes in a flow field surrounding the object are recorded on the image recording medium when the object crosses the transition in front of the optical system.

  1. Schlieren system and method for moving objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system and method are provided for recording density changes in a flow field surrounding a moving object. A mask having an aperture for regulating the passage of images therethrough is placed in front of an image recording medium. An optical system is placed in front of the mask. A transition having a light field-of-view and a dark field-of-view is located beyond the test object. The optical system focuses an image of the transition at the mask such that the aperture causes a band of light to be defined on the image recording medium. The optical system further focuses an image of the object through the aperture of the mask so that the image of the object appears on the image recording medium. Relative motion is minimized between the mask and the transition. Relative motion is also minimized between the image recording medium and the image of the object. In this way, the image of the object and density changes in a flow field surrounding the object are recorded on the image recording medium when the object crosses the transition in front of the optical system.

  2. Parallel object-oriented decision tree system

    DOEpatents

    Kamath; Chandrika , Cantu-Paz; Erick

    2006-02-28

    A data mining decision tree system that uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies, and other statistically significant structures in data by reading and displaying data files, extracting relevant features for each of the objects, and using a method of recognizing patterns among the objects based upon object features through a decision tree that reads the data, sorts the data if necessary, determines the best manner to split the data into subsets according to some criterion, and splits the data.

  3. Persistent Perfect Entanglement in Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Can, Muhammet

    2004-03-01

    It has been shown recently [1] that a pure entangled state of two-level atoms can be obtained in an optical resonator through the exchange by cavity photons. Unfortunately, the lifetime of such an entangled state, caused by the radiative decay time for the dipole transitions is very short. The situation can be improved through the use of three-level atoms with lambda-type transition [2]. In this case, the cavity field pumps transition between the lowest (ground) and highest (excited) states. Then, the decay of the excited state can populate the intermediate state. This is just the Raman-type process with emission of Stokes photon in atomic system. Because of the selection rules by the parity conservation, the dipole decay from the intermediate state to the ground state is forbidden. If the Stokes photons created by the transitions from the excited state to the ground state are discarded (through the use of cavity leakage of absorption), the final state of atomic system is stabile or at least durable. In the case of 2n three-level atoms, this can lead to the N-qubit perfect entangled state, where N=2j+1 and j is an odd ``spin'' corresponding to the SU(2) algebra in the Hilbert space H=(C2)^ otimes N In fact, these are the SU(2) phase states of odd ``spin'' have been discussed in [3] in the context of two-level atoms. The possibility to create and observe these states with present experimental technique is discussed. [1] A. Beige, S. Bose, D. Braun, S.F. Huelga, P.L. Knight, M.B. Plenio, and V. Verdal. J. Mod. Optics 47, 2583 (2000). [2] M.A. Can, A.A. Klyachko, and A.S. Shumovsky. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5072 (2002). [3] M.A. Can, A.A. Klyachko, and A.S. Shumovsky. Phys. Rev. A 66, 022111 (2002).

  4. A System for Monitoring Affective Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Abby L.; Frommer, Karen

    1982-01-01

    Based on the belief that affective education cannot be left to an informal process of "warm fuzzies," the system described here is a structured instructional program with specific affective objectives and a scale for monitoring achievement. (Author/JM)

  5. Systems biology of persistent infection: tuberculosis as a case study.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas; Stark, Jaroslav; Kirschner, Denise

    2008-07-01

    The human immune response does an excellent job of clearing most of the pathogens that we encounter throughout our lives. However, some pathogens persist for the lifetime of the host. Despite many years of research, scientists have yet to determine the basis of persistence of most pathogens, and have therefore struggled to develop reliable prevention and treatment strategies. Systems biology provides a new and integrative tool that will help to achieve these goals. In this article, we use Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an example of how systems-biology approaches have begun to make strides in uncovering important facets of the host-pathogen interaction.

  6. Detecting ground moving objects using panoramic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Gu, Guohua; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The moving objects detection is an essential issue in many computer vision and video processing tasks. In this paper, a detecting moving objects method using a panoramic system is proposed. It can detect ground moving objects when the camera is rotated, so it can be called the moving objects detection in rotation (MODIR). The detection area and flexible of the panoramic system are be enhanced by MODIR. The background and moving objects are moving in image when the camera is rotated. Compare with the traditional methods, the aim of MODIR is to segment the isolated entities out according to the motions in the video whether imaging platform is moving or not. Firstly, the corresponding relations between the images captured from two different views is deduced from the multi-view geometric. The moving objects and stationary background in the images are distinguished by this corresponding relations. Secondly, the moving object detection framework base on multi-frame is established. This detection framework can reduce the impacts of the image matching error and cumulative error on the moving objects detection. In the experiment, an evaluation metrics method is used to compare the performance of MODIR with the traditional methods. And a lot of videos captured by the panoramic system are processed by MODIR to demonstrate its good performance in practice.

  7. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  8. Persistence of DNA deposited by the original user on objects after subsequent use by a second person.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Glavich, Genna; Mitchell, R John

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the persistence of DNA from prior user of an object after, its use by another person. To acquire a greater understanding of persistence we performed controlled, experiments encompassing over 179 objects that had only been used by one individual for an extended, period before used by a 2nd person for various but known duration. Our findings show that the profile, percentage contribution of the 1st user relative to the 2nd user of an object declines in a linear manner, over time. The retrieval of the profile of the initial user of the object is dependent on the type of, substrate and use of the object. When considering a hard non-porous object the 1st user's profile, percentage contribution drops ∼50% immediately upon use by a 2nd person and drops to ∼15% after, 90 min. When considering a soft porous object the 1st wearer's profile contribution remains, higher than that of the 2nd wearer during the first 10h of wear by the 2nd wearer and still, accounts for ∼12% after 96 h. This substrate associated difference was also observed in an, assessment of a wide range of personal objects used by 2nd users for different durations. Particular, areas of certain objects were more likely to retain a greater proportion of the 1st user's DNA than other, areas. Alleles of unknown source were present on the majority of objects but rarely exceeded 10% of, the total profile. Greater knowledge of persistence will inform investigators regarding the likelihood of, detecting a profile of a particular individual based on the type of object and its history, and assist with, identifying the best areas of an object to target for DNA sampling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  10. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  11. Object detection system using SPAD proximity detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Laurence; Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an object detection system based upon the use of multiple single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) proximity sensors operating upon the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, whereby the co-ordinates of a target object in a coordinate system relative to the assembly are calculated. The system is similar to a touch screen system in form and operation except that the lack of requirement of a physical sensing surface provides a novel advantage over most existing touch screen technologies. The sensors are controlled by FPGA-based firmware and each proximity sensor in the system measures the range from the sensor to the target object. A software algorithm is implemented to calculate the x-y coordinates of the target object based on the distance measurements from at least two separate sensors and the known relative positions of these sensors. Existing proximity sensors were capable of determining the distance to an object with centimetric accuracy and were modified to obtain a wide field of view in the x-y axes with low beam angle in z in order to provide a detection area as large as possible. Design and implementation of the firmware, electronic hardware, mechanics and optics are covered in the paper. Possible future work would include characterisation with alternative designs of proximity sensors, as this is the component which determines the highest achievable accur1acy of the system.

  12. Persistent Motor System Abnormalities in Formerly Concussed Athletes

    PubMed Central

    De Beaumont, Louis; Mongeon, David; Tremblay, Sébastien; Messier, Julie; Prince, François; Leclerc, Suzanne; Lassonde, Maryse; Théoret, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Context: The known detrimental effects of sport concussions on motor system function include balance problems, slowed motor execution, and abnormal motor cortex excitability. Objective: To assess whether these concussion-related alterations of motor system function are still evident in collegiate football players who sustained concussions but returned to competition more than 9 months before testing. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A group of 21 active, university-level football players who had experienced concussions was compared with 15 university football players who had not sustained concussions. Intervention(s): A force platform was used to assess center-of-pressure (COP) displacement and COP oscillation regularity (approximate entropy) as measures of postural stability in the upright position. A rapid alternating-movement task was also used to assess motor execution speed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was used to measure long-interval intracortical inhibition and the cortical silent period, presumably reflecting γ-aminobutyric acid subtype B receptor-mediated intracortical inhibition. Main Outcome Measure(s): COP displacement and oscillation regularity, motor execution speed, long-interval intracortical inhibition, cortical silent period. Results: Relative to controls, previously concussed athletes showed persistently lower COP oscillation randomness, normal performance on a rapid alternating-movement task, and more M1 intracortical inhibition that was related to the number of previous concussions. Conclusions: Sport concussions were associated with pervasive changes in postural control and more M1 intracortical inhibition, providing neurophysiologic and behavioral evidence of lasting, subclinical changes in motor system integrity in concussed athletes. PMID:21669091

  13. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  14. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  15. Unrelated toxin–antitoxin systems cooperate to induce persistence

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are drug-tolerant bacteria that account for the majority of bacterial infections. They are not mutants, rather, they are slow-growing cells in an otherwise normally growing population. It is known that the frequency of persisters in a population is correlated with the number of toxin–antitoxin systems in the organism. Our previous work provided a mechanistic link between the two by showing how multiple toxin–antitoxin systems, which are present in nearly all bacteria, can cooperate to induce bistable toxin concentrations that result in a heterogeneous population of slow- and fast-growing cells. As such, the slow-growing persisters are a bet-hedging subpopulation maintained under normal conditions. For technical reasons, the model assumed that the kinetic parameters of the various toxin–antitoxin systems in the cell are identical, but experimental data indicate that they differ, sometimes dramatically. Thus, a critical question remains: whether toxin–antitoxin systems from the diverse families, often found together in a cell, with significantly different kinetics, can cooperate in a similar manner. Here, we characterize the interaction of toxin–antitoxin systems from many families that are unrelated and kinetically diverse, and identify the essential determinant for their cooperation. The generic architecture of toxin–antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and our results show that even when they do not exhibit bistability alone, unrelated systems can be coupled by the growth rate to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal (fast-growing) and persistent (slow-growing) states. Different combinations of kinetic parameters can produce similar toxic switching thresholds, and the proximity of the thresholds is the primary determinant of bistability. Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch all of the toxin–antitoxin systems in a cell at once. The spontaneous switch creates a heterogeneous population

  16. Classical synchronization indicates persistent entanglement in isolated quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Witthaut, Dirk; Wimberger, Sandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Timme, Marc

    2017-04-12

    Synchronization and entanglement constitute fundamental collective phenomena in multi-unit classical and quantum systems, respectively, both equally implying coordinated system states. Here, we present a direct link for a class of isolated quantum many-body systems, demonstrating that synchronization emerges as an intrinsic system feature. Intriguingly, quantum coherence and entanglement arise persistently through the same transition as synchronization. This direct link between classical and quantum cooperative phenomena may further our understanding of strongly correlated quantum systems and can be readily observed in state-of-the-art experiments, for example, with ultracold atoms.

  17. Classical synchronization indicates persistent entanglement in isolated quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaut, Dirk; Wimberger, Sandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Timme, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization and entanglement constitute fundamental collective phenomena in multi-unit classical and quantum systems, respectively, both equally implying coordinated system states. Here, we present a direct link for a class of isolated quantum many-body systems, demonstrating that synchronization emerges as an intrinsic system feature. Intriguingly, quantum coherence and entanglement arise persistently through the same transition as synchronization. This direct link between classical and quantum cooperative phenomena may further our understanding of strongly correlated quantum systems and can be readily observed in state-of-the-art experiments, for example, with ultracold atoms.

  18. Kepler Systems That Show Multiple Transiting Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Ragozzine, D.; Welsh, W. F.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems that have multiple transiting planets provide unique and important insight into the formation, evolution, and dynamics of exoplanetary systems. Kepler has announced the discovery of a confirmed planetary system with multiple transiting planets (Kepler 9, Holman et al. 2010) as well as several candidate planetary systems that show multiple transiting objects (Steffen et al. 2010). Kepler 9 shows deviations from a constant period due to the ongoing dynamical interactions between the confirmed planets. From these transit timing variations (TTV) one can measure the planetary masses from the photometric data alone. The presence of several systems with multiple transiting candidates from the first quarter of data indicate that Kepler should continue to find systems with multiple transiting planets. Such systems will provide important, general information about the histories of planetary systems.

  19. Parallel object-oriented data mining system

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick

    2004-01-06

    A data mining system uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies and other statistically significant structures in data. Data files are read and displayed. Objects in the data files are identified. Relevant features for the objects are extracted. Patterns among the objects are recognized based upon the features. Data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) sky survey was used to search for bent doubles. This test was conducted on data from the Very Large Array in New Mexico which seeks to locate a special type of quasar (radio-emitting stellar object) called bent doubles. The FIRST survey has generated more than 32,000 images of the sky to date. Each image is 7.1 megabytes, yielding more than 100 gigabytes of image data in the entire data set.

  20. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  2. Specification of Computer Systems by Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltoft, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of mainframe and personal computers, and presents a case study of a network developed at the University of Iowa called the Iowa Computer-Aided Engineering Network (ICAEN) that combines Macintosh personal computers with Apollo workstations. Functional objectives are stressed as the best measure of system performance. (LRW)

  3. Evaluation in a Management by Objectives System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    Management and supervision in a management by objectives system do not focus on the quality or efficiency of a list of activities. Rather, the manager and supervisor validate progress in reaching agreed outcomes. The implementation of a management and supervision by results approach requires (a) agreement on a statement of mission; (b) agreement…

  4. Research in Presistent Simulation: Development of the Persistent ModSim Object-Oriented Programming Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    information hiding and facilitates software reusability through separate compilation. An advantage of separate compilation is that source code for the...to average 1 hour Per response, including the time for reviewing inatinions, searching existing dea sources . gathering and maintaining the data needed...Technology Transfer 6 2 OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY ......................... 7 The Object-Oriented Paradigm 7 Object-Oriented Programming

  5. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  6. An object-based interviewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Chiang, Tai-Lun

    1992-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an object-based interviewing system (OBIS). The key design feature is that each survey question is a function, which is treated as an independent object. The Survey Manager (SM) module maintains a stack of questions and calls each question function when directed. Each question, when called, calls the Interaction Facility (IF) to set up the appropriate screen. This modular approach to automated survey design offers maximum flexibility for system development and maintenance. The software is written in Common Lisp and currently runs on Symbolics and VAX computers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is funding a project to use OBIS to automate the Current Population Survey (CPS), an expenditure survey, and questions about intrashousehold communication to collect data to study communication and proxy response error.

  7. An object-based interviewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R. ); Chiang, Tai-Lun )

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an object-based interviewing system (OBIS). The key design feature is that each survey question is a function, which is treated as an independent object. The Survey Manager (SM) module maintains a stack of questions and calls each question function when directed. Each question, when called, calls the Interaction Facility (IF) to set up the appropriate screen. This modular approach to automated survey design offers maximum flexibility for system development and maintenance. The software is written in Common Lisp and currently runs on Symbolics and VAX computers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is funding a project to use OBIS to automate the Current Population Survey (CPS), an expenditure survey, and questions about intrashousehold communication to collect data to study communication and proxy response error.

  8. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  9. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  10. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1999-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

  11. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, K.H.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.

    1991-04-30

    A system is described for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array of solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1[times]3[times]5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A wake-up' circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described. 4 figures.

  12. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.

  13. Persistent bounded disturbance rejection for discrete-time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Shi, Peng

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we provide a novel solution to the problem of persistent bounded disturbance rejection in linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delays. The solution is developed based on the tools of invariant set analysis and Lyapunov-function method. As an integral part of the solution, we derive less conservative sufficient conditions on robust attractor for discrete-time systems with delays in terms of strict linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the desired ℓ1-performance. A robust state-feedback controller is designed and the associated gain is determined using strict LMIs. The developed results are tested on a representative example.

  14. Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

  15. Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

  16. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  17. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, Gordon R.

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides for dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.

  18. DOOGIS. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, G.

    1995-06-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides for dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.

  19. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  20. Optical inspection system for cylindrical objects

    DOEpatents

    Brenden, Byron B.; Peters, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In the inspection of cylindrical objects, particularly O-rings, the object is translated through a field of view and a linear light trace is projected on its surface. An image of the light trace is projected on a mask, which has a size and shape corresponding to the size and shape which the image would have if the surface of the object were perfect. If there is a defect, light will pass the mask and be sensed by a detector positioned behind the mask. Preferably, two masks and associated detectors are used, one mask being convex to pass light when the light trace falls on a projection from the surface and the other concave, to pass light when the light trace falls on a depression in the surface. The light trace may be either dynamic, formed by a scanned laser beam, or static, formed by such a beam focussed by a cylindrical lens. Means are provided to automatically keep the illuminating receiving systems properly aligned.

  1. Object-oriented reasoning in cognitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korniak, Janusz

    2000-06-01

    The intelligence agent architecture widely employs methods of logic of belief. The goal of the paper is to find a correct and effective inference mechanism that can substantially improve resolution based traditional methods. The semantics of the mechanism is based on Minsky's frames. Each agent is modeled by Minsky's frames with their slots representing what agent believes in. Inference process is realized by daemons filling the frames slots. The filling in this context means setting unknown slot values. The order of reasoning is established by a directed acyclic graph and driven by the topological sorting as a reasoning strategy. The inference algorithm analysis shows that the new method works in polynomial time. Therefore it is more efficient than NP, resolution based traditional methods. The correctness of object oriented implementation of the algorithm is established by considering the inference process in terms of abstract relational systems and their isomorphisms. Finally an implementation methodology of agents and their inference process in object oriented language is presented. All the considered concepts and methodology are illustrated in object oriented solution to `three wisemen problem' implemented in Smalltalk.

  2. An objective system for measuring facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Mounir

    2006-09-01

    Research over the past 20 years has shown that judgments of facial attractiveness are universal; people from all cultures and backgrounds rank and rate faces for attractiveness the same. As such a model for objectively rating facial attractiveness is theoretically plausible, if designed, it would have many uses, including outcomes analysis in plastic surgery of the face. The authors tested a schematic facial composite/prototype mathematical model (the phi mask created by Dr. Stephen Marquardt) as a method for measuring facial attractiveness in an objective manner. Thirty-seven male and 35 female faces of 18- to 30-year-old whites of European extraction were rated, as were 31 composite faces of each sex using both Internet and direct survey judges. The faces were tested against the phi mask model analyzing deviations of facial anthropometric points from corresponding phi mask nodal points using equivalent weightings, and weightings arrived at by way of multiple linear regression. The deviation from the phi mask significantly correlates with attractiveness, explaining from 25 to 75 percent of the variance in attractiveness judgments, depending on the methodology used. The phi mask model supports averageness or prototypicality of the face as being the major component of the facial attractiveness gestalt and is a first step in producing an objective system for measuring facial attractiveness.

  3. Astrometry of Solar System Objects with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J.; Arenou, Frederic; Desmars, Josselin; Robert, Vincent; Thuillot, William; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Carry, Benoit; David, Pedro; Eggl, Siegfried; Fabricius, Claus; Kudryashova, Maria; Lainey, Valery; Spoto, Federica; Tanga, Paolo; Gaia DPAC

    2016-10-01

    The Gaia ESA space mission will provide astrometric observations of a large number of celestial bodies, with unprecedented accuracy, and in an homogenous reference frame (to become the optical ICRF). The Gaia satellite is monitoring regularly the whole celestial sphere, with one complete scan in about 6month, down to approximately magnitude V≤20.7. It will provide after its nominal lifetime, (5 years, 2014-2019) about 70 astrometric points for several hundred thousands of solar system objects, asteroids from the Near-Earth region to Centaurs and bright TNOs, as well as planetary satellites and comets. The highly precise astrometric and photometric data is bound to lead to huge advances in the science of small Small Solar System Bodies (e.g. Tanga et al. 2016 P\\&SS, Hestroffer et al. 2014 COSPAR #40 ; Mignard et al. 2007 EMP).The first Gaia data release (GDR#1) is foreseen for Q3-2016 and will provide highly precise positions of selected stars down to mag V≈20. While solar system objets data is foreseen for the next data release (in 2017), science of Solar System will also highly benefit from the Gaia stellar catalogue. We will present the status of the satellite and Gaia mission, and details on the stellar data that will be published in this GDR#1. We discuss the catalogue content, number of stars, parameters and precisions, and the process of cross-matching and validation. We also touch upon the construction of combined Tycho-Gaia TGAS catalogue.A Gaia data daily processing is devoted to the identification of Solar System Objects. During this process the detection of new (or critical) objects arises and leads to the triggering of scientific alerts to be found on the web gaiafunsso.imcce.fr. We have also set up an international follow-up network called Gaia-FUN-SSO to validate the detection in space. For this goal, in case of detection the observational data must be sent to the MPC by the observers. Besides, Gaia should benefit for the classical astrometric

  4. Solar System Object Extraction for Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. G.; Duran, F. R.

    Astronomy archives cover at different wavelengths all possible types of astronomical sources, including many dedicated and also serendipitous observations of solar system objects (SSO). It is difficult to handle SSOs in a ``typical'' archive way due to their apparent movement in the sky, ranging from a fraction of an arcsec/hour for Trans-Neptunian objects up to a few degrees for Near-Earth objects, and their enormous brightness change. To locate known SSOs in astronomical images, one needs to calculate highly accurate observatory-centric ephemeris for the image epochs. In crowed fields also rough brightness estimates are required for SSO identifications. The current data base includes, additionally to the planets and their satellites, about 200 comets and more than 100 000 asteroids. These constraints usually limit search procedures either to a small number of objects or to only a few frames. We present a possible solution to handle SSOs with known orbits in a systematic way for large numbers of sky frames. Our first attempts consisted in cross correlating about 5 Million 3'×3' sky fields, taken by the Infrared Space Observatory, against the data base of SSOs. The final source identification was based on reliable N-body ephemeris calculations and infrared brightness estimates. We aimed for the following goals: (1) ``Cleaning'' of stellar, galactic and extragalactic catalogue lists from SSOs; (2) Identifying serendipitously seen well-known SSOs for calibration purposes; (3) Extracting asteroids and comets for further scientific investigations; We believe that our experience in solving these problems might also be helpful for future developements of ``Virtual Observatories''.

  5. Object representation in the human auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, István; van Zuijen, Titia L.; Sussman, Elyse; Horváth, János; Näätänen, Risto

    2010-01-01

    One important principle of object processing is exclusive allocation. Any part of the sensory input, including the border between two objects, can only belong to one object at a time. We tested whether tones forming a spectro-temporal border between two sound patterns can belong to both patterns at the same time. Sequences were composed of low-, intermediate- and high-pitched tones. Tones were delivered with short onset-to-onset intervals causing the high and low tones to automatically form separate low and high sound streams. The intermediate-pitch tones could be perceived as part of either one or the other stream, but not both streams at the same time. Thus these tones formed a pitch ’border’ between the two streams. The tones were presented in a fixed, cyclically repeating order. Linking the intermediate-pitch tones with the high or the low tones resulted in the perception of two different repeating tonal patterns. Participants were instructed to maintain perception of one of the two tone patterns throughout the stimulus sequences. Occasional changes violated either the selected or the alternative tone pattern, but not both at the same time. We found that only violations of the selected pattern elicited the mismatch negativity event-related potential, indicating that only this pattern was represented in the auditory system. This result suggests that individual sounds are processed as part of only one auditory pattern at a time. Thus tones forming a spectro-temporal border are exclusively assigned to one sound object at any given time, as are spatio-temporal borders in vision. PMID:16836636

  6. Objective assessment of compliance and persistence among patients treated for glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Gregory; Kotak, Sameer; Schwartz, Gail F

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study summarizes findings from objective assessments of compliance (or adherence) and persistence with ocular hypotensive agents in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Design Systematic literature review. Methods A PubMed and reference list search was conducted across publication years 1970–2010, using these terms and variants: “compliance,” the equivalent term “adherence,” and “persistence” in patients with these conditions and therapies. Summaries of selected studies were stratified by measurement method (electronic monitor, prescription fills review, medical chart review). Measures of central tendency across studies were calculated for commonly-reported compliance or persistence measures. Results Fifty-eight articles met all inclusion/exclusion criteria: measurement of compliance–electronic monitoring (seven studies reported in 14 articles), measurement of compliance/ persistence–prescription records (36 studies in 38 articles), and measurement of persistence– medical chart review (six studies in six articles). From electronic monitoring, most therapy-experienced patients took medication consistently, but ≥20% met criteria for poor compliance. From prescription records, only 56% (range 37%–92%) of the days in the first therapy year could be dosed with the medication supply dispensed over this period. At 12 months from therapy start, only 31% (range 10%–68%) of new therapy users had not discontinued, and 40% (range 14%–67%) had not discontinued or changed the initial therapy. From medical chart review, only 67% (range 62%–78%) of patients remained persistent 12 months after starting therapy. Conclusions Evidence provided by this review suggests that poor compliance and persistence has been and remains a common problem for many glaucoma patients, and is especially problematic for patients new to therapy. The direction of empirical research should shift toward a greater emphasis on understanding of root causes

  7. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  8. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  9. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  10. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  11. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  12. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  13. Persisting Rickettsia typhi Causes Fatal Central Nervous System Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Stefanie; Moderzynski, Kristin; Kuehl, Svenja; Richardt, Ulricke; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsioses are emerging febrile diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae. Rickettsia typhi belongs to the typhus group (TG) of this family and is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that can be fatal. In the present study, we analyzed the course of R. typhi infection in C57BL/6 RAG1−/− mice. Although these mice lack adaptive immunity, they developed only mild and temporary symptoms of disease and survived R. typhi infection for a long period of time. To our surprise, 3 to 4 months after infection, C57BL/6 RAG1−/− mice suddenly developed lethal neurological disorders. Analysis of these mice at the time of death revealed high bacterial loads, predominantly in the brain. This was accompanied by a massive expansion of microglia and by neuronal cell death. Furthermore, high numbers of infiltrating CD11b+ macrophages were detectable in the brain. In contrast to the microglia, these cells harbored R. typhi and showed an inflammatory phenotype, as indicated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, which was not observed in the periphery. Having shown that R. typhi persists in immunocompromised mice, we finally asked whether the bacteria are also able to persist in resistant C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice. Indeed, R. typhi could be recultivated from lung, spleen, and brain tissues from both strains even up to 1 year after infection. This is the first report demonstrating persistence and reappearance of R. typhi, mainly restricted to the central nervous system in immunocompromised mice. PMID:26975992

  14. Updates to SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Brunck, Al

    2008-10-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control since 1998. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION data can be visualized in the Common sensor Status (CStat) graphical user interface that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This user friendly visualization enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used as actionable intelligence by a minimum number of analysts.

  15. Positive feedback system provides efficient and persistent transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-02

    The two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system, using artificial transcription factors, effectively enhances transgene expression. In this study, a TSTA system-based positive feedback system was developed to achieve efficient and persistent transgene expression. A fusion protein of the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 and the transcriptional activation domain of herpes simplex virus VP16 (GAL4-VP16) was used as an "activator" to amplify the expression of the luciferase "reporter" gene. It was found that the introduction of five tandem copies of the GAL4 recognition sequence (G5) into both the upstream and downstream regions of the expression cassette synergistically enhanced the transgene expression. The upstream and downstream G5 sequences were introduced into the expression cassette of the activator itself, and into that of the reporter, to form the positive feedback loop that enabled continuous activator expression. This positive feedback system maintained the expression levels of the reporter for 4 days in HeLa cells and for a week in mouse liver, while those from the usual plasmids decreased by 30- and 50-fold, respectively. These results constitute the first evidence that the positive feedback system is a useful method for long-term transgene expression in cultured cells and in vivo. This system would be applicable to gene therapy, in vivo imaging, and biotechnology.

  16. Objectives of an effective inventory control system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T F

    1984-10-01

    Quantitative decision-making processes are examined as they relate to hospital pharmacy inventory control. The objective of an inventory-control system is to make inventory decisions that minimize the total cost of inventory, which is distinctly different from minimizing inventory. It is often more expensive to run out of an item (and thus be forced to obtain it through more expensive channels) than simply to keep more units in stock. Several models have been proposed in the literature for minimizing the total cost of inventory through the use of an economic order quantity, which attempts to balance the carrying costs of inventory with the cost of running out of an item. Most pharmacy inventory decisions involve replenishment--how much to order, when to decide to order, and when to place the order. There are three costs associated with pharmacy inventory: (1) carrying costs, (2) shortage costs, and (3) replenishment costs. Many of the proposed models (which are discussed in detail in the article) make certain assumptions that do not hold in the realm of hospital pharmacy. For instance, the "costs" associated with running out of a drug product used in critical care might well involve increased morbidity and mortality, clearly an unacceptable situation. However, the basic tenets of these inventory-control systems should be examined by hospital pharmacy managers and applied when appropriate. The availability of microcomputers and relatively powerful spreadsheets will increase the utility of complex models of inventory control that are too complicated for manual calculations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Rapid development of entity-based data models for bioinformatics with persistence object-oriented design and structured interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ezra Tsur, Elishai

    2017-01-01

    Databases are imperative for research in bioinformatics and computational biology. Current challenges in database design include data heterogeneity and context-dependent interconnections between data entities. These challenges drove the development of unified data interfaces and specialized databases. The curation of specialized databases is an ever-growing challenge due to the introduction of new data sources and the emergence of new relational connections between established datasets. Here, an open-source framework for the curation of specialized databases is proposed. The framework supports user-designed models of data encapsulation, objects persistency and structured interfaces to local and external data sources such as MalaCards, Biomodels and the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases. The proposed framework was implemented using Java as the development environment, EclipseLink as the data persistency agent and Apache Derby as the database manager. Syntactic analysis was based on J3D, jsoup, Apache Commons and w3c.dom open libraries. Finally, a construction of a specialized database for aneurysms associated vascular diseases is demonstrated. This database contains 3-dimensional geometries of aneurysms, patient's clinical information, articles, biological models, related diseases and our recently published model of aneurysms' risk of rapture. Framework is available in: http://nbel-lab.com.

  18. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS.

  19. Overview of system engineering methods and objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakoff, Dennis J.; Wiltse, James C.

    1993-07-01

    The state-of-the-art has now matured to the point where millimeter wave systems are often a viable replacement and improvement over older microwave (or infrared) systems. However, the decline in defense spending, the sluggish global economy, and increased competition dictate that to be successful a combination of hard and soft system analysis approaches must be applied to the system engineering methodology. This paper surveys recent developments in millimeter wave technology, system engineering methodology, and an overview of recent applications.

  20. Dual-EMI system for object classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian

    2010-04-01

    Two vehicle mounted metal detector arrays are used in conjunction to perform object classification. The first array (Vallon VMV-16) contains small coils for detecting shallow targets. The second array (Minelab STMR II) contains receive coils of roughly the same size, but a single large transmitter for detecting deep targets. These two sensors are used together to classify objects as: "SHALLOW and LARGE","DEEP and LARGE", or "SHALLOW and SMALL". SHALLOW/DEEP implies the depth of the object; SMALL/LARGE implies the metal content. These object classes are further specified within the paper. An experiment is performed using unexploded ordnance (UXO) and shallow buried calibration objects. The UXO ranges in depth from flush buried to 48". The calibration targets consist of metallic cylinders ranging in depth from flush buried to 12". The strength of each sensor is described and a fusion algorithm is developed. A detection performance curve is shown illustrating the benefit of multi-sensor fusion for UXO detection.

  1. Laser scanning system for object monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy James; Maxey, Lonnie Curtis; Chiaro, Jr; John, Peter

    2008-04-22

    A laser scanner is located in a fixed position to have line-of-sight access to key features of monitored objects. The scanner rapidly scans pre-programmed points corresponding to the positions of retroreflecting targets affixed to the key features of the objects. The scanner is capable of making highly detailed scans of any portion of the field of view, permitting the exact location and identity of targets to be confirmed. The security of an object is verified by determining that the cooperative target is still present and that its position has not changed. The retroreflecting targets also modulate the reflected light for purposes of returning additional information back to the location of the scanner.

  2. Building persistent identifier systems for geoscience research - Technical solutions and community governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Lehnert, K. A.; Huber, R.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of the Internet gave rise to the expectation that the internet would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. New communication technologies enabled far easier and faster collaboration in larger, geographically more distributed networks. However, the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers were invented to allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets and geological specimens, and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works, and to software and instruments.Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. While Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community.Together with semantic technologies and linked data, unambiguous identification allows us to harness information at large scales beyond human comprehension. The technical possibilities offered by technology challenge some of the norms of scholarly cooperation, such as using and sharing resources beyond the emulation of paper-based publications.This presentation will discuss the development of persistent identification of research resources as a community effort, using the technical and governance patterns developed for DOI and for IGSN for data as an example.

  3. Innate immune recognition of flagellin limits systemic persistence of Brucella.

    PubMed

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Ferooz, Jonathan; Rolán, Hortensia G; Sun, Yao-Hui; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N; Franchi, Luigi; Núñez, Gabriel; Legrand, Thomas; Flavell, Richard A; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Tsolis, Renée M

    2013-06-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause chronic infections by limiting innate immune recognition. It is currently unknown whether Brucella FliC flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagellar filament, is sensed by the host during infection. Here, we used two mutants of Brucella melitensis, either lacking or overexpressing flagellin, to show that FliC hinders bacterial replication in vivo. The use of cells and mice genetically deficient for different components of inflammasomes suggested that FliC was a target of the cytosolic innate immune receptor NLRC4 in vivo but not in macrophages in vitro where the response to FliC was nevertheless dependent on the cytosolic adaptor ASC, therefore suggesting a new pathway of cytosolic flagellin sensing. However, our work also suggested that the lack of TLR5 activity of Brucella flagellin and the regulation of its synthesis and/or delivery into host cells are both part of the stealthy strategy of Brucella towards the innate immune system. Nevertheless, as a flagellin-deficient mutant of B. melitensis wasfound to cause histologically demonstrable injuries in the spleen of infected mice, we suggested that recognition of FliC plays a role in the immunological stand-off between Brucella and its host, which is characterized by a persistent infection with limited inflammatory pathology.

  4. Technical Objective Document for Airdrop Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Complete development of All-Purpose Weapons and Equipment Container System (AIRPAC). 14 FOCAL POINTS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: 1. Mr. Robert Rodier Telephone... Rodier /George Chakoian Telephone 508-651-4738/4106 23 300 FT/250 Knot Personnel Airdrop System Technical Barrier Descriptions TITLE: Lightweight, sturdy

  5. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  6. Adaptive Multilevel Middleware for Object Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    evaluation activities; and introduced and supported a commonly accessible testbed facility to organize and significantly improve multi-technology developer ( TD ...Technology Developers ( TDs ), BBN took on the responsibility of setting up and maintaining an ARMS project within the University of Utah’s Emulab’ system...SYSTEMS The use of the Emulab was a great success, with the majority of the TDs using it at one point or another, and a number using it on a regular basis

  7. The sensorimotor system minimizes prediction error for object lifting when the object's weight is uncertain.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jack; Thaler, Anne

    2017-08-01

    A reliable mechanism to predict the heaviness of an object is important for manipulating an object under environmental uncertainty. Recently, Cashaback et al. (Cashaback JGA, McGregor HR, Pun HCH, Buckingham G, Gribble PL. J Neurophysiol 117: 260-274, 2017) showed that for object lifting the sensorimotor system uses a strategy that minimizes prediction error when the object's weight is uncertain. Previous research demonstrates that visually guided reaching is similarly optimized. Although this suggests a unified strategy of the sensorimotor system for object manipulation, the selected strategy appears to be task dependent and subject to change in response to the degree of environmental uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  9. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-03-03

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds. 7 figs.

  10. The fundamentals of object-oriented database management systems.

    PubMed

    Plateau, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to characterize the two technologies (database and object-oriented technologies) which constitute the foundation of object-oriented database management systems. The O2 Object-Oriented DataBase Management System is then described as an example of this type of system.

  11. Object Management in Local Distributed Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Theory, Vol. 2, Jack Minker et a.l. editors, Plenum Press, New York, IQ84. / A3/ Gottlob , G., P. Paolini, and R. Zicari, "Properties and Update Semantics...February 1980. /D3/ Enslow, P., "What is a ’distributed’ data processing system?" IEEE Computer, 11, 1, January 1978. /D4/ Gottlob , G. and R. Zicari

  12. SYSTEM FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION OF TUBULAR OBJECTS

    DOEpatents

    Kaserman, J.A.; Oliver, R.B.

    1962-11-13

    A system is designed for ultrasonic testing of a pipe submerged in a liquid bath. Flaws are detected by progressively scanning the rotating pipe while it is supported along its length by a series of spaced moving guides. (D.L.C.)

  13. Reflection and Hyper-Programming in Persistent Programming Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Graham

    2010-06-01

    The work presented in this thesis seeks to improve programmer productivity in the following ways: - by reducing the amount of code that has to be written to construct an application; - by increasing the reliability of the code written; and - by improving the programmer's understanding of the persistent environment in which applications are constructed. Two programming techniques that may be used to pursue these goals in a persistent environment are type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming. The first provides a mechanism by which the programmer can write generators that, when executed, produce new program representations. This allows the specification of programs that are highly generic yet depend in non-trivial ways on the types of the data on which they operate. Genericity promotes software reuse which in turn reduces the amount of new code that has to be written. Hyper-programming allows a source program to contain links to data items in the persistent store. This improves program reliability by allowing certain program checking to be performed earlier than is otherwise possible. It also reduces the amount of code written by permitting direct links to data in the place of textual descriptions. Both techniques contribute to the understanding of the persistent environment through supporting the implementation of store browsing tools and allowing source representations to be associated with all executable programs in the persistent store. This thesis describes in detail the structure of type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming, their benefits in the persistent context, and a suite of programming tools that support reflective programming and hyper-programming. These tools may be used in conjunction to allow reflection over hyper-program representations. The implementation of the tools is described.

  14. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  15. Interoperability Gap Challenges for Learning Object Repositories & Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    An interoperability gap exists between Learning Management Systems (LMSs) and Learning Object Repositories (LORs). Learning Objects (LOs) and the associated Learning Object Metadata (LOM) that is stored within LORs adhere to a variety of LOM standards. A common LOM standard found in LORs is the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)…

  16. Religious Minorities and Persistence at a Systemic Religiously Affiliated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Todd A.; Rice, N. Dewaine

    2009-01-01

    There is paucity in the professional literature regarding the religious minority in religiously affiliated colleges and universities. This exploratory study analyzed one conservative private religiously affiliated university and the persistence rates of both the religious majority and religious minority. Crosstabs and chi-square analysis indicated…

  17. An Intervention System for Persistent Non-Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Donna; And Others

    This project was conducted to determine factors that contribute to the academic success or lack thereof of educationally disadvantaged vocational students and to develop a plan that will enhance success of persistent nonachieving students in the future. Educationally disadvantaged students at Mountain View Community College (Texas) were divided…

  18. A 3-D measurement system using object-oriented FORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a system for storing 3-D measurements of points that relates the coordinate system of the measurement device to the global coordinate system. The program described here used object-oriented FORTH to store the measured points as sons of the measuring device location. Conversion of local coordinates to absolute coordinates is performed by passing messages to the point objects. Modifications to the object-oriented FORTH system are also described. 1 ref.

  19. Elaborating Surface Topology Control System for Technological Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.; Lapteva, U. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics of elaborating topology control system for technological objects are presented in the paper. The main part of the system is measuring block with laser and ultrasonic distance measuring devices, which enables to have technological object scanned with accuracy demanded. The algorithm of scanning technological object, in particular, vertical storage tank, is presented as well. The system elaborated is an integral part of intellectual decision-support system.

  20. Alterations in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Persistent but Not Reversible Proteinuric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Beeken, Maire; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Blattner, Simone M.; Radón, Victoria; Oh, Jun; Meyer, Tobias N.; Hildebrand, Diana; Schlüter, Hartmut; Reinicke, Anna T.; Knop, Jan-Hendrik; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Münster, Silvia; Sachs, Marlies; Wiech, Thorsten; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Cohen, Clemens D.; Kretzler, Matthias; Stahl, Rolf A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are the key cells affected in nephrotic glomerular kidney diseases, and they respond uniformly to injury with cytoskeletal rearrangement. In nephrotic diseases, such as membranous nephropathy and FSGS, persistent injury often leads to irreversible structural damage, whereas in minimal change disease, structural alterations are mostly transient. The factors leading to persistent podocyte injury are currently unknown. Proteolysis is an irreversible process and could trigger persistent podocyte injury through degradation of podocyte-specific proteins. We, therefore, analyzed the expression and functional consequence of the two most prominent proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagosomal/lysosomal system, in persistent and transient podocyte injuries. We show that differential upregulation of both proteolytic systems occurs in persistent human and rodent podocyte injury. The expression of specific UPS proteins in podocytes differentiated children with minimal change disease from children with FSGS and correlated with poor clinical outcome. Degradation of the podocyte-specific protein α-actinin-4 by the UPS depended on oxidative modification in membranous nephropathy. Notably, the UPS was overwhelmed in podocytes during experimental glomerular disease, resulting in abnormal protein accumulation and compensatory upregulation of the autophagosomal/lysosomal system. Accordingly, inhibition of both proteolytic systems enhanced proteinuria in persistent nephrotic disease. This study identifies altered proteolysis as a feature of persistent podocyte injury. In the future, specific UPS proteins may serve as new biomarkers or therapeutic targets in persistent nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24722446

  1. Interoperative fundus image and report sharing in compliance with integrating the healthcare enterprise conformance and web access to digital imaging and communication in medicine persistent object protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Lv, Zheng-Min; Geng, Xing-Yun; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM To address issues in interoperability between different fundus image systems, we proposed a web eye-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) framework in conformance with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 (HL7) protocol to realize fundus images and reports sharing and communication through internet. METHODS Firstly, a telemedicine-based eye care work flow was established based on integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) Eye Care technical framework. Then, a browser/server architecture eye-PACS system was established in conformance with the web access to DICOM persistent object (WADO) protocol, which contains three tiers. RESULTS In any client system installed with web browser, clinicians could log in the eye-PACS to observe fundus images and reports. Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) type of a structured report is saved as pdf/html with reference link to relevant fundus image using the WADO syntax could provide enough information for clinicians. Some functions provided by open-source Oviyam could be used to query, zoom, move, measure, view DICOM fundus images. CONCLUSION Such web eye-PACS in compliance to WADO protocol could be used to store and communicate fundus images and reports, therefore is of great significance for teleophthalmology. PMID:24392341

  2. Interoperative fundus image and report sharing in compliance with integrating the healthcare enterprise conformance and web access to digital imaging and communication in medicine persistent object protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Lv, Zheng-Min; Geng, Xing-Yun; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    To address issues in interoperability between different fundus image systems, we proposed a web eye-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) framework in conformance with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 (HL7) protocol to realize fundus images and reports sharing and communication through internet. Firstly, a telemedicine-based eye care work flow was established based on integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) Eye Care technical framework. Then, a browser/server architecture eye-PACS system was established in conformance with the web access to DICOM persistent object (WADO) protocol, which contains three tiers. In any client system installed with web browser, clinicians could log in the eye-PACS to observe fundus images and reports. Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) type of a structured report is saved as pdf/html with reference link to relevant fundus image using the WADO syntax could provide enough information for clinicians. Some functions provided by open-source Oviyam could be used to query, zoom, move, measure, view DICOM fundus images. Such web eye-PACS in compliance to WADO protocol could be used to store and communicate fundus images and reports, therefore is of great significance for teleophthalmology.

  3. Practical Measurement and Productive Persistence: Strategies for Using Digital Learning System Data to Drive Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Andrew E.; Beattie, Rachel; Takahashi, Sola; D'Angelo, Cynthia; Feng, Mingyu; Cheng, Britte

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of practical measures of productive persistence using digital learning system data. Practical measurement refers to data collection and analysis approaches originating from improvement science; productive persistence refers to the combination of academic and social mindsets as well as learning behaviours that…

  4. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  5. Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0105 Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System Manoranjan Majji RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE...Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1...called Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System was developed under the auspices of the DURIP program. The developed

  6. Persistence and extinction of a stochastic non-autonomous Gilpin-Ayala system driven by Lévy noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Liang, Yanlai

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the persistence and extinction of a stochastic non-autonomous Gilpin-Ayala system driven by Lévy noise. Sufficient criteria for extinction, non-persistence in the mean and weak persistence of the system are established. The threshold between weak persistence and extinction is obtained. From the results we can see that both persistence and extinction have close relationships with Lévy noise. Some simulation figures are introduced to demonstrate the analytical findings.

  7. Mechanical Systems. Competency Statements/Objectives and Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides competency statements/objectives for an 11th- to 12th-grade trade and industrial education course in mechanical systems. The first half of the guide consists of competency statements for the 53 units of the curriculum. Each competency statement consists of a terminal objective and specific objectives for each unit,…

  8. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception That Heavier Objects Sink More: A Reaction Time Study with Different Levels of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Masson, Steve; Lafortune, Stéphanie; Cyr, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have argued for the "persistence" of some of students' frequent scientific misconceptions, even after correct answers are produced. Some of these studies, based on the analysis of reaction times, have recorded latencies for counter-intuitive or incongruent stimuli compared to intuitive or congruent ones. The…

  9. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception That Heavier Objects Sink More: A Reaction Time Study with Different Levels of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Masson, Steve; Lafortune, Stéphanie; Cyr, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have argued for the "persistence" of some of students' frequent scientific misconceptions, even after correct answers are produced. Some of these studies, based on the analysis of reaction times, have recorded latencies for counter-intuitive or incongruent stimuli compared to intuitive or congruent ones. The…

  10. Organic Aggregation of Knowledge Objects in Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Gilbert; Rosca, Ioan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes an organic approach to educational Web-based systems where learning objects (educational resources), operations on these objects, and actors that perform them are aggregated in meaningful ways. Proposes to reference models of learning systems with educational ontologies developed for instructional engineering and provides examples in the…

  11. Experiences Building an Object-Oriented System in C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.; Kougiouris, Panagiotis

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes tools that we built to support the construction of an object-oriented operating system in C++. The tools provide the automatic deletion of unwanted objects, first-class classes, dynamically loadable classes, and class-oriented debugging. As a consequence of our experience building Choices, we advocate these features as useful, simplifying and unifying many aspects of system programming.

  12. Persistent high fever and systemic inflammation induced by percutaneous coronary intervention-related periaortitis

    PubMed Central

    Kakino, Takamori; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    After coronary catheterization, fever sometimes occurs, usually transiently. We report a very rare case that suggests persistent high fever and systemic inflammation might be caused by periaortitis induced by coronary catheterization including percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:20057898

  13. Persistence of College Students in the South Korean Academic Credit Bank System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yughi; Yun, Kyongsuk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of career decision-making self-efficacy, academic satisfaction, and institutional support in predicting Korean students' intent to persist in the Academic Credit Bank System.

  14. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  15. A telepresence robot system realized by embedded object concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallius, Tero; Röning, Juha

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the Embedded Object Concept (EOC) and a telepresence robot system which is a test case for the EOC. The EOC utilizes common object-oriented methods used in software by applying them to combined Lego-like software-hardware entities. These entities represent objects in object-oriented design methods, and they are the building blocks of embedded systems. The goal of the EOC is to make the designing embedded systems faster and easier. This concept enables people without comprehensive knowledge in electronics design to create new embedded systems, and for experts it shortens the design time of new embedded systems. We present the current status of a telepresence robot created with second-generation Atomi-objects, which is the name for our implementation of the embedded objects. The telepresence robot is a relatively complex test case for the EOC. The robot has been constructed using incremental device development, which is made possible by the architecture of the EOC. The robot contains video and audio exchange capability and a controlling system for driving with two wheels. The robot is built in two versions, the first consisting of a PC device and Atomi-objects, and the second consisting of only Atomi-objects. The robot is currently incomplete, but most of it has been successfully tested.

  16. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  17. Pattern oriented design of cluster running object medical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Chatzistavrou, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    The object oriented technology has been used for design and implementation purposes of medical information systems in several cases. The representation of patient and health care data, the integration of heterogeneous hospital information systems and the object oriented modeling of health care information systems are the most common amongst them. Object oriented design patterns provide solutions to reoccurring design problems, which can arise during a software development circle. Patterns can be classified in specific categories that represent the design purposes where these can be applied. Well established standards and tools for the design and development of cluster running object oriented parallel applications do not exist. The existing tools and techniques are limited and can only be used for scientific and research purposes. Patterns for the design of cluster running parallel object oriented medical information systems are investigated in this paper.

  18. An intelligent object recognizer and classification system for astronomical use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernat, Andrew P.; Mcgraw, John T.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of an image-processing system based on AI concepts, which allows input images produced by the CCT/Transit Instrument to be compared with a standard-object hierarchylike network of prototypes presented within the computer as 'frames'. Each frame contains information concerning either a standard object or the links among such objects. This method, by comparison to conventional, statistically-based pattern recognition systems, classifies data as an astronomer would and thereby lends credibility to its conclusions; it also furnishes a natural avenue for the machine's serendipitous discovery of new classes of objects.

  19. Method and System for Producing Images of an Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J. (Inventor); Garrison, James L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and system are provided to produce images of an object. A receiving station is positioned in view of a range-coded signal emitting satellite and the object. The receiving station is sensitive to direct transmission of the range-coded signal and reflections of the range-coded signal from the object. Both range from the receiving station to the object and a Doppler frequency shift history between the receiving station and the object is determined using the direct transmission and reflections of the range-coded signal. An image is formed using the two-dimensional record provided by the range and the Doppler frequency shift history.

  20. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  1. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  2. Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

    1986-11-01

    Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

  3. Object-oriented fault tree models applied to system diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    When a diagnosis system is used in a dynamic environment, such as the distributed computer system planned for use on Space Station Freedom, it must execute quickly and its knowledge base must be easily updated. Representing system knowledge as object-oriented augmented fault trees provides both features. The diagnosis system described here is based on the failure cause identification process of the diagnostic system described by Narayanan and Viswanadham. Their system has been enhanced in this implementation by replacing the knowledge base of if-then rules with an object-oriented fault tree representation. This allows the system to perform its task much faster and facilitates dynamic updating of the knowledge base in a changing diagnosis environment. Accessing the information contained in the objects is more efficient than performing a lookup operation on an indexed rule base. Additionally, the object-oriented fault trees can be easily updated to represent current system status. This paper describes the fault tree representation, the diagnosis algorithm extensions, and an example application of this system. Comparisons are made between the object-oriented fault tree knowledge structure solution and one implementation of a rule-based solution. Plans for future work on this system are also discussed.

  4. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  5. Hybrid Multiagent System for Automatic Object Learning Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Ana; de La Prieta, Fernando; López, Vivian F.

    The rapid evolution within the context of e-learning is closely linked to international efforts on the standardization of learning object metadata, which provides learners in a web-based educational system with ubiquitous access to multiple distributed repositories. This article presents a hybrid agent-based architecture that enables the recovery of learning objects tagged in Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and provides individualized help with selecting learning materials to make the most suitable choice among many alternatives.

  6. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning…

  7. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  8. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in China's surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J

    2017-02-15

    Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values. These areas are mainly distributed along the southeast coast of China, within or downstream of major manufacturing districts, intensive agricultural basins, and other industrial centers. A comparison of the levels of OCPs in the aquatic environment of China with other indicative regions worldwide shows comparable levels of pollution (overall range from below detection limit (BDL) to 5104.8ng/L and regional means from 2.9-929.6ng/L). PAHs and PCBs pollution appear to be particularly serious in China (PAHs overall ranging from BDL to 474,000ng/L with regional means from 15.1-72,400ng/L; PCBs from BDL to 3161ng/L with regional means ranging from 0.2-985.2ng/L). There is as yet limited evidence of serious perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) pollution. We discuss major sources and processes responsible for high POP occurrence using a range of measures (including diagnostic ratios of different compounds), regulatory oversight and policy gaps in the control of POPs in China, and potential long-term health and ecological effects. We argue that water quality guidelines, pollution control measures and cleanup strategies for POPs in China should be

  10. Multi-objective Optimization of the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, B. A.; Harou, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is participating in a re- operation study of the Mississippi Headwaters reservoir system. The study, termed ROPE (Reservoir Operation Plan Evaluation), will develop a new operation policy for the reservoir system in a Shared Vision Planning effort. The current operating plan is 40 years old and does not account for the diverse objectives of the system altered by increased development and resource awareness. Functions of the six-reservoir system include flood damage reduction, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat considerations, tribal resources, water quality, water supply, erosion and sedimentation control, and hydropower production. Experience has shown that a modeling approach using both optimization, which makes decisions based on their value to objectives, and simulation, which makes decisions that follow operating instructions or rules, is an effective way to improve or develop new operating policies. HEC's role in this study was to develop a multi- objective optimization model of the system using HEC-PRM (Prescriptive Reservoir Model), a generalized computer program that performs multi-period deterministic network-flow optimization of reservoir systems. The optimization model's purpose is to enable stakeholders and decision makers to select appropriate tradeoffs between objectives, and have these tradeoffs reflected in proposed rules. Initial single-objective optimizations allow stakeholders to verify that the penalty functions developed by experts accurately represent their interests. Once penalty functions are confirmed, trade-off curves between pairs of system objectives are developed, and stakeholders and decision makers choose a desired balance between the two objectives. These chosen balance points are maintained in optimizations that consider all objectives. Finally, optimal system decisions are studied to infer operating patterns that embody the chosen tradeoffs. The

  11. Systems biology-based identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Noton K; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Veeramani, Balaji; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Karakousis, Petros C; Bader, Joel S

    2014-02-18

    Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes is important for developing novel drugs to shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We developed computational algorithms that predict M. tuberculosis genes required for long-term survival in mouse lungs. As the input, we used high-throughput M. tuberculosis mutant library screen data, mycobacterial global transcriptional profiles in mice and macrophages, and functional interaction networks. We selected 57 unique, genetically defined mutants (18 previously tested and 39 untested) to assess the predictive power of this approach in the murine model of TB infection. We observed a 6-fold enrichment in the predicted set of M. tuberculosis genes required for persistence in mouse lungs relative to randomly selected mutant pools. Our results also allowed us to reclassify several genes as required for M. tuberculosis persistence in vivo. Finally, the new results implicated additional high-priority candidate genes for testing. Experimental validation of computational predictions demonstrates the power of this systems biology approach for elucidating M. tuberculosis persistence genes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has a genetic repertoire that permits it to persist in the face of host immune responses. Identification of such persistence genes could reveal novel drug targets and elucidate mechanisms by which the organism eludes the immune system and resists drugs. Genetic screens have identified a total of 31 persistence genes, but to date only 15% of the ~4,000 M. tuberculosis genes have been tested experimentally. In this paper, as an alternative to brute force experimental screens, we describe computational methods that predict new persistence genes by combining known examples with growing databases of biological networks. Experimental testing demonstrated that these predictions are highly accurate, validating the computational approach and providing new information

  12. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  13. Object-oriented system building for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludgate, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The concepts and terminology of object-oriented system development are presented assuming the reader is familiar with the Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SA/SD) methodology. An improvement to SA/SD, known as Object Oriented Analysis/Object Oriented Design (OOA/OOD) is described and the steps in such an undertaking explained. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is briefly introduced before SA/SD and OOA/OOD are compared. A recommendation to the SSC Central Design Group concludes the paper.

  14. An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.

  15. Embedded object concept with a telepresence robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallius, Tero; Röning, Juha

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the Embedded Object Concept (EOC) and a telepresence robot system which is a test case for the EOC. The EOC utilizes common object-oriented methods used in software by applying them to combined Lego-like software-hardware entities. These entities represent objects in object-oriented design methods, and they are the building blocks of embedded systems. The goal of the EOC is to make the designing of embedded systems faster and easier. This concept enables people without comprehensive knowledge in electronics design to create new embedded systems, and for experts it shortens the design time of new embedded systems. We present the current status of the EOC, including two generations of embedded objects named Atomi objects. The first generation of the Atomi objects has been tested with different applications, and found to be functional, but not optimal. The second generation aims to correct the issues found with the first generation, and it is being tested in a relatively complex test case. The test case is a telepresence robot consisting of a two wheeled human height robot and its computer counter part. The robot has been constructed using incremental device development, which is made possible by the architecture of the EOC. The robot contains video and audio exchange capability, and a controlling and balancing system for driving with two wheels. The robot is built in two versions, the first consisting of a PDA device and Atomi objects, and the second consisting of only Atomi objects. The robot is currently incomplete, but for the most part it has been successfully tested.

  16. A Verification System for Distributed Objects with Asynchronous Method Calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Dylla, Maximilian

    We present a verification system for Creol, an object-oriented modeling language for concurrent distributed applications. The system is an instance of KeY, a framework for object-oriented software verification, which has so far been applied foremost to sequential Java. Building on KeY characteristic concepts, like dynamic logic, sequent calculus, explicit substitutions, and the taclet rule language, the system presented in this paper addresses functional correctness of Creol models featuring local cooperative thread parallelism and global communication via asynchronous method calls. The calculus heavily operates on communication histories which describe the interfaces of Creol units. Two example scenarios demonstrate the usage of the system.

  17. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  18. Object view in spatial system dynamics: a grassland farming example

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Christian; Hofer, Barbara; Schaumberger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spatial system dynamics (SSD) models are typically implemented by linking stock variables to raster grids while the use of object representations of human artefacts such as buildings or ownership has been limited. This limitation is addressed by this article, which demonstrates the use of object representations in SSD. The objects are parcels of land that are attributed to grassland farms. The model simulates structural change in agriculture, i.e., change in the size of farms. The aim of the model is to reveal relations between structural change, farmland fragmentation and variable farmland quality. Results show that fragmented farms tend to become consolidated by structural change, whereas consolidated initial conditions result in a significant increase of fragmentation. Consolidation is reinforced by a dynamic land market and high transportation costs. The example demonstrates the capabilities of the object-based approach for integrating object geometries (parcel shapes) and relations between objects (distances between parcels) dynamically in SSD. PMID:28190972

  19. New neural-networks-based 3D object recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmaesumi, Purang; Jahed, M.

    1997-09-01

    Three-dimensional object recognition has always been one of the challenging fields in computer vision. In recent years, Ulman and Basri (1991) have proposed that this task can be done by using a database of 2-D views of the objects. The main problem in their proposed system is that the correspondent points should be known to interpolate the views. On the other hand, their system should have a supervisor to decide which class does the represented view belong to. In this paper, we propose a new momentum-Fourier descriptor that is invariant to scale, translation, and rotation. This descriptor provides the input feature vectors to our proposed system. By using the Dystal network, we show that the objects can be classified with over 95% precision. We have used this system to classify the objects like cube, cone, sphere, torus, and cylinder. Because of the nature of the Dystal network, this system reaches to its stable point by a single representation of the view to the system. This system can also classify the similar views to a single class (e.g., for the cube, the system generated 9 different classes for 50 different input views), which can be used to select an optimum database of training views. The system is also very flexible to the noise and deformed views.

  20. The Colors of Extreme Outer Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2010-04-01

    Extreme outer solar system objects have possible origins beyond the Kuiper Belt edge, high inclinations, very large semimajor axes, or large perihelion distances. Thirty-three such objects were observed in this work to determine their optical colors. All three objects that have been dynamically linked to the inner Oort Cloud by various authors ((90377) Sedna, 2006 SQ372, and (87269) 2000 OO67) were found to have ultra-red surface material (spectral gradient, S ~ 25). Ultra-red material is generally associated with rich organics and the low inclination "cold" classical Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). The observations detailed here show that very red material may be a more general feature for objects kept far from the Sun. The recently discovered retrograde outer solar system objects (2008 KV42 and 2008 YB3) and the high inclination object (127546) 2002 XU93 show only moderately red surfaces (S ~ 9) very similar to known comets, suspected dead comets, Jupiter and Neptune Trojans, irregular satellites, D-type asteroids, and damocloids. The extended or detached disk objects, which have large perihelion distances and are thus considered to be detached from the influence of the giant planets but yet have large eccentricities, are found to have mostly moderately red colors (10 <~ S <~ 18). The colors of the detached disk objects, including the dynamically unusual 2004 XR190 and (148209) 2000 CR105, are similar to the scattered disk and Plutino populations. Thus the detached disk, scattered disk, Plutino, and high inclination "hot" classical objects likely have a similar mix of objects from the same source regions. Outer classical KBOs, including (48639) 1995 TL8, were found to have very red surfaces (18 <~ S <~ 30). The low inclination "cold" classical KBOs, outer classical KBOs and possibly the inner Oort Cloud appear to be dominated by ultra-red objects (S >~ 25) and thus do not likely have a similar mix of objects as the other outer solar system reservoirs such as the

  1. THE COLORS OF EXTREME OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2010-04-15

    Extreme outer solar system objects have possible origins beyond the Kuiper Belt edge, high inclinations, very large semimajor axes, or large perihelion distances. Thirty-three such objects were observed in this work to determine their optical colors. All three objects that have been dynamically linked to the inner Oort Cloud by various authors ((90377) Sedna, 2006 SQ{sub 372}, and (87269) 2000 OO{sub 67}) were found to have ultra-red surface material (spectral gradient, S {approx} 25). Ultra-red material is generally associated with rich organics and the low inclination 'cold' classical Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). The observations detailed here show that very red material may be a more general feature for objects kept far from the Sun. The recently discovered retrograde outer solar system objects (2008 KV{sub 42} and 2008 YB{sub 3}) and the high inclination object (127546) 2002 XU{sub 93} show only moderately red surfaces (S {approx} 9) very similar to known comets, suspected dead comets, Jupiter and Neptune Trojans, irregular satellites, D-type asteroids, and damocloids. The extended or detached disk objects, which have large perihelion distances and are thus considered to be detached from the influence of the giant planets but yet have large eccentricities, are found to have mostly moderately red colors (10 {approx}< S {approx}< 18). The colors of the detached disk objects, including the dynamically unusual 2004 XR{sub 190} and (148209) 2000 CR{sub 105}, are similar to the scattered disk and Plutino populations. Thus the detached disk, scattered disk, Plutino, and high inclination 'hot' classical objects likely have a similar mix of objects from the same source regions. Outer classical KBOs, including (48639) 1995 TL{sub 8}, were found to have very red surfaces (18 {approx}< S {approx}< 30). The low inclination 'cold' classical KBOs, outer classical KBOs and possibly the inner Oort Cloud appear to be dominated by ultra-red objects (S {approx}> 25) and thus do not

  2. An Object-Based Architecture for Biomedical Expert Database Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Thierry

    1988-01-01

    Objects play a major role in both database and artificial intelligence research. In this paper, we present a novel architecture for expert database systems that introduces an object-based interface between relational databases and expert systems. We exploit a semantic model of the database structure to map relations automatically into object templates, where each template can be a complex combination of join and projection operations. Moreover, we arrange the templates into object networks that represent different views of the same database. Separate processes instantiate those templates using data from the base relations, cache the resulting instances in main memory, navigate through a given network's objects, and update the database according to changes made at the object layer. In the context of an immunologic-research application, we demonstrate the capabilities of a prototype implementation of the architecture. The resulting model provides enhanced tools for database structuring and manipulation. In addition, this architecture supports efficient bidirectional communication between database and expert systems through the shared object layer.

  3. Services oriented architecture (SOA)-based persistent ISR simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Huimin; Pham, Khanh

    2010-04-01

    In the modern networked battlefield, network centric warfare (NCW) scenarios need to interoperate between shared resources and data assets such as sensors, UAVs, satellites, ground vehicles, and command and control (C2/C4I) systems. By linking and fusing platform routing information, sensor exploitation results, and databases (e.g. Geospatial Information Systems [GIS]), the shared situation awareness and mission effectiveness will be improved. Within the information fusion community, various research efforts are looking at open standard approaches to composing the heterogeneous network components under one framework for future modeling and simulation applications. By utilizing the open source services oriented architecture (SOA) based sensor web services, and GIS visualization services, we propose a framework that ensures the fast prototyping of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) system simulations to determine an asset mix for a desired mission effectiveness, performance modeling for sensor management and prediction, and user testing of various scenarios.

  4. Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    leverage GPS satellite capabilities; (3) the GPS interagency requirements process; and (4) coordination of GPS efforts with the international PNT...Lacks Detailed Guidance 30 Coordination of GPS Activities with the International Community Continues, and Some Challenges Have Been Addressed 37...Global Positioning System Abbreviations CAM Control Account Manager CWBS Contractor Work Breakdown Structure DASS Distress

  5. Detection and handling of occlusion in an object detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Op het Veld, R. M. G.; Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Bondarev, Y.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Object detection is an important technique for video surveillance applications. Although different detection algorithms were proposed, they all have problems in detecting occluded objects. In this paper, we propose a novel system for occlusion handling and integrate this in a sliding-window detection framework using HOG features and linear classification. The occlusion handling is obtained by applying multiple classifiers, each covering a different level of occlusion and focusing on the non-occluded object parts. Experiments show that our approach based on 17 classifiers, obtains an increase of 8% in detection performance. To limit computational complexity, we propose a cascaded implementation that only increases the computational cost by 3.4%. Although the paper presents results for pedestrian detection, our approach is not limited to this object class. Finally, our system does not need an additional dataset for training, covering all possible types of occlusions.

  6. Object technology: raising the standards for healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Pollard, D L; Hammond, W E

    1998-01-01

    Netscape and the public Internet have accelerated the acceptance of many different open "Internet standards". Through wide acceptance of its browser, Netscape gave a boost to the Java programming language helping it become truly platform independent. Objects written in Java are ideal building blocks for application components. CORBA gives such objects the ability to communicate and operate over networks. Applications built with these distributed objects become the services in an Internet-wide healthcare framework. The convergence of object technologies has raised the standards for modern healthcare information systems. To illustrate the relationship among such technologies, this paper presents an architecture for a Universal Healthcare Information System (UHIS) in terms of its web, Java and CORBA components.

  7. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, R.; Sainarayanan, G.; Yaacob, Sazali; Porle, Rosalyn R.

    2005-12-01

    We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI) system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS), a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

  8. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  9. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  10. Uniform persistence in a generalized prey-predator system with parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, D

    1998-08-01

    This paper deals with a generalized prey-predator system where the prey population is infected by a microparasite. The model is described by a system of three autonomous ordinary differential equations. Conditions for persistence of all populations are given. Impermanence criteria are also derived.

  11. Implementing Concurrency Control in Reliable Distributed Object-Oriented Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrington, Graham D.; Shrivastava, Santosh K.

    One of the key concepts available in many object-oriented programming languages is that of type-inheritance, which permits new types to be derived from, and inherit the capabilities of, old types. This paper describes how to exploit this property in a very simple fashion to implement object-oriented concurrency control. We show how by using type-inheritance, objects may control their own level of concurrency in a type-specific manner. Simple examples demonstrate the applicability of the approach. The implementation technique described here is being used to develop Arjuna, a fault-tolerant distributed programming system supporting atomic actions.

  12. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  13. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    PubMed

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Observing Solar System Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Issacs, J.; Balzano, V.; Nelan, E.P.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Hammel, H.

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have the capability to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 30 milliarcseconds/sec. The key science drivers are the study of Kuiper Belt Objects, asteroids, comets, and the outer planets and their moons at near and mid-infrared wavelengths. This poster presents the results from a recent study that defined the conceptual design for a capability for JWST to track and observe moving targets. We illustrate about how guide star acquisition and tracking wi11 be handled while retaining the efficient and flexible execution characteristics of JWST event-driven operations. We also show how the JWST pointing control system can readily support moving target observations. The characteristics of Solar System objects that can be observed by JWST are summarized along with descriptions of the major aspects of moving target science observation planning and on-board event-driven execution.

  15. ROOM: A recursive object oriented method for information systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Thelliez, T.; Donahue, S.

    1994-02-09

    Although complementary for the development of complex systems, top-down structured design and object oriented approach are still opposed and not integrated. As the complexity of the systems are still growing, and the so-called software crisis still not solved, it is urgent to provide a framework mixing the two paradigms. This paper presents an elegant attempt in this direction through our Recursive Object-Oriented Method (ROOM) in which a top-down approach divides the complexity of the system and an object oriented method studies a given level of abstraction. Illustrating this recursive schema with a simple example, we demonstrate that we achieve the goal of creating loosely coupled and reusable components.

  16. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Xie, S.; Cederwall, R.T.; Yio, J.J.

    2001-06-19

    This report describes the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process the data collected from the ARM Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at State University of New York at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes, 1964; O'Brien, 1970; Lin and Johnson, 1996), the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum through a variational technique. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  17. Understanding Temporal Logic. Introducing Coherent Object System Architecture (COSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Understanding Temporal Logic I t d in ro uc ng Coherent Object System Architecture ( COSA ) By Gordon Morrison, Author Breaking the Time Barrier...Coherent Object System Architecture ( COSA ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Don’t use my temporal COSA approach – Did you improve on COSA ? www.vsmerlot.com 2 Proper State Machine(1) • In a proper state machine, the state

  18. Object detection through search with a foveated visual system.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Emre; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-10-09

    Humans and many other species sense visual information with varying spatial resolution across the visual field (foveated vision) and deploy eye movements to actively sample regions of interests in scenes. The advantage of such varying resolution architecture is a reduced computational, hence metabolic cost. But what are the performance costs of such processing strategy relative to a scheme that processes the visual field at high spatial resolution? Here we first focus on visual search and combine object detectors from computer vision with a recent model of peripheral pooling regions found at the V1 layer of the human visual system. We develop a foveated object detector that processes the entire scene with varying resolution, uses retino-specific object detection classifiers to guide eye movements, aligns its fovea with regions of interest in the input image and integrates observations across multiple fixations. We compared the foveated object detector against a non-foveated version of the same object detector which processes the entire image at with homogeneous high spatial resolution. We evaluated the accuracy of the foveated and non-foveated object detectors identifying 20 different objects classes in scenes from a standard computer vision data set (the PASCAL VOC 2007 dataset). We show that the foveated object detector can approximate the performance of the object detector with homogeneous high spatial resolution processing while bringing significant computational cost savings. Additionally, we assessed the impact of foveation on the computation of bottom-up saliency. An implementation of a simple foveated bottom-up saliency model with eye movements showed agreement in the selection of top salient regions of scenes with those selected by a non-foveated high resolution saliency model. Together, our results might help explain the evolution of foveated visual systems with eye movements as a solution that preserves perceptual performance in visual search while

  19. An object-oriented data reduction system in Fortran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    A data reduction system for the AAO two-degree field project is being developed using an object-oriented approach. Rather than use an object-oriented language (such as C++) the system is written in Fortran and makes extensive use of existing subroutine libraries provided by the UK Starlink project. Objects are created using the extensible N-dimensional Data Format (NDF) which itself is based on the Hierarchical Data System (HDS). The software consists of a class library, with each class corresponding to a Fortran subroutine with a standard calling sequence. The methods of the classes provide operations on NDF objects at a similar level of functionality to the applications of conventional data reduction systems. However, because they are provided as callable subroutines, they can be used as building blocks for more specialist applications. The class library is not dependent on a particular software environment thought it can be used effectively in ADAM applications. It can also be used from standalone Fortran programs. It is intended to develop a graphical user interface for use with the class library to form the 2dF data reduction system.

  20. Vision System Measures Motions of Robot and External Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of an advanced robotic vision system both (1) measures its own motion with respect to a stationary background and (2) detects other moving objects and estimates their motions, all by use of visual cues. Like some prior robotic and other optoelectronic vision systems, this system is based partly on concepts of optical flow and visual odometry. Whereas prior optoelectronic visual-odometry systems have been limited to frame rates of no more than 1 Hz, a visual-odometry subsystem that is part of this system operates at a frame rate of 60 to 200 Hz, given optical-flow estimates. The overall system operates at an effective frame rate of 12 Hz. Moreover, unlike prior machine-vision systems for detecting motions of external objects, this system need not remain stationary: it can detect such motions while it is moving (even vibrating). The system includes a stereoscopic pair of cameras mounted on a moving robot. The outputs of the cameras are digitized, then processed to extract positions and velocities. The initial image-data-processing functions of this system are the same as those of some prior systems: Stereoscopy is used to compute three-dimensional (3D) positions for all pixels in the camera images. For each pixel of each image, optical flow between successive image frames is used to compute the two-dimensional (2D) apparent relative translational motion of the point transverse to the line of sight of the camera. The challenge in designing this system was to provide for utilization of the 3D information from stereoscopy in conjunction with the 2D information from optical flow to distinguish between motion of the camera pair and motions of external objects, compute the motion of the camera pair in all six degrees of translational and rotational freedom, and robustly estimate the motions of external objects, all in real time. To meet this challenge, the system is designed to perform the following image-data-processing functions: The visual-odometry subsystem

  1. Multiple Object Based RFID System Using Security Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Jung, Jongjin; Ryu, Ukjae; Ko, Hoon; Joe, Susan; Lee, Yongjun; Kim, Boyeon; Chang, Yunseok; Lee, Kyoonha

    2007-12-01

    RFID systems are increasingly applied for operational convenience in wide range of industries and individual life. However, it is uneasy for a person to control many tags because common RFID systems have the restriction that a tag used to identify just a single object. In addition, RFID systems can make some serious problems in violation of privacy and security because of their radio frequency communication. In this paper, we propose a multiple object RFID tag which can keep multiple object identifiers for different applications in a same tag. The proposed tag allows simultaneous access for their pair applications. We also propose an authentication protocol for multiple object tag to prevent serious problems of security and privacy in RFID applications. Especially, we focus on efficiency of the authentication protocol by considering security levels of applications. In the proposed protocol, the applications go through different authentication procedures according to security level of the object identifier stored in the tag. We implemented the proposed RFID scheme and made experimental results about efficiency and stability for the scheme.

  2. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L [Morgan Hill, CA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2009-12-29

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  3. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-10-23

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  4. Object migration and authentication. [in computer operating systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gligor, V. D.; Lindsay, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a mechanism permitting a type manager to fabricate a migrated object representation which can be entrusted to other subsystems or transmitted outside of the control of a local computer system. The migrated object representation is signed by the type manager in such a way that the type manager's signature cannot be forged and the manager is able to authenticate its own signature. Subsequently, the type manager can retrieve the migrated representation and validate its contents before reconstructing the object in its original representation. This facility allows type managers to authenticate the contents of off-line or network storage and solves problems stemming from the hierarchical structure of the system itself.

  5. How Reuse Influences Productivity in Object-Oriented Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1997-01-01

    Although reuse is assumed to be especially valuable in building high quality software as well as in Object Oriented (OO) development, limited empirical evidence connects reuse with productivity and quality gains. The author's eight system study begins to define such benefits in an OO framework, most notably in terms of reduce defect density and rework as well as in increased productivity.

  6. Asteroid-comet continuum objects in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2017-07-13

    In this review presented at the Royal Society meeting, 'Cometary science after Rosetta', I present an overview of studies of small solar system objects that exhibit properties of both asteroids and comets (with a focus on so-called active asteroids). Sometimes referred to as 'transition objects', these bodies are perhaps more appropriately described as 'continuum objects', to reflect the notion that rather than necessarily representing actual transitional evolutionary states between asteroids and comets, they simply belong to the general population of small solar system bodies that happen to exhibit a continuous range of observational, physical and dynamical properties. Continuum objects are intriguing because they possess many of the properties that make classical comets interesting to study (e.g. relatively primitive compositions, ejection of surface and subsurface material into space where it can be more easily studied, and orbital properties that allow us to sample material from distant parts of the solar system that would otherwise be inaccessible), while allowing us to study regions of the solar system that are not sampled by classical comets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.

  8. How Reuse Influences Productivity in Object-Oriented Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1997-01-01

    Although reuse is assumed to be especially valuable in building high quality software as well as in Object Oriented (OO) development, limited empirical evidence connects reuse with productivity and quality gains. The author's eight system study begins to define such benefits in an OO framework, most notably in terms of reduce defect density and rework as well as in increased productivity.

  9. Rethinking modeling framework design: object modeling system 3.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Object Modeling System (OMS) is a framework for environmental model development, data provisioning, testing, validation, and deployment. It provides a bridge for transferring technology from the research organization to the program delivery agency. The framework provides a consistent and efficie...

  10. Object-oriented expert system estimates line ampacity

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    In a competitive power supply business environment, line ampacity predictions are required by electric power utilities for economic generation planning, system dispatching, contingency planning, security analysis, and for normal and emergency operation of electric power systems. The line ampacity system featured in this article calculates ampacity from general purpose National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts and does not require additional hardware on power lines. By designing the ampacity expert system with objects and rules, it can be easily implemented in small and large electric companies. The Line ampacity System (LINEAMPS) is a PC/Windows-based, power-line ampacity, expert-system program for the estimation of line ampacity during steady-state, dynamic-state, and transient conditions. It was developed by the application of artificial intelligence using object-oriented, knowledge-base design of the power line environment. The expert system provides hourly values of line ampacity up to 7 days in advance and is used for the operation, planning, and design of transmission and distribution lines at all voltages. The program is an economical line ampacity system that does not require the installation of additional transmission line hardware, conductor temperature sensors, meteorological sensors or telecommunication systems, and is easily implemented in all geographic regions.

  11. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  12. Object digitalization using a scanning fringe projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacher, Michael; Krohne, Ingo; Glaser, Ulf; Pfeifer, T.

    2002-03-01

    The advantage of optical 3D measurement systems like triangulation based fringe projection systems compared with tactile working systems is their contactless and fast 3D surface data acquisition. The results in the form of point clouds can be processed regarding a mathematical surface description for CAD data generation. In many cases the optical 3D surface data acquisition of complex workpieces cannot be achieved in one measuring process so that it is necessary to merge different measuring fields. This approach is essential when the object is larger than the measuring range or the object cannot be measured in one measuring process in consequence of reflections or shadings. According to these problems a fringe projection system was integrated in a coordinate measuring machine with 5 axes (3 linear axes and 2 rotation axes). By using these axes, every region of the workpiece can be reached with the optical 3D sensor for digitalization. To get the complete point cloud of the object surface the different measuring fields must be transformed in one coordinate system by using the relative axes positions of the coordinate measuring machine. Results concerning Reverse Engineering applications and considerations of the measurement uncertainty of the scanning fringe projection system are presented.

  13. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  14. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOEpatents

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2010-12-14

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  15. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOEpatents

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2009-03-17

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  16. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, JJ

    2015-08-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 18 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  17. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, S.; Hill, N.; Kavelaars, J.

    2014-07-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 7.6 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  18. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj

    2016-01-01

    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  19. Reengineering legacy software to object-oriented systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitman, C.; Braley, D.; Fridge, E.; Plumb, A.; Izygon, M.; Mears, B.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has a legacy of complex software systems that are becoming increasingly expensive to maintain. Reengineering is one approach to modemizing these systems. Object-oriented technology, other modem software engineering principles, and automated tools can be used to reengineer the systems and will help to keep maintenance costs of the modemized systems down. The Software Technology Branch at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has been developing and testing reengineering methods and tools for several years. The Software Technology Branch is currently providing training and consulting support to several large reengineering projects at JSC, including the Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) project, which is reengineering the flight analysis and design system (over 2 million lines of FORTRAN code) into object-oriented C++. Many important lessons have been learned during the past years; one of these is that the design must never be allowed to diverge from the code during maintenance and enhancement. Future work on open, integrated environments to support reengineering is being actively planned.

  20. Garbage Collection in a Distributed Object-Oriented System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Aloke; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is described in this paper for garbage collection in distributed systems with object sharing across processor boundaries. The algorithm allows local garbage collection at each node in the system to proceed independently of local collection at the other nodes. It requires no global synchronization or knowledge of the global state of the system and exhibits the capability of graceful degradation. The concept of a specialized dump node is proposed to facilitate the collection of inaccessible circular structures. An experimental evaluation of the algorithm is also described. The algorithm is compared with a corresponding scheme that requires global synchronization. The results show that the algorithm works well in distributed processing environments even when the locality of object references is low.

  1. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  2. The Relationship between Academic Support Systems and Intended Persistence in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrell, Casey N.; Shelley, Kyna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of formal academic support systems and stage of doctoral study on persistence, satisfaction, and knowledge of resources, expectations, and customs in doctoral education. Doctoral students (N = 141) enrolled in four public institutions in a southeastern state were surveyed. An online questionnaire, adapted…

  3. Probing the Nature of Deficits in the "Approximate Number System" in Children with Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called "Approximate Number System" (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched…

  4. Probing the Nature of Deficits in the "Approximate Number System" in Children with Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called "Approximate Number System" (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched…

  5. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  6. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  7. Radar system components to detect small and fast objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülsmann, Axel; Zech, Christian; Klenner, Mathias; Tessmann, Axel; Leuther, Arnulf; Lopez-Diaz, Daniel; Schlechtweg, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Small and fast objects, for example bullets of caliber 5 to 10 mm, fired from guns like AK-47, can cause serious problems to aircrafts in asymmetric warfare. Especially slow and big aircrafts, like heavy transport helicopters are an easy mark of small caliber hand fire weapons. These aircrafts produce so much noise, that the crew is not able to recognize an attack unless serious problems occur and important systems of the aircraft fail. This is just one of many scenarios, where the detection of fast and small objects is desirable. Another scenario is the collision of space debris particles with satellites.

  8. SCRAM: A scoring and ranking system for persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances for the North American Great Lakes. Part II: Bioaccumulation potential and persistence.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E M; Snyder, S A; Giesy, J P; Blonde, S A; Hurlburt, G K; Summer, C L; Mitchell, R R; Bush, D M

    2000-01-01

    Part I (Snyder et al.: , 1999a) of this series introduced SCRAM, a chemical scoring and ranking system for contaminants of the North American Great Lakes. Here, in Part II, scoring of the bioaccumulation potential and persistence of chemicals is discussed, including acceptable types of data, specific scoring instructions, and the basis for criteria and scores for these categories of the system. Difficulties encountered during the process of determining which types of data adequately represent the properties of interest are discussed. Also, justification is given for an emphasis on scoring on the basis of persistence.

  9. Persistence of regular motions for nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems in the thermodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carati, Andrea; Galgani, Luigi; Maiocchi, Alberto; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    A review is given of the studies aimed at extending to the thermodynamic limit stability results of Nekhoroshev type for nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems. The physical relevance of such an extension, i. e., of proving the persistence of regular (or ordered) motions in that limit, is also discussed. This is made in connection both with the old Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem, which gave origin to such discussions, and with the optical spectral lines, the existence of which was recently proven to be possible in classical models, just in virtue of such a persistence.

  10. POPs: a QSAR system for developing categories for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mekenyan, O G; Dimitrov, S D; Pavlov, T S; Veith, G D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the framework of a QSAR-based decision support system which provides a rapid screening of potential hazards, classification of chemicals with respect to risk management thresholds, and estimation of missing data for the early stages of risk assessment. At the simplest level, the framework is designed to rank hundreds of chemicals according to their profile of persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity often called the persistent organic pollutant (POP) profile or the PBT (persistent bioaccumulative toxicant) profile. The only input data are the chemical structure. The POPs framework enables decision makers to introduce the risk management thresholds used in the classification of chemicals under various authorities. Finally, the POPs framework advances hazard identification by integrating a metabolic simulator that generates metabolic map for each parent chemical. Both the parent chemicals and plausible metabolites are systematically evaluated for metabolic activation and POPs profile.

  11. Pragmatic objects modeling environment for Electronic Health Records Systems.

    PubMed

    Ruelland, Alan; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Ota, Mario; Frandji, Bruno; Degoulet, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Customizable shared Electronic Health Care Records require new mechanisms to dynamically generate user defined objects. An object model based on a semantic network of concepts has been implemented (pragmatic database model). This model offers an easier way to represent "archetypes" of user objects including the concepts, their relationships and the specific organization and representation of the associated knowledge that are necessary to model the context of production of record elements. The aim of this paper is the presentation of this framework and its implementation in an online electronic health record system using Java Web Services technologies. A web-based registry on tobacco was implemented according to this framework and is today daily used in 150 tobacco addiction centers.

  12. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  13. Digital Equivalent Data System for XRF Labeling of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A digital equivalent data system (DEDS) is a system for identifying objects by means of the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra of labeling elements that are encased in or deposited on the objects. As such, a DEDS is a revolutionary new major subsystem of an XRF system. A DEDS embodies the means for converting the spectral data output of an XRF scanner to an ASCII alphanumeric or barcode label that can be used to identify (or verify the assumed or apparent identity of) an XRF-scanned object. A typical XRF spectrum of interest contains peaks at photon energies associated with specific elements on the Periodic Table (see figure). The height of each spectral peak above the local background spectral intensity is proportional to the relative abundance of the corresponding element. Alphanumeric values are assigned to the relative abundances of the elements. Hence, if an object contained labeling elements in suitably chosen proportions, an alphanumeric representation of the object could be extracted from its XRF spectrum. The mixture of labeling elements and for reading the XRF spectrum would be compatible with one of the labeling conventions now used for bar codes and binary matrix patterns (essentially, two-dimensional bar codes that resemble checkerboards). A further benefit of such compatibility is that it would enable the conversion of the XRF spectral output to a bar or matrix-coded label, if needed. In short, a process previously used only for material composition analysis has been reapplied to the world of identification. This new level of verification is now being used for "authentication."

  14. Polarimetry of Solar System Objects: Observations vs. Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of planetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy, provides insight into the scattering properties of the planetary media. Specifically, linear and circular polarimetric signatures of the object arise from different physical processes and their study proves essential to the characterization of the object. Linear polarization of reflected light by various solar system objects provides insight into the scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and hazes? and surficial properties of atmosphereless bodies. Many optically active materials are anisotropic and so their scattering properties differ with the object's principal axes (such as dichroic or birefringent materials) and are crystalline in structure instead of amorphous, (eg., the presence of olivines and silicates in cometary dust and circumstellar disks? Titan, etc.). Ices (water and other species) are abundant in the system indicated in their near - infrared spectra. Gas giants form outside the frost line (where ices condense), and their satellites and ring systems exhibit signature of water ice? clathrates, nonices (Si, C, Fe) in their NIR spectra and spectral dependence of linear polarization. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. Circular polarization, on the other hand, is indicative of magnetic fields and biologically active molecules, necessary for habitability. These applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numericalretrieval methods. With recent discoveries and

  15. MOOSE: architecture of an object-oriented multimodeling simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubert, Robert M.; Goktekin, Tolga; Fishwick, Paul A.

    1997-06-01

    MOOSE (multimodel object oriented simulation environment) is an enabling environment for modeling and simulation, under construction at University of Florida, based on OOPM (object oriented physical modeling). OOPM extends object-oriented program design with visualization and a definition of system modeling that reinforces the relation of model to program. OOPM is a natural mechanism for modeling large-scale systems, and facilitates effective integration of disparate pieces of code into one simulation. Components of MOOSE are modeler, translator, engine, and scenario: (1) Modeler interacts with model author via GUI to capture model design; (2) Translator is a bridge between model design and model execution, reading Modeler output, building structures representing model, and emitting C++ (or potentially other) code for model; (3) Engine is a C++ program, composed of translator output plus runtime support, compiled and linked once, then repeatedly activated for model execution; (4) Scenario is a visualization-enabling GUI which activates and interacts with engine, and displays engine output in a form meaningful to user. Dynamic model types supported include finite state machine, functional block model, and equational constraint models; alternatively, model authors may create their own C++ 'code models;' model types may be freely combined; class libraries facilitate reuse. MOOSE emphasizes multimodeling, which glues together models of the same or different types, produced during model refinement, reflecting various abstraction perspectives, to adjust model fidelity, during development and during model execution. Underlying multimodeling is 'block' as fundamental object. Every model is built from blocks, expressed in a modeling assembly language.

  16. Hybrid object detection system for x-ray radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita, Joshua A.; Wantuch, Andrew C.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Bray, Iliana E.

    2016-10-01

    While object detection is a relatively well-developed field with respect to visible light photographs, there are significantly fewer algorithms designed to work with other imaging modalities. X-ray radiographs have many unique characteristics that introduce additional challenges that can cause common image processing and object detection algorithms to begin to fail. Examples of these problematic attributes include the fact that radiographs are only represented in gray scale with similar textures and that transmission overlap occurs when multiple objects are overlaid on top of each other. In this paper we not only analyze the effectiveness of common object detection techniques as applied to our specific database, but also outline how we combined various techniques to improve overall performance. While significant strides have been made towards developing a robust object detection algorithm for use with the given database, it is still a work in progress. Further research will be needed in order to deal with the specific obstacles posed by radiographs and X-ray imaging systems. Success in this project would have disruptive repercussions in fields ranging from medical imaging to manufacturing quality assurance and national security.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of multiple toxin–antitoxin systems are coordinated to govern the persister phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and have been implicated in persistence, the multidrug tolerance of bacteria, biofilms, and, by extension, most chronic infections. However, their purpose, apparent redundancy, and coordination remain topics of debate. Our model relates molecular mechanisms to population dynamics for a large class of toxin–antitoxin systems and suggests answers to several of the open questions. The generic architecture of toxin–antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and even when the systems do not exhibit bistability alone, they can be coupled to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal and toxic states. Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch the system to the toxic state, creating a heterogeneous population of growing and nongrowing cells, or persisters, that exist under normal conditions, rather than as an induced response. Multiple toxin–antitoxin systems can be cooperatively marshaled for greater effect, with the dilution determined by growth rate serving as the coordinating signal. The model predicts and elucidates experimental results that show a characteristic correlation between persister frequency and the number of toxin–antitoxin systems. PMID:23781105

  18. Persistent systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression among patients with COPD in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Daisy J A; Müllerova, Hana; Agusti, Alvar; Yates, Julie C; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2014-11-01

    Depression is highly prevalent among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The relationship of depression with systemic inflammation in COPD remains unknown. The objective of this observational study was to compare depression scores at baseline and after 36 months follow-up between COPD patients with persistent systemic inflammation (PSI) and never inflamed patients (NI) in the ECLIPSE cohort. The ECLIPSE study included 2164 COPD patients. Parameters assessed at baseline and at 36 months follow-up included: demographics, clinical characteristics and symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression, CES-D). Patients classified as NI had zero and patients with PSI had ≥2 inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell count, hsCRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen) in the upper quartile, at baseline and 12 months later. 350 patients (29.1%) were NI and 131 patients (10.9%) had PSI. At baseline, mean CES-D score was higher in patients with PSI than in NI patients (11.7 (8.6) vs. 9.2 (8.9) points, p = 0.01). Differences were not confirmed after adjustment for possible confounders (β (95% CI) = 0.02 (-3.87 to 15.29), adjusted p = 0.98). At 36 months follow-up, CES-D scores were comparable in PSI and NI patients (12.2 (9.3) vs. 10.5 (9.0) points, p = 0.08) as were their temporal changes (0.5 (8.3) vs. 1.3 (7.9) points, p = 0.30). The ECLIPSE study does not support a strong relationship between PSI and symptoms of depression at baseline and after 36 months follow-up in COPD. The study was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent valve of systemic venous sinus: a cause of neonatal cyanosis.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmad U; Latiff, Haifa A; Sivalingam, Sivakumar

    2014-08-01

    Incomplete involution of valve of systemic venous sinus can present across a spectrum of anatomical lesions ranging from eustachian valve to division of right atrium (cor triatriatum dexter) with overlapping features. We present the case of a neonate presenting with cyanosis, having persistent valve of systemic venous sinus with anatomical details of the redundant tissue in right atrium suggesting an intermediate form between Chiari network and division of right atrium.

  20. A diagnosis system using object-oriented fault tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceborne computing systems must provide reliable, continuous operation for extended periods. Due to weight, power, and volume constraints, these systems must manage resources very effectively. A fault diagnosis algorithm is described which enables fast and flexible diagnoses in the dynamic distributed computing environments planned for future space missions. The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. Augmented fault trees represented in an object-oriented form provide deep system knowledge that is easy to access and revise as a system changes. Given such a fault tree, a set of failure events that have occurred, and a set of failure events that have not occurred, this diagnosis system uses forward and backward chaining to propagate causal and temporal information about other failure events in the system being diagnosed. Once the system has established temporal and causal constraints, it reasons backward from heuristically selected failure events to find a set of basic failure events which are a likely cause of the occurrence of the top failure event in the fault tree. The diagnosis system has been implemented in common LISP using Flavors.

  1. Evolving a NASA Digital Object Identifiers System with Community Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate how the ESDIS (Earth Science Data and Information System) DOI (Digital Object Identifier) system and its processes have evolved over these years based on the recommendations provided by the user community (whether the community members create and manage DOI information or use DOIs in the data citations). The user community is comprised of people with common interests and needs for data identifiers who are actively involved in the creation and usage process. Engagement describes the interactive context wherein the community provides information, evaluates the proposed processes, and provides guidance in the area of identifiers.

  2. Deploying Object Oriented Data Technology to the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, S.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    How do you provide more than 350 scientists and researchers access to data from every instrument in Odyssey when the data is curated across half a dozen institutions and in different formats and is too big to mail on a CD-ROM anymore? The Planetary Data System (PDS) faced this exact question. The solution was to use a metadata-based middleware framework developed by the Object Oriented Data Technology task at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using OODT, PDS provided - for the first time ever - data from all mission instruments through a single system immediately upon data delivery.

  3. Simulation of intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a technique for computer control of a power boat movement in real-time marine trainers or arcade games. The author developed and successfully implemented a general technique allowing intellectual navigation of computer controlled moving objects that proved to be appropriate for real-time applications. This technique covers significant part of necessary behavioral tasks that appear in such titles. At the same time the technique forms a part of a more general system that involves control of less complicated characters of another nature. The system being an open one can be easily used by an action or arcade programming to improve the overall quality of characters artificial intelligence style.

  4. Deploying Object Oriented Data Technology to the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, S.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    How do you provide more than 350 scientists and researchers access to data from every instrument in Odyssey when the data is curated across half a dozen institutions and in different formats and is too big to mail on a CD-ROM anymore? The Planetary Data System (PDS) faced this exact question. The solution was to use a metadata-based middleware framework developed by the Object Oriented Data Technology task at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using OODT, PDS provided - for the first time ever - data from all mission instruments through a single system immediately upon data delivery.

  5. System for Thermal Imaging of Hot Moving Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard; Hundley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The High Altitude/Re-Entry Vehicle Infrared Imaging (HARVII) system is a portable instrumentation system for tracking and thermal imaging of a possibly distant and moving object. The HARVII is designed specifically for measuring the changing temperature distribution on a space shuttle as it reenters the atmosphere. The HARVII system or other systems based on the design of the HARVII system could also be used for such purposes as determining temperature distributions in fires, on volcanoes, and on surfaces of hot models in wind tunnels. In yet another potential application, the HARVII or a similar system would be used to infer atmospheric pollution levels from images of the Sun acquired at multiple wavelengths over regions of interest. The HARVII system includes the Ratio Intensity Thermography System (RITS) and a tracking subsystem that keeps the RITS aimed at the moving object of interest. The subsystem of primary interest here is the RITS (see figure), which acquires and digitizes images of the same scene at different wavelengths in rapid succession. Assuming that the time interval between successive measurements is short enough that temperatures do not change appreciably, the digitized image data at the different wavelengths are processed to extract temperatures according to the principle of ratio-intensity thermography: The temperature at a given location in a scene is inferred from the ratios between or among intensities of infrared radiation from that location at two or more wavelengths. This principle, based on the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for the intensity of electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength and temperature, is valid as long as the observed body is a gray or black body and there is minimal atmospheric absorption of radiation.

  6. Persistent identifiers for CMIP6 data in the Earth System Grid Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Merret; Weigel, Tobias; Juckes, Martin; Lautenschlager, Michael; Kindermann, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a distributed data infrastructure that will provide access to the CMIP6 experiment data. The data consist of thousands of datasets composed of millions of files. Over the course of the CMIP6 operational phase, datasets may be retracted and replaced by newer versions that consist of completely or partly new files. Each dataset is hosted at a single data centre, but can have one or several backups (replicas) at other data centres. To keep track of the different data entities and relationships between them, to ensure their consistency and improve exchange of information about them, Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) are used. These are unique identifiers that are registered at a globally accessible server, along with some metadata (the PID record). While usually providing access to the data object they refer to, as long as it exists, the metadata record will remain available even beyond the object's lifetime. Besides providing access to data and metadata, PIDs will allow scientists to communicate effectively and on a fine granularity about CMIP6 data. The initiative to introduce PIDs in the ESGF infrastructure has been described and agreed upon through a series of white papers governed by the WGCM Infrastructure Panel (WIP). In CMIP6, each dataset and each file is assigned a PID that keeps track of the data object's physical copies throughout the object lifetime. In addition to this, its relationship with other data objects is stored in the PID recordA human-readable version of this information is available on an information page also linked in the PID record. A possible application that exploits the information available from the PID records is a smart information tool, which a scientific user can call to find out if his/her version was replaced by a new one, to view and browse the related datasets and files, and to get access to the various copies or to additional metadata on a dedicated website. The PID registration process is

  7. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  8. 2012 DR30, The Most Distant Solar System Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Csaba; Szabó, G.; Pál, A.; Kiss, L.; Sárneczky, K.; Müller, T.; Vilenius, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Conn, B.; Ortiz, J.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Horner, J.; Bannister, M.; Stansberry, J.

    2012-10-01

    2012 DR30, the most distant TNO in the Solar System (a=1103 AU) has recently been observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. Radiometric model results using the far-infrared fluxes and visual range data show a dark and cratered surface (p_V = 6%) and provide a diameter of 200km. If considered as a Centaur, this is the fifth largest object known in this dynamical class. Recent visual range measurements indicate the presence of methane ice on the surface, a feature that has been seen previously for objects with diameters of >=1000km only (like Eris, Makemake and Pluto). The presence of methane ice can be explained assuming that the object spent most of its lifetime in a very cold environment and has been recently placed to its present orbit. This scenario is in agreement with the results of a dynamical study of the object's orbit, also suggesting an Oort-cloud origin. This research has been supported by the following grants: (1) The PECS program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Hungarian Space Office, PECS-98073; (2) C.K. and A.P. acknowledges the support of the Bolyai Research Fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  9. Adding intelligent services to an object oriented system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robideaux, Bret R.; Metzler, Theodore A.

    1994-01-01

    As today's software becomes increasingly complex, the need grows for intelligence of one sort or another to becomes part of the application, often an intelligence that does not readily fit the paradigm of one's software development. There are many methods of developing software, but at this time, the most promising is the object oriented (OO) method. This method involves an analysis to abstract the problem into separate 'objects' that are unique in the data that describe them and the behavior that they exhibit, and eventually to convert this analysis into computer code using a programming language that was designed (or retrofitted) for OO implementation. This paper discusses the creation of three different applications that are analyzed, designed, and programmed using the Shlaer/Mellor method of OO development and C++ as the programming language. All three, however, require the use of an expert system to provide an intelligence that C++ (or any other 'traditional' language) is not directly suited to supply. The flexibility of CLIPS permitted us to make modifications to it that allow seamless integration with any of our applications that require an expert system. We illustrate this integration with the following applications: (1) an after action review (AAR) station that assists a reviewer in watching a simulated tank battle and developing an AAR to critique the performance of the participants in the battle; (2) an embedded training system and over-the-shoulder coach for howitzer crewmen; and (3) a system to identify various chemical compounds from their infrared absorption spectra.

  10. Applications of fuzzy theories to multi-objective system optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. S.; Dhingra, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the computer aided design techniques developed so far deal with the optimization of a single objective function over the feasible design space. However, there often exist several engineering design problems which require a simultaneous consideration of several objective functions. This work presents several techniques of multiobjective optimization. In addition, a new formulation, based on fuzzy theories, is also introduced for the solution of multiobjective system optimization problems. The fuzzy formulation is useful in dealing with systems which are described imprecisely using fuzzy terms such as, 'sufficiently large', 'very strong', or 'satisfactory'. The proposed theory translates the imprecise linguistic statements and multiple objectives into equivalent crisp mathematical statements using fuzzy logic. The effectiveness of all the methodologies and theories presented is illustrated by formulating and solving two different engineering design problems. The first one involves the flight trajectory optimization and the main rotor design of helicopters. The second one is concerned with the integrated kinematic-dynamic synthesis of planar mechanisms. The use and effectiveness of nonlinear membership functions in fuzzy formulation is also demonstrated. The numerical results indicate that the fuzzy formulation could yield results which are qualitatively different from those provided by the crisp formulation. It is felt that the fuzzy formulation will handle real life design problems on a more rational basis.

  11. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  12. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary FY 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  13. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  14. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  15. The Ring System Discovered Around the Centaur Object (10199) Chariklo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Vieira Martins, R.; Colas, F.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Desmars, J.; Gulbis, A.; Assafin, M.; Maquet, L.; Beisker, W.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vachier, F.; Dumas, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Renner, S.; Bath, K. L.; Klotz, A.; Pollock, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of a stellar occultation on 03 June 2013 led to the discovery of the first ring system around a small Solar System object, the Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al. 2014, Nature, 508, 72). The object has a radius of about 125 km and moves on an unstable orbit between Saturn and Uranus, with lifetime of about 10 Myr. The fifth ring system ever discovered (after those around the four giant planets) is made of two dense and narrow rings with respective widths of 7 and 3 kilometers, normal optical depths of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 kilometers, respectively (see figure). They are separated by an empty gap of about 9 km (see Figure 1). Their current configuration may be explained by the presence of putative kilometric-sized satellites. By means of the shepherd mechanism, satellites can confine and open the gap between the rings, otherwise they would spread out in few thousand years. From 1997 to 2008, the Chariklo system exhibited an unexplained behavior. It dimmed by 0.6 in absolute magnitude and the water-ice band in its spectrum, formerly observed, could not be detected in 2008. All this is simply explained by the rings' pole orientation, which implies that they were seen edge-on in 2007-2008. We can also calculate their reflectivity I/F ~ 0.1. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the system allowed us to calculate the amount of water ice and silicate elements in the rings as well as on the main body. No water ice is detectable on the surface of Chariklo. New stellar occultations by the Chariklo system were observed in 2014, and they show the fine structure of the rings as well confirm the preferred pole position from the 2013 event. These findings will be presented and possible formation scenarios will be discussed.

  16. An Efficient Objective Analysis System for Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stobie, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new atmospheric objective analysis system designed for parallel computers will be described. The system can produce a global analysis (on a 1 X 1 lat-lon grid with 18 levels of heights and winds and 10 levels of moisture) using 120,000 observations in 17 minutes on 32 CPUs (SGI Origin 2000). No special parallel code is needed (e.g. MPI or multitasking) and the 32 CPUs do not have to be on the same platform. The system is totally portable and can run on several different architectures at once. In addition, the system can easily scale up to 100 or more CPUS. This will allow for much higher resolution and significant increases in input data. The system scales linearly as the number of observations and the number of grid points. The cost overhead in going from 1 to 32 CPUs is 18%. In addition, the analysis results are identical regardless of the number of processors used. This system has all the characteristics of optimal interpolation, combining detailed instrument and first guess error statistics to produce the best estimate of the atmospheric state. Static tests with a 2 X 2.5 resolution version of this system showed it's analysis increments are comparable to the latest NASA operational system including maintenance of mass-wind balance. Results from several months of cycling test in the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) show this new analysis retains the same level of agreement between the first guess and observations (O-F statistics) as the current operational system.

  17. An Efficient Objective Analysis System for Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stobie, James G.

    1999-01-01

    A new objective analysis system designed for parallel computers will be described. The system can produce a global analysis (on a 2 x 2.5 lat-lon grid with 20 levels of heights and winds and 10 levels of moisture) using 120,000 observations in less than 3 minutes on 32 CPUs (SGI Origin 2000). No special parallel code is needed (e.g. MPI or multitasking) and the 32 CPUs do not have to be on the same platform. The system Ls totally portable and can run on -several different architectures at once. In addition, the system can easily scale up to 100 or more CPUS. This will allow for much higher resolution and significant increases in input data. The system scales linearly as the number of observations and the number of grid points. The cost overhead in going from I to 32 CPus is 18%. in addition, the analysis results are identical regardless of the number of processors used. T'his system has all the characteristics of optimal interpolation, combining detailed instrument and first guess error statistics to produce the best estimate of the atmospheric state. It also includes a new quality control (buddy check) system. Static tests with the system showed it's analysis increments are comparable to the latest NASA operational system including maintenance of mass-wind balance. Results from a 2-month cycling test in the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) show this new analysis retains the same level of agreement between the first guess and observations (0-F statistics) throughout the entire two months.

  18. Searching for and Studying Primitive Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun

    1997-08-01

    Jovian Trojans, 'Trojans' of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune (Lagrangian objects, in the language of this dissertation), Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and Centaurs are believed to be the pristine bodies in the solar system. This thesis project describes a search for, and investigation of, these primitive objects using state-of-the-art charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. With a CCD, 93 Jovian L4 Trojans with sizes ranging from ~4 km to 40 km diameter were discovered. The cumulative magnitude-frequency distribution is found to have slope of 0.397 ± 0.008 and the bias corrected mean inclination is 13o.7 ± 0o.5. The total number of the L4 Trojans, the size and total mass of the L4 cloud are discussed. My study shows that the previously suggested leakage rate of Trojans may be overestimated and that Trojans can not be a significant source of short period comets. No Lagrangian objects were discovered in this project. Instead, the 99% confidence level (~3/ σ) upper limits to their surface densities are given. Larger sky needs to be covered before the existence of such objects can be concluded. Nevertheless, the current survey shows that the surface density of Saturnian 'Trojans' is lower than that of Jovian Trojans. In addition, 16 published and 12 yet to be published KBOs were discovered in this project, as well as one Centaur. The dynamical properties of 42 published KBOs and 7 Centaurs are studied and their photometric properties are discussed. Our study shows that there is no discrepancy between the numbers of discovered Centaurs and those of KBOs as some suggested.

  19. Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD: a novel phenotype.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa D; Rennard, Stephen I; MacNee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Miller, Bruce E; Vestbo, Jørgen; Lomas, David A; Calverley, Peter M A; Wouters, Emiel; Crim, Courtney; Yates, Julie C; Silverman, Edwin K; Coxson, Harvey O; Bakke, Per; Mayer, Ruth J; Celli, Bartolome

    2012-01-01

    Because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition, the identification of specific clinical phenotypes is key to developing more effective therapies. To explore if the persistence of systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD we assessed patients recruited to the well-characterized ECLIPSE cohort (NCT00292552). Six inflammatory biomarkers in peripheral blood (white blood cells (WBC) count and CRP, IL-6, IL-8, fibrinogen and TNF-α levels) were quantified in 1,755 COPD patients, 297 smokers with normal spirometry and 202 non-smoker controls that were followed-up for three years. We found that, at baseline, 30% of COPD patients did not show evidence of systemic inflammation whereas 16% had persistent systemic inflammation. Even though pulmonary abnormalities were similar in these two groups, persistently inflamed patients during follow-up had significantly increased all-cause mortality (13% vs. 2%, p<0.001) and exacerbation frequency (1.5 (1.5) vs. 0.9 (1.1) per year, p<0.001) compared to non-inflamed ones. As a descriptive study our results show associations but do not prove causality. Besides this, the inflammatory response is complex and we studied only a limited panel of biomarkers, albeit they are those investigated by the majority of previous studies and are often and easily measured in clinical practice. Overall, these results identify a novel systemic inflammatory COPD phenotype that may be the target of specific research and treatment.

  20. Optimization of Hydrothermal System Operations with multiple Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Cheng, C.; Shen, J.; Cao, R.; Zhao, Z.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a procedure for optimizing large-scale hydrothermal system operations. The overall procedure is to optimize, in turn, a monthly model over a period of one year and a daily model over a period of up to one month. The outputs from the monthly model are used as inputs and boundary conditions to the daily model, iterating and updating when new information becomes available. The monthly hydrothermal model uses nonlinear programming to minimize fuel cost, while maximizing hydropower production. The outputs from this model specify the boundary conditions for the daily model. The daily model consists of a hydro model, a thermal model and a combined hydrothermal model. The hydro and thermal models generate the initial feasible solutions for the hydrothermal model. The two conflicting objectives considered in the hydrothermal model are minimizing fuel cost and minimizing thermal emission. We use the constraint method to develop the trade-off curve (Pareto front) between these two objectives. Application of the proposed methodology is made to the Yunnan hydrothermal system in China. The system consists of 140 hydropower plants with an installed capacity of 45,786 MW and 11 individual thermal plants with an installed capacity of 12,400 MW. We use the historical load demand and reservoir inflows to test the methodology. The results demonstrate the practicability and validity of the proposed procedure.

  1. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2014-09-01

    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  2. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.

    1990-01-01

    Microwave spectroscopy of solar system objects was supported. It necessarily involves millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths where rotational transitions reside. The existing national facilities are at OVRO, the 12-meter at Kitt Peak, UC array at Hat Creek, the Caltech CSO on Mauna Kea, and the 14-meter at the Univ. of Massachusetts, near Amherst. The group used all of these instruments in the last year except the Univ. of Massachusetts 14-meter. This wavelength range (0.3 to 3 mm) is about to enjoy an explosion of interest as submillimeter receivers become better and easier to use. This region of the spectrum is rich in transitions of molecules that exist in the planetary atmospheres which can be studied for temperature-pressure profiles, wind tracers, and atmospheric chemistry. The list of solar system objects that have been recently addressed with these techniques include: (1) Venus: CO studies of T-P profiles, winds, and photochemistry; SO2 detections; Continuum mapping remains to be done at 1 mm; (2) Earth H2O, CO, NO, NO2, O(18)O, etc. as a test bed for other atmospheres; (3) Mars: H2O, CO, O(18)O studies of T-P profiles, winds (fall of 1990), and photochemistry; (4) Saturn: Same as Jupiter plus submillimeter and millimeter mapping of the ring system; (5) Uranus and Neptune: Continuum thermal mapping; and (6) Titan: CO, HCN, and HC3NT-P information and photochemistry. Recent results are given.

  3. Impact of climate change on persistent turbidity in the water supply system of a Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. W.; Park, H. S.; Lim, K. J.; Kang, B.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent turbidity, a long-term resuspension of fine particles in aquatic system, is one of the major water quality concerns for the sustainable management of water supply systems in metropolitan areas. Turbid water has undesirable aesthetic and recreational appeal and may have harmful effect on ecosystem health, in addition to increasing water treatment costs in drinking water supply systems. These concerns have been more intensified as the strength and frequency of rainfall events increase by climate change in the Asian monsoon climate region, including Korea. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of potential climate change on the persistent turbidity of the Han River systems that supplies drinking water to approximately 25 million consumers dwelling in the Seoul Metropolitan areas. A comprehensive numerical and statistical modeling suit has been developed and applied to the systems for the projection of future climate, responding hydrological and soil erosion processes in the watershed, and sediment transport processes in the rivers and reservoirs systems. The down-scaled 100 years of climatic data from General Circulation Model (HadGEM2-AO) based on the IPCC's greenhouse-gas emissions scenario RCP4.5 were used for the forcing data of the watershed and river-reservoir models. As the results, an extreme flood event that may incur significant persistent turbidity was projected to be occurred five times in the future. The threshold of a flood event that is classified as an extreme event was based on the historical flood event that occurred on July of 2006 when turbid water had persisted within the Soyang Reservoir and discharged to the downstream of the Han River systems over the year until May of the following year. A two-dimensional river and reservoir model simulated the transport and dynamics of suspended sediments in Soyang Reservoir, and routed the discharged turbid water to the downstream of Paldang Reservoir, in which most of the drinking water

  4. Application of rich feature descriptors to small target detection in wide-area persistent ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher W.; Edelberg, Jason A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Novak, Kyle

    2014-06-01

    One of the desired capabilities for wide-area persistent ISR systems is to reliably locate and subsequently track the movement of targets within the field of view. Current wide-area persistent ISR systems are characterized by large pixel overall counts and very large fields of view. This leads to a large ground sample distance with few pixels-on-target. Locating targets under these constraints is extremely difficult due to the fact that the targets present very little detailed structure. In this paper we will present the application of rich image feature descriptors combined with advanced statistical target detection methodologies to the airborne ISR problem. We will demonstrate that these algorithms can reliably locate targets in the scene without relying on the target's motion to form a detection. This is useful in ISR application where it is desirable to be able to continuously track a target through stops and maneuvers.

  5. Persistence, Permanence and Global Stability for an $n$ n -Dimensional Nicholson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Teresa; Röst, Gergely

    2014-09-01

    For a Nicholson's blowflies system with patch structure and multiple discrete delays, we analyze several features of the global asymptotic behavior of its solutions. It is shown that if the spectral bound of the community matrix is non-positive, then the population becomes extinct on each patch, whereas the total population uniformly persists if the spectral bound is positive. Explicit uniform lower and upper bounds for the asymptotic behavior of solutions are also given. When the population uniformly persists, the existence of a unique positive equilibrium is established, as well as a sharp criterion for its absolute global asymptotic stability, improving results in the recent literature. While our system is not cooperative, several sharp threshold-type results about its dynamics are proven, even when the community matrix is reducible, a case usually not treated in the literature.

  6. A primitive-based 3D object recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    An intermediate-level knowledge-based system for decomposing segmented data into three-dimensional primitives was developed to create an approximate three-dimensional description of the real world scene from a single two-dimensional perspective view. A knowledge-based approach was also developed for high-level primitive-based matching of three-dimensional objects. Both the intermediate-level decomposition and the high-level interpretation are based on the structural and relational matching; moreover, they are implemented in a frame-based environment.

  7. Toward an objective classification of cells in the immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Lefkovits, I; Kuhn, L; Valiron, O; Merle, A; Kettman, J

    1988-01-01

    The relative abundance of individual proteins shared among clones of lymphocytes provides a meaningful basis for cellular classification. Twelve clones of T cells (obtained by limiting dilution) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for polypeptide content and then evaluated by the computational technique known as principal component analysis. As a result, relatedness of the clones was established and expressed in terms of taxonomic distances. The data show that a comprehensive and objective classification of the cells involved in the immune system can be approached. Images PMID:3259320

  8. Lupus vulgaris in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and persistent IgG deficiency.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, N; Duman, M; Sonel, B; Peksari, Y; Erdem, C; Tokgöz, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed a persistent, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia with IgG deficiency. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was probably a complication of high dose corticosteroid treatment. The serum IgG level remained subnormal despite intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Lupus vulgaris, which developed on the nasal cartilage in this patient with SLE, is not an expected finding. This patient is probably the first reported case of SLE associated with lupus vulgaris.

  9. Optical Jitter Effects on Target Detection and Tracking of Overhead Persistent Infrared Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    demonstrated the jitter blur’s effects on spatial resolution and intensity, which significantly decreased the system’s ability to detect and track ... EFFECTS ON TARGET DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OVERHEAD PERSISTENT INFRARED SYSTEMS by Christopher R. Flores December 2015 Thesis Advisor...December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTICAL JITTER EFFECTS ON TARGET DETECTION AND TRACKING OF

  10. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  11. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  12. Haptic object localization in the vibrissal system: behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Per Magne; Pietr, Maciej; Ahissar, Ehud

    2006-08-16

    Using their large mystacial vibrissas, rats perform a variety of tasks, including localization and identification of objects. We report on the discriminatory thresholds and behavior of rats trained in a horizontal object localization task. Using an adaptive training procedure, rats learned to discriminate offsets in horizontal (anteroposterior) location with all, one row, or one arc of whiskers intact, but not when only a single whisker (C2) was intact on each cheek. However, rats initially trained with multiple whiskers typically improved when retested later with a single whisker intact. Individual rats reached localization thresholds as low as 0.24 mm (approximately 1 degree). Among the tested groups, localization acuity was finest (<1.5 mm) with rats that were initially trained with all whiskers and then trimmed to one arc of whiskers intact. Horizontal acuity was finer than the typical inter-vibrissal spacing (approximately 4.8 mm at contact points). Performance correlated with the net whisking spectral power in the range of 5-25 Hz but not in nonwhisking range of 30-50 Hz. Lesioning the facial motor nerves reduced performance to chance level. We conclude that horizontal object localization in the rat vibrissal system can reach hyperacuity level and is an active sensing process: whisker movements are both required and beneficiary, in a graded manner, for making accurate positional judgments.

  13. Evolving a NASA Digital Object Identifiers System with Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the assignment of unique identifiers to its suite of data products being stewarded at data centers distributed across the country. This process led to the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the development of an automated system for the registration of these DOIs. Since that time, the ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 3000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 1000 being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 7000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system has been the incorporation of community input. Over the last 3 years, ESDIS has solicited community input for making the DOI registration process more efficient through three focus groups under NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. This poster will describe the process and the activities of each focus group, their recommendations, and how these recommendations were implemented.

  14. Object Tag Architecture for Innovative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralalage, Krishan Sabaragamu; Yoshiura, Noriaki

    Safety is the paramount reason for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). There are three main actors in ITS system: users, vehicles and infrastructure. Though the communications among those three actors are very vital, there is no common platform to make extensive communication among those three actors yet. That is one of the main reasons to occur fatalities. Therefore we consider the Radio Frequency (RF) identification as a candidate technology and develop a novel tag architecture called OTag (Object Tag) to enable the communication among them including vehicle to vehicle. In this paper we explain the OTag architecture and its protocol which enables a common communication platform. Furthermore, access control mechanisms, ability to be interoperable, stand-alone, self-describing, and plug and play usage are also described. Thus, how OTag architecture will advance the existing ITSs and create novel applications to support safe, secure, comfortable and productive social life in eco-friendly manner are concentrated.

  15. Evaluation of Objective Uncertainty in the Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmé, Simon; Mamassian, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The role of sensory systems is to provide an organism with information about its environment. Because sensory information is noisy and insufficient to uniquely determine the environment, natural perceptual systems have to cope with systematic uncertainty. The extent of that uncertainty is often crucial to the organism: for instance, in judging the potential threat in a stimulus. Inducing uncertainty by using visual noise, we had human observers perform a task where they could improve their performance by choosing the less uncertain among pairs of visual stimuli. Results show that observers had access to a reliable measure of visual uncertainty in their decision-making, showing that subjective uncertainty in this case is connected to objective uncertainty. Based on a Bayesian model of the task, we discuss plausible computational schemes for that ability. PMID:19750003

  16. Evolving Systems: Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component Control with Persistent Disturbance Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to Evolving Systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new Evolved System with a higher purpose. Evolving Systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control which operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition this control must overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. We present theoretical results for the successful operation of Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component control in the presence of such disturbances and an illustrative example.

  17. Collaborative air/ground command and control for responsive persistent ISR operations using unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordower, Rick; Dixon, Lee; Lynch, Nick

    2010-04-01

    "The foundation for integrating ISR planning and direction is the information network, including the appropriate ISR services and applications oriented toward the [commanders] needs. By combining global visibility of available information and intelligence needs with the tools to maximize platform/sensor/target management, the network will improve efficiency and maximize persistence. Inherent within this concept is the idea of integrating and synchronizing a mix of sensing systems and platforms rather than relying on a single system. The second concept embedded within this concept is the ability to capture the activity/information as it occurs rather than forensically reconstructing after the fact. This requires the ability for the [commander] to adjust collection priorities of the entire collection suite to a level appropriate to the activity of interest. Individual sensors, platforms and exploitation nodes will become more efficient as part of an integrated system. Implementing this fully integrated ISR Enterprise will result in improved persistence, and ultimately better ISR for the warfighter."[3] Over the last 6 years, SAIC has been working with CERDEC and AMRDEC to introduce Battle Command aids supporting (semi) autonomous execution and collaboration of unmanned assets. This paper presents an operational context and a distributed command and control architecture aiming to reduce workload and increase Persistent ISR effectiveness. This architecture has been implemented and demonstrated in field tests and as part of FY'09 C4ISR OTM testbed.

  18. An objective reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovato, Tomas; Vichi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    An objective estimation of the current distribution of carbonate system variables for the Mediterranean Sea is proposed using empirical relationships derived from ship-based observations and combined with monthly climatological fields of hydrographic parameters. The high quality data of METEOR84/3 cruise were used to fit multiple linear regression models of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TA) from other hydrochemical parameters. These algorithms provided a robust estimation of DIC and TA, with corresponding Root Mean Squared Errors of 7.66 and 5.09 μmol/kg, by accounting only for potential temperature, salinity, pressure, and nitrate concentration. After the application of the identified regression models to a set of publicly available climatological fields, an objective assessment of the reconstructed carbonate system monthly distributions was derived and compared against different ship-based surveys. Results showed that the Mediterranean Sea interior was well reproduced with errors <14 μmol/kg, whereas the near surface layers still exhibited large uncertainties. The lower degree of confidence of this approach at the surface does not allow the direct application for studying anthropogenic CO2 trends, but some qualitative considerations were drawn from the comparison between the estimated inorganic carbon system and the available observational datasets. Most importantly, the present work showed that the estimated inventories are able to capture the linkages with the physical oceanic features of the system and we propose this method as an inexpensive solution to support the design of monitoring activities in the Mediterranean Sea, which is still poorly constrained by direct observations.

  19. A survey of commercial object-oriented database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, John

    1992-01-01

    The object-oriented data model is the culmination of over thirty years of database research. Initially, database research focused on the need to provide information in a consistent and efficient manner to the business community. Early data models such as the hierarchical model and the network model met the goal of consistent and efficient access to data and were substantial improvements over simple file mechanisms for storing and accessing data. However, these models required highly skilled programmers to provide access to the data. Consequently, in the early 70's E.F. Codd, an IBM research computer scientists, proposed a new data model based on the simple mathematical notion of the relation. This model is known as the Relational Model. In the relational model, data is represented in flat tables (or relations) which have no physical or internal links between them. The simplicity of this model fostered the development of powerful but relatively simple query languages that now made data directly accessible to the general database user. Except for large, multi-user database systems, a database professional was in general no longer necessary. Database professionals found that traditional data in the form of character data, dates, and numeric data were easily represented and managed via the relational model. Commercial relational database management systems proliferated and performance of relational databases improved dramatically. However, there was a growing community of potential database users whose needs were not met by the relational model. These users needed to store data with data types not available in the relational model and who required a far richer modelling environment than that provided by the relational model. Indeed, the complexity of the objects to be represented in the model mandated a new approach to database technology. The Object-Oriented Model was the result.

  20. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.

    2015-11-01

    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  1. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems.

    PubMed

    Garbo, Alessandro; Quer, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory) resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available), showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  2. Pleural findings in a patient with persistent pulmonary effusions from systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Mansalis, Katherine A; Klein, David A; Demartini, Steven D; Powers, Jessica F; Danielson, Daren S

    2011-03-01

    Persistent pleural effusions (PPE) occur in 1-2% of cases of systemic amyloidosis and have been postulated to result from direct disruption of the pleura by amyloid deposits. Patients are typically treated with percutaneous pleural drainage techniques. Pleural biopsies, done most commonly via percutaneous techniques, are infrequently obtained. The macroscopic and histologic pleural findings identified via video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for these patients are lacking in the literature. In this case, we present the macroscopic and microscopic pleural findings in a patient who had VATS for the aetiologic diagnosis of PPE. The diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis was made from histologic analysis of the pleural biopsy.

  3. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  4. Optimisation-based modelling of LPV systems using an ?-objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Daniel; Löfberg, Johan

    2014-08-01

    A method to identify linear parameter varying models through minimisation of an ?-norm objective is presented. The method uses a direct nonlinear programming approach to a non-convex problem. The reason to use ?-norm is twofold. To begin with, it is a well-known and widely used system norm, and second, the cost functions described in this paper become differentiable when using the ?-norm. This enables us to have a measure of first-order optimality and to use standard quasi-Newton solvers to solve the problem. The specific structure of the problem is utilised in great detail to compute cost functions and gradients efficiently. Additionally, a regularised version of the method, which also has a nice computational structure, is presented. The regularised version is shown to have an interesting interpretation with connections to worst-case approaches.

  5. COSMOS: Carnegie Observatories System for MultiObject Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oemler, A.; Clardy, K.; Kelson, D.; Walth, G.; Villanueva, E.

    2017-05-01

    COSMOS (Carnegie Observatories System for MultiObject Spectroscopy) reduces multislit spectra obtained with the IMACS and LDSS3 spectrographs on the Magellan Telescopes. It can be used for the quick-look analysis of data at the telescope as well as for pipeline reduction of large data sets. COSMOS is based on a precise optical model of the spectrographs, which allows (after alignment and calibration) an accurate prediction of the location of spectra features. This eliminates the line search procedure which is fundamental to many spectral reduction programs, and allows a robust data pipeline to be run in an almost fully automatic mode, allowing large amounts of data to be reduced with minimal intervention.

  6. Computer-assisted system for the reconstruction of shattered objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Brenningmeyer, Todd

    2005-05-01

    Reconstruction for forensic purposes of shattered or otherwise damaged objects has been a painstaking, if not impossible, undertaking. The forensic crime scientist and the archaeologist share this challenge. A pilot project, funded by the National Institute of Justice experimented with several avenues of approach to this problem of reassembly by using the 627 fragmented pieces of a pane of glass from a crime scene. I was approached by staff members of the Forensic Laboratory of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension because I was developing a means to restore a Greek Bronze Age wall painting (ca. 1350 B.C.E.) fragmented into 4750 pieces and a Greek temple (ca. 150 B.C.E.) demolished by vandals about 1500 years ago, leaving behind 1485 stone blocks, 1-3 tons each. The challenge was to develop an automated method to rapidly and effectively analyze a quantity of fragments of like kind separated one from the other and from the original object by violence and other means. The project established a set of mathematically and graphically definable characteristics held by the glass sherds which allowed for the making of joins between pieces. Preparation included the formulation of inventory check-sheets and a barcode label system with a unique identifier for each piece based on a x,y,z grid system. The next step involved experimentation with an array of proprietary GIS, SQL, and CAD software alternatives for the processing of data. In the end we settled on maximum likelihood analysis of SQL filtered results. This and shape indices were complied using ArcView and the scripting language, Avenue, products of ESRI, Redlands, California.

  7. System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed data-fusion system, to be implemented mostly in software, would further process the digitized and preprocessed outputs of sensors in a turbofan engine to detect foreign-object damage (FOD) [more precisely, damage caused by impingement of such foreign objects as birds, pieces of ice, and runway debris]. The proposed system could help a flight crew to decide what, if any, response is necessary to complete a flight safely, and could aid mechanics in deciding what post-flight maintenance action might be needed. The sensory information to be utilized by the proposed system would consist of (1) the output of an accelerometer in an engine-vibration-monitoring subsystem and (2) features extracted from a gas path analysis. ["Gas path analysis" (GPA) is a term of art that denotes comprehensive analysis of engine performance derived from readings of fuel-flow meters, shaft-speed sensors, temperature sensors, and the like.] The acceleration signal would first be processed by a wavelet-transform-based algorithm, using a wavelet created for the specific purpose of finding abrupt FOD-induced changes in noisy accelerometer signals. Two additional features extracted would be the amplitude of vibration (determined via a single- frequency Fourier transform calculated at the rotational speed of the engine), and the rate of change in amplitude due to an FOD-induced rotor imbalance. This system would utilize two GPA features: the fan efficiency and the rate of change of fan efficiency with time. The selected GPA and vibrational features would be assessed by two fuzzy-logic inference engines, denoted the "Gas Path Expert" and the "Vibration Expert," respectively (see Figure 1). Each of these inference engines would generate a "possibility" distribution for occurrence of an FOD event: Each inference engine would assign, to its input information, degrees of membership, which would subsequently be transformed into basic probability assignments for the gas path and vibration

  8. Uniform and strict persistence in monotone skew-product semiflows with applications to non-autonomous Nicholson systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaya, Rafael; Sanz, Ana M.

    2016-10-01

    We determine sufficient conditions for uniform and strict persistence in the case of skew-product semiflows generated by solutions of non-autonomous families of cooperative systems of ODEs or delay FDEs in terms of the principal spectrums of some associated linear skew-product semiflows which admit a continuous separation. Our conditions are also necessary in the linear case. We apply our results to a noncooperative almost periodic Nicholson system with a patch structure, whose persistence turns out to be equivalent to the persistence of the linearized system along the null solution.

  9. Structure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons. II. Persistence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondic, L; Kramár, M; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Carlevaro, C Manuel; Mischaikow, K

    2016-06-01

    In the companion paper [Pugnaloni et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062902 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062902], we use classical measures based on force probability density functions (PDFs), as well as Betti numbers (quantifying the number of components, related to force chains, and loops), to describe the force networks in tapped systems of disks and pentagons. In the present work, we focus on the use of persistence analysis, which allows us to describe these networks in much more detail. This approach allows us not only to describe but also to quantify the differences between the force networks in different realizations of a system, in different parts of the considered domain, or in different systems. We show that persistence analysis clearly distinguishes the systems that are very difficult or impossible to differentiate using other means. One important finding is that the differences in force networks between disks and pentagons are most apparent when loops are considered: the quantities describing properties of the loops may differ significantly even if other measures (properties of components, Betti numbers, force PDFs, or the stress tensor) do not distinguish clearly or at all the investigated systems.

  10. Secondary bacterial flagellar system improves bacterial spreading by increasing the directional persistence of swimming

    PubMed Central

    Bubendorfer, Sebastian; Koltai, Mihaly; Rossmann, Florian; Sourjik, Victor; Thormann, Kai M.

    2014-01-01

    As numerous bacterial species, Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32 possesses a complete secondary flagellar system. A significant subpopulation of CN-32 cells induces expression of the secondary system under planktonic conditions, resulting in formation of one, sometimes two, filaments at lateral positions in addition to the primary polar flagellum. Mutant analysis revealed that the single chemotaxis system primarily or even exclusively addresses the main polar flagellar system. Cells with secondary filaments outperformed their monopolarly flagellated counterparts in spreading on soft-agar plates and through medium-filled channels despite having lower swimming speed. While mutant cells with only polar flagella navigate by a “run-reverse-flick” mechanism resulting in effective cell realignments of about 90°, wild-type cells with secondary filaments exhibited a range of realignment angles with an average value of smaller than 90°. Mathematical modeling and computer simulations demonstrated that the smaller realignment angle of wild-type cells results in the higher directional persistence, increasing spreading efficiency both with and without a chemical gradient. Taken together, we propose that in S. putrefaciens CN-32, cell propulsion and directional switches are mainly mediated by the polar flagellar system, while the secondary filament increases the directional persistence of swimming and thus of spreading in the environment. PMID:25049414

  11. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  12. Strong persistence of an attractor and generalized partial synchronization in a coupled chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, G; Fournier-Prunaret, D

    2011-06-01

    It is widely believed that when two discrete time chaotic systems are coupled together then there is a contraction in the phase space (where the essential dynamics takes place) when compared with the phase space in the uncoupled case. Contrary to such a popular belief, we produce a counter example--we consider two discrete time chaotic systems both with an identical attractor A, and show that the two systems could be nonlinearly coupled in a way such that the coupled system's attractor persists strongly, i.e., it is A × A despite the coupling strength is varied from zero to a nonzero value. To show this, we prove robust topological mixing on A × A. Also, it is of interest that the studied coupled system can exhibit a type of synchronization called generalized partial synchronization which is also robust.

  13. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  14. Type I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Nice, Timothy J; Osborne, Lisa C; Tomov, Vesselin T; Artis, David; Wherry, E John; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-06-01

    In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs) play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV) replicates in dendritic cells (DCs) and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication. We show here that the non-persistent MNoV strain CW3 persists systemically when CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. Persistence in this setting is associated with increased early viral titers, maintenance of DC numbers, increased expression of DC activation markers and an increase in CD8 T cell and antibody responses. Furthermore, CD8 T cell function is maintained during the persistent phase of infection and adaptive immune cells from persistently infected mice are functional when transferred to Rag1-/- recipients. Finally, increased early replication and persistence are also observed in mixed bone marrow chimeras where only half of the CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. These findings demonstrate that increased early viral replication due to a cell-intrinsic innate immune deficiency is sufficient for persistence and a functional adaptive immune response is not sufficient for viral clearance.

  15. Synchronous Parallel Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation System with Self-Contained Simulation Objects and Active Event Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a method of performing object-oriented simulation and a system having inter-connected processor nodes operating in parallel to simulate mutual interactions of a set of discrete simulation objects distributed among the nodes as a sequence of discrete events changing state variables of respective simulation objects so as to generate new event-defining messages addressed to respective ones of the nodes. The object-oriented simulation is performed at each one of the nodes by assigning passive self-contained simulation objects to each one of the nodes, responding to messages received at one node by generating corresponding active event objects having user-defined inherent capabilities and individual time stamps and corresponding to respective events affecting one of the passive self-contained simulation objects of the one node, restricting the respective passive self-contained simulation objects to only providing and receiving information from die respective active event objects, requesting information and changing variables within a passive self-contained simulation object by the active event object, and producing corresponding messages specifying events resulting therefrom by the active event objects.

  16. Discovery of Most Distant Object in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    On 14 November, 2003, Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, was running a few minutes late for a class he teaches. He had planned to tell the students that there is nothing in the solar system beyond the Kuiper Belt, which he said has a strong outer edge at about 49 AU. Instead, he cryptically told the students, ``I am not sure this is true anymore.'' That morning, he and several other members of his research team had discovered an orb no more than 1,700 km in diameter that currently is about 13 billion km-or, about 90 AU-from the Sun. The planetoid, which the researchers have dubbed ``Sedna'' for the Inuit goddess of the ocean, is believed to be the most distant known object in our solar system from the Sun. Sedna's solar period is 10,500 years, and its most distant point from the Sun is 130 billion km.

  17. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1α: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MIP-1α due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  18. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  19. Mating system plasticity promotes persistence and adaptation of colonizing populations of hermaphroditic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Persistence and adaptation in novel environments are limited by small population size, strong selection, and maladaptive gene flow. Mating system plasticity is common in angiosperms and may provide both demographic and genetic benefits that promote niche evolution, including reproductive assurance and isolation from maladaptive gene flow. Yet increased self-fertilization may also cause inbreeding depression, accumulation of deleterious mutations, and reduced adaptive potential. Here we use individual-based simulations to examine the consequences of mating system plasticity for persistence and adaptation in a novel environment that imposes selection on a quantitative trait. We examine the joint evolution of local adaptation, inbreeding depression, and genetic load. We find that a plastic shift to a mixed mating system generally promotes niche evolution by decreasing the risk of extinction, providing isolation from maladaptive gene flow, and temporarily increasing genetic variance in the trait under selection, whereas obligate self-fertilization reduces adaptive potential. These effects are most pronounced under conditions of mate limitation, strong selection, or maladaptive gene flow. Our results highlight the diverse demographic and genetic consequences of self-fertilization and support the potential role for plastic shifts in mating system to promote niche evolution in flowering plants.

  20. Persistence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in a Drinking Water System after Addition of Filtration Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Covert, Terry C.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Harris, Stephanie I.; Donnelly, Sandra F.; Rice, Eugene W.; Toney, Sean; Bailey, Stephanie A.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determine whether we could detect a reduction in the prevalence of NTM recovered from an unfiltered surface drinking water system after the addition of ozonation and filtration treatment and to characterize NTM isolates by using molecular methods. We sampled water from two initially unfiltered surface drinking water treatment plants over a 29-month period. One plant received the addition of filtration and ozonation after 6 months of sampling. Sample sites included those at treatment plant effluents, distributed water, and cold water taps (point-of-use [POU] sites) in public or commercial buildings located within each distribution system. NTM were recovered from 27% of the sites. POU sites yielded the majority of NTM, with >50% recovery despite the addition of ozonation and filtration. Closely related electrophoretic groups of Mycobacterium avium were found to persist at POU sites for up to 26 months. Water collected from POU cold water outlets was persistently colonized with NTM despite the addition of ozonation and filtration to a drinking water system. This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM. PMID:16957205

  1. Orientation Control Method and System for Object in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark Stephen (Inventor); Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); Cox, Mark D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An object in motion has a force applied thereto at a point of application. By moving the point of application such that the distance between the object's center-of-mass and the point of application is changed, the object's orientation can be changed/adjusted.

  2. Indexing and the object concept: developing `what' and `where' systems.

    PubMed

    Leslie, A M; Xu, F; Tremoulet, P D; Scholl, B J

    1998-01-01

    The study of object cognition over the past 25 years has proceeded in two largely non-interacting camps. One camp has studied object-based visual attention in adults, while the other has studied the object concept in infants. We briefly review both sets of literature and distill from the adult research a theoretical model that we apply to findings from the infant studies. The key notion in our model of object representation is the `sticky' index, a mechanism of selective attention that points at a physical object in a location. An object index does not represent any of the properties of the entity at which it points. However, once an index is pointing to an object, the properties of that object can be examined and featural information can be associated with, or `bound' to, its index. The distinction between indexing and feature binding underwrites the distinction between object individuation and object identification, a distinction that turns out to be crucial in both the adult attention and the infant object-concept literature. By developing the indexing model, we draw together two disparate sets of literature and suggest new ways to study object-based attention in infancy.

  3. [Construction of index system for early warning of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pollution incidents in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lü, Yong-Long; He, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Tie-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Early warning of pollution incidents caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is urgently needed for China in the circumstances of serious POPs pollution and in increasing demand for improvement in chemical risk management. Given different categories of POPs and pollution incidents, the index system for early warning of POPs pollution accidents was built based on lifecycle theory and POPs formation mechanisms. It will be helpful for decision makers to enhance the early warning management of POPs pollution incidents in China. The index system for early warning includes two parts, early warning and mechanism for system operation. The indices include risk source indicators, warning indicators and warning level indicators. To ensure the effective implementation of this system, the mechanisms for response and policy guarantee were also formulated. These mechanisms contain dynamic inventory management and periodical assessment of risk sources, timely and effective report of warning conditions, as well as coordination and cooperation among the relevant departments.

  4. Discrete-time CMAC NN control of feedback linearizable nonlinear systems under a persistence of excitation.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, S

    1999-01-01

    The local structure of CMAC neural networks (NN) result in better and faster controllers for nonlinear dynamical systems. A CMAC neural network-based discrete-time controller which linearizes the unknown multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear system through feedback is presented. Control action is defined in order to achieve tracking performance for this unknown nonlinear system. An efficient and localized weight addressing scheme for the CMAC NN's is described using an appropriate choice of the B-spline receptive field functions that form a basis. A uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is given in the sense of Lyapunov using the persistency of excitation (PE) condition. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the theoretical conclusions.

  5. An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix ina Spin-orbit Coupled System

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.A.; Orenstein, J.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-01-22

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.

  6. An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix in a Spin-Orbit Coupled System

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, Andrei

    2010-02-10

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.

  7. Piecewise smooth dynamical systems: Persistence of periodic solutions and normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Márcio R. A.; Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D.; Pessoa, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We consider an n-dimensional piecewise smooth vector field with two zones separated by a hyperplane Σ which admits an invariant hyperplane Ω transversal to Σ containing a period annulus A fulfilled by crossing periodic solutions. For small discontinuous perturbations of these systems we develop a Melnikov-like function to control the persistence of periodic solutions contained in A. When n = 3 we provide normal forms for the piecewise linear case. Finally we apply the Melnikov-like function to study discontinuous perturbations of the given normal forms.

  8. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic scattering by Solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Janna M.

    2016-11-01

    Having been profoundly stimulated by the seminal work of Viktor V. Sobolev, I have been involved in multi-decadal research in the fields of radiative transfer, electromagnetic scattering by morphologically complex particles and particulate media, and planetary remote sensing. Much of this research has been done in close collaboration with other "descendants" of Academician Sobolev. This tutorial paper gives a representative overview of the results of extensive numerical simulations (in the vast majority carried out in collaboration with Michael Mishchenko) used to analyze remote-sensing observations of Solar system objects and based on highly accurate methods of the radiative transfer theory and direct computer solvers of the Maxwell equations. Using the atmosphere of Jupiter as a proving ground and performing T-matrix and radiative-transfer calculations helps demonstrate the strong effect of aerosol-particle shapes on the accuracy of remote-sensing retrievals. I then discuss the application of the T-matrix method, a numerically exact solution of the vector radiative transfer equation, and the theory of coherent backscattering to an analysis of polarimetric radar observations of Saturn's rings. Numerical modeling performed by using the superposition T-matrix method in application to cometary dust in the form of aggregates serves to reproduce the results of polarimetric observations of the distant comet C/2010 S1. On the basis of direct computer solutions of the Maxwell equations, it is demonstrated that all backscattering effects predicted by the low-density theories of radiative transfer and coherent backscattering can also be identified for media with volume packing densities typically encountered in natural and artificial environments. This result implies that spectacular opposition effects observed for some high-albedo atmoshereless Solar system bodies can be attributed to coherent backscattering of sunlight by regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.

  9. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible.

  10. Dissociating Object Directed and Non-Object Directed Action in the Human Mirror System; Implications for Theories of Motor Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Zarinah K.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons are single cells found in macaque premotor and parietal cortices that are active during action execution and observation. In non-human primates, mirror neurons have only been found in relation to object-directed movements or communicative gestures, as non-object directed actions of the upper limb are not well characterized in non-human primates. Mirror neurons provide important evidence for motor simulation theories of cognition, sometimes referred to as the direct matching hypothesis, which propose that observed actions are mapped onto associated motor schemata in a direct and automatic manner. This study, for the first time, directly compares mirror responses, defined as the overlap between action execution and observation, during object directed and meaningless non-object directed actions. We present functional MRI data that demonstrate a clear dissociation between object directed and non-object directed actions within the human mirror system. A premotor and parietal network was preferentially active during object directed actions, whether observed or executed. Moreover, we report spatially correlated activity across multiple voxels for observation and execution of an object directed action. In contrast to predictions made by motor simulation theory, no similar activity was observed for non-object directed actions. These data demonstrate that object directed and meaningless non-object directed actions are subserved by different neuronal networks and that the human mirror response is significantly greater for object directed actions. These data have important implications for understanding the human mirror system and for simulation theories of motor cognition. Subsequent theories of motor simulation must account for these differences, possibly by acknowledging the role of experience in modulating the mirror response. PMID:22505995

  11. A neural system for learning about object function.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Jill; van Turennout, Miranda; Martin, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Does our ability to visually identify everyday objects rely solely on access to information about their appearance or on a more distributed representation incorporating other object properties? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this question by having subjects visually match pictures of novel objects before and after extensive training to use these objects to perform specific tool-like tasks. After training, neural activity emerged in regions associated with the motion (left middle temporal gyrus) and manipulation (left intraparietal sulcus and premotor cortex) of common tools, whereas activity became more focal and selective in regions representing their visual appearance (fusiform gyrus). These findings indicate that this distributed network is automatically engaged in support of object identification. Moreover, the regions included in this network mirror those active when subjects retrieve information about tools and their properties, suggesting that, as a result of training, these previously novel objects have attained the conceptual status of "tools."

  12. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  13. Method and system for identifying and authenticating an object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An object has a taggant placed in a first portion thereof and has a visible symbol placed on a second portion thereof. When the object is to be identified and authenticated, the taggant is made to radiate with a specific energy signature. The energy signature and at least one image of the symbol are recorded along with a relative location that identifies the first portion of the object. The combination of the energy signature, symbol image and relative location are used to repeatedly identify and authenticate the object.

  14. Interaction-induced persistent-current enhancement in frustrated bosonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerala Varma, Vipin; Sánchez, Ramsés J.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping on the zero-temperature Drude weight or superfluidity in mesoscopic one-dimensional systems of (a) a single particle with quasidisorder (Aubry-André model) and (b) hard-core bosons with nearest-neighbor interaction. We show that there is an interaction-induced enhancement of the Drude weight when the next-nearest-neighbor hopping is frustrated for the many-body system. The observed nonmonotonic behavior of the Drude weight occurs because the repulsive interactions first suppress the frustration in the system, leading to a rise in the Drude weight, whereas at much larger interaction strengths the charge density wave fluctuations set in the insulator and the Drude weight drops. The present paper reveals a scenario in which a persistent flow enhancement is plausible in the presence of kinetic frustration and repulsive interactions.

  15. Activation of Endocannabinoid System Is Associated with Persistent Inflammation in Human Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gestrich, Christopher; Duerr, Georg D.; Heinemann, Jan C.; Meertz, Anne; Probst, Chris; Roell, Wilhelm; Schiller, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Welz, Armin; Dewald, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Human aortic aneurysms have been associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. Since the endocannabinoid system modulates inflammation and tissue remodeling, we investigated its components in human aortic aneurysms. We obtained anterior aortic wall samples from patients undergoing elective surgery for aortic aneurysm or coronary artery disease as controls. Histological and molecular analysis (RT-qPCR) was performed, and endocannabinoid concentration was determined using LC-MRM. Patient characteristics were comparable between the groups except for a higher incidence of arterial hypertension and diabetes in the control group. mRNA level of cannabinoid receptors was significantly higher in aneurysms than in controls. Concentration of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was significantly higher, while the second endocannabinoid anandamide and its metabolite arachidonic acid and palmitoylethanolamide were significantly lower in aneurysms. Histology revealed persistent infiltration of newly recruited leukocytes and significantly higher mononuclear cell density in adventitia of the aneurysms. Proinflammatory environment in aneurysms was shown by significant upregulation of M-CSF and PPARγ but associated with downregulation of chemokines. We found comparable collagen-stained area between the groups, significantly decreased mRNA level of CTGF, osteopontin-1, and MMP-2, and increased TIMP-4 expression in aneurysms. Our data provides evidence for endocannabinoid system activation in human aortic aneurysms, associated with persistent low-level inflammation and vascular remodeling. PMID:26539497

  16. Nearest-Neighbor Interactions, Habitat Fragmentation, and the Persistence of Host-Pathogen Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wodarz, Dominik; Sun, Zhiying; Lau, John W.; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial interactions are known to promote stability and persistence in enemy-victim interactions if instability and extinction occur in well-mixed settings. We investigate the effect of spatial interactions in the opposite case, where populations can persist in well-mixed systems. A stochastic agent-based model of host-pathogen dynamics is considered that describes nearest-neighbor interactions in an undivided habitat. Contrary to previous notions, we find that in this setting, spatial interactions in fact promote extinction. The reason is that, in contrast to the mass-action system, the outcome of the nearest-neighbor model is governed by dynamics in small “local neighborhoods.” This is an abstraction that describes interactions in a minimal grid consisting of an individual plus its nearest neighbors. The small size of this characteristic scale accounts for the higher extinction probabilities. Hence, nearest-neighbor interactions in a continuous habitat lead to outcomes reminiscent of a fragmented habitat, which is underlined further with a metapopulation model that explicitly assumes habitat fragmentation. Beyond host-pathogen dynamics, axiomatic modeling shows that our results hold for generic enemy-victim interactions under specified assumptions. These results are used to interpret a set of published experiments that provide a first step toward model testing and are discussed in the context of the literature. PMID:23933732

  17. Nearest-neighbor interactions, habitat fragmentation, and the persistence of host-pathogen systems.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Dominik; Sun, Zhiying; Lau, John W; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-09-01

    Spatial interactions are known to promote stability and persistence in enemy-victim interactions if instability and extinction occur in well-mixed settings. We investigate the effect of spatial interactions in the opposite case, where populations can persist in well-mixed systems. A stochastic agent-based model of host-pathogen dynamics is considered that describes nearest-neighbor interactions in an undivided habitat. Contrary to previous notions, we find that in this setting, spatial interactions in fact promote extinction. The reason is that, in contrast to the mass-action system, the outcome of the nearest-neighbor model is governed by dynamics in small "local neighborhoods." This is an abstraction that describes interactions in a minimal grid consisting of an individual plus its nearest neighbors. The small size of this characteristic scale accounts for the higher extinction probabilities. Hence, nearest-neighbor interactions in a continuous habitat lead to outcomes reminiscent of a fragmented habitat, which is underlined further with a metapopulation model that explicitly assumes habitat fragmentation. Beyond host-pathogen dynamics, axiomatic modeling shows that our results hold for generic enemy-victim interactions under specified assumptions. These results are used to interpret a set of published experiments that provide a first step toward model testing and are discussed in the context of the literature.

  18. The visual system supports online translation invariance for object identification.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Vankov, Ivan I; Ludwig, Casimir J H

    2016-04-01

    The ability to recognize the same image projected to different retinal locations is critical for visual object recognition in natural contexts. According to many theories, the translation invariance for objects extends only to trained retinal locations, so that a familiar object projected to a nontrained location should not be identified. In another approach, invariance is achieved "online," such that learning to identify an object in one location immediately affords generalization to other locations. We trained participants to name novel objects at one retinal location using eyetracking technology and then tested their ability to name the same images presented at novel retinal locations. Across three experiments, we found robust generalization. These findings provide a strong constraint for theories of vision.

  19. Objective Evaluation of Sensor Web Modeling and Data System Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seablom, M. S.; Atlas, R. M.; Ardizzone, J.; Kemp, E. M.; Talabac, S.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the recent development of an end-to-end simulator designed to quantitatively assess the scientific value of incorporating model- and event-driven "sensor web" capabilities into future NASA Earth Science missions. The intent is to provide an objective analysis tool for performing engineering and scientific trade studies in which new technologies are introduced. In the case study presented here we focus on meteorological applications in which a numerical model is used to intelligently schedule data collection by space-based assets. Sensor web observing systems that enable dynamic targeting by various observing platforms have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable meteorological events. The use case focuses on landfalling hurricanes and was selected due to the obvious societal impact and the ongoing need to improve warning times. Although hurricane track prediction has improved over the past several decades, further improvement is necessary in the prediction of hurricane intensity. We selected a combination of future observing platforms to apply sensor web measurement techniques: global 3D lidar winds, next-generation scatterometer ocean vector winds, and high resolution cloud motion vectors from GOES-R. Targeting of the assets by a numerical model would allow the spacecraft to change its attitude by performing a roll maneuver to enable off-nadir measurements to be acquired. In this study, synthetic measurements were derived through Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and enabled in part through the Dopplar Lidar Simulation Model developed by Simpson Weather Associates. We describe the capabilities of the simulator through three different sensor web configurations of the wind lidar: winds obtained from a nominal "survey mode" operation, winds obtained with a reduced duty cycle of the lidar (designed for preserving the life of the instrument

  20. Solar System Parameters from the Gaia Small Solar System Object Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Pedro; Berthier, Jerome; Hestroffer, Daniel

    The Gaia mission will provide the planetary science community with an unprecedent number of observations of small Solar System bodies (a few hundred thousand objects), all obtained with the same telescope. These observations will allow the determination of some intrinsic parameters of the observed objects along with a number of fundamental quantities of interest for the Solar System and for physics in general to a higher precision than what can be done presently. Here we describe briefly why these parameters are important to our understanding of small Solar System objects, the dynamics of the Solar System, and the algorithms used to extract them from the extensive Gaia data. We hope to mine these data for unexpected patterns which could elucidate some unanswered questions pertaining to the planetary sciences, for example concerning unusual objects such as main belt comets or perhaps a signature of discrepancies in the theory of gravitation. What to look for, however, remains an open question.

  1. Systemic right-to-left shunts, ischemic brain lesions, and persistent migraine activity.

    PubMed

    Koppen, Hille; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Mess, Werner H; Keunen, Ruud W; Terwindt, Gisela M; Launer, Lenore J; van Buchem, Mark A; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D

    2016-05-03

    To assess whether migraine in the general population is associated with increased risk of systemic right-to-left shunts (RLS) and whether RLS are associated with increased prevalence of brain infarcts and persistent recurrence of migraine attacks at older age. Brain MRI and transcranial Doppler with air contrast in 166 unselected migraineurs (mean age ± SD 56 ± 7.7 years; 70% women; n = 96 migraine with aura) and 69 controls (mean age ± SD 55 ± 7.6 years; 65% women) from the general population. Participants with migraine with aura more frequently had Valsalva-induced RLS (60%), in particular large-sized, compared to controls (42%; odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.9; p = 0.02) and participants with migraine without aura (40%; OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01). They also more frequently had spontaneous RLS (35%) than participants with migraine without aura (17%; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.6; p = 0.01) but not compared to controls (26%; OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.8-3.1; p = 0.2). Participants with migraine with aura and spontaneous RLS more frequently had persistent migraine activity (85%) than participants with migraine without spontaneous RLS (63%; OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-10.1; p = 0.03). Nine percent of participants with RLS had silent posterior circulation infarcts compared to 3% of participants without RLS (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.9-9.3; p = 0.08), independent of migraine status. RLS were not associated with white matter lesions. RLS are more prevalent in migraineurs with aura but do not explain the increased prevalence of silent posterior circulation infarcts or white matter lesions in migraineurs. Spontaneous RLS are associated with persistent migraine. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Non-super-selective venous sampling for persistent hyperparathyroidism using a systemic hypocalcemic challenge.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lilah F; Loh, Christopher; Ro, Kevin; Wiseman, James E; Gomes, Antoinette S; Asandra, Amy; Wariri, Samuel; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    To describe a new protocol employing an acute systemic hypocalcemic challenge (SHC) aimed at augmenting the parathyroid hormone (PTH) gradient to enable non-super-selective venous sampling (VS) in patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). In a retrospective study, 37 patients (39 studies-20 SHC, 19 super-selective VS) who underwent VS for persistent or recurrent PHPT were examined. Study patients were pretreated with intravenous hydration, diuretics, and bicarbonate to induce temporary relative hypocalcemia and then underwent non-super-selective VS targeted at large vessels within the neck and chest with rapid PTH testing. The traditional VS protocol involved super-selective VS with arteriography. SHC decreased ionized calcium by 0.098 mmol/L ± 0.18 (P = .07) and increased peripheral PTH by 10.2 pg/mL (P = .58). Positive VS gradients, defined as a ≥ 1.4-fold difference from baseline to after SHC, were detected in 95% of patients. VS findings guided successful surgery in 77% of SHC cases and 90% of super-selective VS cases; the peak gradient site was concordant with operative findings in 46% of SHC cases and 80% of super-selective VS cases. Avoidance of super-selective sampling decreased mean fluoroscopy time from 91 minutes to 33 minutes and decreased contrast material administered from 204 mL to 63 mL (both P < .0001). The SHC protocol to enable non-super-selective VS in patients with persistent PHPT had the same ability as super-selective VS to detect a positive (≥ 1.4-fold) PTH gradient, was associated with decreased accuracy in identifying the site of the adenoma compared with super-selective VS, and significantly decreased contrast material used and fluoroscopy time. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Objective analysis of observational data from the FGGE observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W.; Edelmann, D.; Iredell, M.; Han, D.; Jakkempudi, S.

    1981-01-01

    An objective analysis procedure for updating the GLAS second and fourth order general atmospheric circulation models using observational data from the first GARP global experiment is described. The objective analysis procedure is based on a successive corrections method and the model is updated in a data assimilation cycle. Preparation of the observational data for analysis and the objective analysis scheme are described. The organization of the program and description of the required data sets are presented. The program logic and detailed descriptions of each subroutine are given.

  4. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    DOEpatents

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  5. Gas turbine system simulation: An object-oriented approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Follen, Gregory J.; Putt, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype gas turbine engine simulation has been developed that offers a generalized framework for the simulation of engines subject to steady-state and transient operating conditions. The prototype is in preliminary form, but it successfully demonstrates the viability of an object-oriented approach for generalized simulation applications. Although object oriented programming languages are-relative to FORTRAN-somewhat austere, it is proposed that gas turbine simulations of an interdisciplinary nature will benefit significantly in terms of code reliability, maintainability, and manageability. This report elucidates specific gas turbine simulation obstacles that an object-oriented framework can overcome and describes the opportunity for interdisciplinary simulation that the approach offers.

  6. An objective, statistical system for short-term probabilistic forecasts of thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliker, Joby Lee

    A major dilemma facing the aviation industry early in the 21st century is the consequence of high consumer demand for air travel. With passenger numbers at record numbers, the United States air-traffic system has become strained. Inclement weather, such as low clouds, reduced visibility, and thunderstorms, compounds the problem. Currently, the aviation industry does not have a nationwide system for forecasting high-impact weather. The reason is that the guidance needed by the aviation industry is much different that the guidance that has traditionally been disseminated. Forecasts need to made for the short-term (<6 h), be timely, and have rapid-update capabilities. Moreover, the guidance needs to take into account the inherent uncertainty in weather prediction. Hence, the requirement for objective and reliable probabilistic guidance. This thesis presents a prototype forecast system that possess these attributes. Specifically, a system is constructed to generate short-term forecasts of thunderstorms. Thunderstorms are chosen because they are the greatest contributing cause of air-traffic delays. In fact, the aviation industry spends $3 billion a year from thunderstorm impacts. The system makes uses of archives of high-resolution (both in time and space) observational datasets. These observations are: (a) WSR-88D radar data, (b) profiler data, and (c) surface data from the Oklahoma mesonetwork. After the datasets have been analyzed for bad/missing data, and then replaced with suitable estimates, the most powerful thunderstorm predictors are ascertained. Results show that radar data have the greatest contribution to skill. There is an increasing contribution from surface, then upper-air data, for longer lead times. The upstream percent areal coverage of reflectivities is the most powerful predictor of thunderstorms for all lead times. The absolute convergence and climatological departure of relative humidity are the most powerful predictors from the surface data. From

  7. Persistent Persister Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically. PMID:28082974

  8. Topological characterization and early detection of bifurcations and chaos in complex systems using persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Khushboo; Gupta, Shalabh

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes. This paper addresses this research gap by using topological data analysis as a tool to study system evolution and develop a mathematical framework for detecting the topological changes in the underlying system using persistent homology. Using the proposed technique, topological features (e.g., number of relevant k-dimensional holes, etc.) are extracted from nonlinear time series data which are useful for deeper analysis of the system behavior and early detection of bifurcations and chaos. When applied to a Logistic map, a Duffing oscillator, and a real life Op-amp based Jerk circuit, these features are shown to accurately characterize the system dynamics and detect the onset of chaos.

  9. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  10. Nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots based long-persistent chemiluminescence system for ascorbic acid imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Qin; Shen, Qinpeng; Liu, Xin; Li, Wang; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2017-05-15

    High photo-intensity and sluggish flight attenuation are important to highly sensitive chemluminescence imaging. Herein, we present a copper ion catalyzed long-persistent chemiluminescent imaging system of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) for ascorbic acid detection in fruit. NGQDs as luminescent probe are fabricated, emitting out chemluminescence with the direct oxidation by H2O2. In addition, Cu(2+) ion enlarges over two order magnitudes of NGQDs CL intensity (214 times) due to its catalyzed Fenton-like reaction for H2O2 decomposition, and displaying unique specificity against other metal ions. As a result, the twinkling luminescence of NGQDs is boosted and changes to hold persistent with small decay in the presence of copper ion exhibiting potential for CL imaging. As an imaging model, a visual sensor based on Cu(2+)/NGQDs/H2O2 is developed for AA quantitative monitoring with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5μM (S/N=3) and applied in real AA detection in fruit. The CL imaging method demonstrated with high stability and proper sensitivity would provide a convenient and visual tool for AA determination, displaying promising candidates for imaging sensing.

  11. A survey of imagery techniques for semantic labeling of human-vehicle interactions in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2011-06-01

    Understanding and semantic annotation of Human-Vehicle Interactions (HVI) facilitate fusion of Hard sensor (HS) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) in a cohesive way. By characterization, classification, and discrimination of HVI patterns pertinent threats may be realized. Various Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) imagery techniques have been proposed in the past decade for identifying human interactions with various objects in the environment. Understanding of such interactions facilitates to discover human intentions and motives. However, without consideration of incidental context, reasoning and analysis of such behavioral activities is a very challenging and difficult task. This paper presents a current survey of related publications in the area of context-based Imagery techniques applied for HVI recognition, in particular, it discusses taxonomy and ontology of HVI and presents a summary of reported robust image processing techniques for spatiotemporal characterization and tracking of human targets in urban environments. The discussed techniques include model-based, shape-based and appearance-based techniques employed for identification and classification of objects. A detailed overview of major past research activities related to HVI in PSS with exploitation of spatiotemporal reasoning techniques applied to semantic labeling of the HVI is also presented.

  12. Farming Systems Modeling Using the Object Modeling System (OMS): Overview, Applications, and Future Plans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of the Object Modeling System (OMS) modeling framework represents a comprehensive partnership between the USDA ARS/NRCS, USGS, and university collaborators. OMS helps streamline the development of integrated farming system models for current and future model delivery using a component-or...

  13. A system to program projects to meet visual quality objectives

    Treesearch

    Fred L. Henley; Frank L. Hunsaker

    1979-01-01

    The U. S. Forest Service has established Visual Quality Objectives for National Forest lands and determined a method to ascertain the Visual Absorption Capability of those lands. Combining the two mapping inventories has allowed the Forest Service to retain the visual quality while managing natural resources.

  14. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Object Oriented Analysis Method for Ada and Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1 .4.2 Structuring Softwisre Rec ilrien-i .. .. .. . -4.5 Conclusion.... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... V . Validat ion of the Object... V \\i. (ojiclirsions and Recommenidat ions... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... 6.!1 Summary....... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... I6.2...3Bibliography. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ....... IB-1 VitIa . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .... V A- 1 I

  16. Multi Objective Controller Design for Linear System via Optimal Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay

    1996-01-01

    We propose a methodology for the design of a controller which satisfies a set of closed-loop objectives simultaneously. The set of objectives consists of: (1) pole placement, (2) decoupled command tracking of step inputs at steady-state, and (3) minimization of step response transients with respect to envelope specifications. We first obtain a characterization of all controllers placing the closed-loop poles in a prescribed region of the complex plane. In this characterization, the free parameter matrix Q(s) is to be determined to attain objectives (2) and (3). Objective (2) is expressed as determining a Pareto optimal solution to a vector valued optimization problem. The solution of this problem is obtained by transforming it to a scalar convex optimization problem. This solution determines Q(O) and the remaining freedom in choosing Q(s) is used to satisfy objective (3). We write Q(s) = (l/v(s))bar-Q(s) for a prescribed polynomial v(s). Bar-Q(s) is a polynomial matrix which is arbitrary except that Q(O) and the order of bar-Q(s) are fixed. Obeying these constraints bar-Q(s) is now to be 'shaped' to minimize the step response characteristics of specific input/output pairs according to the maximum envelope violations. This problem is expressed as a vector valued optimization problem using the concept of Pareto optimality. We then investigate a scalar optimization problem associated with this vector valued problem and show that it is convex. The organization of the report is as follows. The next section includes some definitions and preliminary lemmas. We then give the problem statement which is followed by a section including a detailed development of the design procedure. We then consider an aircraft control example. The last section gives some concluding remarks. The Appendix includes the proofs of technical lemmas, printouts of computer programs, and figures.

  17. Tsivat Basin conduit system persists through two surges, Bering Piedmont Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleisher, P.J.; Cadwell, D.H.; Muller, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, occurred in two distinct phases. Phase 1 of the surge began on the eastern sector in July, 1993 and ended in July, 1994 after a powerful outburst of subglacial meltwater into Tsivat Lake basin on the north side of Weeping Peat Island. Within days, jokulhlaup discharge built a 1.5 km2 delta of ice blocks (25-30 m) buried in outwash. By late October 1994, discharge temporarily shifted to a vent on Weeping Peat Island, where a second smaller outburst dissected the island and built two new sandar. During phase 2, which began in spring 1995 and ended within five months, continuous discharge issued from several vents along the ice front on Weeping Peat Island before returining to the Tsivat Basin. Surge related changes include a five- to six-fold increase in meltwater turbidity; the redirection of supercooled water in two ice-contact lakes; and an increase in the rate of glaciolacustrine sedimentation. US Geological Survey aerial photos by Austin Post show large ice blocks in braided channels indicating excessive subglacial discharge in a similar position adjacent to Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge. During the subsequent three decades of retreat, the location of ice-marginal, subglacial discharge vents remained aligned on a linear trend that describes the position of a persistent subglacial conduit system. The presence of a major conduit system, possibly stabilized by subglacial bedrock topography, is suggested by: 1) high-level subglacial meltwater venting along the northern side of Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge, 2) persistent low-level discharge between surges, and 3) the recurrence of localizing meltwater outbursts associated with both phases of the 1993-1005 surge.

  18. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    PubMed

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  19. Role of CD25+ CD4+ T cells in acute and persistent coronavirus infection of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P.; Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Savarin, Carine; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Phares, Timothy W.; Hinton, David R.; Stohlman, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) on acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was examined using a glial tropic murine coronavirus. Treg in the CNS were highest during initial T cell mediated virus control, decreased and then remained relatively stable during persistence. Anti-CD25 treatment did not affect CNS recruitment of inflammatory cells. Viral control was initially delayed; however, neither the kinetics of viral control nor viral persistence were affected. By contrast, the absence of Treg during the acute phase resulted in increased demyelination during viral persistence. These data suggest that CNS inflammation, progression of viral control and viral persistence are relatively independent of CD25+CD4+ Treg. However, their absence during acute infection alters the ability of the host to limit tissue damage. PMID:24210105

  20. Role of CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells in acute and persistent coronavirus infection of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Puntambekar, Shweta S; Savarin, Carine; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Phares, Timothy W; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The influence of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was examined using a glial tropic murine coronavirus. Treg in the CNS were highest during initial T cell mediated virus control, decreased and then remained relatively stable during persistence. Anti-CD25 treatment did not affect CNS recruitment of inflammatory cells. Viral control was initially delayed; however, neither the kinetics of viral control nor viral persistence were affected. By contrast, the absence of Treg during the acute phase resulted in increased demyelination during viral persistence. These data suggest that CNS inflammation, progression of viral control and viral persistence are relatively independent of CD25(+)CD4(+) Treg. However, their absence during acute infection alters the ability of the host to limit tissue damage. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  2. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  3. Application of System Dynamics technique to simulate the fate of persistent organic pollutants in soils.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; López, D; Macías, F; Casares, J; Monterroso, C

    2013-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are within the most dangerous pollutants released into the environment by human activities. Due to their resistance to degradation (chemical, biological or photolytic), it is critical to assess the fate and environmental hazards of the exchange of POPs between different environmental media. System Dynamics enables to represent complex systems and analyze their dynamic behavior. It provides a highly visual representation of the structure of the system and the existing relationships between the several parameters and variables, facilitating the understanding of the behavior of the system. In the present study the fate of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) in a contaminated soil was modeled using the Vensim® simulation software. Results show a gradual decrease in the lindane content in the soil during a simulation period of 10 years. The most important route affecting the concentrations of the contaminant was the biochemical degradation, followed by infiltration and hydrodynamic dispersion. The model appeared to be highly sensitive to the half-life of the pollutant, which value depends on environmental conditions and directly affects the biochemical degradation.

  4. Geoscience Australia's enterprise application of provenance standards and systems for physical and digital objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, C.; Car, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscience Australia (GA) is a government agency that provides advice on the geology and geography of Australia. It is the custodian of many digital and physical datasets of national significance. For several years GA has been implementing an enterprise approach to provenance management. The goal for transparency and reproducibility for all of GA's information products; an objective supported at the highest levels and explicitly listed in its Science Principles. Currently GA is finalising a set of enterprise tools to assist with provenance management and rolling out provenance reporting to different science areas. GA has adopted or developed: provenance storage systems; provenance collection code libraries (for use within automated systems); reporting interfaces (for manual use) and provenance representation capability within legacy catalogues. Using these tools within GA's science areas involves modelling the scenario first and then assessing whether the area has its data managed in such a way that allows links to data within provenance to be resolvable in perpetuity. We don't just want to represent provenance (demonstrating transparency), we want to access data via provenance (allowing for reproducibility). A subtask of GA's current work is to link physical samples to information products (datasets, reports, papers) by uniquely and persistently identifying samples using International GeoSample Numbers and then modelling automated & manual laboratory workflows and associated tasks, such as data delivery to corporate databases using the W3C's PROV Data Model. We use PROV DM throughout our modelling and systems. We are also moving to deliver all sample and digital dataset metadata across the agency in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and exposing it via Linked Data methods in order to allow Semantic Web querying of multiple systems allowing provenance to be leveraged using as a single method and query point. Through the Science First Transformation Program GA is

  5. Comparative study of popular objective functions for damping power system oscillations in multimachine system.

    PubMed

    Islam, Naz Niamul; Hannan, M A; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M A

    2014-01-01

    Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability.

  6. Comparative Study of Popular Objective Functions for Damping Power System Oscillations in Multimachine System

    PubMed Central

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability. PMID:24977210

  7. Adaptive neural control design for nonlinear distributed parameter systems with persistent bounded disturbances.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural network (NN) control with a guaranteed L(infinity)-gain performance is proposed for a class of parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) systems with unknown nonlinearities and persistent bounded disturbances. Initially, Galerkin method is applied to the PDE system to derive a low-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) system that accurately describes the dynamics of the dominant (slow) modes of the PDE system. Subsequently, based on the low-order slow model and the Lyapunov technique, an adaptive modal feedback controller is developed such that the closed-loop slow system is semiglobally input-to-state practically stable (ISpS) with an L(infinity)-gain performance. In the proposed control scheme, a radial basis function (RBF) NN is employed to approximate the unknown term in the derivative of the Lyapunov function due to the unknown system nonlinearities. The outcome of the adaptive L(infinity)-gain control problem is formulated as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem. Moreover, by using the existing LMI optimization technique, a suboptimal controller is obtained in the sense of minimizing an upper bound of the L(infinity)-gain, while control constraints are respected. Furthermore, it is shown that the proposed controller can ensure the semiglobal input-to-state practical stability and L(infinity)-gain performance of the closed-loop PDE system. Finally, by applying the developed design method to the temperature profile control of a catalytic rod, the achieved simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  8. Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization for landscape system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. A.; Hall, G. B.; Calamai, P. H.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing recognition of the extent and speed of habitat fragmentation and loss, particularly in the urban fringe, is driving the need to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively regional landscape structures in land-use planning and environmental policy implementation. This paper introduces an Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO) methodology to estimate the Pareto optimal set of landscape designs generated from a series of underlying ecological principles. The results of applying these principles via EMO to a study site are presented and a hierarchical clustering methodology is introduced to assist in evaluating the population of solutions generated.

  9. Active terahertz wave imaging system for detecting hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yuner; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz wave can penetrate the common dielectric materials such as clothing, cardboard boxes, plastics and so on. Besides, the low photon energy and non-ionizing characteristic of the terahertz wave are especially suitable for the safety inspection of the human body. Terahertz imaging technology has a tremendous potential in the field of security inspection such as stations, airports and other public places. Terahertz wave imaging systems are divided into two categories: active terahertz imaging systems and passive terahertz imaging systems. So far, most terahertz imaging systems work at point to point mechanical scan pattern with the method of passive imaging. The imaging results of passive imaging tend to have low contrast and the image is not clear enough. This paper designs and implements an active terahertz wave imaging system combining terahertz wave transmitting and receiving with a Cassegrain antenna. The terahertz wave at the frequency of 94GHz is created by impact ionization avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode, focused on the feed element for Cassegrain antenna by high density polyethylene (HDPE) lens, and transmitted to the human body by Cassegrain antenna. The reflected terahertz wave goes the same way it was emitted back to the feed element for Cassegrain antenna, focused on the horn antenna of detector by another high density polyethylene lens. The scanning method is the use of two-dimensional planar mirror, one responsible for horizontal scanning, and another responsible for vertical scanning. Our system can achieve a clear human body image, has better sensitivity and resolution than passive imaging system, and costs much lower than other active imaging system in the meantime.

  10. Prolonged replication in the mouse central nervous system of reoviruses isolated from persistently infected cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L A; Fields, B N; Dermody, T S

    1993-01-01

    We examined pathogenic characteristics of plaque-purified reoviruses isolated from persistently infected L-cell cultures (PI viruses) after intracranial inoculation into newborn mice. The PI viruses were isolated from independent cultures initiated with high-passage stocks of the wild-type (wt) strain, type 3 Dearing. The virulence of most PI viruses was equivalent to that of the wt strain. However, replication of PI viruses in the central nervous system of infected mice was prolonged to 25 (but not 50) days postinoculation. Thirty-eight percent (n = 186) of mice inoculated with the PI viruses had residual virus detectable in brain tissue 25 days after inoculation, in contrast to only 16% (n = 57) of mice inoculated with wt virus (P = 0.009). Mean residual brain titers were more than 20-fold higher in mice inoculated with PI viruses compared with wt virus (4.3 x 10(4) versus 2.1 x 10(3); P = 0.006). Tropism of PI virus within the brain resembled that of wt virus, and the distribution of PI virus antigen in the brain did not change over time. The extent of necrosis in the brains of mice harboring PI virus 25 days after inoculation was minimal, despite continued presence of high titers of infectious virus. The latter observation resembles the absence of cytopathicity seen in L-cell cultures persistently infected with reovirus. These observations suggest that the interaction of PI viruses with cells can be altered in vivo as well as in cell culture, but virus is eventually cleared from the infected animal. Images PMID:8388486

  11. Persistence after birth of systemic inflammation associated with umbilical cord inflammation.

    PubMed

    Leviton, Alan; Hecht, Jonathan L; Allred, Elizabeth N; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Fichorova, Raina N; Dammann, Olaf

    2011-08-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is followed by elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the newborn's blood. Many of these proteins have short half-lives. The persistence of this postnatal inflammation has not previously been investigated. In a sample of 834 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, 12% (103) had grade 1 or 2, and 17% (142) had grade 3, 4, or 5 umbilical cord inflammation. Concentrations of nine proteins previously shown to be associated with umbilical cord inflammation at birth were measured on the first postnatal day and at two weekly intervals after birth. We evaluated the hypothesis that children who had umbilical cord inflammation were no more likely than others to have elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in postnatal blood. The concentrations of seven of the nine proteins [C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL1β, IL8, TNFα, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM3), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9)] showed a tendency to be elevated on day 7 among infants with funisitis. Adjusting for gestational age, growth restriction, and three postnatal exposures (ventilation on day 7, presumed and definite early bacteremia, and Bell stage III necrotizing endocolitis) did not diminish the elevated odds ratios of concentrations in the top quartile (for gestational age and day the specimen was obtained) of MPO, IL1β, TNFα, IL8, ICAM3, and MMP9. The persistence of a relationship between umbilical cord inflammation and elevated blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins on postnatal day 7 suggests the existence of phenomena that contribute to a reinforcement loop and thereby sustained systemic inflammation.

  12. New Genes in Traditional Seed Systems: Diffusion, Detectability and Persistence of Transgenes in a Maize Metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Bellon, Mauricio R.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow of transgenes into non-target populations is an important biosafety concern. The case of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mexico has been of particular interest because of the country’s status as center of origin and landrace diversity. In contrast to maize in the U.S. and Europe, Mexican landraces form part of an evolving metapopulation in which new genes are subject to evolutionary processes of drift, gene flow and selection. Although these processes are affected by seed management and particularly seed flow, there has been little study into the population genetics of transgenes under traditional seed management. Here, we combine recently compiled data on seed management practices with a spatially explicit population genetic model to evaluate the importance of seed flow as a determinant of the long-term fate of transgenes in traditional seed systems. Seed flow between farmers leads to a much wider diffusion of transgenes than expected by pollen movement alone, but a predominance of seed replacement over seed mixing lowers the probability of detection due to a relative lack of homogenization in spatial frequencies. We find that in spite of the spatial complexities of the modeled system, persistence probabilities under positive selection are estimated quite well by existing theory. Our results have important implications concerning the feasibility of long term transgene monitoring and control in traditional seed systems. PMID:23056246

  13. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  14. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in shallow percolated water of the Alps Karst system (Zugspitze summit, Germany).

    PubMed

    Levy, Walkiria; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Fischer, Norbert; Antritter, Felix; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-02-01

    In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system. However, the percentage distribution of contaminants in the percolated water differed significantly from that found in surface waters. The highest chlorinated PCDD homologues were the predominant compounds of the PCDD/F family, whereas percentages of PCB #52 increased in percolated water. Toxic equivalent values (TEQ) of samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.2pgTEQ/m(3) and from 0.017 to 0.069pgTEQ/m(3) for PCDD/F and PCB, respectively. Low and intermediate molecular weight PAH were the prevailing compounds in the samples. Endosulfan sulfate, endrin, and cis-heptachlor epoxide were enhanced after water percolation through the Karst system in comparison with the surface waters (wet deposition). The relative enrichment on these pesticides was related to the environmental bedrock conditions and glacier melting sources. In summary, the Karst system highly influenced the fate of organic persistent pollutants generating different chemical patterns in their percolated waters than those found at the surface systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. What Is the Link between Stringent Response, Endoribonuclease Encoding Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems and Persistence?

    PubMed

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar C M; Ghosh, Dimpy; Roy Chowdhury, Maoumita; Santhosh, Ramachandran S

    2016-01-01

    Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, Castro-Camargo M, Gerdes K. 2013. Cell 154:1140-1150 reported an interesting link between ppGpp mediated stringent response, TAS, and persistence. It is proposed that accumulation of ppGpp enhances the accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate which modulates Lon protease to degrade antitoxins. The decrease in the concentration of antitoxins supposedly activated the toxin to increase in the number of persisters during antibiotic treatment. In this study, we show that inorganic polyphosphate is not required for transcriptional activation of yefM/yoeB TAS, which is an indirect indication of Lon-dependent degradation of YefM antitoxin. The Δ10 strain, an Escherichia coli MG1655 derivative in which the 10 TAS are deleted, is more sensitive to ciprofloxacin compared to wild type MG1655. Furthermore, we show that the Δ10 strain has relatively lower fitness compared to the wild type and hence, we argue that the persistence related implications based on Δ10 strain are void. We conclude that the transcriptional regulation and endoribonuclease activity of YefM/YoeB TAS is independent of ppGpp and inorganic polyphosphate. Therefore, we urge for thorough inspection and debate on the link between chromosomal endoribonuclease TAS and persistence.

  17. Conflicting objectives and risk in power system planning

    SciTech Connect

    Crousillat, E.O. ); Doerfner, P. ); Alvarado, P. ); Merrill, H.M. )

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document new discoveries and observations in dealing with conflicting objectives and risk. In particular, the authors describe different types of conflict, their implications, and give examples of each. They also discuss the difference between uncertainty and risk. Two models of uncertainty are reviewed. Risk is quantified in terms of robustness and exposure. They show how regret is measured and used, and how hedges can be used to reduce risk. Illustrations are drawn from major trade off/risk studies in Hungary and Costa Rica. Each study involved analysis of several thousand scenarios. These are the largest and most complex studies of this type to be reported in the open literature to date.

  18. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  19. Object-oriented programming, C++ and power system simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, E.Z.

    1996-02-01

    Application of OOP concepts and the C++ programming language to power system simulation has been explored. An efficient platform for power system simulation applications has been proposed. By emulating a physical power lab, a generic power network container has been built. A module, which can be used to solve sparse matrix equations of any data types, has been implemented. Two load flow applications: a dc load flow and an ac load flow have been discussed. It is found that the OOP based C++ load flow programs are as efficient as their non-OOP counterparts.

  20. Delayed Instantiation Bulk Operations for Management of Distributed, Object-Based Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    emulate NVRAM , and this area serves as a staging area for dirty data. This model follows that of high-performance production systems that actually...contain NVRAM (with data persistence across reboots) for staging dirty data [26, 54]. The NFS server considers data stably stored once a write oper

  1. A Universal Object-Oriented Medical Database System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    synchronization (IrDA, e-mail); c. Authentication and data protection tools (Unified Windows smart cards interface is used). The detailed system...authentication. Standard Windows smart card authentication procedure is used to achieve top level of security. III. CONCLUSION Implementation of

  2. RISE Evaluation and Development System: Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With the help of teachers and leaders throughout the state, the Indiana Department of Education has developed an optional model teacher evaluation system named RISE. Whether corporations choose to adopt RISE or a model of their own, the department's goal is to assist corporations in developing or adopting models that both comply with IC 20-28-11.5…

  3. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up

  4. Natural, Persistent Oscillations in a Spatial Multi-Strain Disease System with Application to Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases are not maintained in a state of equilibrium but exhibit significant fluctuations in prevalence over time. For pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic types or strains, such as influenza, malaria or dengue, these fluctuations often take on the form of regular or irregular epidemic outbreaks in addition to oscillatory prevalence levels of the constituent strains. To explain the observed temporal dynamics and structuring in pathogen populations, epidemiological multi-strain models have commonly evoked strong immune interactions between strains as the predominant driver. Here, with specific reference to dengue, we show how spatially explicit, multi-strain systems can exhibit all of the described epidemiological dynamics even in the absence of immune competition. Instead, amplification of natural stochastic differences in disease transmission, can give rise to persistent oscillations comprising semi-regular epidemic outbreaks and sequential dominance of dengue's four serotypes. Not only can this mechanism explain observed differences in serotype and disease distributions between neighbouring geographical areas, it also has important implications for inferring the nature and epidemiological consequences of immune mediated competition in multi-strain pathogen systems. PMID:24204241

  5. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2000 Joint Statement. Accordingly, the Roh Moo -hyun government’s policy of peace and prosperity on the Korean Peninsula places an emphasis on the need...adopted by the Roh Moo -hyun government. However practical South Korea’s policy of peace and prosperity of the Korean Peninsula has been, no...sacred cows .” Even if it is understood that the proposed modernization in fact equals system change. It is also necessary to understand North Koreans

  6. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-08-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  7. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  8. An objective reference system for studying rings in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelão, Guilherme P.; Irber, Luiz C.; Villas Boas, Ana B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rings are marine vortices with a scale of hundreds of kilometers that can last for months, whose associated transport and mixing play an important role in the ocean dynamics. Such features are traditionally treated as a geostrophic flow, but since the centrifugal acceleration is not negligible in the inner core, the cyclo-geostrophic balance is a better approximation for the rings. In the present work, we describe a novel objective technique to identify the ring center, which is used as the origin of a convenient framework to handle rings under the cyclo-geostrophic balance. Furthermore, we correct the velocity field by the translation to isolate the swirl movement, a procedure ignored by other methodologies. We show that the lack of such correction would lead to an error of 30 km on the center definition of a ship surveyed North Brazil Current Ring with 160 km of radius. Another distinct characteristic of our approach is the flexibility in the spatio-temporal structure of the data, because it allows for ungridded data, an important ability for in situ observations. That also enables the use of a hybrid dataset composed from different instruments. The error on the Monte Carlo experiments to identify the center of the propagating ring is less than 10 km, and depends on the level of noise, sampling strategy, and strength of the ring, among other factors. This technique was fully implemented in PyRings, an open Python library with a collection of procedures to handle oceanic rings and mesoscale eddies in general.

  9. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  10. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  11. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world.

  12. Parallel object-oriented, denoising system using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Chandrika; Baldwin, Chuck H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Tang, Nu A.

    2005-04-12

    The present invention provides a data de-noising system utilizing processors and wavelet denoising techniques. Data is read and displayed in different formats. The data is partitioned into regions and the regions are distributed onto the processors. Communication requirements are determined among the processors according to the wavelet denoising technique and the partitioning of the data. The data is transforming onto different multiresolution levels with the wavelet transform according to the wavelet denoising technique, the communication requirements, and the transformed data containing wavelet coefficients. The denoised data is then transformed into its original reading and displaying data format.

  13. Objective assessment of telesurgical robot systems: Telerobotic FLS.

    PubMed

    Lum, Mitchell J H; Friedman, Diana C W; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; King, Hawkeye; Wright, Andrew; Sinanan, Mika; Lendvay, Thomas; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake

    2008-01-01

    The Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program contains curriculum that includes both a cognitive and psychomotor skills. In this research the use of FLS Block Transfer task is used to evaluate the performance of surgeons' teleoperating the University of Washington Surgical robot. The use of the FLS Trainer Box and accessories kit provides a well-defined series of tasks that can be repeated by any researchers working in the field of surgical robotics so that systems can be evaluated using a common method.

  14. Diversity, persistence, and virulence of Aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water distribution systems in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Huys, G; Janssen, P; Kersters, K; Krovacek, K; Stenström, T A

    1997-01-01

    isolates that produced cytotoxin. Thus, the data presented here show that although raw water may contain very diverse Aeromonas populations, the populations seemed to be remarkably stable within the studied water distribution systems, and that some potentially pathogenic Aeromonas strains could persist for several months in drinking water. PMID:11799982

  15. Comets: Data, problems and objectives. [origin in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1974-01-01

    Relevant results from the observations of Comet Kohoutek are presented with an outline summary of basic knowledge concerning comets, both subjects being confined to data related to the nature and origin of comets rather than the phenomena (for example, plasma phenomena are omitted). Places of cometary origin in the developing solar system are discussed, along with the proto-Uranus-Neptune region versus the much more distant fragmented interstellar cloud region, now frequented by comets of the Opik-Oort cloud. The Comet Kohoutek results add new insights, particularly with regard to the parent molecules and the nature of meteoric solids in comets, to restrict the range of the physical circumstances of comet formation.

  16. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  17. Mycobacterium avium complex in day care hot water systems, and persistence of live cells and DNA in hot water pipes.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Annette S; Roslev, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic human pathogens that may thrive in engineered water systems. MAC has been shown to occur in drinking water supplies based on surface water, but less is known about the occurrence and persistence of live cells and DNA in public hot water systems based on groundwater. In this study, we examined the occurrence of MAC in hot water systems of public day care centers and determined the persistence of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA in model systems with the modern plumbing material cross-linked polyethylene (PEX). The occurrence of MAC and co-occurrence of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila were determined using cultivation and qPCR. Co-occurrences of MAC and Legionella were detected in water and/or biofilms in all hot water systems at temperatures between 40 and 54 °C. Moderate correlations were observed between abundance of culturable MAC and that of MAC genome copies, and between MAC and total eubacterial genome copies. No quantitative relationship was observed between occurrence of Legionella and that of MAC. Persistence in hot water of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA was studied using PEX laboratory model systems at 44 °C. Naked DNA and DNA in dead M. avium cells persisted for weeks. Live M. avium increased tenfold in water and biofilms on PEX. The results suggest that water and biofilms in groundwater-based hot water systems can constitute reservoirs of MAC, and that amplifiable naked DNA is relatively short-lived, whereas PEX plumbing material supports persistence and proliferation of M. avium.

  18. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the developing respiratory and immune systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Morales, Eva; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-02-01

    Disruption of developing immune and respiratory systems by early-life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could result into reduced capacity to fight infections and increased risk to develop allergic manifestations later in life. To systematically review the epidemiologic literature on the adverse effects of early-life exposure to POPs on respiratory health, allergy and the immune system in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Based on published guidelines for systematic reviews, two independent researchers searched for published articles in MEDLINE and SCOPUS using defined keywords on POPs and respiratory health, immune function and allergy. Study eligibility criteria were defined to select the articles. This review of 41 studies finds limited evidence for prenatal exposure to DDE, PCBs and dioxins and risk of respiratory infections. Evidence was limited also for postnatal exposure to PCBs, specifically ndl-PCBs, and reduced immune response after vaccination in childhood. The review indicates lack of association between postnatal exposure to PCBs/ndl-PCBs and risk of asthma-related symptoms. For the other exposure-outcome associations reviewed evidence was inadequate. Current epidemiological evidence suggests that early-life exposure to POPs can adversely influence immune and respiratory systems development. Heterogeneity between studies in exposure and outcome assessment and the small number of studies for any given exposure-outcome relationship currently make comparisons difficult and meta-analyses impossible. Also, mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Recommendations for significantly improving our understanding thus include harmonization of exposure and outcome assessment between studies, conduct of larger studies, long-term assessment of respiratory infections and asthma symptoms in order to identify critical periods of susceptibility, integration of the potential immunotoxic mechanisms of POPs, and use of new statistical tools to detangle the

  19. Object-Oriented Development Process for Department of Defense Information Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Incremental: total system |Jsystem[ 1/ specification 1• /• increment 1k..n" __ /" • /1..n.n •emonstratiOevelopmentPo ucinOperations" Defintion & Validationj...by the Assuming that mutual inheritance and looping are excluded. A-24 Object F Physical-object Even Abstract-object [ Animate -object I Inanimate

  20. Speckle interferometry applied to asteroids and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Hege, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    Speckle interferometry is a high angular resolution technique that allows study of resolved asteroids. By following the changing size, shape, and orientation of minor planets, and with a few general assumptions (e.g., geometric scattering, triaxial ellipsoid figures, no albedo features), it is possible to directly measure an asteroid's true dimensions and the direction of its spin axis in one or two nights. A particular subset of triaxial ellipsoid figures are equilibrium shapes, and would imply that some asteroids are thoroughly fractured. Such shapes if they exist among the asteroids would allow a determination of bulk density since there is a unique relation among spin period, size, shape, and density. The discovery of even a single rubble pile, (just as the finding of even one binary asteroid by speckle interferometric techniques) would drastically alter the notion of asteroids as small solid planets. The Pluto/Charon system was studied to aid in improving the orbital elements necessary to predict the eclipse/occultation season currently in progress. Four asteroids were reduced to their size, shape, and pole direction: 433 Eros, 532 Herculina, 511 Davida, and 2 Pallas.

  1. Persistence and decontamination of surrogate radioisotopes in a model drinking water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hall, John S.

    2010-01-12

    Contamination of a model drinking water system with surrogate radioisotopes was examined with respect to persistence on and decontamination of infrastructure surfaces. Cesium and cobalt chloride salts were used as surrogates for cesium-137 and cobalt-60. Studies were conducted in biofilm annular reactors containing heavily corroded iron surfaces formed under shear and constantly submerged in drinking water. Cesium was not detected on the corroded iron surface after equilibration with 10 and 100 mg L{sup -1} solutions of cesium chloride, but cobalt was detected on corroded iron coupons at both initial concentrations. The amount of adhered cobalt decreased over the next six weeks, but was still present when monitoring stopped. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that adhered cobalt was in the III oxidation state. The adsorbed cobalt was strongly resistant to decontamination by various physicochemical methods. Simulated flushing, use of free chlorine and dilute ammonia were found to be ineffective whereas use of aggressive methods like 14.5 M ammonia and 0.36 M sulfuric acid removed 37 and 92% of the sorbed cobalt, respectively.

  2. Persistence and decontamination of surrogate radioisotopes in a model drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hall, John S

    2009-12-01

    Contamination of a model drinking water system with surrogate radioisotopes was examined with respect to persistence on and decontamination of infrastructure surfaces. Cesium and cobalt chloride salts were used as surrogates for cesium-137 and cobalt-60. Studies were conducted in biofilm annular reactors containing heavily corroded iron surfaces formed under shear and constantly submerged in drinking water. Cesium was not detected on the corroded iron surface after equilibration with 10 and 100mgL(-1) solutions of cesium chloride, but cobalt was detected on corroded iron coupons at both initial concentrations. The amount of adhered cobalt decreased over the next six weeks, but was still present when monitoring stopped. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that adhered cobalt was in the III oxidation state. The adsorbed cobalt was strongly resistant to decontamination by various physicochemical methods. Simulated flushing, use of free chlorine and dilute ammonia were found to be ineffective whereas use of aggressive methods like 14.5M ammonia and 0.36M sulfuric acid removed 37 and 92% of the sorbed cobalt, respectively.

  3. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  4. Probing the nature of deficits in the 'Approximate Number System' in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called 'Approximate Number System' (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched controls. The integrity of the ANS was measured using the Panamath (www.panamath.org) non-symbolic numerical discrimination test. Children with DD demonstrated imprecise ANS acuity indexed by larger Weber fraction (w) compared to TD controls. Given recent findings showing that non-symbolic numerical discrimination is affected by visual parameters, we went further and investigated whether children performed differently on trials on which number of dots and their overall area were either congruent or incongruent with each other. This analysis revealed that differences in w were only found between DD and TD children on the incongruent trials. In addition, visuo-spatial working memory strongly predicts individual differences in ANS acuity (w) during the incongruent trials. Thus the purported ANS deficit in DD can be explained by a difficulty in extracting number from an array of dots when area is anti-correlated with number. These data highlight the role of visuo-spatial working memory during the extraction process, and demonstrate that close attention needs to be paid to perceptual processes invoked by tasks thought to represent measures of the ANS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. RNA-based regulation in type I toxin-antitoxin systems and its implication for bacterial persistence.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Bork A; Wagner, E Gerhart H

    2017-05-30

    Bacterial dormancy is a valuable survival strategy upon challenging environmental conditions. Dormant cells tolerate the consequences of high stress levels and may re-populate the environment upon return to favorable conditions. Antibiotic-tolerant bacteria-termed persisters-regularly cause relapsing infections, increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance, and, therefore, earn increasing attention. Their generation often depends on toxins from chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems. Here, we review recent insights concerning RNA-based control of toxin synthesis, and discuss possible implications for persister generation.

  6. Integrating an object system into CLIPS: Language design and implementation issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auburn, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the reasons why an object system with integrated pattern-matching and object-oriented programming facilities is desirable for CLIPS and how it is possible to integrate such a system into CLIPS while maintaining the run-time performance and the low memory usage for which CLIPS is known. The requirements for an object system in CLIPS that includes object-oriented programming and integrated pattern-matching are discussed and various techniques for optimizing the object system and its integration with the pattern-matcher are presented.

  7. Developing AEA system-of-systems mission plans with a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HandUber, Jason C.; Ridder, Jeffrey P.

    2007-04-01

    The role of an airborne electronic attack (AEA) system-of-systems (SoS) is to increase survivability of friendly aircraft by jamming hostile air defense radars. AEA systems are scarce, high-demand assets and have limited resources with which to engage a large number of radars. Given the limited resources, it is a significant challenge to plan their employment to achieve the desired results. Plans require specifying locations of jammers, as well as the mix of wide- and narrow-band jamming assignments delivered against particular radars. Further, the environment is uncertain as to the locations and emissions behaviors of radars. Therefore, we require plans that are not only capable, but also robust to the variability of the environment. In this paper, we use a multi-objective genetic algorithm to develop capable and robust AEA SoS mission plans. The algorithm seeks to determine the Pareto-front of three objectives - maximize the operational objectives achieved by friendly aircraft, minimize the threat to friendly aircraft, and minimize the expenditure of AEA assets. The results show that this algorithm is able to provide planners with the quantitative information necessary to intelligently construct capable and robust mission plans for an AEA SoS.

  8. Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae on simulated biofilm in a model drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Rice, Eugene W; Bishop, Paul L

    2006-08-15

    Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae on corroded iron surfaces in drinking water was studied using biofilm annular reactors operated under oligotrophic conditions. Reactors were inoculated with K. pneumoniae, and persistence was monitored in the bulk and biofilm phases. Initial cell concentration of 10(6) MPN/mL in the bulkwater phase resulted in significantly longer adhesion than initial concentrations 1 and 2 orders of magnitude lower. K. pneumoniae cultured in low nutrient growth medium persisted longer in dechlorinated tap water than those cultured in full strength medium. Cell surface charge was more negative under low nutrient conditions, and this influenced electrostatic attraction between the cells and the oxidized iron surface. Cells grown in full strength media persisted longer in water with both low (<0.2 mg/L) and high (>0.5 mg/L) free chlorine residuals. Growth media injected with the cells dechlorinated the water allowing adhesion without inactivation. Microelectrode measurements showed a 40-70% drop in free chlorine from the bulk to the coupon surface, which decreased disinfectant potency against adhered cells. Growth and injection conditions clearly influenced cell adhesion and persistence, but permanent colonization of the corroded iron surface by K. pneumoniae was not observed.

  9. Shifting Hierarchies of Interleukin-10-Producing T Cell Populations in the Central Nervous System during Acute and Persistent Viral Encephalomyelitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Savarin, Carine; Karp, Christopher L.; Phares, Timothy W.; Parra, Gabriel I.; Hinton, David R.; Stohlman, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA is rapidly upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with neurotropic coronavirus and remains elevated during persistent infection. Infection of transgenic IL-10/green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice revealed that CNS-infiltrating T cells were the major source of IL-10, with minimal IL-10 production by macrophages and resident microglia. The proportions of IL-10-producing cells were initially similar in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells but diminished rapidly in CD8+ T cells as the virus was controlled. Overall, the majority of IL-10-producing CD8+ T cells were specific for the immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitope. Unlike CD8+ T cells, a large proportion of CD4+ T cells within the CNS retained IL-10 production throughout persistence. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells in the spinal cord supported preferential maintenance of IL-10 production at the site of viral persistence and tissue damage. IL-10 was produced primarily by the CD25+ CD4+ T cell subset during acute infection but prevailed in CD25− CD4+ T cells during the transition to persistent infection and thereafter. Overall, these data demonstrate significant fluidity in the T-cell-mediated IL-10 response during viral encephalitis and persistence. While IL-10 production by CD8+ T cells was limited primarily to the time of acute effector function, CD4+ T cells continued to produce IL-10 throughout infection. Moreover, a shift from predominant IL-10 production by CD25+ CD4+ T cells to CD25− CD4+ T cells suggests that a transition to nonclassical regulatory T cells precedes and is retained during CNS viral persistence. PMID:21525347

  10. Shifting hierarchies of interleukin-10-producing T cell populations in the central nervous system during acute and persistent viral encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Shweta S; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Savarin, Carine; Karp, Christopher L; Phares, Timothy W; Parra, Gabriel I; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2011-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA is rapidly upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with neurotropic coronavirus and remains elevated during persistent infection. Infection of transgenic IL-10/green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice revealed that CNS-infiltrating T cells were the major source of IL-10, with minimal IL-10 production by macrophages and resident microglia. The proportions of IL-10-producing cells were initially similar in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells but diminished rapidly in CD8(+) T cells as the virus was controlled. Overall, the majority of IL-10-producing CD8(+) T cells were specific for the immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitope. Unlike CD8(+) T cells, a large proportion of CD4(+) T cells within the CNS retained IL-10 production throughout persistence. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells in the spinal cord supported preferential maintenance of IL-10 production at the site of viral persistence and tissue damage. IL-10 was produced primarily by the CD25(+) CD4(+) T cell subset during acute infection but prevailed in CD25(-) CD4(+) T cells during the transition to persistent infection and thereafter. Overall, these data demonstrate significant fluidity in the T-cell-mediated IL-10 response during viral encephalitis and persistence. While IL-10 production by CD8(+) T cells was limited primarily to the time of acute effector function, CD4(+) T cells continued to produce IL-10 throughout infection. Moreover, a shift from predominant IL-10 production by CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells to CD25(-) CD4(+) T cells suggests that a transition to nonclassical regulatory T cells precedes and is retained during CNS viral persistence.

  11. What Is the Link between Stringent Response, Endoribonuclease Encoding Type II Toxin–Antitoxin Systems and Persistence?

    PubMed Central

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar C. M.; Ghosh, Dimpy; Roy Chowdhury, Maoumita; Santhosh, Ramachandran S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin–antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, Castro-Camargo M, Gerdes K. 2013. Cell 154:1140–1150 reported an interesting link between ppGpp mediated stringent response, TAS, and persistence. It is proposed that accumulation of ppGpp enhances the accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate which modulates Lon protease to degrade antitoxins. The decrease in the concentration of antitoxins supposedly activated the toxin to increase in the number of persisters during antibiotic treatment. In this study, we show that inorganic polyphosphate is not required for transcriptional activation of yefM/yoeB TAS, which is an indirect indication of Lon-dependent degradation of YefM antitoxin. The Δ10 strain, an Escherichia coli MG1655 derivative in which the 10 TAS are deleted, is more sensitive to ciprofloxacin compared to wild type MG1655. Furthermore, we show that the Δ10 strain has relatively lower fitness compared to the wild type and hence, we argue that the persistence related implications based on Δ10 strain are void. We conclude that the transcriptional regulation and endoribonuclease activity of YefM/YoeB TAS is independent of ppGpp and inorganic polyphosphate. Therefore, we urge for thorough inspection and debate on the link between chromosomal endoribonuclease TAS and persistence. PMID:27933045

  12. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.

  13. Persisting stemma neuropils in Chaoborus crystallinus (Diptera: Chaoboridae): development and evolution of a bipartite visual system.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Roland R

    2009-12-01

    Stemmata or "larval" eyes are of crucial importance for the understanding of the evolution and ontogeny of the hexapod's main visual organs, the compound eyes. Using classical neuroanatomical techniques, I showed that the persisting stemmata of Chaoborus imagos are connected to persisting stemma neuropils neighboring the first and second order neuropils of the compound eyes, and therefore also the imago possesses a stemma lamina and medulla closely associated with the architecture and the developmental pattern of those of the compound eyes. The findings are compared with other arthropods, e.g. accessory lateral eyes in Amandibulata and Myriapoda, suggesting some ancestral rather than derived character states.

  14. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  15. Persistence of energy-dependent localization in the Anderson-Hubbard model with increasing system size and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, P.; Wortis, R.

    2016-05-01

    Non-interacting systems with bounded disorder have been shown to exhibit sharp density of state peaks at the band edge which coincide with an energy range of abruptly suppressed localization. Recent work has shown that these features also occur in the presence of on-site interactions in ensembles of two-site Anderson-Hubbard systems at half filling. Here we demonstrate that this effect in interacting systems persists away from half filling, and moreover that energy regions with suppressed localization continue to appear in ensembles of larger systems despite a loss of sharp features in the density of states.

  16. Integration of object-oriented knowledge representation with the CLIPS rule based system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, David S.; Kamil, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a portion of the work aimed at developing an integrated, knowledge based environment for the development of engineering-oriented applications. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented in C++ which is used to build and modify an object-oriented knowledge base. The ORL was designed in such a way so as to be easily integrated with other representation schemes that could effectively reason with the object base. Specifically, the integration of the ORL with the rule based system C Language Production Systems (CLIPS), developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will be discussed. The object-oriented knowledge representation provides a natural means of representing problem data as a collection of related objects. Objects are comprised of descriptive properties and interrelationships. The object-oriented model promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects. Data is inherited through an object network via the relationship links. Together, the two schemes complement each other in that the object-oriented approach efficiently handles problem data while the rule based knowledge is used to simulate the reasoning process. Alone, the object based knowledge is little more than an object-oriented data storage scheme; however, the CLIPS inference engine adds the mechanism to directly and automatically reason with that knowledge. In this hybrid scheme, the expert system dynamically queries for data and can modify the object base with complete access to all the functionality of the ORL from rules.

  17. Replication and persistence of different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus in an in vitro embryo production system.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Brock, K V; Stringfellow, D A

    2000-10-15

    Recent studies have shown that exposed, in vitro-derived embryos remain contaminated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) after washing. However, introduction of a Genotype II versus Genotype I strain of BVDV into an IVF system was reported to provide greater potential for transmission of disease. The primary objective of this study was to compare the potentials for different strains of noncytopathic BVDV to replicate in an IVF system, associate with IVF embryos and infect co-cultured cells via association with washed embryos. The secondary objective was to compare the effect of different strains of BVDV on embryonic development. Two Genotype I (SD-1 and NY-1) and 2 Genotype II (CD-87 and PA-131) strains of BVDV were evaluated. After IVM and IVF of oocytes, presumptive zygotes were washed and transferred into in vitro cultures containing uterine tubal cells (UTC) and medium that was free of BVDV-neutralizing activity. Immediately before addition of zygotes, the cultures were inoculated with 10(5) cell culture infective doses (50%, CCID50) of a strain of BVDV or maintained as a negative control. Cultures of zygotes were then incubated for 7 d. Embryonic development was observed on Days 3 and 7, and attempts were made to isolate BVDV from UTC and medium on Day 7. Also on Day 7, groups of intact, washed blastocysts were either transferred into virus-free secondary cultures containing UTC or sonicated with sonicate fluid assayed by both virus isolation and single-closed-tube reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR). After 3 d in secondary culture, hatched embryos were enumerated, and medium from the cultures, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV by virus isolation. In addition, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV using RT-nPCR. All strains of BVDV persisted and replicated in the embryo culture environment, but cleavage beyond the 4-cell stage, blastocyst development and hatching varied among cultures contaminated with different

  18. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a safety management system meet? The safety management system must: (a) Provide for safe practices in vessel operation... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  19. An application of object-oriented knowledge representation to engineering expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, D. S.; Kamil, H.; Umaretiya, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an object-oriented knowledge representation and its application to engineering expert systems. The object-oriented approach promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects and organized by defining relationships between the objects. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented as a tool for building and manipulating the object base. Rule-based knowledge representation is then used to simulate engineering design reasoning. Using a common object base, very large expert systems can be developed, comprised of small, individually processed, rule sets. The integration of these two schemes makes it easier to develop practical engineering expert systems. The general approach to applying this technology to the domain of the finite element analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace structures is discussed.

  20. An application of object-oriented knowledge representation to engineering expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, D. S.; Kamil, H.; Umaretiya, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an object-oriented knowledge representation and its application to engineering expert systems. The object-oriented approach promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects and organized by defining relationships between the objects. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented as a tool for building and manipulating the object base. Rule-based knowledge representation is then used to simulate engineering design reasoning. Using a common object base, very large expert systems can be developed, comprised of small, individually processed, rule sets. The integration of these two schemes makes it easier to develop practical engineering expert systems. The general approach to applying this technology to the domain of the finite element analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace structures is discussed.

  1. The Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III Secretion System Is Required for Persistence and Disease Severity but Not Transmission in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeier, Susan L.; Loving, Crystal L.; Register, Karen B.; Kehrli, Marcus E.; Shore, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Most studies addressing virulence factors of B. bronchiseptica utilize isolates derived from hosts other than pigs in conjunction with rodent infection models. Based on previous in vivo mouse studies, we hypothesized that the B. bronchiseptica type III secretion system (T3SS) would be required for maximal disease severity and persistence in the swine lower respiratory tract. To examine the contribution of the T3SS to the pathogenesis of B. bronchiseptica in swine, we compared the abilities of a virulent swine isolate and an isogenic T3SS mutant to colonize, cause disease, and be transmitted from host to host. We found that the T3SS is required for maximal persistence throughout the lower swine respiratory tract and contributed significantly to the development of nasal lesions and pneumonia. However, the T3SS mutant and the wild-type parent are equally capable of transmission among swine by both direct and indirect routes, demonstrating that transmission can occur even with attenuated disease. Our data further suggest that the T3SS skews the adaptive immune response in swine by hindering the development of serum anti-Bordetella antibody levels and inducing an interleukin-10 (IL-10) cell-mediated response, likely contributing to the persistence of B. bronchiseptica in the respiratory tract. Overall, our results demonstrate that the Bordetella T3SS is required for maximal persistence and disease severity in pigs, but not for transmission. PMID:24366249

  2. The Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system is required for persistence and disease severity but not transmission in swine.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Register, Karen B; Kehrli, Marcus E; Shore, Sarah M

    2014-03-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Most studies addressing virulence factors of B. bronchiseptica utilize isolates derived from hosts other than pigs in conjunction with rodent infection models. Based on previous in vivo mouse studies, we hypothesized that the B. bronchiseptica type III secretion system (T3SS) would be required for maximal disease severity and persistence in the swine lower respiratory tract. To examine the contribution of the T3SS to the pathogenesis of B. bronchiseptica in swine, we compared the abilities of a virulent swine isolate and an isogenic T3SS mutant to colonize, cause disease, and be transmitted from host to host. We found that the T3SS is required for maximal persistence throughout the lower swine respiratory tract and contributed significantly to the development of nasal lesions and pneumonia. However, the T3SS mutant and the wild-type parent are equally capable of transmission among swine by both direct and indirect routes, demonstrating that transmission can occur even with attenuated disease. Our data further suggest that the T3SS skews the adaptive immune response in swine by hindering the development of serum anti-Bordetella antibody levels and inducing an interleukin-10 (IL-10) cell-mediated response, likely contributing to the persistence of B. bronchiseptica in the respiratory tract. Overall, our results demonstrate that the Bordetella T3SS is required for maximal persistence and disease severity in pigs, but not for transmission.

  3. Predictors of Persistence for Developmental Math Students in a Community and Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    At two-year public community colleges, the 2011 three-year persistence rate was 23.9%. From 1988 to 2006, between 40% and 60% of all first-time community college students were referred to and enrolled in at least one developmental education course. More students begin college underprepared in mathematics than any other subject area, and only about…

  4. The shiverer mutation affects the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, F; Pena-Rossi, C; Guénet, J L; Brahic, M; Bureau, J F

    1997-01-01

    Theiler's virus persists in the white matter of the spinal cord of genetically susceptible mice and causes primary demyelination. The virus persists in macrophages/microglial cells, but also in oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Susceptibility/resistance to this chronic infection has been mapped to several loci including one tentatively located in the telomeric region of chromosome 18, close to the myelin basic protein locus (Mbp locus). To determine if the MBP gene influences viral persistence, we inoculated C3H mice bearing the shiverer mutation, a 20-kb deletion in the gene. Whereas control C3H mice were of intermediate susceptibility, C3H mice heterozygous for the mutation were very susceptible, and those homozygous for the mutation were completely resistant. This resistance was not immune mediated. Furthermore, C3H/101H mice homozygous for a point mutation in the gene coding for the proteolipid protein of myelin, the rumpshaker mutation, were resistant. These results strongly support the view that oligodendrocytes are a necessary viral target for the establishment of a persistent infection by Theiler's virus. PMID:9188567

  5. A Geographic-Information-Systems-Based Approach to Analysis of Characteristics Predicting Student Persistence and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to provide empirical evidence regarding the use of spatial analysis in enrollment management to predict persistence and graduation. The research utilized data from the 2000 U.S. Census and applicant records from The University of Arizona to study the spatial distributions of enrollments. Based on the initial results, stepwise…

  6. Predictors of Persistence for Developmental Math Students in a Community and Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    At two-year public community colleges, the 2011 three-year persistence rate was 23.9%. From 1988 to 2006, between 40% and 60% of all first-time community college students were referred to and enrolled in at least one developmental education course. More students begin college underprepared in mathematics than any other subject area, and only about…

  7. Object-oriented analysis and design of a health care management information system.

    PubMed

    Krol, M; Reich, D L

    1999-04-01

    We have created a prototype for a universal object-oriented model of a health care system compatible with the object-oriented approach used in version 3.0 of the HL7 standard for communication messages. A set of three models has been developed: (1) the Object Model describes the hierarchical structure of objects in a system--their identity, relationships, attributes, and operations; (2) the Dynamic Model represents the sequence of operations in time as a collection of state diagrams for object classes in the system; and (3) functional Diagram represents the transformation of data within a system by means of data flow diagrams. Within these models, we have defined major object classes of health care participants and their subclasses, associations, attributes and operators, states, and behavioral scenarios. We have also defined the major processes and subprocesses. The top-down design approach allows use, reuse, and cloning of standard components.

  8. An Implementation of an Operating System Kernel using Concurrent Object Oriented Language ABCL/c+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Norihisa; Kodama, Yasushi; Hirose, Ken

    The ABCL/c+ is a C-based concurrent object-oriented language, designed as an extension of ABCL/l, a language developed by A. Yonezawa and others. In order to create the world of processes, a routine object is introduced which unifies procedures, functions, and objects. ABCL/c+ is then used to write an operating system kernel. The XINU operating system, developed by D. Comer and others of Bell Laboratories, is rewritten entirely in ABCL/c+. The result shows that concurrent object-oriented languages can produce a highly readable and understandable operating system kernel.

  9. The Design of a Novel Survey for Small Objects in the Solar System

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Chen, W.P.; de Pater, I.; Lee, T.; Lissauer, J.; Rice, J.; Liang, C.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; Akerlof, C.

    2000-08-21

    We evaluated several concepts for a new survey for small objects in the Solar System. We designed a highly novel survey for comets in the outer region of the Solar System, which exploits the occultations of relatively bright stars to infer the presence of otherwise extremely faint objects. The populations and distributions of these objects are not known; the uncertainties span orders of magnitude! These objects are important scientifically as probes of the primordial solar system, and programmatically now that major investments may be made in the possible mitigation of the hazard of asteroid or comet collisions with the Earth.

  10. Systems in Development: Motor Skill Acquisition Facilitates 3D Object Completion

    PubMed Central

    Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    How do infants learn to perceive the backs of objects that they see only from a limited viewpoint? Infants’ 3D object completion abilities emerge in conjunction with developing motor skills—independent sitting and visual-manual exploration. Twenty-eight 4.5- to 7.5-month-old infants were habituated to a limited-view object and tested with volumetrically complete and incomplete (hollow) versions of the same object. Parents reported infants’ sitting experience, and infants’ visual-manual exploration of objects was observed in a structured play session. Infants’ self-sitting experience and visual-manual exploratory skills predicted looking to the novel, incomplete object on the habituation task. Further analyses revealed that self-sitting facilitated infants’ visual inspection of objects while they manipulated them. The results are framed within a developmental systems approach, wherein infants’ sitting skill, multimodal object exploration, and object knowledge are linked in developmental time. PMID:20053012

  11. Object-Oriented Dynamic Bayesian Network-Templates for Modelling Mechatronic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-04

    daimlerchrysler.com Abstract are widespread. For modelling mechanical systems The object-oriented paradigma is a new but proven technol- ADAMS [31 or...hardware (sub-)systems. On the Software side thermal flow or hydraulics, see Figure 1. It also contains a the object-oriented paradigma is by now (at

  12. SmarTruck. NDIA 2001 Vehicle Technologies Symposium. Intelligent Systems for the Objective Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    NDIA 2001 Vehicle Technologies Symposium Intelligent Systems for the Objective Fleet May 30, 2001 Tank-automotive & Armaments COMmand Program...2001 Vehicle Technologies Symposium - Intelligent Systems for the Objective Force 29-31 May 2001 Sponsored by NDIA, The original document contains color

  13. XLearning Object Organization Behaviors in a Home-Made Learning Content Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Yavuzz; Simsek, Huseyin

    2006-01-01

    This study designed, implemented and evaluated a learning content management system to facilitate creating both standard based and free style learning objects. The system, BULeCoMas, also enabled users to tag learning objects with usage data and tools supported with components accommodated under a Global Activity Center, are Global Task Pool,…

  14. B-1 Systems Approach to Training. Behavioral Objectives for the Pilot, Copilot, and Offensive Systems Operator. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    IJ i. i 1 1 I I I ■ I I : Calspan B’l SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SAT-2 BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES FOR THE... Training B-l Behavioral Objectives Enabling Objectives Training Objectives ZO. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side II necessary and Identity by block...number) 5^hr The Systems Approach to Training (SAT) for the B-l aircrew involves the transformation of task analysis data into complete and

  15. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  16. Autonomous shooting at middle size space debris objects from space-based APT laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambi, J. M.; García del Pino, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is motivated by the need of removing middle size space debris objects. It deals with the problem of increasing the pointing accuracy while shooting at these objects by means of autonomous space-based APT systems endowed with very narrow laser beams. It is shown that shooting at these objects with these systems is the one single ballistic problem that becomes singular in space. This means that the shooting direction that is to be implemented by any of these systems to reach an object at a given instant can only be hopefully implemented after the object has been previously reached. Thus, the problem becomes backwards recurrent with no end for any object-system configuration, except when the LOS direction remains constant for some period of time. It is also shown that the implementation of the point-ahead angles from the data acquired prior to the respective shootings is essential to keep accuracy. In fact, one single omission during the action may cause errors larger than the size of the objects. As a consequence, we find that there is only one way for an autonomous system to minimize the pointing errors: any shooting sequence to any of these objects must be started when the transverse component of the relative velocity of the object with respect to the system is zero (actually, as close to zero as possible).

  17. Persistent Identifiers Implementation in EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K. " Rama"

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides the motivation for and status of implementation of persistent identifiers in NASA's Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The motivation is provided from the point of view of long-term preservation of datasets such that a number of questions raised by current and future users can be answered easily and precisely. A number of artifacts need to be preserved along with datasets to make this possible, especially when the authors of datasets are no longer available to address users questions. The artifacts and datasets need to be uniquely and persistently identified and linked with each other for full traceability, understandability and scientific reproducibility. Current work in the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) in assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) is discussed as well as challenges that remain to be addressed in the future.

  18. Model System Study of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Formation in a Semiconducting Polymer Modified Copper Clay System at Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G.; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Youm, Sang Gil; Roy, Amitava; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.; Dellinger, Barry; Cook, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper systematically investigates how environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed in a phenol contaminated model soil. Poly-p-phenylene (PPP) modified and copper-loaded montmorillonite (MMT) clays were developed and used as models of soil organic matter and the clay mineral component, respectively, with phenol being employed as a precursor pollutant. The polymer modification of the clays was carried out via surface-confined Kumada catalyst-transfer chain-growth polymerization. The presence and location of the polymer were confirmed by a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction data. EPFRs were formed by the Cu(II)-clay (Cu(II)CaMMT) and poly-p-phenylene-Cu(II)clay (PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT) composite systems under environmentally relevant conditions. The g-factor and concentration of EPFRs formed by the Cu(II)CaMMT and PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT systems were found to be 2.0034 and 1.22 × 1017 spins/g and 2.0033 and 1.58 × 1017spins/g, respectively. These g-factors are consistent with the formation of phenoxyl radicals. Extended X-Ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis shows that there are distinct differences in the local stuctures of the phenoxyl radicals associated with only the Cu(II) redox centers and those formed in the presences of the PPP polymer. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) results provided evidence for the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) in the EPFR forming process. The 1/e lifetimes of the formed EPFRs revealed a decay time of ~20 h for the Cu(II)CaMMT system and a two-step decay pattern for the PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT system with decay times of ~13.5 h and ~55.6 h. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radical; •OH) by these clay systems was also investigated, with higher concentrations of •OH detected for the phenol-dosed Cu(II)CaMMT and PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT systems, compared to the non-EPFR containing undosed PPP-Cu(II)CaMMT system. PMID:28670444

  19. Uncomfortable trade-offs: Canadian policy makers' perspectives on setting objectives for their health systems.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Julia; Allin, Sara; Grignon, Michel; Pasic, Dianna; Walli-Attaei, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Although a wide range of health system performance indicators are commonly reported on, there has been little effort to establish their relevance to the objectives that health systems actually pursue. The aim of this study was to identify, explore and better understand health policy makers' views regarding the objectives and outcomes for their health systems, how they are prioritized, and the underlying processes that yield them to inform the development of health system efficiency measures. A descriptive, qualitative methodology was employed using key informant interviews with 17 current and former senior health ministry officials in 8 Canadian provinces and 2 territories. Health ministries have clearly stated objectives for health systems focused on the achievement of health system delivery and population health goals and, increasingly, public, patient and financial accountability. Acute care objectives are routinely prioritized over population health objectives and viewed as resulting from challenges associated with difficult trade-off decisions shaped by organized interests and the media rather than explicit, evidence-based processes. This study provides insights beyond publicly available documents to explore the processes that underlie simple statements of health system objectives. Our findings suggest that despite respondents giving priority to improving individual and population health, it is more commonly portrayed as an ideal objective than as a realistic one. By understanding what lies behind statements about what health systems are striving for, we offer a more robust avenue for increasing the uptake of future studies of health system performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  1. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  2. Generation of minimally persistent circle formation for a multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Yuan; Shao, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Yu-Yan; Li, Shao-Bao; Guan, Xin-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two methods of generating minimally persistent circle formation are presented. The proposed methods adopt a leader-follower strategy and all followers are firstly motivated to move into the leader's interaction range. Based on the information about relative angle and relative distance, two numbering schemes are proposed to generate minimally persistent circle formation. Distributed control laws are also designed to maintain the desired relative distance between agents. The distinctive features of the proposed methods are as follows. First, only 2n - 3 unilateral communication links for n agents are needed during the circle formation process and thus the communication complexity can be reduced. In addition, the formation topology is kept fixed for the whole motion and achieves a self-stability property. Finally, each follower keeps a regualr interval with its neighbors and the formation converges to a uniform circle formation. Simulation results are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. Detection and Tracking of Moving Objects with Real-Time Onboard Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhin, D. Y.; Feldman, A. B.; Korepanov, S. E.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of moving objects in video sequence received from moving video sensor is a one of the most important problem in computer vision. The main purpose of this work is developing set of algorithms, which can detect and track moving objects in real time computer vision system. This set includes three main parts: the algorithm for estimation and compensation of geometric transformations of images, an algorithm for detection of moving objects, an algorithm to tracking of the detected objects and prediction their position. The results can be claimed to create onboard vision systems of aircraft, including those relating to small and unmanned aircraft.

  4. Real-time optical multiple object recognition and tracking system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua Kuang (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and associated methods for the optical recognition and tracking of multiple objects in real time. Multiple point spatial filters are employed that pre-define the objects to be recognized at run-time. The system takes the basic technology of a Vander Lugt filter and adds a hololens. The technique replaces time, space and cost-intensive digital techniques. In place of multiple objects, the system can also recognize multiple orientations of a single object. This later capability has potential for space applications where space and weight are at a premium.

  5. Real-time optical multiple object recognition and tracking system and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua Kuang

    1987-12-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and associated methods for the optical recognition and tracking of multiple objects in real time. Multiple point spatial filters are employed that pre-define the objects to be recognized at run-time. The system takes the basic technology of a Vander Lugt filter and adds a hololens. The technique replaces time, space and cost-intensive digital techniques. In place of multiple objects, the system can also recognize multiple orientations of a single object. This later capability has potential for space applications where space and weight are at a premium.

  6. Estimating the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR).

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Predictions from the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model EPI Suite were modified to estimate the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems. The modified prediction included the effects of sorption, biodegradation, and oxidation that may occur during sub-surface transport. A retardation factor was used to simulate the mobility of adsorbed compounds during sub-surface transport to a recovery well. A set of compounds with measured persistent properties during sub-surface transport was used to validate the results of the modifications to the predictions of EPI Suite. A comparison of the predicted values and measured values was done and the residual sum of the squares showed the importance of including oxidation and sorption. Sorption was the most important factor to include in predicting the fates of organic chemicals in the sub-surface environment.

  7. Arbitrary object localization and tracking via multiple-camera surveillance system embedded in a parking garage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibisch, André; Houben, Sebastian; Michael, Matthias; Kesten, Robert; Schuller, Florian

    2015-03-01

    We illustrate a multiple-camera surveillance system installed in a parking garage to detect arbitrary moving objects. Our system is real-time capable and computes precise and reliable object positions. These objects are tracked to warn of collisions, e.g. between vehicles, pedestrians or other vehicles. The proposed system is based on multiple grayscale cameras connected by a local area network. Each camera shares its field of view with other cameras to handle occlusions and to enable multi-view vision. We aim at using already installed hardware found in many modern public parking garages. The system's pipeline starts with the synchronized image capturing process separately for each camera. In the next step, moving objects are selected by a foreground segmentation approach. Subsequently, the foreground objects from a single camera are transformed into view rays in a common world coordinate system and are joined to receive plausible object hypotheses. This transformation requires a one-time initial intrinsic and extrinsic calibration beforehand. Afterwards, these view rays are filtered temporally to arrive at continuous object tracks. In our experiments we used a precise LIDAR-based reference system to evaluate and quantify the proposed system's precision with a mean localization accuracy of 0.24m for different scenarios.

  8. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance. PMID:25806869

  9. A novel abandoned object detection system based on three-dimensional image information.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-03-23

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  10. Object oriented image analysis based on multi-agent recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabib Mahmoudi, Fatemeh; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the capabilities of multi-agent systems are used in order to solve object recognition difficulties in complex urban areas based on the characteristics of WorldView-2 satellite imagery and digital surface model (DSM). The proposed methodology has three main steps: pre-processing of dataset, object based image analysis and multi-agent object recognition. Classified regions obtained from object based image analysis are used as input datasets in the proposed multi-agent system in order to modify/improve results. In the first operational level of the proposed multi-agent system, various kinds of object recognition agents modify initial classified regions based on their spectral, textural and 3D structural knowledge. Then, in the second operational level, 2D structural knowledge and contextual relations are used by agents for reasoning and modification. Evaluation of the capabilities of the proposed object recognition methodology is performed on WorldView-2 imagery over Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) which has been collected in January 2010. According to the obtained results of the object based image analysis process, contextual relations and structural descriptors have high potential to modify general difficulties of object recognition. Using knowledge based reasoning and cooperative capabilities of agents in the proposed multi-agent system in this paper, most of the remaining difficulties are decreased and the accuracy of object based image analysis results is improved for about three percent.

  11. Automated tracking and grasping of a moving object with a robotic hand-eye system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.K.; Timcenko, A.; Yoshimi, B.; Michelman, P. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1993-04-01

    Most robotic grasping tasks assume a stationary or fixed object. In this paper, the authors explore the requirements for tracking and grasping a moving object. The focus of the work is to achieve a high level of interaction between a real-time vision system capable of tracking moving objects in 3-D and a robot arm with gripper that can be used to pick up a moving object. There is an interest in exploring the interplay of hand--eye coordination for dynamic grasping takes such as grasping of parts on a moving conveyor system, assembly of articulated parts, or for grasping from a mobile robotic system. Coordination between an organisms sensing modalities and motor control system is a hallmark of intelligent behavior, and they are pursuing the goal of building an integrated sensing and actuation system that can operate in dynamic as opposed to static environments. The system they have built addresses three distinct problems in robotic hand--eye coordination for grasping moving objects: fast computation of 3-D motion parameters from vision, predictive control of a moving robotic arm to track a moving object, and interception and grasping. The system is able to operate at approximately human arm movement rates, and experimental results in which a moving model train is tracked is presented, stably grasped, and picked up by the system. The algorithms they have developed that relate sensing to actuation are quite general and applicable to a variety of complex robotic tasks that require visual feedback for arm and hand control.

  12. Is the critical point for aperture crossing adapted to the person-plus-object system?

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Cinelli, Michael E; Frank, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    When passing through apertures, individuals scale their actions to their shoulder width and rotate their shoulders or avoid apertures that are deemed too small for straight passage. Carrying objects wider than the body produces a person-plus-object system that individuals must account for in order to pass through apertures safely. The present study aimed to determine whether individuals scale their critical point to the widest horizontal dimension (shoulder or object width). Two responses emerged: Fast adapters adapted to the person-plus-object system by maintaining a consistent critical point regardless of whether the object was carried while slow adapters initially increased their critical point (overestimated) before adapting back to their original critical point. The results suggest that individuals can account for increases in body width by scaling actions to the size of the object width but people adapt at different rates.

  13. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  14. The use of object-oriented techniques and CORBA in astronomical instrumentation control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipper, Nigel A.; Blackburn, Colin

    2004-09-01

    Control software for astronomy matches the ever increasing complexity of new large instrumentation projects. In order to speed the development cycle, object-oriented techniques have been used to generate loosely coupled software objects and larger scale components that can be reused in future projects. Such object-oriented systems provide for short development cycles which can respond to changing requirements and allow for extension. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been used for the analysis, design and implementation of this software. A distributed system is supported by the use of an object broker such as CORBA. These techniques are being applied to the development of an instrument control system for the UK spectrograph within FMOS (Fiber-fed Multi-Object Spectrograph). This is a second generation instrument for the Subaru Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  15. 3D object optonumerical acquisition methods for CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Woznicki, Jerzy M.

    1999-08-01

    The creation of a virtual object for CAD/CAM and computer graphics on the base of data gathered by full-field optical measurement of 3D object is presented. The experimental co- ordinates are alternatively obtained by combined fringe projection/photogrammetry based system or fringe projection/virtual markers setup. The new and fully automatic procedure which process the cloud of measured points into triangular mesh accepted by CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems is presented. Its applicability for various classes of objects is tested including the error analysis of virtual objects generated. The usefulness of the method is proved by applying the virtual object in rapid prototyping system and in computer graphics environment.

  16. Development of a multiplex system to assess DNA persistence in taphonomic studies.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad S; Iyavoo, Sasitaran; Alimat, Sharizah; Zahra, Nathalie; Sanqoor, Sheikha H; Smith, Judith A; Moffatt, Colin; Goodwin, Will

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we have developed a PCR multiplex that can be used to assess DNA degradation and at the same time monitor for inhibition: primers have been designed to amplify human, pig, and rabbit DNA, allowing pig and rabbit to be used as experimental models for taphonomic research, but also enabling studies on human DNA persistence in forensic evidence. Internal amplified controls have been added to monitor for inhibition, allowing the effects of degradation and inhibition to be differentiated. Sequence data for single-copy nuclear recombination activation gene (RAG-1) from human, pig, and rabbit were aligned to identify conserved regions and primers were designed that targeted amplicons of 70, 194, 305, and 384 bp. Robust amplification in all three species was possible using as little as 0.3 ng of template DNA. These have been combined with primers that will amplify a bacterial DNA template within the PCR. The multiplex has been evaluated in a series of experiments to gain more knowledge of DNA persistence in soft tissues, which can be important when assessing what material to collect following events such as mass disasters or conflict, when muscle or bone material can be used to aid with the identification of human remains. The experiments used pigs as a model species. When whole pig bodies were exposed to the environment in Northwest England, DNA in muscle tissue persisted for over 24 days in the summer and over 77 days in the winter, with full profiles generated from these samples. In addition to time, accumulated degree days (ADD) were also used as a measure that combines both time and temperature-24 days was in summer equivalent to 295 ADD whereas 77 days in winter was equivalent to 494 ADD. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A General Framework of Persistence Strategies for Biological Systems Helps Explain Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Wielgos, Monica; Thomas, Suravi; Nasir, Arshan; Wang, Minglei; Mittenthal, Jay E.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism’s environmental niche: scope, umwelt, and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism’s perception of these events. The gap is the organism’s blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness, and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call “a persistence triangle.” Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback loop

  18. Neural systems mediating processing of sound units of language distinguish recovery versus persistence in stuttering.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Ranjini; Weber, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a multi-factorial disorder. Measures of neural activity while children processed the phonological (language sound unit) properties of words have revealed neurodevelopmental differences between fluent children and those who stutter. However, there is limited evidence to show whether the neural bases of phonological processing can be used to identify stuttering recovery status. As an initial step, we aimed to determine if differences in neural activity during phonological processing could aid in distinguishing children who had recovered from stuttering and those whose stuttering persisted. We examined neural activity mediating phonological processing in forty-three 7-8 year old children. Groups included children who had recovered from stuttering (CWS-Rec), those whose stuttering persisted (CWS-Per), and children who did not stutter (CWNS). All children demonstrated normal non-verbal intelligence and language skills. Electroencephalograms were recorded as the children listened to pairs of pseudo-words (primes-targets) that either rhymed or did not. Behavioral rhyme judgments along with peak latency and mean amplitude of the N400s elicited by prime and target stimuli were examined. All the groups were very accurate in their rhyme judgments and displayed a typical ERP rhyme effect, characterized by increased N400 amplitudes over central parietal sites for nonrhyming targets compared to rhyming targets. However, over anterior electrode sites, an earlier onset of the N400 for rhyming compared to non-rhyming targets, indexing phonological segmentation and rehearsal, was observed in the CWNS and CWS-Rec groups. This effect occurred bilaterally for the CWNS, was greater over the right hemisphere in the CWS-Rec, and was absent in the CWS-Per. These results are the first to show that differences in ERPs reflecting phonological processing are marked by atypical lateralization in childhood even after stuttering recovery and more pronounced atypical

  19. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard vessels, including preparation for... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a...

  20. RiBOMS: RFID-based object management system for home environments.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Hodei; Schafer, James; Yu, Xunyi; Mullett, Gary; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a RFID-based object management system, RiBOMS, for home environments. The system has an easy to use pictorial user interface aimed at older adults with associative memory impairments. The system technical correctness was successfully tested in a lab environment.

  1. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Roybal, Lyle G [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  2. Discerning Technological Systems Related to Everyday Objects: Mapping the Variation in Pupils' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Maria; Ingerman, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in…

  3. Does the sensorimotor system minimize prediction error or select the most likely prediction during object lifting?

    PubMed

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; McGregor, Heather R; Pun, Henry C H; Buckingham, Gavin; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The human sensorimotor system is routinely capable of making accurate predictions about an object's weight, which allows for energetically efficient lifts and prevents objects from being dropped. Often, however, poor predictions arise when the weight of an object can vary and sensory cues about object weight are sparse (e.g., picking up an opaque water bottle). The question arises, what strategies does the sensorimotor system use to make weight predictions when one is dealing with an object whose weight may vary? For example, does the sensorimotor system use a strategy that minimizes prediction error (minimal squared error) or one that selects the weight that is most likely to be correct (maximum a posteriori)? In this study we dissociated the predictions of these two strategies by having participants lift an object whose weight varied according to a skewed probability distribution. We found, using a small range of weight uncertainty, that four indexes of sensorimotor prediction (grip force rate, grip force, load force rate, and load force) were consistent with a feedforward strategy that minimizes the square of prediction errors. These findings match research in the visuomotor system, suggesting parallels in underlying processes. We interpret our findings within a Bayesian framework and discuss the potential benefits of using a minimal squared error strategy. Using a novel experimental model of object lifting, we tested whether the sensorimotor system models the weight of objects by minimizing lifting errors or by selecting the statistically most likely weight. We found that the sensorimotor system minimizes the square of prediction errors for object lifting. This parallels the results of studies that investigated visually guided reaching, suggesting an overlap in the underlying mechanisms between tasks that involve different sensory systems. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Geochemical heterogeneities and dynamics of magmas inside the plumbing system of a persistently active volcano: evidences from Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Massimo; Bertagnini, Antonella; Métrich, Nicole; Belhadj, Oulfa

    2010-05-01

    Shallow processes such as degassing, crystallization and magma drain-back commonly operate in the upper parts of the plumbing systems of open-conduit basaltic volcanoes, often hindering the identification of potentially important geochemical changes in the volcano systems. Stromboli, known for its long-lived persistent activity over the last 18 centuries, is a suitable subject of study for addressing this issue, since basaltic magmas presently erupting at in this volcano record both deep and shallow processes. We report petrological and geochemical data on magmas erupted by Stromboli since the beginning of the persistent activity, in order to find a correlation between magma composition and the dynamics of magma in the plumbing system. Geochemical data on deep-derived magmas erupted as pumice during paroxysmal eruptions allowed us to identify two distinct parental melts (1944- and 2003-Type). These magmas, in which geochemical differences are linked to source processes rather than crystal fractionation, have alternately fed the deep reservoir in the last two millennia several times. The chemical heterogeneities recorded in lava flows and the products of Strombolian activity testify to the extent of homogenization after magma recharges at shallow depths. Persistent heterogeneities in the shallow plumbing system have important implications for magma residence times calculated on the basis of time-series analysis. These models are based on the assumptions that the reservoir is well stirred and chemically homogeneous and that the time for the re-homogenization after recharge (or mixing) is shorter than the residence time. We argue that these models do not apply to present-day activity at Stromboli and may not apply to other open-conduit, persistently degassing basaltic volcanoes. Thus compositional variations within the shallow magma bodies provide only a biased signal of ongoing changes within the plumbing system. We conclude that source changes responsible for

  5. Planning Science Experiments According to the Multihierarchical Structural System of Planetary Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérczi, Sz.

    2017-02-01

    The Multihierarchical Structural System of Planetary Objects is a synchronous view of materials to be measured, technologies, research activities arranged by structural hierarchy of the matter: giving benefits for both scientists and engineers.

  6. Persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in sediment of an oligotrophic river: comparing large and lab-scale flume systems.

    PubMed

    Walters, Evelyn; Kätzl, Korbinian; Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter; Müller, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2014-09-15

    In this study, both a lab and a large-scale flume system were used to investigate the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in bed sediments of an alpine oligotrophic river. To determine the influence of substratum on persistence, survival within 3-cm-deep substratum cages versus on thin, biofilm-covered ceramic tiles was tested. Moreover, the impact of bed shear stress on survival in bed sediments was explored. It was seen that in the lab-scale flume having a very low bed shear stress (0.3 N m(-2)), E. coli and enterococci survival in 3-cm-deep substratum cages was nearly the same as in a thin biofilm (200 μm). However, in the large-scale flume system characterized by a bed shear stress of 9 N m(-2), the added protection of the deeper substratum cages promoted considerably longer survival of E. coli and enterococci than the thin biofilm. Additionally, the FIB removal mechanisms in the two flume systems varied. At the lab-scale, enterococci was seen to persist twice as long as E. coli, while in the large-scale flume the two FIB were removed at the same rate. A comparison of qPCR analyses performed in both flumes suggests that bed sediment erosion and the influence of grazers/predators were responsible for FIB removal from the sediments in the large-scale flume, whereas in the lab flume FIB inactivation caused removal. These results indicate that hydraulic parameters such as bed shear stress as well as the presence of macroinvertebrates in a system are both important factors to consider when designing flumes as they can significantly impact FIB persistence in sediments of fast-flowing, alpine streams.

  7. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  8. Comparison the results of two different vestibular system surgery in patients with persistent Meniere's disease

    PubMed Central

    Soheilipour, Saeed; Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Soltani, Masoud; Khodadadi, Hesam-al-din

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of Meniere's disease vary considerably from 157/100,000 in the United Kingdom to 15/100,000 in the United States. Furthermore, in Iran prevalence of Meniere's disease is high, whereas we have not a reliable statistical study on it. A wide range of treatments are used for the treatment of the condition with no consensus on the most effective intervention. The aim of the present study, which involved 37 patients treated because of severe vertigo due to persistent Meniere's disease from 1996 to 2011, was to compare the effectiveness of two surgical methods cochleosacculotomy and endolymphatic sac decompression on vertigo and tinnitus. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we compared two surgical approaches in patients with Meniere's disease who did not respond to usual medical treatment. Twenty-three patients underwent cochleosacculotomy surgery and 14 patients endolymphatic sac decompression surgery. We compared all the patients for resolving of vertigo, tinnitus. Results: After surgery, in patients of both group vertigo was improved significantly (P < 0.0001), tinnitus was improved, but it was not significant (P > 0.05) and hearing level was worse than before (especially in patients who had undergone cochleosacculotomy) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the data of the current study, cochleosacculotomy and endolymphatic sac decompression improved vertigo in patients with persistent Meniere's disease. PMID:26601086

  9. The influence of the Bible geographic objects peculiarities on the concept of the spatiotemporal geoinformation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsebarth, A.; Moscicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the infl uence of the Bible geographic object peculiarities on the spatiotemporal geoinformation system of the Bible events. In the proposed concept of this system the special attention was concentrated to the Bible geographic objects and interrelations between the names of these objects and their location in the geospace. In the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament, there are hundreds of geographical names, but the selection of these names from the Bible text is not so easy. The same names are applied for the persons and geographic objects. The next problem which arises is the classification of the geographical object, because in several cases the same name is used for the towns, mountains, hills, valleys etc. Also very serious problem is related to the time-changes of the names. The interrelation between the object name and its location is also complicated. The geographic object of this same name is located in various places which should be properly correlated with the Bible text. Above mentioned peculiarities of Bible geographic objects infl uenced the concept of the proposed system which consists of three databases: reference, geographic object, and subject/thematic. The crucial component of this system is proper architecture of the geographic object database. In the paper very detailed description of this database is presented. The interrelation between the databases allows to the Bible readers to connect the Bible text with the geography of the terrain on which the Bible events occurred and additionally to have access to the other geographical and historical information related to the geographic objects.

  10. A review of underwater acoustic systems and methods for locating objects lost at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Information related to the location of objects lost at sea is presented. Acoustic devices attached to an object prior to being transported is recommended as a homing beacon. Minimum requirements and some environmental constraints are defined. Methods and procedures for search and recovery are also discussed. Both an interim system and a more advanced system are outlined. Controlled acoustic emission to enhance security is the theme followed.

  11. Performance Measurement of Three Commercial Object-Oriented Database Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    24 2.6 Computer Simulation .............................. 26 2.7 Current Simulation Systems Using Object-Oriented DBMSs. .. 26 2.7.1 Visual...the performance levels offered in current commercial object-oriented database management systems. We also concluded that a programming language...about DBMS benchmarks and current simulations to define a simple simulation. The benchmark was to be qualitative as well as quantitative. The benchmark

  12. Prototyping an Interactive Electronic Book System Using an Object-Oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier-Boltuck, Jacques; Grossman, Ed; Collaud, Gérald

    An Integrated Electronic Book (IEB) represents a complex network of integrated information and "know how" on a given subject. In the design phase of WEBS (Woven Electronic Book System), we soon realized that, because we were describing the IEB in terms of "objects" and "methods," and because we wanted WEBS to be easily expandable and to offer a consistent user interface, we should use an object-oriented development system.

  13. Spherical Gaussian mixture model and object tracking system for PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, Seok; Lee, Chan-Su

    2015-05-01

    Recently, pan-tilt-zoom(PTZ) camera is widely used in extensive-area surveillance applications. A number of background modeling methods have been proposed within existing object detection and tracking systems. However, conventional background modeling methods for PTZ camera have difficulties in covering extensive field of view(FOV). This paper presents a novel object tracking system based on a spherical background model for PTZ camera. The proposed system has two components: The first one is the spherical Gaussian mixture model(S-GMM) that learns background for all the view angles in the PTZ camera. Also, Gaussian parameters in each pixel in the S-GMM are learned and updated. The second one is object tracking system with foreground detection using the S-GMM in real-time. The proposed system is suitable to cover wide FOV compared to a conventional background modeling system for PTZ camera, and is able to exactly track moving objects. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed S-GMM for object tracking system using PTZ camera. Also, we expect to build a more advanced surveillance applications via the proposed system.

  14. Late Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Is Associated with Long-Term Persistence of Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ghislain, Mathilde; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Meyer, Laurence; Capeau, Jacqueline; Fellahi, Soraya; Gérard, Laurence; May, Thierry; Simon, Anne; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation. Methods Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142). Results Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07). Conclusion After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:26636578

  15. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  16. Long distance invisibility system to hide dynamic objects with high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiluan; Tan, Zuojun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guo Ping

    2017-08-31

    With the development of invisibility technology, invisibility devices have now become more practical, with properties such as working at visible wavelengths, using natural materials, and hiding macroscopic objects. Recently, the cloaking of dynamic objects was experimentally realized using ray-optics. Here, based on a phase retrieval algorithm and phase conjugation technology, we design and fabricate a system to hide dynamic objects that changes at speeds faster than 8 seconds per frame. Different from shell cloaks and carpet-like cloaks, which conceal the entire region covered by the cloak, our system works when the object is at a distance and hides only the selected part of an object when the entire object is within the working area of the system. We experimentally demonstrate the concealment of a millimeter-scale object at different wavelengths. We believe that our work may provide a new approach to hiding objects in real life and may also be applicable in biological imaging and atmospheric imaging.

  17. Fundamentals of object-oriented information systems specification and design: the OBLOG/TROLL approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrich, Hans-Dieter

    1994-12-01

    A survey of concepts for an information system specification is given, based on the viewpoint that an information system is a community of interacting objects. Objects are self-contained units of structure and behavior capable of operating independently and cooperating concurrently. The approach integrates concepts from semantic data modeling and concurrent processes, adopting structuring principles partly developed in the framework of object-orientation and partly in that of abstract data types. The languages OBLOG and TROLL are based on these concepts and their use is illustrated by examples.

  18. 3D objects enlargement technique using an optical system and multiple SLMs for electronic holography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Senoh, Takanori; Oi, Ryutaro; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2012-09-10

    One problem in electronic holography, which is caused by the display performance of spatial light modulators (SLM), is that the size of reconstructed 3D objects is small. Although methods for increasing the size using multiple SLMs have been considered, they typically had the problem that some parts of 3D objects were missing as a result of the gap between adjacent SLMs or 3D objects lost the vertical parallax. This paper proposes a method of resolving this problem by locating an optical system containing a lens array and other components in front of multiple SLMs. We used an optical system and 9 SLMs to construct a device equivalent to an SLM with approximately 74,600,000 pixels and used this to reconstruct 3D objects in both the horizontal and vertical parallax with an image size of 63 mm without losing any part of 3D objects.

  19. Individual differences in involvement of the visual object recognition system during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Sacchi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia often evince reduced activation during reading in left hemisphere (LH) language regions. This can be observed along with increased activation in the right hemisphere (RH), especially in areas associated with object recognition - a pattern referred to as RH compensation. The mechanisms of RH compensation are relatively unclear. We hypothesize that RH compensation occurs when the RH object recognition system is called upon to supplement an underperforming LH visual word form recognition system. We tested this by collecting ERPs while participants with a range of reading abilities viewed words, objects, and word/object ambiguous items (e.g., "SMILE" shaped like a smile). Less experienced readers differentiate words, objects, and ambiguous items less strongly, especially over the RH. We suggest that this lack of differentiation may have negative consequences for dyslexic individuals demonstrating RH compensation.

  20. Automated object detection and tracking with a flash LiDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The detection of objects, or persons, is a common task in the fields of environment surveillance, object observation or danger defense. There are several approaches for automated detection with conventional imaging sensors as well as with LiDAR sensors, but for the latter the real-time detection is hampered by the scanning character and therefore by the data distortion of most LiDAR systems. The paper presents a solution for real-time data acquisition of a flash LiDAR sensor with synchronous raw data analysis, point cloud calculation, object detection, calculation of the next best view and steering of the pan-tilt head of the sensor. As a result the attention is always focused on the object, independent of the behavior of the object. Even for highly volatile and rapid changes in the direction of motion the object is kept in the field of view. The experimental setup used in this paper is realized with an elementary person detection algorithm in medium distances (20 m to 60 m) to show the efficiency of the system for objects with a high angular speed. It is easy to replace the detection part by any other object detection algorithm and thus it is easy to track nearly any object, for example a car or a boat or an UAV in various distances.

  1. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor’s infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc. PMID:26593920

  2. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-11-17

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  3. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Bannister, M. T.; Schmidt, B. P.; McNaught, R.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E.

    2015-02-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  4. 3-D Object Recognition Using Combined Overhead And Robot Eye-In-Hand Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, Ren C.; Lin, Min-Hsiung

    1987-10-01

    A new approach for recognizing 3-D objects using a combined overhead and eye-in-hand vision system is presented. A novel eye-in-hand vision system using a fiber-optic image array is described. The significance of this approach is the fast and accurate recognition of 3-D object information compared to traditional stereo image processing. For the recognition of 3-D objects, the over-head vision system will take 2-D top view image and the eye-in-hand vision system will take side view images orthogonal to the top view image plane. We have developed and demonstrated a unique approach to integrate this 2-D information into a 3-D representation based on a new approach called "3-D Volumetric Descrip-tion from 2-D Orthogonal Projections". The Unimate PUMA 560 and TRAPIX 5500 real-time image processor have been used to test the success of the entire system.

  5. Multi-objective analysis of a component-based representation within an interactive evolutionary design system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machwe, A. T.; Parmee, I. C.

    2007-07-01

    This article describes research relating to a user-centered evolutionary design system that evaluates both engineering and aesthetic aspects of design solutions during early-stage conceptual design. The experimental system comprises several components relating to user interaction, problem representation, evolutionary search and exploration and online learning. The main focus of the article is the evolutionary aspect of the system when using a single quantitative objective function plus subjective judgment of the user. Additionally, the manner in which the user-interaction aspect affects system output is assessed by comparing Pareto frontiers generated with and without user interaction via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). A solution clustering component is also introduced and it is shown how this can improve the level of support to the designer when dealing with a complex design problem involving multiple objectives. Supporting results are from the application of the system to the design of urban furniture which, in this case, largely relates to seating design.

  6. A Case of Persistent Apical Ballooning Complicated by Apical Thrombus in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shim, In Kyoung; Kim, Bong-Joon; Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jae-Woo; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is also known as "transient apical ballooning", is a cardiac syndrome associated with emotional and physical stress that occurs in postmenopausal women. It may mimic acute coronary syndrome but coronary angiography reveals normal epicardial coronary arteries. The prognosis is favorable with the normalization of wall motion abnormalities within weeks. We report a case of persistent apical ballooning complicated by an apical thrombus in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy of systemic lupus erythematous patient. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may not be always transient and left ventricular thrombus can occur in the disease course as our patient. PMID:24198920

  7. Development of an artificial compound eye system for three-dimensional object detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengchao; Guo, Fang; Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi

    2014-02-20

    A compound eye has the advantages of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and compact structure, showing that it can be applicable for 3D object detection. In this work, an artificial compound eye system is developed for 3D object detection, consisting of a layer of lenslets and a prism-like beam-steering lens. A calibration method is developed for this system, with which the correspondences between incident light rays and the relevant image points can be obtained precisely using an active calibration pattern at multiple positions. Theoretically, calibration patterns at two positions are sufficient for system calibration, although more positions will increase the accuracy of the result. 3D positions of point objects are calculated to evaluate the system, which are obtained by the intersection of multiple incident light rays in the least-squares sense. Experimental results show that the system can detect an object with angular accuracy of better than 1 mrad, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed compound eye system. With a 2D scanning device, the system can be extended for general object detection in 3D space.

  8. Ground-based follow-up of Solar System objects detected by Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillot, W.; Carry, B.; Berthier, J.; David, P.; Devillepoix, H.; Hestroffer, D.

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the DPAC consortium preparing the Gaia mission, a specific follow-up activity has been set up in order to ensure best scientific return related to solar-system-object (SSO) science. This activity encompasses a system of alerts for newly detected objects provided by CNES, the French data center in charge of the Solar System data processing, and IMCCE, to organize and publish the alerts, and to retrieve the objects astrometry and feed the Minor Planet Center database. We are expecting in particular the detection of new near-Earth objects (NEO) at low solar elongation, or even inner-Earth objects. Owing to its observing mode, the satellite will not be able to monitor these objects after discovery and they could be lost. It is thus important to consolidate and improve their orbital parameters. This is the objective of the SSO ground-based follow-up. Once the objective is reached, it is possible to update the auxiliary database of orbital elements used within the Gaia data reduction pipeline for identifying the known SSOs and to allow Gaia to subsequently identify these objects properly during its mission. In order to reach these goals we have carried out two main activities: -- We have developed a pipeline for processing the Gaia raw data that will be received, and for disseminating only the topocentric data useful for observers in an automatized way -- We have set up a worldwide network of observing stations, the Gaia-FUN-SSO network (shortly described at https://www.imcce.fr/gaia-fun-sso/). At this date, 55 observing sites have registered and many participants have already contributed to several training campaigns for NEO observations. We will describe both activities and we will give preliminary results regarding the Gaia Solar System alerts, depending on the status of the triggering system during this early stage of the mission.

  9. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  10. A Systems Engineering Approach to the Analysis of a Planetary Mission Ground System in Terms of Science Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1995-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all planetary missions is to return data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, a systems engineering approach to determine how the collection of data drives ground system capabilities has received little attention.This paper defines a technique by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. For illustrative purposes, it will be applied to NASA's Cassini Mission. This mission, to be launched in 1997, is an international endeavor designed to orbit Saturn for four years.The results of this systems engineering approach will show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this technique can assist system engineers in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during the mission.

  11. Paradoxical persistence through mixed-system dynamics: towards a unified perspective of reversal behaviours in evolutionary ecology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul David; Hastings, Alan

    2011-05-07

    Counterintuitive dynamics of various biological phenomena occur when composite system dynamics differ qualitatively from that of their component systems. Such composite systems typically arise when modelling situations with time-varying biotic or abiotic conditions, and examples range from metapopulation dynamics to population genetic models. These biological, and related physical, phenomena can often be modelled as simple financial games, wherein capital is gained and lost through gambling. Such games have been developed and used as heuristic devices to elucidate the processes at work in generating seemingly paradoxical outcomes across a spectrum of disciplines, albeit in a field-specific, ad hoc fashion. Here, we propose that studying these simple games can provide a much deeper understanding of the fundamental principles governing paradoxical behaviours in models from a diversity of topics in evolution and ecology in which fluctuating environmental effects, whether deterministic or stochastic, are an essential aspect of the phenomenon of interest. Of particular note, we find that, for a broad class of models, the ecological concept of equilibrium reactivity provides an intuitive necessary condition that must be satisfied in order for environmental variability to promote population persistence. We contend that further investigations along these lines promise to unify aspects of the study of a range of topics, bringing questions from genetics, species persistence and coexistence and the evolution of bet-hedging strategies, under a common theoretical purview.

  12. Paradoxical persistence through mixed-system dynamics: towards a unified perspective of reversal behaviours in evolutionary ecology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul David; Hastings, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Counterintuitive dynamics of various biological phenomena occur when composite system dynamics differ qualitatively from that of their component systems. Such composite systems typically arise when modelling situations with time-varying biotic or abiotic conditions, and examples range from metapopulation dynamics to population genetic models. These biological, and related physical, phenomena can often be modelled as simple financial games, wherein capital is gained and lost through gambling. Such games have been developed and used as heuristic devices to elucidate the processes at work in generating seemingly paradoxical outcomes across a spectrum of disciplines, albeit in a field-specific, ad hoc fashion. Here, we propose that studying these simple games can provide a much deeper understanding of the fundamental principles governing paradoxical behaviours in models from a diversity of topics in evolution and ecology in which fluctuating environmental effects, whether deterministic or stochastic, are an essential aspect of the phenomenon of interest. Of particular note, we find that, for a broad class of models, the ecological concept of equilibrium reactivity provides an intuitive necessary condition that must be satisfied in order for environmental variability to promote population persistence. We contend that further investigations along these lines promise to unify aspects of the study of a range of topics, bringing questions from genetics, species persistence and coexistence and the evolution of bet-hedging strategies, under a common theoretical purview. PMID:21270032

  13. NASA TSRV essential flight control system requirements via object oriented analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Keith S.; Hoza, Bradley J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the baseline flight control system of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) and to develop a system specification that offers high visibility of the essential system requirements in order to facilitate the future development of alternate, more advanced software architectures. The flight control system is defined to be the baseline software for the TSRV research flight deck, including all navigation, guidance, and control functions, and primary pilot displays. The Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) methodology developed is used to develop a system requirement definition. The scope of the requirements definition contained herein is limited to a portion of the Flight Management/Flight Control computer functionality. The development of a partial system requirements definition is documented, and includes a discussion of the tasks required to increase the scope of the requirements definition and recommendations for follow-on research.

  14. A bio-inspired method and system for visual object-based attention and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method and system of human-like attention and object segmentation in visual scenes that (1) attends to regions in a scene in their rank of saliency in the image, (2) extracts the boundary of an attended proto-object based on feature contours, and (3) can be biased to boost the attention paid to specific features in a scene, such as those of a desired target object in static and video imagery. The purpose of the system is to identify regions of a scene of potential importance and extract the region data for processing by an object recognition and classification algorithm. The attention process can be performed in a default, bottom-up manner or a directed, top-down manner which will assign a preference to certain features over others. One can apply this system to any static scene, whether that is a still photograph or imagery captured from video. We employ algorithms that are motivated by findings in neuroscience, psychology, and cognitive science to construct a system that is novel in its modular and stepwise approach to the problems of attention and region extraction, its application of a flooding algorithm to break apart an image into smaller proto-objects based on feature density, and its ability to join smaller regions of similar features into larger proto-objects. This approach allows many complicated operations to be carried out by the system in a very short time, approaching real-time. A researcher can use this system as a robust front-end to a larger system that includes object recognition and scene understanding modules; it is engineered to function over a broad range of situations and can be applied to any scene with minimal tuning from the user.

  15. A locally adaptive system for the fusion of objective quality measures.

    PubMed

    Barri, Adriaan; Dooms, Ann; Jansen, Bart; Schelkens, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Objective measures to automatically predict the perceptual quality of images or videos can reduce the time and cost requirements of end-to-end quality monitoring. For reliable quality predictions, these objective quality measures need to respond consistently with the behavior of the human visual system (HVS). In practice, many important HVS mechanisms are too complex to be modeled directly. Instead, they can be mimicked by machine learning systems, trained on subjective quality assessment databases, and applied on predefined objective quality measures for specific content or distortion classes. On the downside, machine learning systems are often difficult to interpret and may even contradict the input objective quality measures, leading to unreliable quality predictions. To address this problem, we developed an interpretable machine learning system for objective quality assessment, namely the locally adaptive fusion (LAF). This paper describes the LAF system and compares its performance with traditional machine learning. As it turns out, the LAF system is more consistent with the input measures and can better handle heteroscedastic training data.

  16. Design and Application of an Object Oriented Graphical Database Management System for Synthetic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    development of the Database Generation System was also successful. In addition to providing an excellent platform for testing GDMS funtionality , it proved to...Format Several geometries are available for modeling objects in three- space. Procedural models, fractals, grammar -based models, particle systems

  17. Harmonization Without Homogenization: The Virginia Community College System's Approach to Management By Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Donald E.; And Others

    This panel report on the development of management of objectives (MBO) in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) will be useful to any community college or community college system interested in changing to the MBO method of administration. Following a discussion of the history of centralized administration and funding which preceded the…

  18. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  19. Joint digital-optical design of imaging systems for grayscale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. Dirk; Stork, David G.

    2008-09-01

    In many imaging applications, the objects of interest have broad range of strongly correlated spectral components. For example, the spectral components of grayscale objects such as media printed with black ink or toner are nearly perfectly correlated spatially. We describe how to exploit such correlation during the design of electro-optical imaging systems to achieve greater imaging performance and lower optical component cost. These advantages are achieved by jointly optimizing optical, detector, and digital image processing subsystems using a unified statistical imaging performance measure. The resulting optical systems have lower F# and greater depth-of-field than systems that do not exploit spectral correlations.

  20. Research and development of infrared object detection system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhui; He, Jianwei; Wang, Pengpeng; Li, Fan

    2009-07-01

    Infrared object detection is an important technique of digital image processing. It is widely used in automatic navigation, intelligent video surveillance systems, traffic detection, medical image processing etc. Infrared object detection system requires large storage and high speed processing technology. The current development trend is the system which can be achieved by hardware in real-time with fewer operations and higher performance. As a main large-scale programmable specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array (FPGA) can meet all the requirements of high speed image processing, with the characteristics of simple algorithm realization, easy programming, good portability and inheritability. So it could get better result by using FPGA to infrared object detection system. According to the requirements, the infrared object detection system is designed on FPGA. By analyzing some of the main algorithms of object detection, two new object detection algorithms called integral compare algorithm (ICA) and gradual approach centroid algorithm (GACA) are presented. The system design applying FPGA in hardware can implement high speed processing technology, which brings the advantage of both performance and flexibility. ICA is a new type of denoising algorithm with advantage of lower computation complexity and less execution time. What is more important is that this algorithm can be implemented in FPGA expediently. Base on image preprocessing of ICA, GACA brings high positioning precision with advantage of insensitivity to the initial value and fewer times of convergence iteration. The experiments indicate that the infrared object detection system can implement high speed infrared object detecting in real-time, with high antijamming ability and high precision. The progress of Verilog-HDL and its architecture are introduced in this paper. Considering the engineering application, this paper gives the particular design idea and the flow of this method

  1. Object shape-based optical sensing methodology and system for condition monitoring of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Presence of contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, and coolant in the engine lubricant indicates mechanical failure within the engine and significantly reduces lubricant quality. This paper describes a novel sensing system, its methodology and experimental verifications for analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The sensing methodology is based on the statistical shape analysis methodology utilizing optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium. The novelty of the proposed sensing system lies within the employed methodology which an object with a known periodic shape is introduced behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodical structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. The object, e.g. a stainless steel woven wire cloth with a mesh size of 65×65 µm2 and a circular wire diameter of 33 µm was placed behind a microfluidic channel, containing engine lubricant and optical images of flowing lubricant with stationary object were acquired and analyzed. Several parameters of acquired optical images, such as, color of lubricant and object, object shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative color, and object width non-uniformity coefficient, were proposed. Measured on-line parameters were used for optical analysis of fresh and contaminated lubricants. Estimation of contaminant presence and lubricant condition was performed by comparison of parameters for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodology was verified experimentally showing ability to distinguish lubricants with 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% coolant, gasoline and water contamination individually and in a combination form of coolant (0%-5%) and gasoline (0%-5%).

  2. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  3. Model-based system engineering in support of the eGY data lifecycle objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Leo; Melanson, Philip; Piggott, Stephen

    The objectives of the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) address the challenges and opportunities associated with modern digital technology for the creation and delivery of earth science data. In particular, eGY focuses on issues of access, sharing, archiving and interoperability of this science data and their associated enabling tools. System engineering supported by modelbased tools and techniques has a pivotal role to play in this endeavor since for most space missions the first formal representation of eGY related data results from system engineering activities and the extent to which these activities and the resulting representations (or models) make data life cycle issues prominent is the extent to which eGY objectives are satisfied or supported by the particular missions. The paper will review ongoing system engineering standardization efforts addressing the data life cycle and in particular will review how relatively new model-based system engineering methodologies contribute to eGY objectives.

  4. An ECG storage and retrieval system embedded in client server HIS utilizing object-oriented DB.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Ohe, K; Sakurai, T; Nagase, T; Kaihara, S

    1996-02-01

    In the University of Tokyo Hospital, the improved client server HIS has been applied to clinical practice and physicians can order prescription, laboratory examination, ECG examination and radiographic examination, etc. directly by themselves and read results of these examinations, except medical signal waves, schema and image, on UNIX workstations. Recently, we designed and developed an ECG storage and retrieval system embedded in the client server HIS utilizing object-oriented database to take the first step in dealing with digitized signal, schema and image data and show waves, graphics, and images directly to physicians by the client server HIS. The system was developed based on object-oriented analysis and design, and implemented with object-oriented database management system (OODMS) and C++ programming language. In this paper, we describe the ECG data model, functions of the storage and retrieval system, features of user interface and the result of its implementation in the HIS.

  5. Structures and efficiency areas of object control systems with various types of recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Tsyryapkina, A. V.; Burkov, V. N.; Ivushkin, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    The work is devoted to the study of automatic control systems (ACS) of objects with various types of recycling. The characteristic feature of such objects is the presence of a delay element in the coordinates. It is known that only with the help of recycling the use of raw materials and energy resources can be maximized. However, little attention has been paid to the control of such objects in the well-known publications, which gives the study a particular importance. The paper describes a classification of objects with recycling proposed by the authors with the identification of four classes of objects: recycling “by concentration”, “by mass”, “by parameters”, combined recycling. ACS are synthesized for the first three classes of objects. The task of comparative analysis of the systems effectiveness with a model control law and the proposed synthesized systems is set, as well as the task of determination of areas of systems effective operation depending on the variable value of the ratio of the delay time in the recycling chain and in the direct circuit, the conclusions are drawn.

  6. Soil-based systemic delivery and phyllosphere in vivo propagation of bacteriophages: Two possible strategies for improving bacteriophage persistence for plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Fanny B; Obradović, Aleksa; Wernsing, Mine H; Jackson, Lee E; Balogh, Botond; Hong, Jason A; Momol, M Timur; Jones, Jeffrey B; Vallad, Gary E

    2012-10-01

    Soil-based root applications and attenuated bacterial strains were evaluated as means to enhance bacteriophage persistence on plants for bacterial disease control. In addition, the systemic nature of phage applied to tomato roots was also evaluated. Several experiments were conducted applying either single phages or phage mixtures specific for Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas perforans or X. euvesicatoria to soil surrounding tomato plants and measuring the persistence and translocation of the phages over time. In general, all phages persisted in the roots of treated plants and were detected in stems and leaves; although phage level varied and persistence in stems and leaves was at a much lower level compared with persistence in roots. Bacterial wilt control was typically best if the phage or phage mixtures were applied to the soil surrounding tomatoes at the time of inoculation, less effective if applied 3 days before inoculation, and ineffective if applied 3 days after inoculation. The use of an attenuated X. perforans strain was also evaluated to improve the persistence of phage populations on tomato leaf surfaces. In greenhouse and field experiments, foliar applications of an attenuated mutant X. perforans 91-118:∆OPGH strain prior to phage applications significantly improved phage persistence on tomato foliage compared with untreated tomato foliage. Both the soil-based bacteriophage delivery and the use of attenuated bacterial strains improved bacteriophage persistence on respective root and foliar tissues, with evidence of translocation with soil-based bacteriophage applications. Both strategies could lead to improved control of bacterial pathogens on plants.

  7. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation, physiological stress and circadian rhythms were assessed during six month spaceflight onboard ISS. Blood and saliva samples were collected early, mid and late in-flight and returned for immediate analysis. Mid-point study data (10 of 17 planned subjects) will be presented. Results: Some shifts in leukocyte distribution occurred during flight, including alterations in CD8+ T cell maturation. General T cell function was consistently reduced early in-flight. Levels CD8+/IFNg+ producing T cells were depressed early in-flight, and immediately upon landing. Persistent mitogen-dependant reductions were observed in IFNg, IL-17a, IL-10, TNFa and IL-6 production. Monocyte production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 levels were increased. Levels of mRNA for the TNFa, IL-6 and IFNg were transiently elevated early in-flight, and the dynamics of TNF and IL-6 gene expression were somewhat antagonistic to their corresponding receptors during flight. The number of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells was measured using MHC tetramers, while their function was measured using intracellular cytokine analysis following peptide stimulation. Both the number and function of EBV-specific cells decreased during flight as compared to preflight levels. The number of CMV-specific T-cells generally increased as the mission progressed while their function was variable. Viral (EBV) load in blood was elevated postflight. Anti-EBV VCA antibodies were significantly elevated by R+0; anti-EA antibodies were not significantly elevated at landing; and anti-CMV antibodies were somewhat elevated during flight. Higher levels of salivary EBV DNA were found during flight. VZV DNA reactivation occurred in 50 % of astronauts during flight, continuing for up to 30 days post-flight. CMV was shed in 35 % the in-flight and 30% of postflight urine samples of the crewmembers. There was generally a higher level of cortisol as measured in urine and saliva in the

  8. The Celtic Sea Shelf System Acts as a Persistent Source of Iron to the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchill, A.; Annett, A. L.; Milne, A.; Geibert, W.; Statham, P. J.; Ussher, S.; Worsfold, P. J.; Lohan, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf sea sediments are an important source of dissolved iron (dFe) to the open ocean, yet at present this source is poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the fate and form of the dFe that enters the water column. Radium (Ra) builds up in sediment pore waters via radioactive decay of thorium and then, like dFe, is fluxed to the overlying water column via resuspension and diffusion. The half-lives of 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra can therefore be used to trace the path of water since it was last in contact with sediments and thus estimate a sediment flux of dFe to the adjacent ocean. We determined dFe concentrations along with Ra isotope activities in waters overlying the Celtic Sea shelf break to depths of 2500 m. Distinct intermediate nepheloid layers (INLs) were identified in the Ra data and were associated with elevated dFe concentrations (> 1 nM). INLs were present in both December 2014 and April 2015 and persisted up to 40 km from the shelf break, with an estimated horizontal advective flux of 42 µmol dFe m-2 d-1 between 200-750 m in April. Furthermore, investigations into the soluble (sFe) and colloidal (cFe) fractions of dFe indicate that this flux comprised of 60-80 % cFe. The results indicate that oxic shelf sediments, which characterize the majority of shelf seas globally, represent a persistent and significant source of dFe to the open ocean. In contrast to bottom and intermediate waters, cFe and sFe were depleted in the upper water column, indicating either biological uptake and/or scavenging. In April 2015 surface dFe concentrations were particularly low, 0.1 nM compared to 0.2-0.3 nM in winter, due to drawdown during the spring bloom. This created the potential for iron limitation near the shelf break as elevated macronutrient concentrations were observed at; nitrate 8 µM, phosphate 0.5 µM and silicate 3 µM. This was a result of the on-shelf movement of iron depleted surface water.

  9. Autonomic Management of Object Replication for FT-CORBA Based Intelligent Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Woonsuk; Lee, Eunseok

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) comprises the electronics, communications or information processing used singly or integrated to improve the efficiency or safety of surface transportation. Accordingly, the ITS has to perform collection, management, and provision of real time transport information reliably. It can be deployed based on the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) of the Object Management Group (OMG) because it consists of many interconnected heterogeneous systems deployed by independent organizations. Fault Tolerant CORBA (FT-CORBA) supports real time requirement of transport information stably through redundancy by replication of server objects. However, object replication, management, and related protocols of FT-CORBA require extra system resources of CPU and memory, and can degrade the system performance both locally and as a whole. This paper proposes an architecture to enhance performance of FT-CORBA based ITS in terms of CPU and memory by managing object replication adaptively during system operation with an agent. The application of the agent is expected to support fault tolerance of real ITS efficiently.

  10. Improvement on object detection accuracy by using two compound eye systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mengchao; Wang, Keyi

    2014-09-01

    Compound eye is a multiple apertures imaging device, indicates that it can be applied for three-dimensional object detection. In our previous report, an artificial compound eye system was developed for 3D object detection. The system consists of a layer of plano-convex microlenses and a prism-like beam steering lens. An innovative multi-position calibration method is developed to relate the incident light rays and the relevant image points. Theoretically, one compound eye system alone is capable of 3D objects detection. However, the detection accuracy is limited due to the relatively small baseline between the adjacent microlenses. In this work, an equivalent large baseline is obtained by using a two compound eyes system. Preliminary experiments were performed to verify the improvement on the accuracy of 3D object detection. The experimental results with two compound eyes are compared with that obtained by only one compound eye. Experimental results show that the system with two compound eyes can detect an object much more accurately, indicating the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method.

  11. System and method for representing and manipulating three-dimensional objects on massively parallel architectures

    DOEpatents

    Karasick, Michael S.; Strip, David R.

    1996-01-01

    A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modelling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modelling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modelling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication.

  12. System and method for representing and manipulating three-dimensional objects on massively parallel architectures

    DOEpatents

    Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.

    1996-01-30

    A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.

  13. Calculation of the object edge position after its projection in a spatially noninvariant coherent optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu. V.

    2016-11-01

    Specific features of half-plane image formation in a spatially noninvariant (aberration-free) coherent optical system of the 2F-2F telecentric type with a limited aperture of the projection objective (in the absence of the spatial frequency filter) are studied. The dependence of the light intensity behavior at a point corresponding to the half-plane edge in the image on the object position is found in an analytical form on the basis of approximating the Fresnel functions by analytical functions. As the half-plane approaches the boundary of the field of vision of the system determined by the objective aperture diameter, the light intensity is demonstrated to deviate significantly from that in the case of the axial position of the half-plane, which may lead to noticeable measurement errors in inspecting the geometric parameters of objects by the projection method in transmitted light.

  14. Nonlinear optical measurements using a 4f coherent imaging system with phase objects

    SciTech Connect

    Boudebs, G.; Cherukulappurath, S.

    2004-05-01

    We report a one-laser-shot measurement technique using a phase object at the entry of a 4f coherent imaging system to characterize the value of the nonlinear refractive index of materials placed in the Fourier plane of the setup. Experimental and simulated images are presented here in order to validate our approach. We show that the use of a quarter-wavelength dephasing object maximizes the transmission variations in the detected image. We show also that the use of phase objects increases significantly the sensitivity of the measurement compared to top-hat beams (by a factor of 6). Moreover, by adding this type of object at the entry of our imaging system it is possible to determine the sign of the refractive nonlinearity.

  15. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation.

  16. Simultaneous perimeter measurement for 3D object with a binocular stereo vision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao; Guo-Qiang, Ni

    2010-04-01

    A simultaneous measurement scheme for multiple three-dimensional (3D) objects' surface boundary perimeters is proposed. This scheme consists of three steps. First, a binocular stereo vision measurement system with two CCD cameras is devised to obtain the two images of the detected objects' 3D surface boundaries. Second, two geodesic active contours are applied to converge to the objects' contour edges simultaneously in the two CCD images to perform the stereo matching. Finally, the multiple spatial contours are reconstructed using the cubic B-spline curve interpolation. The true contour length of every spatial contour is computed as the true boundary perimeter of every 3D object. An experiment on the bent surface's perimeter measurement for the four 3D objects indicates that this scheme's measurement repetition error decreases to 0.7 mm.

  17. Architectural Support for Extensibility and Autonomy in Wide-Area Distributed Object Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-03

    12 June 3, 1998 Keywords: Distributed computing , wide-area, distributed objects, metasystems, middleware, site autonomy. Abstract The Legion system...generation network parallel computing systems, such as PVM [14] and MPI [21], and in modern transparent distributed computing systems, such as the...patching existing parallel and distributed computing services together to render them interoperable and usable in a wide-area environment do not outweigh

  18. Statistical Model For Pseudo-Moving Objects Recognition In Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B.; Egorov, A.; Sidyakin, S.; Malin, I.; Vizilter, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers a statistical approach to define pseudo-moving (false) objects in video surveillance systems by constructing systems of hypothesis with the criteria based on statistical behavioral particularities. The obtained results are integrated in two ways: using the Bayes' theorem or the logistic regression. FAR-FRR curves are plotted for each system of hypothesis and also for the decision rule. The results of the proposed methods are obtained on test video databases.

  19. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K. ); Palounek, P.T. ); Day, C. )

    1992-01-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM's Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person's perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.

  20. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K.; Palounek, P.T.; Day, C.

    1992-02-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM`s Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person`s perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.