Science.gov

Sample records for persistent object systems

  1. Considerations of persistence and security in CHOICES, an object-oriented operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Madany, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The current design of the CHOICES persistent object implementation is summarized, and research in progress is outlined. CHOICES is implemented as an object-oriented system, and persistent objects appear to simplify and unify many functions of the system. It is demonstrated that persistent data can be accessed through an object-oriented file system model as efficiently as by an existing optimized commercial file system. The object-oriented file system can be specialized to provide an object store for persistent objects. The problems that arise in building an efficient persistent object scheme in a 32-bit virtual address space that only uses paging are described. Despite its limitations, the solution presented allows quite large numbers of objects to be active simultaneously, and permits sharing and efficient method calls.

  2. Object-oriented persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  3. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  4. Organizing and Typing Persistent Objects Within an Object-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional operating systems provide little or no direct support for the services required for an efficient persistent object system implementation. We have built a persistent object scheme using a customization and extension of an object-oriented operating system called Choices. Choices includes a framework for the storage of persistent data that is suited to the construction of both conventional file system and persistent object system. In this paper we describe three areas in which persistent object support differs from file system support: storage organization, storage management, and typing. Persistent object systems must support various sizes of objects efficiently. Customizable containers, which are themselves persistent objects and can be nested, support a wide range of object sizes in Choices. Collections of persistent objects that are accessed as an aggregate and collections of light-weight persistent objects can be clustered in containers that are nested within containers for larger objects. Automated garbage collection schemes are added to storage management and have a major impact on persistent object applications. The Choices persistent object store provides extensible sets of persistent object types. The store contains not only the data for persistent objects but also the names of the classes to which they belong and the code for the operation of the classes. Besides presenting persistent object storage organization, storage management, and typing, this paper discusses how persistent objects are named and used within the Choices persistent data/file system framework.

  5. Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reverbel, F.C.R.

    1997-05-01

    In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

  6. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  7. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  8. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  9. A Temporal Same-Object Advantage in the Tunnel Effect: Facilitated Change Detection for Persisting Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flombaum, Jonathan I.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful visual experience requires computations that identify objects as the same persisting individuals over time, motion, occlusion, and featural change. This article explores these computations in the tunnel effect: When an object moves behind an occluder, and then an object later emerges following a consistent trajectory, observers…

  10. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  11. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  12. Trustworthy persistent identifier systems of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Car, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades, persistent identifier (PID) systems have seen some significant changes in their governance policies, system capabilities, and technology. The development of most systems was driven by two main application areas, namely archives and libraries. Guidelines and criteria for trustworthy PID systems have been clearly devised (Bütikofer, 2009) and many PID system implementations for the identification of static digital objects have been built (e.g., PURL). However systems delivering persistent identifiers for dynamic datasets are not yet mature. There has been a rapid proliferation of different PID systems caused by the specific technical or organisational requirements of various communities that could not be met by existing systems such as DOI, ISBN, and EAN. Many of these different systems were limited by their inability to provide native means of persistent identifier resolution. This has prompted a decoupling of PID-associated data from the resolution service and this is where the Handle system has played a significant role. The Handle allowed to build a distributed system of independently managed resolver services. A trustworthy PID system must be designed to outlive the objects it provides persistent identifiers for, which may cease to exist or otherwise be deprecated, and the technology used to implement it, which will certainly need to change with time. We propose that such a system should rest on four pillars of agreements - (i) definitions, (ii) policies, (iii) services, and (iv) data services, to ensure longevity. While we believe all four pillars are equally important, we intentionally leave regulating aspects of issuing of identifiers and their registration out of the scope of this paper and focus on the agreements that have to be established between PID resolver services and the data sources indicated by the persistent identifiers. We propose an approach to development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system

  13. Persistent Identification of Agents and Objects of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Waple, A.; Zednik, S.

    2012-12-01

    "Global Change" includes climate change, ecological change, land-use changes and host of other interacting complex systems including societal and institutional implications. This vast body of information includes scientific research, data, measurements, models, analyses, assessments, etc. It is produced by a collection of multi-disciplinary researchers and organizations from around the world and demand for this information is increasing from a multitude of different audiences and stakeholders. The identification and organization of the agents and objects of global change information and their inter-relationships and contributions to the whole story of change is critical for conveying the state of knowledge, its complexity as well as syntheses and key messages to researchers, decision makers, and the public. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will organize and present our best understanding of global change, and all the contributing information that leads to that understanding, including the provenance needed to trust and use that information. The first implementation will provide provenance for the National Climate Assessment (NCA). (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA must integrate, evaluate, and interpret the findings of the USGCRP; analyze the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyze current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. It also assesses information at the regional scale across the Nation. A synthesis report is required not less frequently than every four years and the next

  14. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  15. Primitive Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David

    1999-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental and topical questions in astronomy concern the origin and evolution of planetary systems. In the solar system, these questions are most directly addressed through observations of chemically and physically primitive bodies in which a record of the initial conditions may be preserved. The most primitive materials in the solar system reside near its outer edge, in a trans-Neptunian ring known as the Kuiper Belt and in a surrounding spherical cloud first postulated by Oort. These regions supply comets to the inner solar system and, in the case of the Kuiper Belt, preserve evidence of dynamical processes operative in the first 100 million years after formation. The Kuiper Belt is also a source of collisionally produced dust and may be analogous to the dusty rings observed encircling a number of nearby main-sequence stars. I will review the currently known properties of these primitive objects, and discuss how ALMA can contribute to our understanding of the early solar system.

  16. Persistence of hyperbolic tori in Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yi, Yingfei

    We generalize the well-known result of Graff and Zehnder on the persistence of hyperbolic invariant tori in Hamiltonian systems by considering non-Floquet, frequency varying normal forms and allowing the degeneracy of the unperturbed frequencies. The preservation of part or full frequency components associated to the degree of non-degeneracy is considered. As applications, we consider the persistence problem of hyperbolic tori on a submanifold of a nearly integrable Hamiltonian system and the persistence problem of a fixed invariant hyperbolic torus in a non-integrable Hamiltonian system.

  17. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  18. Robust object matching for persistent tracking with heterogeneous features.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanlin; Hsu, Steve; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Kumar, Rakesh; Shan, Ying

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matching vehicles across multiple sightings under variations in illumination and camera poses. Since multiple observations of a vehicle are separated in large temporal and/or spatial gaps, thus prohibiting the use of standard frame-to-frame data association, we employ features extracted over a sequence during one time interval as a vehicle fingerprint that is used to compute the likelihood that two or more sequence observations are from the same or different vehicles. Furthermore, since our domain is aerial video tracking, in order to deal with poor image quality and large resolution and quality variations, our approach employs robust alignment and match measures for different stages of vehicle matching. Most notably, we employ a heterogeneous collection of features such as lines, points, and regions in an integrated matching framework. Heterogeneous features are shown to be important. Line and point features provide accurate localization and are employed for robust alignment across disparate views. The challenges of change in pose, aspect, and appearances across two disparate observations are handled by combining a novel feature-based quasi-rigid alignment with flexible matching between two or more sequences. However, since lines and points are relatively sparse, they are not adequate to delineate the object and provide a comprehensive matching set that covers the complete object. Region features provide a high degree of coverage and are employed for continuous frames to provide a delineation of the vehicle region for subsequent generation of a match measure. Our approach reliably delineates objects by representing regions as robust blob features and matching multiple regions to multiple regions using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD). Extensive experimentation under a variety of real-world scenarios and over hundreds of thousands of Confirmatory Identification (CID) trails has demonstrated about 95 percent accuracy in vehicle

  19. Design notes for the next generation persistent object manager for CAP

    SciTech Connect

    Isely, M.; Fischler, M.; Galli, M.

    1995-05-01

    The CAP query system software at Fermilab has several major components, including SQS (for managing the query), the retrieval system (for fetching auxiliary data), and the query software itself. The central query software in particular is essentially a modified version of the `ptool` product created at UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago) as part of the PASS project under Bob Grossman. The original UIC version was designed for use in a single-user non-distributed Unix environment. The Fermi modifications were an attempt to permit multi-user access to a data set distributed over a set of storage nodes. (The hardware is an IBM SP-x system - a cluster of AIX POWER2 nodes with an IBM-proprietary high speed switch interconnect). Since the implementation work of the Fermi-ized ptool, the CAP members have learned quite a bit about the nature of queries and where the current performance bottlenecks exist. This has lead them to design a persistent object manager that will overcome these problems. For backwards compatibility with ptool, the ptool persistent object API will largely be retained, but the implementation will be entirely different.

  20. Electrostatic Persistence Length in Polymeric and Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey; Cao, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in controlling properties of polyelectrolytes and biological objects, such as DNA and filamentous viruses. The change in the ionic environment in such systems can influence their conformational properties. Using molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations we have developed a model of swelling of semiflexible polyelectrolytes in salt solutions. Our approach is based on separation of length scales which allowed us to split a chain's electrostatic energy into two parts that describe local and remote along the polymer backbone interactions. The local part takes into account interactions between charged monomers that are separated by distances shorter than the persistence length. These electrostatic interactions renormalize chain persistence length. The second part includes electrostatic interactions between remote charged pairs located at distances larger than the persistence length. These interactions are responsible for chain swelling. In the framework of this approach we calculated effective chain persistence length and chain size as a function of the Debye screening length, chain degree of ionization, bare persistence length and chain degree of polymerization. Our crossover expression for the effective chain's persistence length is in a good quantitative agreement with the experimental data on DNA. We have been able to fit experimental data sets by using two adjustable parameters: DNA ionization degree (α = 0 . 15 +/- 0 . 17) and a bare persistence length (lp = 40 +/- 44 nm) . NSF-DMR-1004576.

  1. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  2. Information persistence in the integration of partial cues for object recognition.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ernest

    2007-07-01

    A great many studies have shown that the perceptual effects of very brief visual stimuli can persist beyond the duration of the stimulus itself. These effects include sustained perception of the stimulus even though it is no longer present and the integration of information across an interstimulus interval. These two forms of sustained activity can be characterized as visible persistence and information persistence. Iconic memory protocols and a number of discrimination tasks have demonstrated the existence of information persistence that can last up to several hundred milliseconds, but there is little evidence that the cues needed for identification of objects can be transferred across intervals in this range. In the present experiments, a minimal transient discrete cue protocol was used to demonstrate that shape cues, these being provided by subsets of dots that mark the outer boundary of nameable objects, can be integrated over several hundred milliseconds and that the duration is a function of ambient room illumination. The experiments further evaluated whether this information persistence is mediated by visible persistence. Although both perceptual effects have durations that are an inverse function of room illumination, the ability to integrate partial shape cues was not determined by the duration of visible persistence. PMID:17929699

  3. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert; Qin, Xiao; Lifka, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation, storage, and access of very large persistent object stores.

  4. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  5. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  6. Exceptional Solar-System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, Benjamin

    1990-12-01

    This is a target-of-opportunity proposal for HST observations to be executed if a previously unknown, truly exceptional solar-system object or phenomenon is discovered either in the normal course of HST work or by anyone, anywhere. Trails due to unknown moving objects will often appear on HST images made for other purposes. A short trail seen near the opposition point or at high ecliptic latitude could represent a major addition to our knowledge of the solar system. Thus we further propose that all short trials seen on HST images taken in favorable regions of the sky be given a quick analysis in the Observation Support System for their possible significance. If an unusual object is found we propose to: (1) Seek from the owner of data rights permission to proceed as may be appropriate; (2) Contact the Minor Planet Center for an evaluation of the significance of the discovery; and (3) For an object that appears to be of great significance where effective groundbased followup appears unlikely, request the HST schedule be replanned for followup images and physical studies using HST.

  7. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi; Rajković, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1-16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  8. Persistent topological features of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi; Rajković, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by an early work of Muldoon et al., Physica D 65, 1-16 (1993), we present a general method for constructing simplicial complex from observed time series of dynamical systems based on the delay coordinate reconstruction procedure. The obtained simplicial complex preserves all pertinent topological features of the reconstructed phase space, and it may be analyzed from topological, combinatorial, and algebraic aspects. In focus of this study is the computation of homology of the invariant set of some well known dynamical systems that display chaotic behavior. Persistent homology of simplicial complex and its relationship with the embedding dimensions are examined by studying the lifetime of topological features and topological noise. The consistency of topological properties for different dynamic regimes and embedding dimensions is examined. The obtained results shed new light on the topological properties of the reconstructed phase space and open up new possibilities for application of advanced topological methods. The method presented here may be used as a generic method for constructing simplicial complex from a scalar time series that has a number of advantages compared to the mapping of the same time series to a complex network.

  9. Persistency of entanglement and nonlocality in multipartite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Vértesi, Tamás

    2012-10-01

    The behavior under particle loss of entanglement and nonlocality is investigated in multipartite quantum systems. In particular, we define a notion of persistency of nonlocality, which leads to device-independent tests of persistent entanglement. We investigate the persistency of various classes of multipartite quantum states, exhibiting a variety of different behaviors. A particular attention is devoted to states featuring maximal persistency. Finally we discuss a link between the symmetry of a state and its persistency, illustrating the fact that too much symmetry reduces the strength of correlations among subsystems. These ideas also lead to a device-independent estimation of the asymmetry of a quantum state.

  10. AVNG system objectives and concept

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  11. Mentat: An object-oriented macro data flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentat, an object-oriented macro data flow system designed to facilitate parallelism in distributed systems, is presented. The macro data flow model is a model of computation similar to the data flow model with two principal differences: the computational complexity of the actors is much greater than in traditional data flow systems, and there are persistent actors that maintain state information between executions. Mentat is a system that combines the object-oriented programming paradigm and the macro data flow model of computation. Mentat programs use a dynamic structure called a future list to represent the future of computations.

  12. Development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Persistent Chemical Agent Simulation System was developed (PCASS) to simulate, for force-on-force training exercises, the field environment produced by the presence of persistent chemical agents. Such a simulant system must satisfy several requirements to be of value as a training aid. Specifically, it must provide for realistic training which will generate competency in at least the following areas: (1) detection of the persistent agent presence; (2) proper use of protective equipment and procedures; (3) determination of the extent of contamination; and (4) decontamination of equipment and personnel.

  13. Persistence of sulfosulfuron under wheat cropping system.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha; Singhai, Benu

    2008-05-01

    Presence of herbicides residue in the soil not only damages the succeeding sensitive crops but also adversely affect human and animal health due to bioaccumulation of residues in crop produce. Thus an experiment was conducted to evaluate persistence of sulfosulfuron residues applied in wheat crop as post-emergence at 25, 50 and 100 g ai ha(-1) application rates to control weeds. Residues were evaluated in surface and subsurface soil by HPLC using Photo diode array detector. Sulfosulfuron residues were dissipated rapidly in surface and subsurface soil at initial period. After150 days residues were found below 0.001 microg/g in soil samples collected from 25 to 50 g ha(-1) treated plots. However, at 100 g ha(-1) dose residues were not detected after 200 days in surface and subsurface soil.

  14. DCLOS. Distributed Common Lisp Object System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.

    1997-05-01

    DCLOS provides distributed object capabilities to CLOS. An open implementation distributed object system based upon the Common LISP Object System (CLOS) that supports proxies, copies, replicants, remote method invocation, global object identity, class coercion, object brokering, and other capabilities. Network agents use DCLOS services to exchange messages, to register in a foreign domain, and to provide automatic coercion of objects into proxies, replicants or copies.

  15. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes. PMID:27589891

  16. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes.

  17. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding ”hot-spots”, and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations. PMID:19096530

  18. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  19. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  20. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  1. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacterial growth arrest and persistence.

    PubMed

    Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial persister cells constitute a subpopulation of genetically identical, metabolically slow-growing cells that are highly tolerant of antibiotics and other environmental stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that gene loci known as toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules play a central role in the persister state. Under normal growth conditions, antitoxins potently inhibit the activities of the toxins. In contrast, under conditions of stress, the antitoxins are selectively degraded, freeing the toxins to inhibit essential cellular processes, such as DNA replication and protein translation. This inhibition results in rapid growth arrest. In this Review, we highlight recent discoveries of these multifaceted TA systems with a focus on the newly uncovered mechanisms, especially conditional cooperativity, that are used to regulate cell growth and persistence. We also discuss the potential for targeting TA systems for antimicrobial drug discovery.

  2. Persistence of DNA deposited by the original user on objects after subsequent use by a second person.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Glavich, Genna; Mitchell, R John

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the persistence of DNA from prior user of an object after, its use by another person. To acquire a greater understanding of persistence we performed controlled, experiments encompassing over 179 objects that had only been used by one individual for an extended, period before used by a 2nd person for various but known duration. Our findings show that the profile, percentage contribution of the 1st user relative to the 2nd user of an object declines in a linear manner, over time. The retrieval of the profile of the initial user of the object is dependent on the type of, substrate and use of the object. When considering a hard non-porous object the 1st user's profile, percentage contribution drops ∼50% immediately upon use by a 2nd person and drops to ∼15% after, 90 min. When considering a soft porous object the 1st wearer's profile contribution remains, higher than that of the 2nd wearer during the first 10h of wear by the 2nd wearer and still, accounts for ∼12% after 96 h. This substrate associated difference was also observed in an, assessment of a wide range of personal objects used by 2nd users for different durations. Particular, areas of certain objects were more likely to retain a greater proportion of the 1st user's DNA than other, areas. Alleles of unknown source were present on the majority of objects but rarely exceeded 10% of, the total profile. Greater knowledge of persistence will inform investigators regarding the likelihood of, detecting a profile of a particular individual based on the type of object and its history, and assist with, identifying the best areas of an object to target for DNA sampling.

  3. System and method for disrupting suspect objects

    DOEpatents

    Gladwell, T. Scott; Garretson, Justin R; Hobart, Clinton G; Monda, Mark J

    2013-07-09

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system includes a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image therefrom, a weapon having a discharge deployable therefrom, and a targeting unit. The targeting unit displays the image(s) of the suspect object and aims the weapon at a disruption point on the displayed image such that the weapon may be positioned to deploy the discharge at the disruption point whereby the suspect object is disabled.

  4. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  5. Persistence in nonautonomous predator-prey systems with infinite delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong; Rehim, Mehbuba

    2006-12-01

    This paper studies the general nonautonomous predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems with infinite delays. The sufficient and necessary conditions of integrable form on the permanence and persistence of species are established. A very interesting and important property of two-species predator-prey systems is discovered, that is, the permanence of species and the existence of a persistent solution are each other equivalent. Particularly, for the periodic system with delays, applying these results, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and the existence of positive periodic solutions are obtained. Some well-known results on the nondelayed periodic predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems are strongly improved and extended to the delayed case.

  6. Schlieren system and method for moving objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system and method are provided for recording density changes in a flow field surrounding a moving object. A mask having an aperture for regulating the passage of images therethrough is placed in front of an image recording medium. An optical system is placed in front of the mask. A transition having a light field-of-view and a dark field-of-view is located beyond the test object. The optical system focuses an image of the transition at the mask such that the aperture causes a band of light to be defined on the image recording medium. The optical system further focuses an image of the object through the aperture of the mask so that the image of the object appears on the image recording medium. Relative motion is minimized between the mask and the transition. Relative motion is also minimized between the image recording medium and the image of the object. In this way, the image of the object and density changes in a flow field surrounding the object are recorded on the image recording medium when the object crosses the transition in front of the optical system.

  7. Parallel object-oriented decision tree system

    DOEpatents

    Kamath; Chandrika , Cantu-Paz; Erick

    2006-02-28

    A data mining decision tree system that uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies, and other statistically significant structures in data by reading and displaying data files, extracting relevant features for each of the objects, and using a method of recognizing patterns among the objects based upon object features through a decision tree that reads the data, sorts the data if necessary, determines the best manner to split the data into subsets according to some criterion, and splits the data.

  8. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  9. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  10. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  11. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  12. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  13. Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2010-04-01

    Persistent surveillance is an intricate process requiring monitoring, gathering, processing, tracking, and characterization of many spatiotemporal events occurring concurrently. Data associated with events can be readily attained by networking of hard (physical) sensors. Sensors may have homogeneous or heterogeneous (hybrid) sensing modalities with different communication bandwidth requirements. Complimentary to hard sensors are human observers or "soft sensors" that can report occurrences of evolving events via different communication devices (e.g., texting, cell phones, emails, instant messaging, etc.) to the command control center. However, networking of human observers in ad-hoc way is rather a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems (called Web-STARS). The objective of this web-service is to aggregate multi-source human observations in hybrid sensor networks rapidly. With availability of Twitter social network, such a human networking concept can not only be realized for large scale persistent surveillance systems (PSS), but also, it can be employed with proper interfaces to expedite rapid events reporting by human observers. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for large-scale persistent surveillance systems with distributed soft and hard sensor networks. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured experimentally by conducting several simulated persistent surveillance scenarios. It is demonstrated that by fusion of information from hard and soft agents improves understanding of common operating picture and enhances situational awareness.

  14. Object-Oriented Systems for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffcoate, Judith

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of object technology for the development of information management systems. Notes the benefits of modelling complex real-world systems and the increases in productivity leading to flexible, reusable, and maintainable software. Discusses problems, support for multimedia data types, and storage capabilities. (AEF)

  15. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live data streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.

  16. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live datamore » streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.« less

  17. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  18. Parallel object-oriented data mining system

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick

    2004-01-06

    A data mining system uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies and other statistically significant structures in data. Data files are read and displayed. Objects in the data files are identified. Relevant features for the objects are extracted. Patterns among the objects are recognized based upon the features. Data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) sky survey was used to search for bent doubles. This test was conducted on data from the Very Large Array in New Mexico which seeks to locate a special type of quasar (radio-emitting stellar object) called bent doubles. The FIRST survey has generated more than 32,000 images of the sky to date. Each image is 7.1 megabytes, yielding more than 100 gigabytes of image data in the entire data set.

  19. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

  20. Specification of Computer Systems by Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltoft, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of mainframe and personal computers, and presents a case study of a network developed at the University of Iowa called the Iowa Computer-Aided Engineering Network (ICAEN) that combines Macintosh personal computers with Apollo workstations. Functional objectives are stressed as the best measure of system performance. (LRW)

  1. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  2. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  3. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  4. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  5. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1999-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

  6. An object-based interviewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R. ); Chiang, Tai-Lun )

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an object-based interviewing system (OBIS). The key design feature is that each survey question is a function, which is treated as an independent object. The Survey Manager (SM) module maintains a stack of questions and calls each question function when directed. Each question, when called, calls the Interaction Facility (IF) to set up the appropriate screen. This modular approach to automated survey design offers maximum flexibility for system development and maintenance. The software is written in Common Lisp and currently runs on Symbolics and VAX computers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is funding a project to use OBIS to automate the Current Population Survey (CPS), an expenditure survey, and questions about intrashousehold communication to collect data to study communication and proxy response error.

  7. An object-based interviewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Chiang, Tai-Lun

    1992-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an object-based interviewing system (OBIS). The key design feature is that each survey question is a function, which is treated as an independent object. The Survey Manager (SM) module maintains a stack of questions and calls each question function when directed. Each question, when called, calls the Interaction Facility (IF) to set up the appropriate screen. This modular approach to automated survey design offers maximum flexibility for system development and maintenance. The software is written in Common Lisp and currently runs on Symbolics and VAX computers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is funding a project to use OBIS to automate the Current Population Survey (CPS), an expenditure survey, and questions about intrashousehold communication to collect data to study communication and proxy response error.

  8. Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

  9. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, K.H.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.

    1991-04-30

    A system is described for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array of solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1[times]3[times]5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A wake-up' circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described. 4 figures.

  10. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.

  11. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  12. Persisting Rickettsia typhi Causes Fatal Central Nervous System Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Stefanie; Moderzynski, Kristin; Kuehl, Svenja; Richardt, Ulricke; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsioses are emerging febrile diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae. Rickettsia typhi belongs to the typhus group (TG) of this family and is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that can be fatal. In the present study, we analyzed the course of R. typhi infection in C57BL/6 RAG1−/− mice. Although these mice lack adaptive immunity, they developed only mild and temporary symptoms of disease and survived R. typhi infection for a long period of time. To our surprise, 3 to 4 months after infection, C57BL/6 RAG1−/− mice suddenly developed lethal neurological disorders. Analysis of these mice at the time of death revealed high bacterial loads, predominantly in the brain. This was accompanied by a massive expansion of microglia and by neuronal cell death. Furthermore, high numbers of infiltrating CD11b+ macrophages were detectable in the brain. In contrast to the microglia, these cells harbored R. typhi and showed an inflammatory phenotype, as indicated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, which was not observed in the periphery. Having shown that R. typhi persists in immunocompromised mice, we finally asked whether the bacteria are also able to persist in resistant C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice. Indeed, R. typhi could be recultivated from lung, spleen, and brain tissues from both strains even up to 1 year after infection. This is the first report demonstrating persistence and reappearance of R. typhi, mainly restricted to the central nervous system in immunocompromised mice. PMID:26975992

  13. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  14. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides formore » dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.« less

  15. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  16. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  17. Optical inspection system for cylindrical objects

    DOEpatents

    Brenden, Byron B.; Peters, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In the inspection of cylindrical objects, particularly O-rings, the object is translated through a field of view and a linear light trace is projected on its surface. An image of the light trace is projected on a mask, which has a size and shape corresponding to the size and shape which the image would have if the surface of the object were perfect. If there is a defect, light will pass the mask and be sensed by a detector positioned behind the mask. Preferably, two masks and associated detectors are used, one mask being convex to pass light when the light trace falls on a projection from the surface and the other concave, to pass light when the light trace falls on a depression in the surface. The light trace may be either dynamic, formed by a scanned laser beam, or static, formed by such a beam focussed by a cylindrical lens. Means are provided to automatically keep the illuminating receiving systems properly aligned.

  18. Astrometry of Solar System Objects with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J.; Arenou, Frederic; Desmars, Josselin; Robert, Vincent; Thuillot, William; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Carry, Benoit; David, Pedro; Eggl, Siegfried; Fabricius, Claus; Kudryashova, Maria; Lainey, Valery; Spoto, Federica; Tanga, Paolo; Gaia DPAC

    2016-10-01

    The Gaia ESA space mission will provide astrometric observations of a large number of celestial bodies, with unprecedented accuracy, and in an homogenous reference frame (to become the optical ICRF). The Gaia satellite is monitoring regularly the whole celestial sphere, with one complete scan in about 6month, down to approximately magnitude V≤20.7. It will provide after its nominal lifetime, (5 years, 2014-2019) about 70 astrometric points for several hundred thousands of solar system objects, asteroids from the Near-Earth region to Centaurs and bright TNOs, as well as planetary satellites and comets. The highly precise astrometric and photometric data is bound to lead to huge advances in the science of small Small Solar System Bodies (e.g. Tanga et al. 2016 P\\&SS, Hestroffer et al. 2014 COSPAR #40 ; Mignard et al. 2007 EMP).The first Gaia data release (GDR#1) is foreseen for Q3-2016 and will provide highly precise positions of selected stars down to mag V≈20. While solar system objets data is foreseen for the next data release (in 2017), science of Solar System will also highly benefit from the Gaia stellar catalogue. We will present the status of the satellite and Gaia mission, and details on the stellar data that will be published in this GDR#1. We discuss the catalogue content, number of stars, parameters and precisions, and the process of cross-matching and validation. We also touch upon the construction of combined Tycho-Gaia TGAS catalogue.A Gaia data daily processing is devoted to the identification of Solar System Objects. During this process the detection of new (or critical) objects arises and leads to the triggering of scientific alerts to be found on the web gaiafunsso.imcce.fr. We have also set up an international follow-up network called Gaia-FUN-SSO to validate the detection in space. For this goal, in case of detection the observational data must be sent to the MPC by the observers. Besides, Gaia should benefit for the classical astrometric

  19. Object representation in the human auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, István; van Zuijen, Titia L.; Sussman, Elyse; Horváth, János; Näätänen, Risto

    2010-01-01

    One important principle of object processing is exclusive allocation. Any part of the sensory input, including the border between two objects, can only belong to one object at a time. We tested whether tones forming a spectro-temporal border between two sound patterns can belong to both patterns at the same time. Sequences were composed of low-, intermediate- and high-pitched tones. Tones were delivered with short onset-to-onset intervals causing the high and low tones to automatically form separate low and high sound streams. The intermediate-pitch tones could be perceived as part of either one or the other stream, but not both streams at the same time. Thus these tones formed a pitch ’border’ between the two streams. The tones were presented in a fixed, cyclically repeating order. Linking the intermediate-pitch tones with the high or the low tones resulted in the perception of two different repeating tonal patterns. Participants were instructed to maintain perception of one of the two tone patterns throughout the stimulus sequences. Occasional changes violated either the selected or the alternative tone pattern, but not both at the same time. We found that only violations of the selected pattern elicited the mismatch negativity event-related potential, indicating that only this pattern was represented in the auditory system. This result suggests that individual sounds are processed as part of only one auditory pattern at a time. Thus tones forming a spectro-temporal border are exclusively assigned to one sound object at any given time, as are spatio-temporal borders in vision. PMID:16836636

  20. Principles of automated learning in a GIS using an unlimited set of object-oriented persistent neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouille, Francois

    1994-08-01

    HBDS offers a class-based integrated platform which is a kernel for GIS, in which anything is modeled by using persistent abstract data types, possibly in a fuzzy context. One of the most interesting and efficient concepts is the neuron; in HBDS, a neuron is an object of a class of neurons, this one being included in the hyperclass `neuron,' and thus inheriting an algorithmic `behavior' which is automatically activated when one of its `launchers,' attributes or links, is invoked by an external agent; then the neuron may perform actions on other components. This neuron is able to take into account its preceding experiences owing to some algorithms included in the neural engine. The neural models are particularly easy to design and develop, and represent an up-to-date methodology very promising in GIS. They nevertheless require a special training and education for new geographers as well as for those still active.

  1. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS. PMID:26691781

  2. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS.

  3. A signal and image processing object-based system using CLOS. [Common LISP Object System (CLOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Sherwood, R.J.; Clark, G.A.; Lawver, B.S.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a LISP based system for signal and image processing. Using an object based approach the system integrates signal and image processing algorithms, supervised and unsupervised neural network algorithms, and mild-level computer vision capabilities, into a cohesive framework. This framework is suitable for prototyping complex algorithms dealing with multiple classes of data. The system, known as VISION, is currently used as a prototyping environment for wide range of scientific applications internal to LLNL. This paper highlights some of the capabilities of VISION, and how they were implemented using the Common LISP Object System, CLOS. 13 refs.

  4. Persistence of entanglement in thermal states of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiek, Gehad; Kais, Sabre

    2013-12-01

    We study and compare the persistence of bipartite entanglement (BE) and multipartite entanglement (ME) in one-dimensional and two-dimensional spin XY models in an external transverse magnetic field under the effect of thermal excitations. We compare the threshold temperature at which the entanglement vanishes in both types of entanglement. We use the entanglement of formation as a measure of the BE and the geometric measure to evaluate the ME of the system. We have found that in both dimensions in the anisotropic and partially anisotropic spin systems at zero temperatures, all types of entanglement decay as the magnetic field increases but are sustained with very small magnitudes at high field values. Also we found that for the same systems, the threshold temperatures of the nearest neighbour (nn) BEs are higher than both of the next-to-nearest neighbour BEs and MEs and the three of them increase monotonically with the magnetic field strength. Thus, as the temperature increases, the ME and the far parts BE of the system become more fragile to thermal excitations compared to the nn BE. For the isotropic system, all types of entanglement and threshold temperatures vanish at the same exact small value of the magnetic field. We emphasise the major role played by both the properties of the ground state of the system and the energy gap in controlling the characteristics of the entanglement and threshold temperatures. In addition, we have shown how an inserted magnetic impurity can be used to preserve all types of entanglement and enhance their threshold temperatures. Furthermore, we found that the quantum effects in the spin systems can be maintained at high temperatures, as the different types of entanglements in the spin lattices are sustained at high temperatures by applying sufficiently high magnetic fields.

  5. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  6. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  7. GTOSS: Generalized Tethered Object Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David D.

    1987-01-01

    GTOSS represents a tether analysis complex which is described by addressing its family of modules. TOSS is a portable software subsystem specifically designed to be introduced into the environment of any existing vehicle dynamics simulation to add the capability of simulating multiple interacting objects (via multiple tethers). These objects may interact with each other as well as with the vehicle into whose environment TOSS is introduced. GTOSS is a stand alone tethered system analysis program, representing an example of TOSS having been married to a host simulation. RTOSS is the Results Data Base (RDB) subsystem designed to archive TOSS simulation results for future display processing. DTOSS is a display post processors designed to utilize the RDB. DTOSS extracts data from the RDB for multi-page printed time history displays. CTOSS is similar to DTOSS, but is designed to create ASCII plot files. The same time history data formats provided for DTOSS (for printing) are available via CTOSS for plotting. How these and other modules interact with each other is discussed.

  8. Building persistent identifier systems for geoscience research - Technical solutions and community governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Lehnert, K. A.; Huber, R.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of the Internet gave rise to the expectation that the internet would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. New communication technologies enabled far easier and faster collaboration in larger, geographically more distributed networks. However, the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers were invented to allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets and geological specimens, and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works, and to software and instruments.Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. While Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community.Together with semantic technologies and linked data, unambiguous identification allows us to harness information at large scales beyond human comprehension. The technical possibilities offered by technology challenge some of the norms of scholarly cooperation, such as using and sharing resources beyond the emulation of paper-based publications.This presentation will discuss the development of persistent identification of research resources as a community effort, using the technical and governance patterns developed for DOI and for IGSN for data as an example.

  9. Innate immune recognition of flagellin limits systemic persistence of Brucella

    PubMed Central

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Ferooz, Jonathan; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N.; Franchi, Luigi; Núñez, Gabriel; Legrand, Thomas; Flavell, Richard A.; De Bolle, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause chronic infections by limiting innate immune recognition. It is currently unknown whether Brucella FliC flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagellar filament, is sensed by the host during infection. Here, we used two mutants of Brucella melitensis, either lacking or overexpressing flagellin to show that FliC hinders bacterial replication in vivo. The use of cells and mice genetically deficient for different components of inflammasomes suggested that FliC was a target of the cytosolic innate immune receptor NLRC4 in vivo but not in macrophages in vitro where the response to FliC was nevertheless dependent on the cytosolic adaptor ASC, therefore suggesting a new pathway of cytosolic flagellin sensing. However, our work also suggested that the lack of TLR5 activity of Brucella flagellin and the regulation of its synthesis and/or delivery into host cells are both part of the stealthy strategy of Brucella towards the innate immune system. Nevertheless, since a flagellin-deficient mutant of B. melitensis was found to cause histologically demonstrable injuries in the spleen of infected mice, we suggested that recognition of FliC plays a role in the immunologic standoff between Brucella and its host, which is characterized by a persistent infection with limited inflammatory pathology. PMID:23227931

  10. An object-oriented optimization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, G.S.; Hanson, K.M.; Jennings, G.R. Jr.; Wolf, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have described the implementation of a graphical programming tool in the object-oriented language, Smalltalk-80, that allows a user to construct a radiographic measurement model. The measurement model can be used to generate the measurements predicted by a given parameterized model of an experimental object. In this paper, we describe extensions to the graphical programming tool that allow it to be used to perform Bayesian inference on very large sets of object parameters, given real experimental data, by optimizing the likelihood or posterior probability of the parameters, given the real data.

  11. Reflection and Hyper-Programming in Persistent Programming Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Graham

    2010-06-01

    The work presented in this thesis seeks to improve programmer productivity in the following ways: - by reducing the amount of code that has to be written to construct an application; - by increasing the reliability of the code written; and - by improving the programmer's understanding of the persistent environment in which applications are constructed. Two programming techniques that may be used to pursue these goals in a persistent environment are type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming. The first provides a mechanism by which the programmer can write generators that, when executed, produce new program representations. This allows the specification of programs that are highly generic yet depend in non-trivial ways on the types of the data on which they operate. Genericity promotes software reuse which in turn reduces the amount of new code that has to be written. Hyper-programming allows a source program to contain links to data items in the persistent store. This improves program reliability by allowing certain program checking to be performed earlier than is otherwise possible. It also reduces the amount of code written by permitting direct links to data in the place of textual descriptions. Both techniques contribute to the understanding of the persistent environment through supporting the implementation of store browsing tools and allowing source representations to be associated with all executable programs in the persistent store. This thesis describes in detail the structure of type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming, their benefits in the persistent context, and a suite of programming tools that support reflective programming and hyper-programming. These tools may be used in conjunction to allow reflection over hyper-program representations. The implementation of the tools is described.

  12. Laser scanning system for object monitoring

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy James [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie Curtis [Powell, TN; Chiaro, Jr; John, Peter [Clinton, TN

    2008-04-22

    A laser scanner is located in a fixed position to have line-of-sight access to key features of monitored objects. The scanner rapidly scans pre-programmed points corresponding to the positions of retroreflecting targets affixed to the key features of the objects. The scanner is capable of making highly detailed scans of any portion of the field of view, permitting the exact location and identity of targets to be confirmed. The security of an object is verified by determining that the cooperative target is still present and that its position has not changed. The retroreflecting targets also modulate the reflected light for purposes of returning additional information back to the location of the scanner.

  13. Religious Minorities and Persistence at a Systemic Religiously Affiliated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Todd A.; Rice, N. Dewaine

    2009-01-01

    There is paucity in the professional literature regarding the religious minority in religiously affiliated colleges and universities. This exploratory study analyzed one conservative private religiously affiliated university and the persistence rates of both the religious majority and religious minority. Crosstabs and chi-square analysis indicated…

  14. Interoperative fundus image and report sharing in compliance with integrating the healthcare enterprise conformance and web access to digital imaging and communication in medicine persistent object protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Lv, Zheng-Min; Geng, Xing-Yun; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM To address issues in interoperability between different fundus image systems, we proposed a web eye-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) framework in conformance with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 (HL7) protocol to realize fundus images and reports sharing and communication through internet. METHODS Firstly, a telemedicine-based eye care work flow was established based on integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) Eye Care technical framework. Then, a browser/server architecture eye-PACS system was established in conformance with the web access to DICOM persistent object (WADO) protocol, which contains three tiers. RESULTS In any client system installed with web browser, clinicians could log in the eye-PACS to observe fundus images and reports. Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) type of a structured report is saved as pdf/html with reference link to relevant fundus image using the WADO syntax could provide enough information for clinicians. Some functions provided by open-source Oviyam could be used to query, zoom, move, measure, view DICOM fundus images. CONCLUSION Such web eye-PACS in compliance to WADO protocol could be used to store and communicate fundus images and reports, therefore is of great significance for teleophthalmology. PMID:24392341

  15. Stationary-Phase Persisters to Ofloxacin Sustain DNA Damage and Require Repair Systems Only during Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Völzing, Katherine G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infections are a serious health care problem, and bacterial persisters have been implicated in infection reoccurrence. Progress toward finding antipersister therapies has been slow, in part because of knowledge gaps regarding the physiology of these rare phenotypic variants. Evidence shows that growth status is important for survival, as nongrowing cultures can have 100-fold more persisters than growing populations. However, additional factors are clearly important, as persisters remain rare even in nongrowing populations. What features, beyond growth inhibition, allow persisters to survive antibiotic stress while the majority of their kin succumb to it remains an open question. To investigate this, we used stationary phase as a model nongrowing environment to study Escherichia coli persistence to ofloxacin. Given that the prevailing model of persistence attributes survival to transient dormancy and antibiotic target inactivity, we anticipated that persisters would suffer less damage than their dying kin. However, using genetic mutants, flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and persistence assays, we discovered that nongrowing ofloxacin persisters experience antibiotic-induced damage that is indistinguishable from that of nonpersisters. Consistent with this, we found that these persisters required DNA repair for survival and that repair machinery was unnecessary until the posttreatment recovery period (after ofloxacin removal). These findings suggest that persistence to ofloxacin is not engendered solely by reduced antibiotic target corruption, demonstrate that what happens following antibiotic stress can be critical to the persistence phenotype, and support the notion that inhibition of DNA damage repair systems could be an effective strategy to eliminate fluoroquinolone persisters. PMID:26330511

  16. Detection of object onsets and offsets: Does the primacy of onset persist even with bias for detecting offset?

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Maria J; Yamamoto, Naohide

    2016-10-01

    Onset primacy is a robust visual phenomenon in which appearance of new objects (onsets) in a scene more effectively captures observers' attention compared with disappearance of previously viewed objects (offsets). We hypothesized that the human attentional system is programmed by default to prioritize the processing of onsets, because quick detection of them is advantageous in most situations. However, the attentional priority may be able to flexibly adapt to the detection of object offsets depending on observers' behavioral goals. To test these hypotheses, two experiments were conducted in which participants were biased toward finding offset of an existing object through top-down and bottom-up manipulations. Results showed that although onset primacy was reduced to some degree under strong offset bias, in general participants continued to detect onsets efficiently. These findings did not eliminate the possibility of attentional flexibility, but they do demonstrate the robustness of onset primacy, suggesting that environmental demands or motivational factors would need to be sufficiently strong for people to switch to an adaptive attentional mode. PMID:27495326

  17. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  18. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  19. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-03-03

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds. 7 figs.

  20. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  1. SYSTEM FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION OF TUBULAR OBJECTS

    DOEpatents

    Kaserman, J.A.; Oliver, R.B.

    1962-11-13

    A system is designed for ultrasonic testing of a pipe submerged in a liquid bath. Flaws are detected by progressively scanning the rotating pipe while it is supported along its length by a series of spaced moving guides. (D.L.C.)

  2. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  3. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception That Heavier Objects Sink More: A Reaction Time Study with Different Levels of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Masson, Steve; Lafortune, Stéphanie; Cyr, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have argued for the "persistence" of some of students' frequent scientific misconceptions, even after correct answers are produced. Some of these studies, based on the analysis of reaction times, have recorded latencies for counter-intuitive or incongruent stimuli compared to intuitive or congruent ones. The…

  4. Interoperability Gap Challenges for Learning Object Repositories & Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    An interoperability gap exists between Learning Management Systems (LMSs) and Learning Object Repositories (LORs). Learning Objects (LOs) and the associated Learning Object Metadata (LOM) that is stored within LORs adhere to a variety of LOM standards. A common LOM standard found in LORs is the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)…

  5. Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) System Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    2000-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) will use the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the necessary and sufficient set of requirements for accomplishing the ORP mission. By managing requirements as one integrated set, the ORP will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. DOORS is a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) requirements management tool. The tool has not been customized for the use of the PIO, at this time.

  6. Persistent high fever and systemic inflammation induced by percutaneous coronary intervention-related periaortitis

    PubMed Central

    Kakino, Takamori; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    After coronary catheterization, fever sometimes occurs, usually transiently. We report a very rare case that suggests persistent high fever and systemic inflammation might be caused by periaortitis induced by coronary catheterization including percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:20057898

  7. A 3-D measurement system using object-oriented FORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a system for storing 3-D measurements of points that relates the coordinate system of the measurement device to the global coordinate system. The program described here used object-oriented FORTH to store the measured points as sons of the measuring device location. Conversion of local coordinates to absolute coordinates is performed by passing messages to the point objects. Modifications to the object-oriented FORTH system are also described. 1 ref.

  8. Object-oriented inventory classes: Comparison of implementations in KEE and CLOS (Common Lisp Object System)

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The modeling of manufacturing processes can be cast in a form which relies heavily on stores to and draws from object-oriented inventories, which contain the functionalities imposed on them by the other objects (including other inventories) in the model. These concepts have been implemented, but with some difficulties, for the particular case of pyrochemical operations at the DOE's Rocky Flats Plant using KEE, a frame-oriented expert system shell. An alternative implementation approach using CLOS (the emerging Common Lisp Object System) has been explored and found to give significant simplifications. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Relationship between host age and persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system of mice.

    PubMed

    Steiner, C M; Rozhon, E J; Lipton, H L

    1984-01-01

    This study has demonstrated that the ability of BeAn 8386 virus to persist in the central nervous system of mice declines with the increasing age of the host at the time of inoculation. Although persistent infection was established in 1-, 3-, 9-, and 40-week-old mice, there was a significant reduction in both the frequency of virus isolations and the mean virus titers in mice inoculated after 3 weeks of age. The incidence of clinical demyelinating disease (late disease) also decreased in animals infected after 3 weeks of age in parallel with the decline in virus persistence.

  10. Mechanical Systems. Competency Statements/Objectives and Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides competency statements/objectives for an 11th- to 12th-grade trade and industrial education course in mechanical systems. The first half of the guide consists of competency statements for the 53 units of the curriculum. Each competency statement consists of a terminal objective and specific objectives for each unit,…

  11. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning Systems.…

  12. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  13. A telepresence robot system realized by embedded object concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallius, Tero; Röning, Juha

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the Embedded Object Concept (EOC) and a telepresence robot system which is a test case for the EOC. The EOC utilizes common object-oriented methods used in software by applying them to combined Lego-like software-hardware entities. These entities represent objects in object-oriented design methods, and they are the building blocks of embedded systems. The goal of the EOC is to make the designing embedded systems faster and easier. This concept enables people without comprehensive knowledge in electronics design to create new embedded systems, and for experts it shortens the design time of new embedded systems. We present the current status of a telepresence robot created with second-generation Atomi-objects, which is the name for our implementation of the embedded objects. The telepresence robot is a relatively complex test case for the EOC. The robot has been constructed using incremental device development, which is made possible by the architecture of the EOC. The robot contains video and audio exchange capability and a controlling system for driving with two wheels. The robot is built in two versions, the first consisting of a PC device and Atomi-objects, and the second consisting of only Atomi-objects. The robot is currently incomplete, but most of it has been successfully tested.

  14. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  15. Method and System for Producing Images of an Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J. (Inventor); Garrison, James L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and system are provided to produce images of an object. A receiving station is positioned in view of a range-coded signal emitting satellite and the object. The receiving station is sensitive to direct transmission of the range-coded signal and reflections of the range-coded signal from the object. Both range from the receiving station to the object and a Doppler frequency shift history between the receiving station and the object is determined using the direct transmission and reflections of the range-coded signal. An image is formed using the two-dimensional record provided by the range and the Doppler frequency shift history.

  16. Using object-oriented analysis techniques to support system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucconi, Lin

    1990-03-01

    Testing of real-time control systems can be greatly facilitated by use of object-oriented and structured analysis modeling techniques. This report describes a project where behavior, process and information models built for a real-time control system were used to augment and aid traditional system testing. The modeling techniques used were an adaptation of the Ward/Mellor method for real-time systems analysis and design (Ward85) for object-oriented development. The models were used to simulate system behavior by means of hand execution of the behavior or state model and the associated process (data and control flow) and information (data) models. The information model, which uses an extended entity-relationship modeling technique, is used to identify application domain objects and their attributes (instance variables). The behavioral model uses state-transition diagrams to describe the state-dependent behavior of the object. The process model uses a transformation schema to describe the operations performed on or by the object. Together, these models provide a means of analyzing and specifying a system in terms of the static and dynamic properties of the objects which it manipulates. The various models were used to simultaneously capture knowledge about both the objects in the application domain and the system implementation. Models were constructed, verified against the software as-built and validated through informal reviews with the developer. These models were then hand-executed.

  17. Object and file management in the EXODUS extensible database system

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, M.J.; DeWitt, D.J.; Richardson, J.E.; Shekita, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the design of the object-oriented storage component of EXODUS, an extensible database management system currently under development at the University of Wisconsin. The basic abstraction in the EXODUS storage system is the storage object, an uninterpreted variable-length record of arbitrary size; higher level abstractions such as records and indices are supported via the storage object abstraction. One of the key design features described here is a scheme for managing large dynamic objects, as storage objects can occupy many disk pages and can grow or shrink at arbitrary points. The data structure and algorithms used to support such objects are described, and performance results from a preliminary prototype of the EXODUS large-object management scheme are presented. A scheme for maintaining versions of large objects is also described. The file structure used in the EXODUS storage system, which provides a mechanism for grouping and sequencing through a set of related storage objects and the EXODUS approach to buffer management, concurrency control, and recovery, both for small and large objects are discussed. 30 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    PubMed

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  19. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    PubMed

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  20. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  1. Hybrid Multiagent System for Automatic Object Learning Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Ana; de La Prieta, Fernando; López, Vivian F.

    The rapid evolution within the context of e-learning is closely linked to international efforts on the standardization of learning object metadata, which provides learners in a web-based educational system with ubiquitous access to multiple distributed repositories. This article presents a hybrid agent-based architecture that enables the recovery of learning objects tagged in Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and provides individualized help with selecting learning materials to make the most suitable choice among many alternatives.

  2. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  3. Object-oriented system building for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludgate, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The concepts and terminology of object-oriented system development are presented assuming the reader is familiar with the Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SA/SD) methodology. An improvement to SA/SD, known as Object Oriented Analysis/Object Oriented Design (OOA/OOD) is described and the steps in such an undertaking explained. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is briefly introduced before SA/SD and OOA/OOD are compared. A recommendation to the SSC Central Design Group concludes the paper.

  4. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  5. Embedded object concept with a telepresence robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallius, Tero; Röning, Juha

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the Embedded Object Concept (EOC) and a telepresence robot system which is a test case for the EOC. The EOC utilizes common object-oriented methods used in software by applying them to combined Lego-like software-hardware entities. These entities represent objects in object-oriented design methods, and they are the building blocks of embedded systems. The goal of the EOC is to make the designing of embedded systems faster and easier. This concept enables people without comprehensive knowledge in electronics design to create new embedded systems, and for experts it shortens the design time of new embedded systems. We present the current status of the EOC, including two generations of embedded objects named Atomi objects. The first generation of the Atomi objects has been tested with different applications, and found to be functional, but not optimal. The second generation aims to correct the issues found with the first generation, and it is being tested in a relatively complex test case. The test case is a telepresence robot consisting of a two wheeled human height robot and its computer counter part. The robot has been constructed using incremental device development, which is made possible by the architecture of the EOC. The robot contains video and audio exchange capability, and a controlling and balancing system for driving with two wheels. The robot is built in two versions, the first consisting of a PDA device and Atomi objects, and the second consisting of only Atomi objects. The robot is currently incomplete, but for the most part it has been successfully tested.

  6. A Secure and Robust Object-Based Video Authentication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dajun; Sun, Qibin; Tian, Qi

    2004-12-01

    An object-based video authentication system, which combines watermarking, error correction coding (ECC), and digital signature techniques, is presented for protecting the authenticity between video objects and their associated backgrounds. In this system, a set of angular radial transformation (ART) coefficients is selected as the feature to represent the video object and the background, respectively. ECC and cryptographic hashing are applied to those selected coefficients to generate the robust authentication watermark. This content-based, semifragile watermark is then embedded into the objects frame by frame before MPEG4 coding. In watermark embedding and extraction, groups of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients are randomly selected, and their energy relationships are employed to hide and extract the watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is robust to MPEG4 compression, object segmentation errors, and some common object-based video processing such as object translation, rotation, and scaling while securely preventing malicious object modifications. The proposed solution can be further incorporated into public key infrastructure (PKI).

  7. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  8. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  9. Multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Ciurapinski, Wieslaw M.; Zyczkowski, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafal; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Sosnowski, Tomasz

    2009-09-01

    Introduction of a ground multispectral detection has changed organization and construction of perimeter security systems. The perimeter systems with linear zone sensors and cables have been replaced with a point arrangement of sensors with multispectral detection. Such multispectral sensors generally consist of an active ground radar, which scans the protected area with microwaves or millimeter waves, a thermal camera, which detects temperature contrast and a visible range camera. Connection of these three different technologies into one system requires methodology for selection of technical conditions of installation and parameters of sensors. This procedure enables us to construct a system with correlated range, resolution, field of view and object identification. The second technical problem connected with the multispectral system is its software, which helps couple the radar with the cameras. This software can be used for automatic focusing of cameras, automatic guiding cameras to an object detected by the radar, tracking of the object and localization of the object on the digital map as well as identification and alarming. In this paper two essential issues connected with multispectral system are described. We focus on methodology of selection of sensors parameters. We present usage of a spider-chart, which was adopted to the proposed methodology. Next, we describe methodology of automation of the system regarding an object detection, tracking, identification, localization and alarming.

  10. Accurate object tracking system by integrating texture and depth cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ju-Chin; Lin, Yu-Hang

    2016-03-01

    A robust object tracking system that is invariant to object appearance variations and background clutter is proposed. Multiple instance learning with a boosting algorithm is applied to select discriminant texture information between the object and background data. Additionally, depth information, which is important to distinguish the object from a complicated background, is integrated. We propose two depth-based models that can compensate texture information to cope with both appearance variants and background clutter. Moreover, in order to reduce the risk of drifting problem increased for the textureless depth templates, an update mechanism is proposed to select more precise tracking results to avoid incorrect model updates. In the experiments, the robustness of the proposed system is evaluated and quantitative results are provided for performance analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed system can provide the best success rate and has more accurate tracking results than other well-known algorithms.

  11. Canine distemper virus persistence in the nervous system is associated with noncytolytic selective virus spread.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, A; Graber, H U; Wagner, A; Vandevelde, M

    1995-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative-strand RNA morbillivirus, causes a progressive demyelinating disease in which virus persistence plays an essential role. The antiviral immune response leads to virus clearance in the inflammatory lesions. However, CDV can replicate and persist outside these inflammatory lesions within the brain. How CDV is capable of persisting in the presence of an effective antiviral immune response is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we studied several aspects of virus replication in primary dog brain cell cultures (DBCC), comparing an attenuated CDV strain and a virulent CDV strain. Confluent DBCC were infected with either virulent A75/17-CDV or attenuated Onderstepoort-CDV and monitored for 60 days. Persistence was not associated with defective virus production, because all mRNAs and corresponding proteins were continuously expressed in the noncytolytic infection. Quantitative measurements did not detect a difference between the two types of infection in the rate of virus transcription and protein synthesis at the level of the single cell. However, electron microscopy and virus titration experiments showed that in the persistent CDV infection virus budding is strongly limited compared with that of the attenuated virus. Morphometry and immunocytochemistry showed profound differences in the way the two viruses spread in the culture. The attenuated CDV spread randomly to immediately adjacent cells, whereas persistent CDV spread selectively to more-distant cells by way of cell processes. In conclusion, the present study supports a mechanism of CDV persistence through selective spread by way of cell processes, enabling virulent CDV to invade the central nervous system without the need of releasing much virus into the extracellular space.

  12. Development of a Model System for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Persistence in HEK 293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mlera, Luwanika; Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F.; Melik, Wessam

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We devised a model system to study persistent infection by the tick-borne flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV) in 293T cells. Infection with a molecularly cloned LGTV strain produced an acute lytic crisis that left few surviving cells. The culture was repopulated by cells that were ~90% positive for LGTV E protein, thus initiating a persistent infection that was maintained for at least 35 weeks without additional lytic crises. Staining of cells for viral proteins and ultrastructural analysis revealed only minor differences from the acute phase of infection. Infectious LGTV decreased markedly over the study period, but the number of viral genomes remained relatively constant, suggesting the development of defective interfering particles (DIPs). Viral genome changes were investigated by RNA deep sequencing. At the initiation of persistent infection, levels of DIPs were below the limit of detection at a coverage depth of 11,288-fold, implying that DIPs are not required for initiation of persistence. However, after 15 passages, DIPs constituted approximately 34% of the total LGTV population (coverage of 1,293-fold). Furthermore, at this point, one specific DIP population predominated in which nucleotides 1058 to 2881 had been deleted. This defective genome specified an intact polyprotein that coded for a truncated fusion protein containing 28 N-terminal residues of E and 134 C-terminal residues of NS1. Such a fusion protein has not previously been described, and a possible function in persistent infection is uncertain. DIPs are not required for the initiation of persistent LGTV infection but may play a role in the maintenance of viral persistence. PMID:26045539

  13. Canine distemper virus persistence in the nervous system is associated with noncytolytic selective virus spread.

    PubMed Central

    Zurbriggen, A; Graber, H U; Wagner, A; Vandevelde, M

    1995-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative-strand RNA morbillivirus, causes a progressive demyelinating disease in which virus persistence plays an essential role. The antiviral immune response leads to virus clearance in the inflammatory lesions. However, CDV can replicate and persist outside these inflammatory lesions within the brain. How CDV is capable of persisting in the presence of an effective antiviral immune response is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we studied several aspects of virus replication in primary dog brain cell cultures (DBCC), comparing an attenuated CDV strain and a virulent CDV strain. Confluent DBCC were infected with either virulent A75/17-CDV or attenuated Onderstepoort-CDV and monitored for 60 days. Persistence was not associated with defective virus production, because all mRNAs and corresponding proteins were continuously expressed in the noncytolytic infection. Quantitative measurements did not detect a difference between the two types of infection in the rate of virus transcription and protein synthesis at the level of the single cell. However, electron microscopy and virus titration experiments showed that in the persistent CDV infection virus budding is strongly limited compared with that of the attenuated virus. Morphometry and immunocytochemistry showed profound differences in the way the two viruses spread in the culture. The attenuated CDV spread randomly to immediately adjacent cells, whereas persistent CDV spread selectively to more-distant cells by way of cell processes. In conclusion, the present study supports a mechanism of CDV persistence through selective spread by way of cell processes, enabling virulent CDV to invade the central nervous system without the need of releasing much virus into the extracellular space. PMID:7853504

  14. Improving Higher Education Access and Persistence: New Directions from a "Systems" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampen, Jacob O.; Hansen, W. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates a "systems approach," based on the quality deployment function, for examining the direct and interaction effects of multiple solutions aimed at improving access to college and student persistence. The high leverage solutions emerging from this study call for the improvement of academic achievement and schools for grades K-12. (SLD)

  15. Probing the Nature of Deficits in the "Approximate Number System" in Children with Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called "Approximate Number System" (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched…

  16. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  17. Exact SU(2) symmetry and persistent spin helix in a spin-orbit coupled system.

    PubMed

    Bernevig, B Andrei; Orenstein, J; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2006-12-01

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constants, and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions and is generated by operators whose wave vector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wave vector, giving rise to a persistent spin helix. We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away from, the symmetry point and suggest experiments to observe the persistent spin helix.

  18. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  19. THE COLORS OF EXTREME OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2010-04-15

    Extreme outer solar system objects have possible origins beyond the Kuiper Belt edge, high inclinations, very large semimajor axes, or large perihelion distances. Thirty-three such objects were observed in this work to determine their optical colors. All three objects that have been dynamically linked to the inner Oort Cloud by various authors ((90377) Sedna, 2006 SQ{sub 372}, and (87269) 2000 OO{sub 67}) were found to have ultra-red surface material (spectral gradient, S {approx} 25). Ultra-red material is generally associated with rich organics and the low inclination 'cold' classical Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). The observations detailed here show that very red material may be a more general feature for objects kept far from the Sun. The recently discovered retrograde outer solar system objects (2008 KV{sub 42} and 2008 YB{sub 3}) and the high inclination object (127546) 2002 XU{sub 93} show only moderately red surfaces (S {approx} 9) very similar to known comets, suspected dead comets, Jupiter and Neptune Trojans, irregular satellites, D-type asteroids, and damocloids. The extended or detached disk objects, which have large perihelion distances and are thus considered to be detached from the influence of the giant planets but yet have large eccentricities, are found to have mostly moderately red colors (10 {approx}< S {approx}< 18). The colors of the detached disk objects, including the dynamically unusual 2004 XR{sub 190} and (148209) 2000 CR{sub 105}, are similar to the scattered disk and Plutino populations. Thus the detached disk, scattered disk, Plutino, and high inclination 'hot' classical objects likely have a similar mix of objects from the same source regions. Outer classical KBOs, including (48639) 1995 TL{sub 8}, were found to have very red surfaces (18 {approx}< S {approx}< 30). The low inclination 'cold' classical KBOs, outer classical KBOs and possibly the inner Oort Cloud appear to be dominated by ultra-red objects (S {approx}> 25) and thus do not

  20. Cytoimmunotherapy for persistent virus infection reveals a unique clearance pattern from the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, M B; Blount, P; Southern, P J; Lampert, P W

    The mechanism(s) by which infectious or malignant material is cleared by the host has long been an area of intensive study. We have used the murine model of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to look at immune clearance during persistent infection. LCMV was selected because the mouse is its natural host, it easily induces acute or persistent infection in vivo, and the mechanism by which it is cleared in vivo during acute infection is now well understood. Clearance, although associated with several antiviral immune effector mechanisms, is primarily dependent on the activity of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) restricted by H-2 molecules of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC). If these cells fail to generate or are depleted, progression from acute to persistent infection occurs. Here, using molecular probes, we show that viral nucleic acid sequences, viral proteins and infectious materials can be efficiently and effectively cleared by adoptive transfer of antiviral H-2-restricted lymphocytes bearing the Lyt 2+ phenotype. Viral materials are cleared from a wide variety of tissues and organs where they normally lodge during persistent infection. Unexpectedly, the mode by which viral materials are removed from the central nervous system (CNS) differed markedly from the mechanism of clearance occurring at other sites. These observations indicate the possible use of adoptive lymphocyte therapy for treatment of persistent infections and suggest that immune clearance of products from the CNS probably occurs by a process distinct from those in other organs.

  1. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Xie, S.; Cederwall, R.T.; Yio, J.J.

    2001-06-19

    This report describes the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process the data collected from the ARM Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at State University of New York at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes, 1964; O'Brien, 1970; Lin and Johnson, 1996), the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum through a variational technique. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  2. Objective test and performance measurement of automotive crash warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, S.; Norcross, R. J.; Falco, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), under an interagency agreement with the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), is supporting development of objective test and measurement procedures for vehicle-based warning systems intended to warn an inattentive driver of imminent rear-end, road-departure and lane-change crash scenarios. The work includes development of track and on-road test procedures, and development of an independent measurement system, which together provide data for evaluating warning system performance. This paper will provide an overview of DOT's Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) program along with a review of the approach for objectively testing and measuring warning system performance.

  3. An object-oriented data reduction system in Fortran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    A data reduction system for the AAO two-degree field project is being developed using an object-oriented approach. Rather than use an object-oriented language (such as C++) the system is written in Fortran and makes extensive use of existing subroutine libraries provided by the UK Starlink project. Objects are created using the extensible N-dimensional Data Format (NDF) which itself is based on the Hierarchical Data System (HDS). The software consists of a class library, with each class corresponding to a Fortran subroutine with a standard calling sequence. The methods of the classes provide operations on NDF objects at a similar level of functionality to the applications of conventional data reduction systems. However, because they are provided as callable subroutines, they can be used as building blocks for more specialist applications. The class library is not dependent on a particular software environment thought it can be used effectively in ADAM applications. It can also be used from standalone Fortran programs. It is intended to develop a graphical user interface for use with the class library to form the 2dF data reduction system.

  4. Vision System Measures Motions of Robot and External Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of an advanced robotic vision system both (1) measures its own motion with respect to a stationary background and (2) detects other moving objects and estimates their motions, all by use of visual cues. Like some prior robotic and other optoelectronic vision systems, this system is based partly on concepts of optical flow and visual odometry. Whereas prior optoelectronic visual-odometry systems have been limited to frame rates of no more than 1 Hz, a visual-odometry subsystem that is part of this system operates at a frame rate of 60 to 200 Hz, given optical-flow estimates. The overall system operates at an effective frame rate of 12 Hz. Moreover, unlike prior machine-vision systems for detecting motions of external objects, this system need not remain stationary: it can detect such motions while it is moving (even vibrating). The system includes a stereoscopic pair of cameras mounted on a moving robot. The outputs of the cameras are digitized, then processed to extract positions and velocities. The initial image-data-processing functions of this system are the same as those of some prior systems: Stereoscopy is used to compute three-dimensional (3D) positions for all pixels in the camera images. For each pixel of each image, optical flow between successive image frames is used to compute the two-dimensional (2D) apparent relative translational motion of the point transverse to the line of sight of the camera. The challenge in designing this system was to provide for utilization of the 3D information from stereoscopy in conjunction with the 2D information from optical flow to distinguish between motion of the camera pair and motions of external objects, compute the motion of the camera pair in all six degrees of translational and rotational freedom, and robustly estimate the motions of external objects, all in real time. To meet this challenge, the system is designed to perform the following image-data-processing functions: The visual-odometry subsystem

  5. Object-oriented high-performance particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Sergey Y.; Plotnikov, Max

    2003-10-01

    Particle systems nowadays are the most popular visualization method for various special effects in 3D computer graphics. Software implementation of a particle system must have an abstract object-oriented model in order to be generic and portable. Besides, for real time graphics it is necessary that the particle system would remain efficient in processor time and memory. Original methods are described in this paper, which allow us to build such systems abstract and generic; as much as possible not depending on software environment and efficient at the same time.

  6. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2009-12-29

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  7. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-10-23

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  8. Persistent identifiers for CMIP6 data in the Earth System Grid Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Merret; Weigel, Tobias; Juckes, Martin; Lautenschlager, Michael; Kindermann, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a distributed data infrastructure that will provide access to the CMIP6 experiment data. The data consist of thousands of datasets composed of millions of files. Over the course of the CMIP6 operational phase, datasets may be retracted and replaced by newer versions that consist of completely or partly new files. Each dataset is hosted at a single data centre, but can have one or several backups (replicas) at other data centres. To keep track of the different data entities and relationships between them, to ensure their consistency and improve exchange of information about them, Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) are used. These are unique identifiers that are registered at a globally accessible server, along with some metadata (the PID record). While usually providing access to the data object they refer to, as long as it exists, the metadata record will remain available even beyond the object's lifetime. Besides providing access to data and metadata, PIDs will allow scientists to communicate effectively and on a fine granularity about CMIP6 data. The initiative to introduce PIDs in the ESGF infrastructure has been described and agreed upon through a series of white papers governed by the WGCM Infrastructure Panel (WIP). In CMIP6, each dataset and each file is assigned a PID that keeps track of the data object's physical copies throughout the object lifetime. In addition to this, its relationship with other data objects is stored in the PID recordA human-readable version of this information is available on an information page also linked in the PID record. A possible application that exploits the information available from the PID records is a smart information tool, which a scientific user can call to find out if his/her version was replaced by a new one, to view and browse the related datasets and files, and to get access to the various copies or to additional metadata on a dedicated website. The PID registration process is

  9. How Reuse Influences Productivity in Object-Oriented Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1997-01-01

    Although reuse is assumed to be especially valuable in building high quality software as well as in Object Oriented (OO) development, limited empirical evidence connects reuse with productivity and quality gains. The author's eight system study begins to define such benefits in an OO framework, most notably in terms of reduce defect density and rework as well as in increased productivity.

  10. Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Brown, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.

  11. Rethinking modeling framework design: object modeling system 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Object Modeling System (OMS) is a framework for environmental model development, data provisioning, testing, validation, and deployment. It provides a bridge for transferring technology from the research organization to the program delivery agency. The framework provides a consistent and efficie...

  12. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  13. Systems Biology-Based Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence Genes in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Veeramani, Balaji; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Karakousis, Petros C.; Bader, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes is important for developing novel drugs to shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We developed computational algorithms that predict M. tuberculosis genes required for long-term survival in mouse lungs. As the input, we used high-throughput M. tuberculosis mutant library screen data, mycobacterial global transcriptional profiles in mice and macrophages, and functional interaction networks. We selected 57 unique, genetically defined mutants (18 previously tested and 39 untested) to assess the predictive power of this approach in the murine model of TB infection. We observed a 6-fold enrichment in the predicted set of M. tuberculosis genes required for persistence in mouse lungs relative to randomly selected mutant pools. Our results also allowed us to reclassify several genes as required for M. tuberculosis persistence in vivo. Finally, the new results implicated additional high-priority candidate genes for testing. Experimental validation of computational predictions demonstrates the power of this systems biology approach for elucidating M. tuberculosis persistence genes. PMID:24549847

  14. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, S.; Hill, N.; Kavelaars, J.

    2014-07-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 7.6 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  15. Solar System object image search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, JJ

    2015-08-01

    While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 18 million images. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  16. Solar System Object Image Search: A precovery search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hill, Norman; Kavelaars, Jj

    2016-01-01

    While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.

  17. Reengineering legacy software to object-oriented systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitman, C.; Braley, D.; Fridge, E.; Plumb, A.; Izygon, M.; Mears, B.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has a legacy of complex software systems that are becoming increasingly expensive to maintain. Reengineering is one approach to modemizing these systems. Object-oriented technology, other modem software engineering principles, and automated tools can be used to reengineer the systems and will help to keep maintenance costs of the modemized systems down. The Software Technology Branch at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has been developing and testing reengineering methods and tools for several years. The Software Technology Branch is currently providing training and consulting support to several large reengineering projects at JSC, including the Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) project, which is reengineering the flight analysis and design system (over 2 million lines of FORTRAN code) into object-oriented C++. Many important lessons have been learned during the past years; one of these is that the design must never be allowed to diverge from the code during maintenance and enhancement. Future work on open, integrated environments to support reengineering is being actively planned.

  18. Garbage Collection in a Distributed Object-Oriented System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Aloke; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is described in this paper for garbage collection in distributed systems with object sharing across processor boundaries. The algorithm allows local garbage collection at each node in the system to proceed independently of local collection at the other nodes. It requires no global synchronization or knowledge of the global state of the system and exhibits the capability of graceful degradation. The concept of a specialized dump node is proposed to facilitate the collection of inaccessible circular structures. An experimental evaluation of the algorithm is also described. The algorithm is compared with a corresponding scheme that requires global synchronization. The results show that the algorithm works well in distributed processing environments even when the locality of object references is low.

  19. Solar system objects, and others peculiar bodies, with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia satellite launched in December 2013, has started it's routine all-sky scanning observations in July 2014 after commissioning phase. I will provide recent general updates on the mission, showing the two main long-term and short-term data processing performed within the DPAC consortium. I will only describe activities for Solar System Objects (SSO), Extended objects, and Non-single star, focusing particularly on the SSOs. In contrast to the others, SSOs are part of the short-term daily reduction, including the scientific alerts, that require ground-based observations in support. Last, I will touch upon the first Gaia data-release.

  20. Radar system components to detect small and fast objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülsmann, Axel; Zech, Christian; Klenner, Mathias; Tessmann, Axel; Leuther, Arnulf; Lopez-Diaz, Daniel; Schlechtweg, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Small and fast objects, for example bullets of caliber 5 to 10 mm, fired from guns like AK-47, can cause serious problems to aircrafts in asymmetric warfare. Especially slow and big aircrafts, like heavy transport helicopters are an easy mark of small caliber hand fire weapons. These aircrafts produce so much noise, that the crew is not able to recognize an attack unless serious problems occur and important systems of the aircraft fail. This is just one of many scenarios, where the detection of fast and small objects is desirable. Another scenario is the collision of space debris particles with satellites.

  1. Minocycline-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome with persistent myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kerry K; Bouchard, Susan M; Mohr, Melinda R; Herre, John M; Salkey, Kimberly S

    2010-02-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare serious adverse effect associated with a variety of medications. We present a case of minocycline-induced DRESS syndrome, which resulted in acute renal failure, transient thyroiditis, and transaminitis, and a persistent lymphocytic myocarditis resulting in congestive heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of minocycline-induced myocarditis. Additionally, we report successful plasmapheresis and rituximab treatment for minocycline-induced myocarditis associated with the DRESS syndrome.

  2. Lupus vulgaris in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and persistent IgG deficiency.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, N; Duman, M; Sonel, B; Peksari, Y; Erdem, C; Tokgöz, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed a persistent, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia with IgG deficiency. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was probably a complication of high dose corticosteroid treatment. The serum IgG level remained subnormal despite intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Lupus vulgaris, which developed on the nasal cartilage in this patient with SLE, is not an expected finding. This patient is probably the first reported case of SLE associated with lupus vulgaris.

  3. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOEpatents

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2010-12-14

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  4. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOEpatents

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2009-03-17

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  5. An object-oriented expert system for sedimentary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Some of the basic earth-science problems that span industry, academia, and the government, and are likely candidates for the application of knowledge-based expert systems, pertain to energy and mineral resource studies. Most of the world's energy resources and many of its metallic and mineral resources are derived from complex sources in sedimentary basins. A comprehensive basin analysis requires an understanding of data from many specialties including sedimentology, stratigraphy, geophysics, structural geology, and geochemistry. Such as integrated analysis is almost impossible without a computer. Research efforts in the US Geological Survey are currently being directed at exploring the feasibility of applying expert systems and knowledge acquisition techniques to the design and development of a global system of classification and geological analysis of sedimentary basins to assess their petroleum potential. The primary objective is the design of a prototype object-oriented expert system, interfaced with a Geographic Information System (GIS), that captures both the logic used to define the geologic concepts and the reasoning under uncertainty that enables geologists to understand and reconstruct geologic history of a sedimentary basins. The systems are designed to analyze the traditional concepts of source, reservoir, and trapping mechanism; to help diagnose geologic conditions favorable for the occurrence of petroleum or other energy resources; and to assist in assessing these resources. The design and content of the expert systems program is discussed for application to basin analysis studies to aid in petroleum resource assessment.

  6. Evolving Systems: Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component Control with Persistent Disturbance Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to Evolving Systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new Evolved System with a higher purpose. Evolving Systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control which operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition this control must overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. We present theoretical results for the successful operation of Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component control in the presence of such disturbances and an illustrative example.

  7. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  8. Digital Equivalent Data System for XRF Labeling of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A digital equivalent data system (DEDS) is a system for identifying objects by means of the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra of labeling elements that are encased in or deposited on the objects. As such, a DEDS is a revolutionary new major subsystem of an XRF system. A DEDS embodies the means for converting the spectral data output of an XRF scanner to an ASCII alphanumeric or barcode label that can be used to identify (or verify the assumed or apparent identity of) an XRF-scanned object. A typical XRF spectrum of interest contains peaks at photon energies associated with specific elements on the Periodic Table (see figure). The height of each spectral peak above the local background spectral intensity is proportional to the relative abundance of the corresponding element. Alphanumeric values are assigned to the relative abundances of the elements. Hence, if an object contained labeling elements in suitably chosen proportions, an alphanumeric representation of the object could be extracted from its XRF spectrum. The mixture of labeling elements and for reading the XRF spectrum would be compatible with one of the labeling conventions now used for bar codes and binary matrix patterns (essentially, two-dimensional bar codes that resemble checkerboards). A further benefit of such compatibility is that it would enable the conversion of the XRF spectral output to a bar or matrix-coded label, if needed. In short, a process previously used only for material composition analysis has been reapplied to the world of identification. This new level of verification is now being used for "authentication."

  9. Polarimetry of Solar System Objects: Observations vs. Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of planetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy, provides insight into the scattering properties of the planetary media. Specifically, linear and circular polarimetric signatures of the object arise from different physical processes and their study proves essential to the characterization of the object. Linear polarization of reflected light by various solar system objects provides insight into the scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and hazes? and surficial properties of atmosphereless bodies. Many optically active materials are anisotropic and so their scattering properties differ with the object's principal axes (such as dichroic or birefringent materials) and are crystalline in structure instead of amorphous, (eg., the presence of olivines and silicates in cometary dust and circumstellar disks? Titan, etc.). Ices (water and other species) are abundant in the system indicated in their near - infrared spectra. Gas giants form outside the frost line (where ices condense), and their satellites and ring systems exhibit signature of water ice? clathrates, nonices (Si, C, Fe) in their NIR spectra and spectral dependence of linear polarization. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. Circular polarization, on the other hand, is indicative of magnetic fields and biologically active molecules, necessary for habitability. These applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numericalretrieval methods. With recent discoveries and

  10. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  11. A diagnosis system using object-oriented fault tree models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceborne computing systems must provide reliable, continuous operation for extended periods. Due to weight, power, and volume constraints, these systems must manage resources very effectively. A fault diagnosis algorithm is described which enables fast and flexible diagnoses in the dynamic distributed computing environments planned for future space missions. The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. Augmented fault trees represented in an object-oriented form provide deep system knowledge that is easy to access and revise as a system changes. Given such a fault tree, a set of failure events that have occurred, and a set of failure events that have not occurred, this diagnosis system uses forward and backward chaining to propagate causal and temporal information about other failure events in the system being diagnosed. Once the system has established temporal and causal constraints, it reasons backward from heuristically selected failure events to find a set of basic failure events which are a likely cause of the occurrence of the top failure event in the fault tree. The diagnosis system has been implemented in common LISP using Flavors.

  12. Deploying Object Oriented Data Technology to the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, S.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    How do you provide more than 350 scientists and researchers access to data from every instrument in Odyssey when the data is curated across half a dozen institutions and in different formats and is too big to mail on a CD-ROM anymore? The Planetary Data System (PDS) faced this exact question. The solution was to use a metadata-based middleware framework developed by the Object Oriented Data Technology task at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using OODT, PDS provided - for the first time ever - data from all mission instruments through a single system immediately upon data delivery.

  13. Stereometric Measurement System For Quantification Of Object Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Mesqui, F.; Kaeser, F.

    1986-07-01

    A three-dimensional camera unit has been developed at the Dental School of the University of Zurich for jaw motion recording. Since the system is designed to detect and reconstruct the spatial position of a light source, it can easily be used to digitize an object surface being scanned by a laser beam. This is performed by an additional device which has been developed in order to enlarge the application field of the camera unit as well as to prove the feasibility and find out the limits of such a simple and low-cost quantification system.

  14. Polarimetric remote sensing of Solar System objects: a perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol and cloud particles exert a strong influence on climates of the Earth and other planets. Microscopic regolith particles covering the surfaces of many Solar System bodies and particles forming cometary atmospheres have a strong and often controlling effect on many ambient physical and chemical processes. Moreover, they are "living witnesses" of the history of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Therefore, detailed and accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of such particles has the utmost scientific and practical importance. More often than not it is impracticable to collect samples of such particles and subject them to a laboratory test. Therefore, in most cases one has to rely on theoretical analyses of remote measurements of the electromagnetic radiation scattered by the particles. Fortunately, the scattering and absorption properties of small particles often exhibit a strong dependence on their size, shape, orientation, and refractive index. This factor makes remote sensing an extremely useful and often the only practicable means of physical and chemical particle characterization in geophysics and planetary astrophysics. For a long time remote-sensing studies had relied on measurements of only the scattered intensity and its spectral dependence. Eventually it has become recognized that polarimetric characteristics of the scattered radiation contain much more accurate and specific information about such important properties of particles as their size, morphology, and chemical composition. Continuing progress in electromagnetic scattering theory coupled with great advances in the polarization measurement capability has resulted in overwhelming examples of the immense practical power of polarimetric remote sensing which are no longer possible to ignore. As a result of persistent research efforts, polarimetry has become one of the most informative, accurate, and efficient means of terrestrial and planetary remote sensing.

  15. System for Thermal Imaging of Hot Moving Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard; Hundley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The High Altitude/Re-Entry Vehicle Infrared Imaging (HARVII) system is a portable instrumentation system for tracking and thermal imaging of a possibly distant and moving object. The HARVII is designed specifically for measuring the changing temperature distribution on a space shuttle as it reenters the atmosphere. The HARVII system or other systems based on the design of the HARVII system could also be used for such purposes as determining temperature distributions in fires, on volcanoes, and on surfaces of hot models in wind tunnels. In yet another potential application, the HARVII or a similar system would be used to infer atmospheric pollution levels from images of the Sun acquired at multiple wavelengths over regions of interest. The HARVII system includes the Ratio Intensity Thermography System (RITS) and a tracking subsystem that keeps the RITS aimed at the moving object of interest. The subsystem of primary interest here is the RITS (see figure), which acquires and digitizes images of the same scene at different wavelengths in rapid succession. Assuming that the time interval between successive measurements is short enough that temperatures do not change appreciably, the digitized image data at the different wavelengths are processed to extract temperatures according to the principle of ratio-intensity thermography: The temperature at a given location in a scene is inferred from the ratios between or among intensities of infrared radiation from that location at two or more wavelengths. This principle, based on the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for the intensity of electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength and temperature, is valid as long as the observed body is a gray or black body and there is minimal atmospheric absorption of radiation.

  16. Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Florczak, M.; Betzler, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1997-07-01

    We began a systematic study of primitive bodies, called S(3OS^2) , Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey. Among the objects we are studying are: Near-Earth objects, asteroid families, asteroids near resonances, dark objects, Centaurs, objects representing a possible transition comet-asteroid, and asteroids with a very slow or complex rotation. The chemical and mineralogical composition of an asteroid's surface is studied through the analysis of its reflectance spectra in different wavelenghts. Four observation missions were carried out at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile), when we obtained a mineral characterization of about 300 asteroids. The observations were realized with a 1.52 m telescope with a Boller & Chivens spectrograph and a 2048x2048 CCD. The spectra were obtained in wavelenghts from 3000 to 9200 { Angstroms} and were reduced using the IRAF reduction package with usual techniques like flat-field, He-Ar lamps and solar analogs. Concerning concentrations in the Main Belt due to resonances with Jupiter, we present the initial results of Cybeles, Hildas, Hungarias, NEAs and Phocaea. We observed also, along all its opposition, the Centaur object 2060 Chiron, that displays a small cometary activity represented by variations in its reflectance spectrum. Concerning asteroid families, concentrations we believe are debris of an energetic collision causing the total breakup of the original bodies, we observed members of Adeona, Dora, Eos, Eunomia, Flora, Merxia and Themis. The Main Belt is represented in our sample by Flora, in the most inner region, Eunomia, Adeona, Dora and Merxia in the intermediary region, and Themis and Eos representing the most outer region of the belt. *Based on observations made with the 1.52 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under the agreement with the CNPq/Observatorio Nacional (Brazil).

  17. 2012 DR30, The Most Distant Solar System Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Csaba; Szabó, G.; Pál, A.; Kiss, L.; Sárneczky, K.; Müller, T.; Vilenius, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Conn, B.; Ortiz, J.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Horner, J.; Bannister, M.; Stansberry, J.

    2012-10-01

    2012 DR30, the most distant TNO in the Solar System (a=1103 AU) has recently been observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. Radiometric model results using the far-infrared fluxes and visual range data show a dark and cratered surface (p_V = 6%) and provide a diameter of 200km. If considered as a Centaur, this is the fifth largest object known in this dynamical class. Recent visual range measurements indicate the presence of methane ice on the surface, a feature that has been seen previously for objects with diameters of >=1000km only (like Eris, Makemake and Pluto). The presence of methane ice can be explained assuming that the object spent most of its lifetime in a very cold environment and has been recently placed to its present orbit. This scenario is in agreement with the results of a dynamical study of the object's orbit, also suggesting an Oort-cloud origin. This research has been supported by the following grants: (1) The PECS program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Hungarian Space Office, PECS-98073; (2) C.K. and A.P. acknowledges the support of the Bolyai Research Fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  18. Identification of known objects in Solar System surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran; Farnocchia, Davide; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Burgett, William; Grav, Tommy; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Price, Paul A.

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of new objects in modern wide-field asteroid and comet surveys can be enhanced by first identifying observations belonging to known Solar System objects. The assignation of new observations to a known object is an attribution problem that occurs when a least squares orbit already exists for the object but a separate fit is not possible to just the set of new observations. In this work we explore the strongly asymmetric attribution problem in which the existing least squares orbit is very well constrained and the new data are sparse. We describe an attribution algorithm that introduces new quality control metrics in the presence of strong biases in the astrometric residuals. The main biases arise from the stellar catalogs used in the reduction of asteroid observations and we show that a simple debiasing with measured regional catalog biases significantly improves the results. We tested the attribution algorithm using data from the PS1 survey that used the 2MASS star catalog for the astrometric reduction. We found small but statistically significant biases in the data of up to 0.1 arcsec that are relevant only when the observations reach the level of accuracy made possible by instruments like PS1. The false attribution rate was measured to be <1/1000 with a simple additional condition that can reduce it to zero while the attribution efficiency is consistent with 100%.

  19. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  20. Adding intelligent services to an object oriented system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robideaux, Bret R.; Metzler, Theodore A.

    1994-01-01

    As today's software becomes increasingly complex, the need grows for intelligence of one sort or another to becomes part of the application, often an intelligence that does not readily fit the paradigm of one's software development. There are many methods of developing software, but at this time, the most promising is the object oriented (OO) method. This method involves an analysis to abstract the problem into separate 'objects' that are unique in the data that describe them and the behavior that they exhibit, and eventually to convert this analysis into computer code using a programming language that was designed (or retrofitted) for OO implementation. This paper discusses the creation of three different applications that are analyzed, designed, and programmed using the Shlaer/Mellor method of OO development and C++ as the programming language. All three, however, require the use of an expert system to provide an intelligence that C++ (or any other 'traditional' language) is not directly suited to supply. The flexibility of CLIPS permitted us to make modifications to it that allow seamless integration with any of our applications that require an expert system. We illustrate this integration with the following applications: (1) an after action review (AAR) station that assists a reviewer in watching a simulated tank battle and developing an AAR to critique the performance of the participants in the battle; (2) an embedded training system and over-the-shoulder coach for howitzer crewmen; and (3) a system to identify various chemical compounds from their infrared absorption spectra.

  1. Mobile system for in-situ imaging of cultural objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlicka, J.; Jakubek, J.; Krejci, F.; Hradil, D.; Hradilova, J.; Mislerova, H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive analytical techniques recently developed with the Timepix pixel detector have shown great potential for the inspection of objects of cultural heritage. We have developed new instrumentation and methodology for in-situ X-ray transmission radiography and X-ray fluorescence imaging and successfully tested and evaluated a mobile system for remote terrain tasks. The prototype portable imaging device comprises the radiation source tube and the spectral sensitive X-ray camera. Both components can be moreover mounted on independent motorized positioning systems allowing adaptation of irradiation geometry to the object shape. Both parts are placed onto a pair of universal portable holders (tripods). The detector is placed in a shielded box with exchangeable entrance window (beam filters and pinhole collimator). This adjustable setup allows performing in-situ measurements for both transmission and emission (XRF) radiography. The assembled system has been successfully tested in our laboratory with phantoms and real samples. The obtained and evaluated results are presented in this paper. Future work will include successive adaptation of the current system for real in-situ utilization and preparation of software allowing semi-automatic remote control of measurements.

  2. Applications of fuzzy theories to multi-objective system optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. S.; Dhingra, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the computer aided design techniques developed so far deal with the optimization of a single objective function over the feasible design space. However, there often exist several engineering design problems which require a simultaneous consideration of several objective functions. This work presents several techniques of multiobjective optimization. In addition, a new formulation, based on fuzzy theories, is also introduced for the solution of multiobjective system optimization problems. The fuzzy formulation is useful in dealing with systems which are described imprecisely using fuzzy terms such as, 'sufficiently large', 'very strong', or 'satisfactory'. The proposed theory translates the imprecise linguistic statements and multiple objectives into equivalent crisp mathematical statements using fuzzy logic. The effectiveness of all the methodologies and theories presented is illustrated by formulating and solving two different engineering design problems. The first one involves the flight trajectory optimization and the main rotor design of helicopters. The second one is concerned with the integrated kinematic-dynamic synthesis of planar mechanisms. The use and effectiveness of nonlinear membership functions in fuzzy formulation is also demonstrated. The numerical results indicate that the fuzzy formulation could yield results which are qualitatively different from those provided by the crisp formulation. It is felt that the fuzzy formulation will handle real life design problems on a more rational basis.

  3. Uniform and strict persistence in monotone skew-product semiflows with applications to non-autonomous Nicholson systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaya, Rafael; Sanz, Ana M.

    2016-10-01

    We determine sufficient conditions for uniform and strict persistence in the case of skew-product semiflows generated by solutions of non-autonomous families of cooperative systems of ODEs or delay FDEs in terms of the principal spectrums of some associated linear skew-product semiflows which admit a continuous separation. Our conditions are also necessary in the linear case. We apply our results to a noncooperative almost periodic Nicholson system with a patch structure, whose persistence turns out to be equivalent to the persistence of the linearized system along the null solution.

  4. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  5. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  6. Structure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons. II. Persistence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondic, L.; Kramár, M.; Pugnaloni, Luis A.; Carlevaro, C. Manuel; Mischaikow, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the companion paper [Pugnaloni et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062902 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062902], we use classical measures based on force probability density functions (PDFs), as well as Betti numbers (quantifying the number of components, related to force chains, and loops), to describe the force networks in tapped systems of disks and pentagons. In the present work, we focus on the use of persistence analysis, which allows us to describe these networks in much more detail. This approach allows us not only to describe but also to quantify the differences between the force networks in different realizations of a system, in different parts of the considered domain, or in different systems. We show that persistence analysis clearly distinguishes the systems that are very difficult or impossible to differentiate using other means. One important finding is that the differences in force networks between disks and pentagons are most apparent when loops are considered: the quantities describing properties of the loops may differ significantly even if other measures (properties of components, Betti numbers, force PDFs, or the stress tensor) do not distinguish clearly or at all the investigated systems.

  7. Structure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons. II. Persistence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondic, L; Kramár, M; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Carlevaro, C Manuel; Mischaikow, K

    2016-06-01

    In the companion paper [Pugnaloni et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062902 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062902], we use classical measures based on force probability density functions (PDFs), as well as Betti numbers (quantifying the number of components, related to force chains, and loops), to describe the force networks in tapped systems of disks and pentagons. In the present work, we focus on the use of persistence analysis, which allows us to describe these networks in much more detail. This approach allows us not only to describe but also to quantify the differences between the force networks in different realizations of a system, in different parts of the considered domain, or in different systems. We show that persistence analysis clearly distinguishes the systems that are very difficult or impossible to differentiate using other means. One important finding is that the differences in force networks between disks and pentagons are most apparent when loops are considered: the quantities describing properties of the loops may differ significantly even if other measures (properties of components, Betti numbers, force PDFs, or the stress tensor) do not distinguish clearly or at all the investigated systems. PMID:27415343

  8. Structure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons. II. Persistence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondic, L; Kramár, M; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Carlevaro, C Manuel; Mischaikow, K

    2016-06-01

    In the companion paper [Pugnaloni et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062902 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062902], we use classical measures based on force probability density functions (PDFs), as well as Betti numbers (quantifying the number of components, related to force chains, and loops), to describe the force networks in tapped systems of disks and pentagons. In the present work, we focus on the use of persistence analysis, which allows us to describe these networks in much more detail. This approach allows us not only to describe but also to quantify the differences between the force networks in different realizations of a system, in different parts of the considered domain, or in different systems. We show that persistence analysis clearly distinguishes the systems that are very difficult or impossible to differentiate using other means. One important finding is that the differences in force networks between disks and pentagons are most apparent when loops are considered: the quantities describing properties of the loops may differ significantly even if other measures (properties of components, Betti numbers, force PDFs, or the stress tensor) do not distinguish clearly or at all the investigated systems.

  9. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1α: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MIP-1α due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  10. An Efficient Objective Analysis System for Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stobie, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new atmospheric objective analysis system designed for parallel computers will be described. The system can produce a global analysis (on a 1 X 1 lat-lon grid with 18 levels of heights and winds and 10 levels of moisture) using 120,000 observations in 17 minutes on 32 CPUs (SGI Origin 2000). No special parallel code is needed (e.g. MPI or multitasking) and the 32 CPUs do not have to be on the same platform. The system is totally portable and can run on several different architectures at once. In addition, the system can easily scale up to 100 or more CPUS. This will allow for much higher resolution and significant increases in input data. The system scales linearly as the number of observations and the number of grid points. The cost overhead in going from 1 to 32 CPUs is 18%. In addition, the analysis results are identical regardless of the number of processors used. This system has all the characteristics of optimal interpolation, combining detailed instrument and first guess error statistics to produce the best estimate of the atmospheric state. Static tests with a 2 X 2.5 resolution version of this system showed it's analysis increments are comparable to the latest NASA operational system including maintenance of mass-wind balance. Results from several months of cycling test in the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) show this new analysis retains the same level of agreement between the first guess and observations (O-F statistics) as the current operational system.

  11. An Efficient Objective Analysis System for Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stobie, James G.

    1999-01-01

    A new objective analysis system designed for parallel computers will be described. The system can produce a global analysis (on a 2 x 2.5 lat-lon grid with 20 levels of heights and winds and 10 levels of moisture) using 120,000 observations in less than 3 minutes on 32 CPUs (SGI Origin 2000). No special parallel code is needed (e.g. MPI or multitasking) and the 32 CPUs do not have to be on the same platform. The system Ls totally portable and can run on -several different architectures at once. In addition, the system can easily scale up to 100 or more CPUS. This will allow for much higher resolution and significant increases in input data. The system scales linearly as the number of observations and the number of grid points. The cost overhead in going from I to 32 CPus is 18%. in addition, the analysis results are identical regardless of the number of processors used. T'his system has all the characteristics of optimal interpolation, combining detailed instrument and first guess error statistics to produce the best estimate of the atmospheric state. It also includes a new quality control (buddy check) system. Static tests with the system showed it's analysis increments are comparable to the latest NASA operational system including maintenance of mass-wind balance. Results from a 2-month cycling test in the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) show this new analysis retains the same level of agreement between the first guess and observations (0-F statistics) throughout the entire two months.

  12. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.

    1990-01-01

    Microwave spectroscopy of solar system objects was supported. It necessarily involves millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths where rotational transitions reside. The existing national facilities are at OVRO, the 12-meter at Kitt Peak, UC array at Hat Creek, the Caltech CSO on Mauna Kea, and the 14-meter at the Univ. of Massachusetts, near Amherst. The group used all of these instruments in the last year except the Univ. of Massachusetts 14-meter. This wavelength range (0.3 to 3 mm) is about to enjoy an explosion of interest as submillimeter receivers become better and easier to use. This region of the spectrum is rich in transitions of molecules that exist in the planetary atmospheres which can be studied for temperature-pressure profiles, wind tracers, and atmospheric chemistry. The list of solar system objects that have been recently addressed with these techniques include: (1) Venus: CO studies of T-P profiles, winds, and photochemistry; SO2 detections; Continuum mapping remains to be done at 1 mm; (2) Earth H2O, CO, NO, NO2, O(18)O, etc. as a test bed for other atmospheres; (3) Mars: H2O, CO, O(18)O studies of T-P profiles, winds (fall of 1990), and photochemistry; (4) Saturn: Same as Jupiter plus submillimeter and millimeter mapping of the ring system; (5) Uranus and Neptune: Continuum thermal mapping; and (6) Titan: CO, HCN, and HC3NT-P information and photochemistry. Recent results are given.

  13. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2014-09-01

    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  14. Toward an objective classification of cells in the immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Lefkovits, I; Kuhn, L; Valiron, O; Merle, A; Kettman, J

    1988-01-01

    The relative abundance of individual proteins shared among clones of lymphocytes provides a meaningful basis for cellular classification. Twelve clones of T cells (obtained by limiting dilution) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for polypeptide content and then evaluated by the computational technique known as principal component analysis. As a result, relatedness of the clones was established and expressed in terms of taxonomic distances. The data show that a comprehensive and objective classification of the cells involved in the immune system can be approached. Images PMID:3259320

  15. Mating system plasticity promotes persistence and adaptation of colonizing populations of hermaphroditic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Persistence and adaptation in novel environments are limited by small population size, strong selection, and maladaptive gene flow. Mating system plasticity is common in angiosperms and may provide both demographic and genetic benefits that promote niche evolution, including reproductive assurance and isolation from maladaptive gene flow. Yet increased self-fertilization may also cause inbreeding depression, accumulation of deleterious mutations, and reduced adaptive potential. Here we use individual-based simulations to examine the consequences of mating system plasticity for persistence and adaptation in a novel environment that imposes selection on a quantitative trait. We examine the joint evolution of local adaptation, inbreeding depression, and genetic load. We find that a plastic shift to a mixed mating system generally promotes niche evolution by decreasing the risk of extinction, providing isolation from maladaptive gene flow, and temporarily increasing genetic variance in the trait under selection, whereas obligate self-fertilization reduces adaptive potential. These effects are most pronounced under conditions of mate limitation, strong selection, or maladaptive gene flow. Our results highlight the diverse demographic and genetic consequences of self-fertilization and support the potential role for plastic shifts in mating system to promote niche evolution in flowering plants.

  16. Persistence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in a Drinking Water System after Addition of Filtration Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Covert, Terry C.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Harris, Stephanie I.; Donnelly, Sandra F.; Rice, Eugene W.; Toney, Sean; Bailey, Stephanie A.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determine whether we could detect a reduction in the prevalence of NTM recovered from an unfiltered surface drinking water system after the addition of ozonation and filtration treatment and to characterize NTM isolates by using molecular methods. We sampled water from two initially unfiltered surface drinking water treatment plants over a 29-month period. One plant received the addition of filtration and ozonation after 6 months of sampling. Sample sites included those at treatment plant effluents, distributed water, and cold water taps (point-of-use [POU] sites) in public or commercial buildings located within each distribution system. NTM were recovered from 27% of the sites. POU sites yielded the majority of NTM, with >50% recovery despite the addition of ozonation and filtration. Closely related electrophoretic groups of Mycobacterium avium were found to persist at POU sites for up to 26 months. Water collected from POU cold water outlets was persistently colonized with NTM despite the addition of ozonation and filtration to a drinking water system. This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM. PMID:16957205

  17. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  18. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  19. An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix in a Spin-Orbit Coupled System

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, Andrei

    2010-02-10

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.

  20. An objective reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovato, Tomas; Vichi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    An objective estimation of the current distribution of carbonate system variables for the Mediterranean Sea is proposed using empirical relationships derived from ship-based observations and combined with monthly climatological fields of hydrographic parameters. The high quality data of METEOR84/3 cruise were used to fit multiple linear regression models of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TA) from other hydrochemical parameters. These algorithms provided a robust estimation of DIC and TA, with corresponding Root Mean Squared Errors of 7.66 and 5.09 μmol/kg, by accounting only for potential temperature, salinity, pressure, and nitrate concentration. After the application of the identified regression models to a set of publicly available climatological fields, an objective assessment of the reconstructed carbonate system monthly distributions was derived and compared against different ship-based surveys. Results showed that the Mediterranean Sea interior was well reproduced with errors <14 μmol/kg, whereas the near surface layers still exhibited large uncertainties. The lower degree of confidence of this approach at the surface does not allow the direct application for studying anthropogenic CO2 trends, but some qualitative considerations were drawn from the comparison between the estimated inorganic carbon system and the available observational datasets. Most importantly, the present work showed that the estimated inventories are able to capture the linkages with the physical oceanic features of the system and we propose this method as an inexpensive solution to support the design of monitoring activities in the Mediterranean Sea, which is still poorly constrained by direct observations.

  1. A survey of commercial object-oriented database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, John

    1992-01-01

    The object-oriented data model is the culmination of over thirty years of database research. Initially, database research focused on the need to provide information in a consistent and efficient manner to the business community. Early data models such as the hierarchical model and the network model met the goal of consistent and efficient access to data and were substantial improvements over simple file mechanisms for storing and accessing data. However, these models required highly skilled programmers to provide access to the data. Consequently, in the early 70's E.F. Codd, an IBM research computer scientists, proposed a new data model based on the simple mathematical notion of the relation. This model is known as the Relational Model. In the relational model, data is represented in flat tables (or relations) which have no physical or internal links between them. The simplicity of this model fostered the development of powerful but relatively simple query languages that now made data directly accessible to the general database user. Except for large, multi-user database systems, a database professional was in general no longer necessary. Database professionals found that traditional data in the form of character data, dates, and numeric data were easily represented and managed via the relational model. Commercial relational database management systems proliferated and performance of relational databases improved dramatically. However, there was a growing community of potential database users whose needs were not met by the relational model. These users needed to store data with data types not available in the relational model and who required a far richer modelling environment than that provided by the relational model. Indeed, the complexity of the objects to be represented in the model mandated a new approach to database technology. The Object-Oriented Model was the result.

  2. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible.

  3. Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Misztal, A.; Mazăre, A.

    2015-11-01

    Poka Yoke is a method of quality management which is related to prevent faults from arising during production processes. It deals with “fail-sating” or “mistake-proofing”. The Poka-yoke concept was generated and developed by Shigeo Shingo for the Toyota Production System. Poka Yoke is used in many fields, especially in monitoring production processes. In many cases, identifying faults in a production process involves a higher cost than necessary cost of disposal. Usually, poke yoke solutions are based on multiple sensors that identify some nonconformities. This means the presence of different equipment (mechanical, electronic) on production line. As a consequence, coupled with the fact that the method itself is an invasive, affecting the production process, would increase its price diagnostics. The bulky machines are the means by which a Poka Yoke system can be implemented become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a solution for the Poka Yoke system based on image analysis and identification of faults. The solution consists of a module for image acquisition, mid-level processing and an object recognition module using associative memory (Hopfield network type). All are integrated into an embedded system with AD (Analog to Digital) converter and Zync 7000 (22 nm technology).

  4. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  5. Objectives of QC systems and QA function in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Poy, E

    1993-12-01

    Over the recent years, the concept of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) has rapidly evolved over the world, with guidelines and regulations now existing not only in the U.S.A. but also in Europe, Scandinavia, Japan, and Australia. The systematic measures laid down in GCP are to ensure that clinical studies are conducted in conformity with strict ethical rules, are performed according to high-quality standards, and result in authentic, verifiable scientific data. Different aspects in managing quality in the clinical field are to be presented: (1) The definition of a two-stage quality system: it identifies the differences between quality control activities which reside with the operational units and auditing activities performed by an independent Quality Assurance group, which assesses the efficiency and integrity of the control systems established to ensure the quality. (2) The multidisciplinary picture of a clinical study: every operational staff contributes to quality through a chain using the "quality in/quality out" concept. (3) The review of the main responsibilities of the main professionals (Sponsor, Monitor, and Investigator) in a GCP environment, to show that quality is achievable by involving appropriate qualified staff. (4) The need of proactive control systems to reduce the risk of error and increase the credibility and confidence in building quality. (5) The role and objectives of a Quality Assurance Group.

  6. Scientific perspectives from Gaia data of Solar System objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Berthier, J.; Cellino, A.; Delbo', M.; Dell'Oro, A.; Hestroffer, D.; Mignard, F.; Muinonen, K.; Petit, J.-M.; Pauwels, Th.; Thuillot, W.

    2014-04-01

    Gaia will collect asteroid observations over 5 years, with a limiting magnitude V~20 (>300,000 objects). Observations will include very precise astrometry and photometry, and low resolution spectra. Over the last few years, the Coordination Unit 4 of Gaia's Data Processing and Analysis Consortium has built the data reduction pipeline that will produce the expected products for Solar System science. We will outline the performances and limitations of these processing chains. The implementation of the pipelines is mainly devoted to a general treatment for deriving the bulk properties of the largest possible sample of minor planets. The DPAC processing is based uniquely on Gaia data, in order to produce a homogeneous outcome independent from other surveys.

  7. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  8. Optimisation-based modelling of LPV systems using an ?-objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Daniel; Löfberg, Johan

    2014-08-01

    A method to identify linear parameter varying models through minimisation of an ?-norm objective is presented. The method uses a direct nonlinear programming approach to a non-convex problem. The reason to use ?-norm is twofold. To begin with, it is a well-known and widely used system norm, and second, the cost functions described in this paper become differentiable when using the ?-norm. This enables us to have a measure of first-order optimality and to use standard quasi-Newton solvers to solve the problem. The specific structure of the problem is utilised in great detail to compute cost functions and gradients efficiently. Additionally, a regularised version of the method, which also has a nice computational structure, is presented. The regularised version is shown to have an interesting interpretation with connections to worst-case approaches.

  9. Computer-assisted system for the reconstruction of shattered objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Brenningmeyer, Todd

    2005-05-01

    Reconstruction for forensic purposes of shattered or otherwise damaged objects has been a painstaking, if not impossible, undertaking. The forensic crime scientist and the archaeologist share this challenge. A pilot project, funded by the National Institute of Justice experimented with several avenues of approach to this problem of reassembly by using the 627 fragmented pieces of a pane of glass from a crime scene. I was approached by staff members of the Forensic Laboratory of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension because I was developing a means to restore a Greek Bronze Age wall painting (ca. 1350 B.C.E.) fragmented into 4750 pieces and a Greek temple (ca. 150 B.C.E.) demolished by vandals about 1500 years ago, leaving behind 1485 stone blocks, 1-3 tons each. The challenge was to develop an automated method to rapidly and effectively analyze a quantity of fragments of like kind separated one from the other and from the original object by violence and other means. The project established a set of mathematically and graphically definable characteristics held by the glass sherds which allowed for the making of joins between pieces. Preparation included the formulation of inventory check-sheets and a barcode label system with a unique identifier for each piece based on a x,y,z grid system. The next step involved experimentation with an array of proprietary GIS, SQL, and CAD software alternatives for the processing of data. In the end we settled on maximum likelihood analysis of SQL filtered results. This and shape indices were complied using ArcView and the scripting language, Avenue, products of ESRI, Redlands, California.

  10. System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed data-fusion system, to be implemented mostly in software, would further process the digitized and preprocessed outputs of sensors in a turbofan engine to detect foreign-object damage (FOD) [more precisely, damage caused by impingement of such foreign objects as birds, pieces of ice, and runway debris]. The proposed system could help a flight crew to decide what, if any, response is necessary to complete a flight safely, and could aid mechanics in deciding what post-flight maintenance action might be needed. The sensory information to be utilized by the proposed system would consist of (1) the output of an accelerometer in an engine-vibration-monitoring subsystem and (2) features extracted from a gas path analysis. ["Gas path analysis" (GPA) is a term of art that denotes comprehensive analysis of engine performance derived from readings of fuel-flow meters, shaft-speed sensors, temperature sensors, and the like.] The acceleration signal would first be processed by a wavelet-transform-based algorithm, using a wavelet created for the specific purpose of finding abrupt FOD-induced changes in noisy accelerometer signals. Two additional features extracted would be the amplitude of vibration (determined via a single- frequency Fourier transform calculated at the rotational speed of the engine), and the rate of change in amplitude due to an FOD-induced rotor imbalance. This system would utilize two GPA features: the fan efficiency and the rate of change of fan efficiency with time. The selected GPA and vibrational features would be assessed by two fuzzy-logic inference engines, denoted the "Gas Path Expert" and the "Vibration Expert," respectively (see Figure 1). Each of these inference engines would generate a "possibility" distribution for occurrence of an FOD event: Each inference engine would assign, to its input information, degrees of membership, which would subsequently be transformed into basic probability assignments for the gas path and vibration

  11. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  12. Synchronous Parallel Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation System with Self-Contained Simulation Objects and Active Event Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a method of performing object-oriented simulation and a system having inter-connected processor nodes operating in parallel to simulate mutual interactions of a set of discrete simulation objects distributed among the nodes as a sequence of discrete events changing state variables of respective simulation objects so as to generate new event-defining messages addressed to respective ones of the nodes. The object-oriented simulation is performed at each one of the nodes by assigning passive self-contained simulation objects to each one of the nodes, responding to messages received at one node by generating corresponding active event objects having user-defined inherent capabilities and individual time stamps and corresponding to respective events affecting one of the passive self-contained simulation objects of the one node, restricting the respective passive self-contained simulation objects to only providing and receiving information from die respective active event objects, requesting information and changing variables within a passive self-contained simulation object by the active event object, and producing corresponding messages specifying events resulting therefrom by the active event objects.

  13. Analysis of genetic variation in Theiler's virus during persistent infection in the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rozhon, E J; Kratochvil, J D; Lipton, H L

    1983-07-15

    The genetic changes occurring in the BeAn strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) during persistent infection in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) were studied. RNase T1-oligonucleotide fingerprinting of the RNAs of 28 BeAn viruses isolated at various times postinfection (p.i.) demonstrated that mutation occurred throughout the infection. Although plaque-purified BeAn virus was used to inoculate mice intracerebrally, genetically different viruses were recovered from the CNS. One to three oligonucleotide changes were found up to Day 152 p.i., but all three viruses isolated at Day 180 had four to nine oligonucleotide changes. No pattern of oligonucleotide changes occurring in different virus isolates was found, yet three viruses isolated from different animals at Day 180 had the same four new oligonucleotides. Overall, the number of oligonucleotide changes represented a 0.1 to 1.2% change in the virus genome. In addition, the analytical two-dimensional gel technique of P.Z. O'Farrell, H.M. Goodman, and P.H. O'Farrell (Cell 12, 1133-1142, 1977) suggested that mutation occurred in all virus isolates. In nine isolates, one to three proteins were found to have charge changes, and in general, as many nonstructural proteins had charge changes as structural proteins. P20, a nonstructural protein probably equivalent to the protease described for encephalomyocarditis virus, was found to have shifted cathodally in six different viruses. Several virus isolates had doublet patterns, suggesting the possibility that within the CNS, subpopulations existed which had proteins of slightly different charge or that virus-specified proteins had been modified after translation. Finally, antigenic variation of neutralizing site(s) on BeAn virus isolates as a way for virus to evade immune surveillance and thereby maintain the persistent state was studied. The ability of mouse serum to neutralize persisting virus isolates was not significantly different from the

  14. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  15. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  16. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  17. Orientation Control Method and System for Object in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark Stephen (Inventor); Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); Cox, Mark D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An object in motion has a force applied thereto at a point of application. By moving the point of application such that the distance between the object's center-of-mass and the point of application is changed, the object's orientation can be changed/adjusted.

  18. Indexing and the object concept: developing `what' and `where' systems.

    PubMed

    Leslie, A M; Xu, F; Tremoulet, P D; Scholl, B J

    1998-01-01

    The study of object cognition over the past 25 years has proceeded in two largely non-interacting camps. One camp has studied object-based visual attention in adults, while the other has studied the object concept in infants. We briefly review both sets of literature and distill from the adult research a theoretical model that we apply to findings from the infant studies. The key notion in our model of object representation is the `sticky' index, a mechanism of selective attention that points at a physical object in a location. An object index does not represent any of the properties of the entity at which it points. However, once an index is pointing to an object, the properties of that object can be examined and featural information can be associated with, or `bound' to, its index. The distinction between indexing and feature binding underwrites the distinction between object individuation and object identification, a distinction that turns out to be crucial in both the adult attention and the infant object-concept literature. By developing the indexing model, we draw together two disparate sets of literature and suggest new ways to study object-based attention in infancy. PMID:21244957

  19. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic scattering by Solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Janna M.

    2016-11-01

    Having been profoundly stimulated by the seminal work of Viktor V. Sobolev, I have been involved in multi-decadal research in the fields of radiative transfer, electromagnetic scattering by morphologically complex particles and particulate media, and planetary remote sensing. Much of this research has been done in close collaboration with other "descendants" of Academician Sobolev. This tutorial paper gives a representative overview of the results of extensive numerical simulations (in the vast majority carried out in collaboration with Michael Mishchenko) used to analyze remote-sensing observations of Solar system objects and based on highly accurate methods of the radiative transfer theory and direct computer solvers of the Maxwell equations. Using the atmosphere of Jupiter as a proving ground and performing T-matrix and radiative-transfer calculations helps demonstrate the strong effect of aerosol-particle shapes on the accuracy of remote-sensing retrievals. I then discuss the application of the T-matrix method, a numerically exact solution of the vector radiative transfer equation, and the theory of coherent backscattering to an analysis of polarimetric radar observations of Saturn's rings. Numerical modeling performed by using the superposition T-matrix method in application to cometary dust in the form of aggregates serves to reproduce the results of polarimetric observations of the distant comet C/2010 S1. On the basis of direct computer solutions of the Maxwell equations, it is demonstrated that all backscattering effects predicted by the low-density theories of radiative transfer and coherent backscattering can also be identified for media with volume packing densities typically encountered in natural and artificial environments. This result implies that spectacular opposition effects observed for some high-albedo atmoshereless Solar system bodies can be attributed to coherent backscattering of sunlight by regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.

  20. A survey of imagery techniques for semantic labeling of human-vehicle interactions in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2011-06-01

    Understanding and semantic annotation of Human-Vehicle Interactions (HVI) facilitate fusion of Hard sensor (HS) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) in a cohesive way. By characterization, classification, and discrimination of HVI patterns pertinent threats may be realized. Various Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) imagery techniques have been proposed in the past decade for identifying human interactions with various objects in the environment. Understanding of such interactions facilitates to discover human intentions and motives. However, without consideration of incidental context, reasoning and analysis of such behavioral activities is a very challenging and difficult task. This paper presents a current survey of related publications in the area of context-based Imagery techniques applied for HVI recognition, in particular, it discusses taxonomy and ontology of HVI and presents a summary of reported robust image processing techniques for spatiotemporal characterization and tracking of human targets in urban environments. The discussed techniques include model-based, shape-based and appearance-based techniques employed for identification and classification of objects. A detailed overview of major past research activities related to HVI in PSS with exploitation of spatiotemporal reasoning techniques applied to semantic labeling of the HVI is also presented.

  1. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William G; Goldstein, Steven L

    2005-04-15

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing.

  2. A computational approach to persistence, permanence, and endotacticity of biochemical reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D; Pantea, Casian; Donnell, Pete

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) framework capable of determining whether a chemical reaction network possesses the property of being endotactic or strongly endotactic. The network property of being strongly endotactic is known to lead to persistence and permanence of chemical species under genetic kinetic assumptions, while the same result is conjectured but as yet unproved for general endotactic networks. The algorithms we present are the first capable of verifying endotacticity of chemical reaction networks for systems with greater than two constituent species. We implement the algorithms in the open-source online package CoNtRol and apply them to a large sample of networks from the European Bioinformatics Institute's BioModels Database. We use strong endotacticity to establish for the first time the permanence of a well-studied circadian clock mechanism.

  3. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    PubMed

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  4. Persistent warmth across the Benguela upwelling system during the Pliocene epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Martínez-Garcia, Alfredo; McClymont, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    A feature of Pliocene climate is the occurrence of “permanent El Niño-like” or “El Padre” conditions in the Pacific Ocean. From the analysis of sediment cores in the modern northern Benguela upwelling, we show that the mean oceanographic state off Southwest Africa during the warm Pliocene epoch was also analogous to that of a persistent Benguela “El Niño”. At present these events occur when massive southward flows of warm and nutrient-poor waters extend along the coasts of Angola and Namibia, with dramatic effects on regional marine ecosystems and rainfall. We propose that the persistent warmth across the Pliocene in the Benguela upwelling ended synchronously with the narrowing of the Indonesian seaway, and the early intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations around 3.0-3.5 Ma. The emergence of obliquity-related cycles in the Benguela sea surface temperatures (SST) after 3 Ma highlights the development of strengthened links to high latitude orbital forcing. The subsequent evolution of the Benguela upwelling system was characterized by the progressive intensification of the meridional SST gradients, and the emergence of the 100 ky cycle, until the modern mean conditions were set at the end of the Mid Pleistocene transition, around 0.6 Ma. These findings support the notion that the interplay of changes in the depth of the global thermocline, atmospheric circulation and tectonics preconditioned the climate system for the end of the warm Pliocene epoch and the subsequent intensification of the ice ages.

  5. Tsivat Basin conduit system persists through two surges, Bering Piedmont Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleisher, P.J.; Cadwell, D.H.; Muller, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, occurred in two distinct phases. Phase 1 of the surge began on the eastern sector in July, 1993 and ended in July, 1994 after a powerful outburst of subglacial meltwater into Tsivat Lake basin on the north side of Weeping Peat Island. Within days, jokulhlaup discharge built a 1.5 km2 delta of ice blocks (25-30 m) buried in outwash. By late October 1994, discharge temporarily shifted to a vent on Weeping Peat Island, where a second smaller outburst dissected the island and built two new sandar. During phase 2, which began in spring 1995 and ended within five months, continuous discharge issued from several vents along the ice front on Weeping Peat Island before returining to the Tsivat Basin. Surge related changes include a five- to six-fold increase in meltwater turbidity; the redirection of supercooled water in two ice-contact lakes; and an increase in the rate of glaciolacustrine sedimentation. US Geological Survey aerial photos by Austin Post show large ice blocks in braided channels indicating excessive subglacial discharge in a similar position adjacent to Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge. During the subsequent three decades of retreat, the location of ice-marginal, subglacial discharge vents remained aligned on a linear trend that describes the position of a persistent subglacial conduit system. The presence of a major conduit system, possibly stabilized by subglacial bedrock topography, is suggested by: 1) high-level subglacial meltwater venting along the northern side of Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge, 2) persistent low-level discharge between surges, and 3) the recurrence of localizing meltwater outbursts associated with both phases of the 1993-1005 surge.

  6. Method and system for identifying and authenticating an object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An object has a taggant placed in a first portion thereof and has a visible symbol placed on a second portion thereof. When the object is to be identified and authenticated, the taggant is made to radiate with a specific energy signature. The energy signature and at least one image of the symbol are recorded along with a relative location that identifies the first portion of the object. The combination of the energy signature, symbol image and relative location are used to repeatedly identify and authenticate the object.

  7. Gas turbine system simulation: An object-oriented approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Follen, Gregory J.; Putt, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype gas turbine engine simulation has been developed that offers a generalized framework for the simulation of engines subject to steady-state and transient operating conditions. The prototype is in preliminary form, but it successfully demonstrates the viability of an object-oriented approach for generalized simulation applications. Although object oriented programming languages are-relative to FORTRAN-somewhat austere, it is proposed that gas turbine simulations of an interdisciplinary nature will benefit significantly in terms of code reliability, maintainability, and manageability. This report elucidates specific gas turbine simulation obstacles that an object-oriented framework can overcome and describes the opportunity for interdisciplinary simulation that the approach offers.

  8. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    DOEpatents

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  9. Objective analysis of observational data from the FGGE observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W.; Edelmann, D.; Iredell, M.; Han, D.; Jakkempudi, S.

    1981-01-01

    An objective analysis procedure for updating the GLAS second and fourth order general atmospheric circulation models using observational data from the first GARP global experiment is described. The objective analysis procedure is based on a successive corrections method and the model is updated in a data assimilation cycle. Preparation of the observational data for analysis and the objective analysis scheme are described. The organization of the program and description of the required data sets are presented. The program logic and detailed descriptions of each subroutine are given.

  10. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  11. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  12. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Metre, P.C. van; Wilson, J.T.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1998-11-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 ({+-}2.5), 9.5 ({+-}2.2), and 13 ({+-}5.8) yr for decay-corrected {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of {sup 137}Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  13. COMET Multimedia modules and objects in the digital library system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, T. C.; Lamos, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past ten years of developing Web- and CD-ROM-based training materials, the Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET) has created a unique archive of almost 10,000 multimedia objects and some 50 web based interactive multimedia modules on various aspects of weather and weather forecasting. These objects and modules, containing illustrations, photographs, animations,video sequences, audio files, are potentially a valuable resource for university faculty and students, forecasters, emergency managers, public school educators, and other individuals and groups needing such materials for educational use. The COMET Modules are available on the COMET educational web site http://www.meted.ucar.edu, and the COMET Multimedia Database (MMDB) makes a collection of the multimedia objects available in a searchable online database for viewing and download over the Internet. Some 3200 objects are already available at the MMDB Website: http://archive.comet.ucar.edu/moria/

  14. Objects and attributes in divided attention: surface and boundary systems.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J; Nimmo-Smith, I

    1996-10-01

    A series of experiments investigated concurrent discriminations of surface and nonsurface attributes, including color, brightness, texture, length, location, and motion. In all cases but one, results matched those previously reported: Interference occurred when two discriminations concerned different objects, but not when they concerned the same one. In the two-object case, interference was the same whether discriminations were similar (e.g., two surface discriminations) or different (e.g., one surface, one boundary). Such results support a model of visual attention in which separate visual subsystems are coordinated, converging to work on surface and boundary properties of the same selected object. A partial exception is color: For reasons that are unclear, color escapes two-object interference except from other, concurrent surface discriminations.

  15. Object detection by optical correlator and intelligence recognition surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yunlong

    2013-09-01

    We report a recent work on robust object detection in high-resolution aerial imagery in urban environment for Intelligence, Surveillance and Recognition (ISR) missions. Our approaches used the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) algorithm, which combines regional and edge information to form the superpixels. The irregularity in size and shape of the superpixels measured with the Hausdorff distance served to determine the salient regions in the very large aerial images. Then, the car detection was performed with both the component-based approach and the featurebased approaches. We merged the superpixels with the statistical region merging (SRM) algorithm. The regions were described by the radiometric, geometrical moments and shape features, and classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The cast shadow were detected and removed by a radiometry based tricolor attenuation model (TAM). Detection of object parts is less sensitive to occlusion, rotation, and changes in scale, view angle and illumination than detection of the object as whole. The object parts were combined to the object according to their unique spatial relations. On the other hand, we used the invariant scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features to describe superpixels and classed them by the SVM as belong or not to the object. All along our recent work we still trace the brilliant ideas in early days by H. John Caulfield and other pioneers of optical pattern recognition, for improving the discrimination of the matched spatial filter with linear combinations of cross-correlations, which have been inherited transformed and reinvented to achieve tremendous progress.

  16. Persistent Aortic Arch Hypoplasia After Coarctation Treatment Is Associated With Late Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Quennelle, Sophie; Powell, Andrew J; Geva, Tal; Prakash, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild transverse aortic arch (TAA) hypoplasia is common after coarctation treatment, but is considered benign in the absence of an arm-leg systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference. Hypertension (HTN) is a common long-term morbidity after successful coarctation treatment. We examined whether mild TAA hypoplasia after coarctation treatment is associated with late systemic HTN. Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed 92 patients (median age, 19.9 years; range, 4.9 to 57.8; 60% male) 14.1±10.3 years after successful coarctation treatment (surgery in 63, stent in 16, and balloon dilation in 13), excluding those with resting right arm-leg blood pressure gradient >20 mm Hg, atypical coarctation, and major associated heart defects. Minimum body-surface area (BSA)-adjusted TAA cross-sectional area (CSA) was calculated from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images. On follow-up, 38 of 92 (41%) patients had systemic HTN using standard criteria. Systemic HTN was independently associated with smaller TAA CSA/BSA (P=0.006; odds ratio [OR], 6.41 per 0.5 cm2/m2 decrease), higher age at CMR (P=0.03; OR, 1.57 per 5-year increase), and in a subset (n=61), higher arm-leg SBP difference during exercise (P=0.05; OR, 1.03 per 1-mm-Hg increase). Lower ratio of TAA diameter/descending aorta diameter was associated with a larger increase in right arm SBP during peak exercise (P=0.006; r2=0.11). Conclusions Persistent mild aortic arch hypoplasia, even in the absence of an arm-leg SBP difference at rest, is associated with late systemic HTN. Further studies should be undertaken to determine whether more-aggressive arch reconstruction at initial repair can reduce the incidence of systemic HTN. PMID:26112642

  17. Natural, persistent oscillations in a spatial multi-strain disease system with application to dengue.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2013-10-01

    Many infectious diseases are not maintained in a state of equilibrium but exhibit significant fluctuations in prevalence over time. For pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic types or strains, such as influenza, malaria or dengue, these fluctuations often take on the form of regular or irregular epidemic outbreaks in addition to oscillatory prevalence levels of the constituent strains. To explain the observed temporal dynamics and structuring in pathogen populations, epidemiological multi-strain models have commonly evoked strong immune interactions between strains as the predominant driver. Here, with specific reference to dengue, we show how spatially explicit, multi-strain systems can exhibit all of the described epidemiological dynamics even in the absence of immune competition. Instead, amplification of natural stochastic differences in disease transmission, can give rise to persistent oscillations comprising semi-regular epidemic outbreaks and sequential dominance of dengue's four serotypes. Not only can this mechanism explain observed differences in serotype and disease distributions between neighbouring geographical areas, it also has important implications for inferring the nature and epidemiological consequences of immune mediated competition in multi-strain pathogen systems.

  18. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  19. Coding of object location in the vibrissal thalamocortical system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiu; Horev, Guy; Rubin, Naama; Derdikman, Dori; Haidarliu, Sebastian; Ahissar, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    In whisking rodents, object location is encoded at the receptor level by a combination of motor and sensory related signals. Recoding of the encoded signals can result in various forms of internal representations. Here, we examined the coding schemes occurring at the first forebrain level that receives inputs necessary for generating such internal representations--the thalamocortical network. Single units were recorded in 8 thalamic and cortical stations in artificially whisking anesthetized rats. Neuronal representations of object location generated across these stations and expressed in response latency and magnitude were classified based on graded and binary coding schemes. Both graded and binary coding schemes occurred across the entire thalamocortical network, with a general tendency of graded-to-binary transformation from thalamus to cortex. Overall, 63% of the neurons of the thalamocortical network coded object position in their firing. Thalamocortical responses exhibited a slow dynamics during which the amount of coded information increased across 4-5 whisking cycles and then stabilized. Taken together, the results indicate that the thalamocortical network contains dynamic mechanisms that can converge over time on multiple coding schemes of object location, schemes which essentially transform temporal coding to rate coding and gradual to labeled-line coding.

  20. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment. PMID:22789551

  1. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.

  2. Individualized Testing System: Performance Objectives, ISCS Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation material for Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program. The manual contains a composite list of selected measurable objectives of Level III of the ISCS program. It is…

  3. Individualized Testing System: Performance Objectives, ISCS Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation material for Level I of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program. The manual contains a composite list of selected measurable objectives for Level I of the ISCS program. It is…

  4. Individualized Testing System: Performance Objectives, ISCS Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation material for Level II of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program. The manual contains a composite list of selected measurable objectives for Level II of the ISCS program. It is…

  5. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up

  6. Multi Objective Controller Design for Linear System via Optimal Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay

    1996-01-01

    We propose a methodology for the design of a controller which satisfies a set of closed-loop objectives simultaneously. The set of objectives consists of: (1) pole placement, (2) decoupled command tracking of step inputs at steady-state, and (3) minimization of step response transients with respect to envelope specifications. We first obtain a characterization of all controllers placing the closed-loop poles in a prescribed region of the complex plane. In this characterization, the free parameter matrix Q(s) is to be determined to attain objectives (2) and (3). Objective (2) is expressed as determining a Pareto optimal solution to a vector valued optimization problem. The solution of this problem is obtained by transforming it to a scalar convex optimization problem. This solution determines Q(O) and the remaining freedom in choosing Q(s) is used to satisfy objective (3). We write Q(s) = (l/v(s))bar-Q(s) for a prescribed polynomial v(s). Bar-Q(s) is a polynomial matrix which is arbitrary except that Q(O) and the order of bar-Q(s) are fixed. Obeying these constraints bar-Q(s) is now to be 'shaped' to minimize the step response characteristics of specific input/output pairs according to the maximum envelope violations. This problem is expressed as a vector valued optimization problem using the concept of Pareto optimality. We then investigate a scalar optimization problem associated with this vector valued problem and show that it is convex. The organization of the report is as follows. The next section includes some definitions and preliminary lemmas. We then give the problem statement which is followed by a section including a detailed development of the design procedure. We then consider an aircraft control example. The last section gives some concluding remarks. The Appendix includes the proofs of technical lemmas, printouts of computer programs, and figures.

  7. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus persist for years and induce astrocytic cytotoxicity but not CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Harry; Kampylafka, Eleni I; Fouka, Penelope; Tatouli, Ioanna; Akrivou, Sofia; Politis, Panagiotis K; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2015-12-15

    Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies are specific for the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and they have also been described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with neurological signs consistent with NMOSD. Our objective was to test for the presence and pathogenicity of anti-AQP4 antibodies in SLE patients without neurological disease. Sera from 89 non-CNS-SLE patients were screened for anti-AQP4 autoantibodies. Two of the 89 patients were positive. Archived samples dating back 11 years were also positive. A brain and spinal cord MRI did not reveal any NMOSD-compatible lesions. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that either sera or purified IgG from these patients induced a complement-mediated damage in cultured astrocytes comparable to antibodies obtained from typical NMO patients. We conclude that AQP4-antibodies can be present in SLE patients and persist for many years, without concurrent clinical or radiological NMOSD signs. It is unclear why the anti-AQP4 antibodies did not induce CNS disease.

  8. Farming Systems Modeling Using the Object Modeling System (OMS): Overview, Applications, and Future Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the Object Modeling System (OMS) modeling framework represents a comprehensive partnership between the USDA ARS/NRCS, USGS, and university collaborators. OMS helps streamline the development of integrated farming system models for current and future model delivery using a component-or...

  9. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  10. Probing the nature of deficits in the 'Approximate Number System' in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called 'Approximate Number System' (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched controls. The integrity of the ANS was measured using the Panamath (www.panamath.org) non-symbolic numerical discrimination test. Children with DD demonstrated imprecise ANS acuity indexed by larger Weber fraction (w) compared to TD controls. Given recent findings showing that non-symbolic numerical discrimination is affected by visual parameters, we went further and investigated whether children performed differently on trials on which number of dots and their overall area were either congruent or incongruent with each other. This analysis revealed that differences in w were only found between DD and TD children on the incongruent trials. In addition, visuo-spatial working memory strongly predicts individual differences in ANS acuity (w) during the incongruent trials. Thus the purported ANS deficit in DD can be explained by a difficulty in extracting number from an array of dots when area is anti-correlated with number. These data highlight the role of visuo-spatial working memory during the extraction process, and demonstrate that close attention needs to be paid to perceptual processes invoked by tasks thought to represent measures of the ANS. PMID:26227387

  11. Noninvasive and persistent transfollicular drug delivery system using a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Kigasawa, Kaoru; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2011-01-17

    Iontophoresis is a promising technique for enhancing transdermal administration of charged drugs. However, conventional iontophoresis is not sufficient for effective delivery of large, hydrophilic, or electrically neutral molecules. In this study, we utilized charged liposomes as carriers, focused on a transfollicular route for delivery of the liposomes, and optimized iontophoretic conditions and lipid composition for this method in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. As a result, we identified the optimum condition (lipid composition: DOTAP/EPC/Chol=2:2:1, current supply: 0.45mA/cm(2), duration: 1h) for effective iontophoretic delivery of aqueous solution, which cannot be transferred into the skin without charged liposomes. We also examined the pharmacological effects of iontophoresis of liposomes encapsulating insulin (INS-lipo) using a rat model of type I diabetes. Interestingly, iontophoresis of INS-lipo onto a diabetes rat skin resulted in a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels, with levels reaching 20% of initial values at 18h after administration. These lower blood glucose levels were maintained for up to 24h. Significant amount of insulin were also detected in plasma 18h after iontophoresis of INS-lipo. We succeeded in developing a non-invasive and persistent transfollicular drug delivery system that used a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis.

  12. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  13. Persistence and decontamination of surrogate radioisotopes in a model drinking water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hall, John S.

    2010-01-12

    Contamination of a model drinking water system with surrogate radioisotopes was examined with respect to persistence on and decontamination of infrastructure surfaces. Cesium and cobalt chloride salts were used as surrogates for cesium-137 and cobalt-60. Studies were conducted in biofilm annular reactors containing heavily corroded iron surfaces formed under shear and constantly submerged in drinking water. Cesium was not detected on the corroded iron surface after equilibration with 10 and 100 mg L{sup -1} solutions of cesium chloride, but cobalt was detected on corroded iron coupons at both initial concentrations. The amount of adhered cobalt decreased over the next six weeks, but was still present when monitoring stopped. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that adhered cobalt was in the III oxidation state. The adsorbed cobalt was strongly resistant to decontamination by various physicochemical methods. Simulated flushing, use of free chlorine and dilute ammonia were found to be ineffective whereas use of aggressive methods like 14.5 M ammonia and 0.36 M sulfuric acid removed 37 and 92% of the sorbed cobalt, respectively.

  14. [IMMUNE SYSTEM DATA IN PATIENTS WITH PERSISTENT RECURENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTIONS IN DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The positive clinical, serolgical and immunological effects of Glutamyl-Triptophan in patients on persistent herpes virus infections are shown. Treatment resulted in the increase of avidity on HSV 1, HSV 2, CMV, EBV antibody, the levels of CD3+-, ICD8+-, CD16+-, CD3+HLA-DR+- (%, abs) and.CD3+CD25t-cells (%), that indicates the optimization of the immune systemdata. The data received allow to recommend Bestim for patients with persistent herpes virus infections. PMID:27089710

  15. The interaction of two groups of murine genes determines the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, J F; Montagutelli, X; Lefebvre, S; Guénet, J L; Pla, M; Brahic, M

    1992-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is responsible for a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of the mouse. The disease is associated with persistent viral infection of the spinal cord. Some strains of mice are susceptible to viral infection, and other strains are resistant. The effect of the genetic background of the host on viral persistence has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied the amount of viral RNA in the spinal cords of 17 inbred strains of mice and their F1 crosses with the SJL/J strain and observed a large degree of variability among strains. The pattern of viral persistence among mouse strains could be explained by the interaction of two loci. One locus is localized in the H-2D region of the major histocompatibility complex, whereas the other locus is outside this complex and is not linked to the Tcrb locus on chromosome 6. Images PMID:1378508

  16. The interaction of two groups of murine genes determines the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bureau, J F; Montagutelli, X; Lefebvre, S; Guénet, J L; Pla, M; Brahic, M

    1992-08-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is responsible for a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of the mouse. The disease is associated with persistent viral infection of the spinal cord. Some strains of mice are susceptible to viral infection, and other strains are resistant. The effect of the genetic background of the host on viral persistence has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied the amount of viral RNA in the spinal cords of 17 inbred strains of mice and their F1 crosses with the SJL/J strain and observed a large degree of variability among strains. The pattern of viral persistence among mouse strains could be explained by the interaction of two loci. One locus is localized in the H-2D region of the major histocompatibility complex, whereas the other locus is outside this complex and is not linked to the Tcrb locus on chromosome 6.

  17. Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization for landscape system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. A.; Hall, G. B.; Calamai, P. H.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing recognition of the extent and speed of habitat fragmentation and loss, particularly in the urban fringe, is driving the need to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively regional landscape structures in land-use planning and environmental policy implementation. This paper introduces an Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO) methodology to estimate the Pareto optimal set of landscape designs generated from a series of underlying ecological principles. The results of applying these principles via EMO to a study site are presented and a hierarchical clustering methodology is introduced to assist in evaluating the population of solutions generated.

  18. Case Study of an Object-Oriented System: EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne; Sekira, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a long-term NASA research mission to study the processes leading to global climate change. The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a NASA campaign of satellite observatories that are a major component of MTPE. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is another component of MTPE that will provide the Earth science community with easy, affordable, and reliable access to Earth science data. EOSDIS is a distributed system, with major facilities at six Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACS) located throughout the United States. The EOSDIS software architecture is being designed to receive, process, and archive several terabytes of science data on a daily basis. Thousands of science users and perhaps several hundred thousands of non-science users are expected to access the system. While there are many segments in EOSDIS (e.g., flight operations, network) this case study discusses the development of the science data processing segment (SDPS). We briefly review the architecture of the system, the goals of the SDPS, and the development progress to date. This study highlights key software development challenges, experiences integrating COTS, and the difficulties of managing a complex system development effort.

  19. Objective shearing digital holography for removing aberration from optical system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiqing; Tian, Kehan; Zhang, Chuhang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new digital holography based on the lateral shearing interference concept to remove the total aberrations from the reference wave, illumination wave, and the optical elements. It uses three mutually shifted image holograms of the object that are divided from each other to obtain phase differences. The phase aberration can be removed and the original sample phase can be reconstructed by the phase differences. Then, the influence of the stage moving imprecision on the reconstruction quality is analyzed. Optical experiments verified that the proposed method can totally remove the phase aberrations. As a result, the proposed method could be used for ultra-precise optical measurement through eliminating optical phase aberration to increase the measurement accuracy. PMID:26368865

  20. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  1. RISE Evaluation and Development System: Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With the help of teachers and leaders throughout the state, the Indiana Department of Education has developed an optional model teacher evaluation system named RISE. Whether corporations choose to adopt RISE or a model of their own, the department's goal is to assist corporations in developing or adopting models that both comply with IC 20-28-11.5…

  2. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  3. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  4. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-08-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  5. Parallel object-oriented, denoising system using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Chandrika; Baldwin, Chuck H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Tang, Nu A.

    2005-04-12

    The present invention provides a data de-noising system utilizing processors and wavelet denoising techniques. Data is read and displayed in different formats. The data is partitioned into regions and the regions are distributed onto the processors. Communication requirements are determined among the processors according to the wavelet denoising technique and the partitioning of the data. The data is transforming onto different multiresolution levels with the wavelet transform according to the wavelet denoising technique, the communication requirements, and the transformed data containing wavelet coefficients. The denoised data is then transformed into its original reading and displaying data format.

  6. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.

  7. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  8. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres and satellite surfaces are observed with the three element array at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Caltech's submillimeter telescope on Mauna Kea and at the 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. Researchers are primarily interested in spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan and the continuum structure of Saturn Rings, Galilean satellites, Neptune and Uranus. During the last year researchers completed a supersynthesis of the Saturn system at 2.8 mm with spatial resolution of 3 arc sec. They just completed a 4-confuguration synthesis of Venus in the CO absorption line. They hope to recover the wind patterns in the altitude range from 60 to 100 km where winds have never been measured. Two important questions are being investigated: (1) how high in the Venus atmosphere do 4-day winds extend, and (2) can we produce experiment proof (or disproof) of the subsolar-to-anti-solar flow (Dickenson winds) predicted by general circulation models.

  9. Location and distribution of virus antigen in the central nervous system of mice persistently infected with Theiler's virus.

    PubMed

    Sethi, P; Lipton, H L

    1983-02-01

    The present study has shown that virus can be readily detected by immunofluorescent staining in the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL mice persistently infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Considering the low CNS virus content, large amounts of virus antigen were found in the white matter, the site of demyelinating lesions. Virus antigen was detected in all animals killed after post-infection (PI) Day 21, a time which can be considered as the beginning of the persistent phase of this infection, and the appearance of virus antigen in white matter corresponded closely in time with the onset of demyelination. The pathogensis of this persistent infection can now be reasonably well reconstructed from the temporal observations made in this study. It would appear that between the second and third week PI, virus replication largely shifts from neurons in spinal cord gray matter to other cell types located in white matter. While a lower-grade persistent infection (in terms of the relative number of cells containing virus antigen) is established and maintained in cells in the gray matter and inflammatory and leptomeningeal infiltrates, cells in white matter appear to be mainly responsible for perpetuating the infection. Why these cells should supplant neurons as the most susceptible host cell during the chronic phase of the infection is discussed.

  10. The Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system is required for persistence and disease severity but not transmission in swine.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Register, Karen B; Kehrli, Marcus E; Shore, Sarah M

    2014-03-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Most studies addressing virulence factors of B. bronchiseptica utilize isolates derived from hosts other than pigs in conjunction with rodent infection models. Based on previous in vivo mouse studies, we hypothesized that the B. bronchiseptica type III secretion system (T3SS) would be required for maximal disease severity and persistence in the swine lower respiratory tract. To examine the contribution of the T3SS to the pathogenesis of B. bronchiseptica in swine, we compared the abilities of a virulent swine isolate and an isogenic T3SS mutant to colonize, cause disease, and be transmitted from host to host. We found that the T3SS is required for maximal persistence throughout the lower swine respiratory tract and contributed significantly to the development of nasal lesions and pneumonia. However, the T3SS mutant and the wild-type parent are equally capable of transmission among swine by both direct and indirect routes, demonstrating that transmission can occur even with attenuated disease. Our data further suggest that the T3SS skews the adaptive immune response in swine by hindering the development of serum anti-Bordetella antibody levels and inducing an interleukin-10 (IL-10) cell-mediated response, likely contributing to the persistence of B. bronchiseptica in the respiratory tract. Overall, our results demonstrate that the Bordetella T3SS is required for maximal persistence and disease severity in pigs, but not for transmission.

  11. A Geographic-Information-Systems-Based Approach to Analysis of Characteristics Predicting Student Persistence and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to provide empirical evidence regarding the use of spatial analysis in enrollment management to predict persistence and graduation. The research utilized data from the 2000 U.S. Census and applicant records from The University of Arizona to study the spatial distributions of enrollments. Based on the initial results, stepwise…

  12. Predictors of Persistence for Developmental Math Students in a Community and Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    At two-year public community colleges, the 2011 three-year persistence rate was 23.9%. From 1988 to 2006, between 40% and 60% of all first-time community college students were referred to and enrolled in at least one developmental education course. More students begin college underprepared in mathematics than any other subject area, and only about…

  13. The shiverer mutation affects the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, F; Pena-Rossi, C; Guénet, J L; Brahic, M; Bureau, J F

    1997-01-01

    Theiler's virus persists in the white matter of the spinal cord of genetically susceptible mice and causes primary demyelination. The virus persists in macrophages/microglial cells, but also in oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Susceptibility/resistance to this chronic infection has been mapped to several loci including one tentatively located in the telomeric region of chromosome 18, close to the myelin basic protein locus (Mbp locus). To determine if the MBP gene influences viral persistence, we inoculated C3H mice bearing the shiverer mutation, a 20-kb deletion in the gene. Whereas control C3H mice were of intermediate susceptibility, C3H mice heterozygous for the mutation were very susceptible, and those homozygous for the mutation were completely resistant. This resistance was not immune mediated. Furthermore, C3H/101H mice homozygous for a point mutation in the gene coding for the proteolipid protein of myelin, the rumpshaker mutation, were resistant. These results strongly support the view that oligodendrocytes are a necessary viral target for the establishment of a persistent infection by Theiler's virus. PMID:9188567

  14. Enhanced sensitivity of persistent events to weak forcing in dynamical and stochastic systems: Implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwala, Samar; Shaw, Bruce E.; Cane, Mark A.

    Low-dimensional models can give insight into the climate system, in particular its response to externally imposed forcing such as the anthropogenic emission of green-house gases. Here, we use the Lorenz system, a chaotic dynamical system characterized by two “regimes”, to examine the effect of a weak imposed forcing. We show that the probability density functions (PDF's) of time-spent in the two regimes are exponential, and that the most dramatic response to forcing is a change in the frequency of occurrence of extremely persistent events, rather than the weaker change in the mean persistence time. This enhanced sensitivity of the “tails” of the PDF's to forcing is quantitatively explained by changes in the stability of the regimes. We demonstrate similar behavior in a stochastically forced double well system. Our results suggest that the most significant effect of anthropogenic forcing may be to change the frequency of occurrence of persistent climate events, such as droughts, rather than the mean.

  15. Integrating an object system into CLIPS: Language design and implementation issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auburn, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the reasons why an object system with integrated pattern-matching and object-oriented programming facilities is desirable for CLIPS and how it is possible to integrate such a system into CLIPS while maintaining the run-time performance and the low memory usage for which CLIPS is known. The requirements for an object system in CLIPS that includes object-oriented programming and integrated pattern-matching are discussed and various techniques for optimizing the object system and its integration with the pattern-matcher are presented.

  16. Selective spread and reduced virus release leads to canine distemper virus persistence in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, A; Graber, H U; Vandevelde, M

    1995-05-01

    In primary dog brain cell cultures (DBCC) the attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) is cytolytic, whereas virulent CDV is not. Thus, the question why cytolysis does or does not occur appears to be intimately associated with the mechanism of persistence. Persistence is most likely related to the way these viruses replicate. In the present study we used morphological and immunocytochemical approaches to compare several aspects of virus replication between a cytolytic and a virulent CDV strain using DBCC to study both strains. Quantitative measurements did not detect a difference in the rate of virus protein synthesis at the level of the single cell, between the two types of infection. Electron microscopical results and virus titration experiments showed marked differences in virus spread and virus release. Immunocytochemical studies showed differences in the distribution of the nucleocapsid and matrix proteins between the two infections. Budding and cytolysis are strongly limited in the virulent A75/17-CDV infection as compared to attenuated viruses. This is probably due to structural changes in the virus proteins leading to modifications of virus assembly. Thus the present study supports a mechanism of CDV persistence through a type of virus maturation and spread by which very little virus is released outside of the cell.

  17. Functional Rehabilitation of Cadmium-Induced Neurotoxicity Despite Persistent Peripheral Pathophysiology in the Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecki, Lindsey A.; Moberly, Andrew H.; Turkel, Daniel J.; Rubinstein, Tom; Pottackal, Joseph; Rosenthal, Michelle C.; McCandlish, Elizabeth F. K.; Buckley, Brian; McGann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal exposure to the heavy metal cadmium has been linked to olfactory dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Here, we combine optical imaging of in vivo neurophysiology, genetically defined anatomical tract tracing, mass spectrometry, and behavioral psychophysical methods to evaluate the persistent harmful effects of acute intranasal exposure to cadmium in a mouse model and to investigate the functional consequences of sensory rehabilitation training. We find that an acute intranasal instillation of cadmium chloride leads to an accumulation of cadmium in the brain's olfactory bulb that persists for at least 4 weeks. This is accompanied by persistent severe pathophysiology of the olfactory nerve, a gradual reduction in axonal projections from the olfactory epithelium, and complete impairment on an olfactory detection task. Remarkably, 2 weeks of odorant-guided operant conditioning training proved sufficient to restore olfactory detection performance to control levels in cadmium-exposed mice. Optical imaging from rehabilitated mice showed that this training did not cause any detectable restoration of olfactory nerve function, suggesting that the recovery of function was mediated by central neuroplasticity in which the brain learned to interpret the degraded sensory input. These data demonstrate that sensory learning can mask even severe damage from neurotoxicants and suggest that explicit sensory training may be useful in rehabilitation of olfactory dysfunction. PMID:22287023

  18. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a safety... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What objectives must a safety management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  19. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  20. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  1. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  2. Development of a multiplex system to assess DNA persistence in taphonomic studies.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad S; Iyavoo, Sasitaran; Alimat, Sharizah; Zahra, Nathalie; Sanqoor, Sheikha H; Smith, Judith A; Moffatt, Colin; Goodwin, Will

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we have developed a PCR multiplex that can be used to assess DNA degradation and at the same time monitor for inhibition: primers have been designed to amplify human, pig, and rabbit DNA, allowing pig and rabbit to be used as experimental models for taphonomic research, but also enabling studies on human DNA persistence in forensic evidence. Internal amplified controls have been added to monitor for inhibition, allowing the effects of degradation and inhibition to be differentiated. Sequence data for single-copy nuclear recombination activation gene (RAG-1) from human, pig, and rabbit were aligned to identify conserved regions and primers were designed that targeted amplicons of 70, 194, 305, and 384 bp. Robust amplification in all three species was possible using as little as 0.3 ng of template DNA. These have been combined with primers that will amplify a bacterial DNA template within the PCR. The multiplex has been evaluated in a series of experiments to gain more knowledge of DNA persistence in soft tissues, which can be important when assessing what material to collect following events such as mass disasters or conflict, when muscle or bone material can be used to aid with the identification of human remains. The experiments used pigs as a model species. When whole pig bodies were exposed to the environment in Northwest England, DNA in muscle tissue persisted for over 24 days in the summer and over 77 days in the winter, with full profiles generated from these samples. In addition to time, accumulated degree days (ADD) were also used as a measure that combines both time and temperature-24 days was in summer equivalent to 295 ADD whereas 77 days in winter was equivalent to 494 ADD.

  3. A General Framework of Persistence Strategies for Biological Systems Helps Explain Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Wielgos, Monica; Thomas, Suravi; Nasir, Arshan; Wang, Minglei; Mittenthal, Jay E.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nature and cause of the division of organisms in superkingdoms is not fully understood. Assuming that environment shapes physiology, here we construct a novel theoretical framework that helps identify general patterns of organism persistence. This framework is based on Jacob von Uexküll’s organism-centric view of the environment and James G. Miller’s view of organisms as matter-energy-information processing molecular machines. Three concepts describe an organism’s environmental niche: scope, umwelt, and gap. Scope denotes the entirety of environmental events and conditions to which the organism is exposed during its lifetime. Umwelt encompasses an organism’s perception of these events. The gap is the organism’s blind spot, the scope that is not covered by umwelt. These concepts bring organisms of different complexity to a common ecological denominator. Ecological and physiological data suggest organisms persist using three strategies: flexibility, robustness, and economy. All organisms use umwelt information to flexibly adapt to environmental change. They implement robustness against environmental perturbations within the gap generally through redundancy and reliability of internal constituents. Both flexibility and robustness improve survival. However, they also incur metabolic matter-energy processing costs, which otherwise could have been used for growth and reproduction. Lineages evolve unique tradeoff solutions among strategies in the space of what we call “a persistence triangle.” Protein domain architecture and other evidence support the preferential use of flexibility and robustness properties. Archaea and Bacteria gravitate toward the triangle’s economy vertex, with Archaea biased toward robustness. Eukarya trade economy for survivability. Protista occupy a saddle manifold separating akaryotes from multicellular organisms. Plants and the more flexible Fungi share an economic stratum, and Metazoa are locked in a positive feedback loop

  4. An application of object-oriented knowledge representation to engineering expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, D. S.; Kamil, H.; Umaretiya, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an object-oriented knowledge representation and its application to engineering expert systems. The object-oriented approach promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects and organized by defining relationships between the objects. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented as a tool for building and manipulating the object base. Rule-based knowledge representation is then used to simulate engineering design reasoning. Using a common object base, very large expert systems can be developed, comprised of small, individually processed, rule sets. The integration of these two schemes makes it easier to develop practical engineering expert systems. The general approach to applying this technology to the domain of the finite element analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace structures is discussed.

  5. Persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in sediment of an oligotrophic river: comparing large and lab-scale flume systems.

    PubMed

    Walters, Evelyn; Kätzl, Korbinian; Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter; Müller, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2014-09-15

    In this study, both a lab and a large-scale flume system were used to investigate the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in bed sediments of an alpine oligotrophic river. To determine the influence of substratum on persistence, survival within 3-cm-deep substratum cages versus on thin, biofilm-covered ceramic tiles was tested. Moreover, the impact of bed shear stress on survival in bed sediments was explored. It was seen that in the lab-scale flume having a very low bed shear stress (0.3 N m(-2)), E. coli and enterococci survival in 3-cm-deep substratum cages was nearly the same as in a thin biofilm (200 μm). However, in the large-scale flume system characterized by a bed shear stress of 9 N m(-2), the added protection of the deeper substratum cages promoted considerably longer survival of E. coli and enterococci than the thin biofilm. Additionally, the FIB removal mechanisms in the two flume systems varied. At the lab-scale, enterococci was seen to persist twice as long as E. coli, while in the large-scale flume the two FIB were removed at the same rate. A comparison of qPCR analyses performed in both flumes suggests that bed sediment erosion and the influence of grazers/predators were responsible for FIB removal from the sediments in the large-scale flume, whereas in the lab flume FIB inactivation caused removal. These results indicate that hydraulic parameters such as bed shear stress as well as the presence of macroinvertebrates in a system are both important factors to consider when designing flumes as they can significantly impact FIB persistence in sediments of fast-flowing, alpine streams.

  6. Research of autocollimating angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgalieva, Tatiana V.; Konyakhin, Igor A.

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of the system were studied in laboratory conditions. The research confirmed effectiveness of the considered angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects such as the primary mirror of a radio telescope.

  7. The Design of a Novel Survey for Small Objects in the Solar System

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Chen, W.P.; de Pater, I.; Lee, T.; Lissauer, J.; Rice, J.; Liang, C.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; Akerlof, C.

    2000-08-21

    We evaluated several concepts for a new survey for small objects in the Solar System. We designed a highly novel survey for comets in the outer region of the Solar System, which exploits the occultations of relatively bright stars to infer the presence of otherwise extremely faint objects. The populations and distributions of these objects are not known; the uncertainties span orders of magnitude! These objects are important scientifically as probes of the primordial solar system, and programmatically now that major investments may be made in the possible mitigation of the hazard of asteroid or comet collisions with the Earth.

  8. Vision-based object detection and recognition system for intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Bin; Liu, Henry X.; Martono, Wilfung

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a proactive crash mitigation system is proposed to enhance the crash avoidance and survivability of the Intelligent Vehicles. Accurate object detection and recognition system is a prerequisite for a proactive crash mitigation system, as system component deployment algorithms rely on accurate hazard detection, recognition, and tracking information. In this paper, we present a vision-based approach to detect and recognize vehicles and traffic signs, obtain their information, and track multiple objects by using a sequence of color images taken from a moving vehicle. The entire system consist of two sub-systems, the vehicle detection and recognition sub-system and traffic sign detection and recognition sub-system. Both of the sub- systems consist of four models: object detection model, object recognition model, object information model, and object tracking model. In order to detect potential objects on the road, several features of the objects are investigated, which include symmetrical shape and aspect ratio of a vehicle and color and shape information of the signs. A two-layer neural network is trained to recognize different types of vehicles and a parameterized traffic sign model is established in the process of recognizing a sign. Tracking is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frame with the analysis of consecutive image frames. The analysis of the single image frame is performed every ten full-size images. The information model will obtain the information related to the object, such as time to collision for the object vehicle and relative distance from the traffic sings. Experimental results demonstrated a robust and accurate system in real time object detection and recognition over thousands of image frames.

  9. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance Objectives § 60.112 Overall system...

  10. Late Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Is Associated with Long-Term Persistence of Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ghislain, Mathilde; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Meyer, Laurence; Capeau, Jacqueline; Fellahi, Soraya; Gérard, Laurence; May, Thierry; Simon, Anne; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation. Methods Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142). Results Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07). Conclusion After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:26636578

  11. Object-oriented inventory classes: Comparison of implementions in KEE (a frame-oriented expert system shell) and CLOS (the Common Lisp Object System)

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.; Egdorf, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The modeling of manufacturing processes can be cast in a form which relies heavily on stores to and draws from object-oriented inventories, which contain the functionalities imposed on them by the other objects (including other inventories) in the model. These concepts have been implemented, but with some difficulties, for the particular case of pyrochemical operations at the DOE's Rocky Flats Plant using KEE, a frame-oriented expert system shell. An alternative implementation approach using CLOS (the now-standard Common Lisp Object System) has been briefly explored and was found to give significant simplifications. In preparation for a more extensive migration toward CLOS programming, we have implemented a useful subset of CLOS on top of the KEE shell. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    DOEpatents

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  13. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  14. Paradoxical persistence through mixed-system dynamics: towards a unified perspective of reversal behaviours in evolutionary ecology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul David; Hastings, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Counterintuitive dynamics of various biological phenomena occur when composite system dynamics differ qualitatively from that of their component systems. Such composite systems typically arise when modelling situations with time-varying biotic or abiotic conditions, and examples range from metapopulation dynamics to population genetic models. These biological, and related physical, phenomena can often be modelled as simple financial games, wherein capital is gained and lost through gambling. Such games have been developed and used as heuristic devices to elucidate the processes at work in generating seemingly paradoxical outcomes across a spectrum of disciplines, albeit in a field-specific, ad hoc fashion. Here, we propose that studying these simple games can provide a much deeper understanding of the fundamental principles governing paradoxical behaviours in models from a diversity of topics in evolution and ecology in which fluctuating environmental effects, whether deterministic or stochastic, are an essential aspect of the phenomenon of interest. Of particular note, we find that, for a broad class of models, the ecological concept of equilibrium reactivity provides an intuitive necessary condition that must be satisfied in order for environmental variability to promote population persistence. We contend that further investigations along these lines promise to unify aspects of the study of a range of topics, bringing questions from genetics, species persistence and coexistence and the evolution of bet-hedging strategies, under a common theoretical purview. PMID:21270032

  15. Effective Management of Persistent Pneumothorax Using a Thopaz® Digital Drainage System Combined with an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Okamoto, Norio; Tamiya, Motohiro; Hamaguchi, Masanari; Tanaka, Ayako; Nishida, Takuji; Hayama, Manabu; Nishihara, Takashi; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with salivary gland cancer and multiple pulmonary metastases suffering from intractable pneumothorax was transferred to our institution; he was inoperable because of a low pulmonary function. A chest tube had been placed more than a month prior to this admission. A digital drainage system was used for 24-h monitoring of air leaks (Thopaz®). Using the Thopaz® system, we performed endoscopic bronchial occlusion using an endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS) to reduce air leaks. Finally, the air leaks ceased, and the chest tube was removed five days after EWS placement. We herein report a case of persistent pneumothorax that was successfully treated by endoscopic bronchial EWS placement with the aid of a Thopaz® system.

  16. A novel abandoned object detection system based on three-dimensional image information.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  17. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation, physiological stress and circadian rhythms were assessed during six month spaceflight onboard ISS. Blood and saliva samples were collected early, mid and late in-flight and returned for immediate analysis. Mid-point study data (10 of 17 planned subjects) will be presented. Results: Some shifts in leukocyte distribution occurred during flight, including alterations in CD8+ T cell maturation. General T cell function was consistently reduced early in-flight. Levels CD8+/IFNg+ producing T cells were depressed early in-flight, and immediately upon landing. Persistent mitogen-dependant reductions were observed in IFNg, IL-17a, IL-10, TNFa and IL-6 production. Monocyte production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 levels were increased. Levels of mRNA for the TNFa, IL-6 and IFNg were transiently elevated early in-flight, and the dynamics of TNF and IL-6 gene expression were somewhat antagonistic to their corresponding receptors during flight. The number of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells was measured using MHC tetramers, while their function was measured using intracellular cytokine analysis following peptide stimulation. Both the number and function of EBV-specific cells decreased during flight as compared to preflight levels. The number of CMV-specific T-cells generally increased as the mission progressed while their function was variable. Viral (EBV) load in blood was elevated postflight. Anti-EBV VCA antibodies were significantly elevated by R+0; anti-EA antibodies were not significantly elevated at landing; and anti-CMV antibodies were somewhat elevated during flight. Higher levels of salivary EBV DNA were found during flight. VZV DNA reactivation occurred in 50 % of astronauts during flight, continuing for up to 30 days post-flight. CMV was shed in 35 % the in-flight and 30% of postflight urine samples of the crewmembers. There was generally a higher level of cortisol as measured in urine and saliva in the

  18. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  19. The use of object-oriented techniques and CORBA in astronomical instrumentation control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipper, Nigel A.; Blackburn, Colin

    2004-09-01

    Control software for astronomy matches the ever increasing complexity of new large instrumentation projects. In order to speed the development cycle, object-oriented techniques have been used to generate loosely coupled software objects and larger scale components that can be reused in future projects. Such object-oriented systems provide for short development cycles which can respond to changing requirements and allow for extension. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been used for the analysis, design and implementation of this software. A distributed system is supported by the use of an object broker such as CORBA. These techniques are being applied to the development of an instrument control system for the UK spectrograph within FMOS (Fiber-fed Multi-Object Spectrograph). This is a second generation instrument for the Subaru Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. Increased fermentation activity and persistent methanogenesis in a model aquifer system following source removal of an ethanol blend release.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-01-01

    The increased probability of groundwater contamination by ethanol-blended fuel calls for improved understanding of how remediation efforts affect the fate and transport of constituents of concern, including the generation and fate of fermentation byproducts. A pilot-scale (8 m³) model aquifer was used to investigate changes in the concentrations of ethanol and its metabolites (methane and volatile fatty acids) after removal of the contamination source. Following the shut-off of a continuous release of a dissolved ethanol blend (10% v:v ethanol, 50 mg/L benzene, and 50 mg/L toluene), fermentation activity was surprisingly stimulated and the concentrations of ethanol metabolites increased. A microcosm experiment showed that this result was due to a decrease in the dissolved ethanol concentration below its toxicity threshold (∼2000 mg/L for this system). Methane generation (>1.5 mg/L of dissolved methane) persisted for more than 100 days after the disappearance of ethanol, despite clean air-saturated water flowing continuously through the tank at a relative high seepage velocity (0.76 m/day). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that functional genes associated with methane metabolism (mcrA for methanogenesis and pmoA for methanotrophy) also persisted in the aquifer material. Persistent methanogenesis was apparently due to the anaerobic degradation of soil-bound organic carbon (e.g., biomass grown on ethanol and other substrates). Overall, this study reflects the complex plume dynamics following source removal, and suggests that monitoring for increases in the concentration of ethanol metabolites that impact groundwater quality should be considered.

  1. Increased fermentation activity and persistent methanogenesis in a model aquifer system following source removal of an ethanol blend release.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-01-01

    The increased probability of groundwater contamination by ethanol-blended fuel calls for improved understanding of how remediation efforts affect the fate and transport of constituents of concern, including the generation and fate of fermentation byproducts. A pilot-scale (8 m³) model aquifer was used to investigate changes in the concentrations of ethanol and its metabolites (methane and volatile fatty acids) after removal of the contamination source. Following the shut-off of a continuous release of a dissolved ethanol blend (10% v:v ethanol, 50 mg/L benzene, and 50 mg/L toluene), fermentation activity was surprisingly stimulated and the concentrations of ethanol metabolites increased. A microcosm experiment showed that this result was due to a decrease in the dissolved ethanol concentration below its toxicity threshold (∼2000 mg/L for this system). Methane generation (>1.5 mg/L of dissolved methane) persisted for more than 100 days after the disappearance of ethanol, despite clean air-saturated water flowing continuously through the tank at a relative high seepage velocity (0.76 m/day). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that functional genes associated with methane metabolism (mcrA for methanogenesis and pmoA for methanotrophy) also persisted in the aquifer material. Persistent methanogenesis was apparently due to the anaerobic degradation of soil-bound organic carbon (e.g., biomass grown on ethanol and other substrates). Overall, this study reflects the complex plume dynamics following source removal, and suggests that monitoring for increases in the concentration of ethanol metabolites that impact groundwater quality should be considered. PMID:25462754

  2. a Low-Cost and Portable System for 3d Reconstruction of Texture-Less Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseininaveh, A.; Yazdan, R.; Karami, A.; Moradi, M.; Ghorbani, F.

    2015-12-01

    The optical methods for 3D modelling of objects can be classified into two categories including image-based and range-based methods. Structure from Motion is one of the image-based methods implemented in commercial software. In this paper, a low-cost and portable system for 3D modelling of texture-less objects is proposed. This system includes a rotating table designed and developed by using a stepper motor and a very light rotation plate. The system also has eight laser light sources with very dense and strong beams which provide a relatively appropriate pattern on texture-less objects. In this system, regarding to the step of stepper motor, images are semi automatically taken by a camera. The images can be used in structure from motion procedures implemented in Agisoft software.To evaluate the performance of the system, two dark objects were used. The point clouds of these objects were obtained by spraying a light powders on the objects and exploiting a GOM laser scanner. Then these objects were placed on the proposed turntable. Several convergent images were taken from each object while the laser light sources were projecting the pattern on the objects. Afterward, the images were imported in VisualSFM as a fully automatic software package for generating an accurate and complete point cloud. Finally, the obtained point clouds were compared to the point clouds generated by the GOM laser scanner. The results showed the ability of the proposed system to produce a complete 3D model from texture-less objects.

  3. RiBOMS: RFID-based object management system for home environments.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Hodei; Schafer, James; Yu, Xunyi; Mullett, Gary; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a RFID-based object management system, RiBOMS, for home environments. The system has an easy to use pictorial user interface aimed at older adults with associative memory impairments. The system technical correctness was successfully tested in a lab environment. PMID:22254778

  4. Discerning Technological Systems Related to Everyday Objects: Mapping the Variation in Pupils' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Maria; Ingerman, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in…

  5. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Spencer, David F.

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  6. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yao-Jen; Wang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Chang; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU) for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network) and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network) users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  7. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  8. The influence of the Bible geographic objects peculiarities on the concept of the spatiotemporal geoinformation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsebarth, A.; Moscicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the infl uence of the Bible geographic object peculiarities on the spatiotemporal geoinformation system of the Bible events. In the proposed concept of this system the special attention was concentrated to the Bible geographic objects and interrelations between the names of these objects and their location in the geospace. In the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament, there are hundreds of geographical names, but the selection of these names from the Bible text is not so easy. The same names are applied for the persons and geographic objects. The next problem which arises is the classification of the geographical object, because in several cases the same name is used for the towns, mountains, hills, valleys etc. Also very serious problem is related to the time-changes of the names. The interrelation between the object name and its location is also complicated. The geographic object of this same name is located in various places which should be properly correlated with the Bible text. Above mentioned peculiarities of Bible geographic objects infl uenced the concept of the proposed system which consists of three databases: reference, geographic object, and subject/thematic. The crucial component of this system is proper architecture of the geographic object database. In the paper very detailed description of this database is presented. The interrelation between the databases allows to the Bible readers to connect the Bible text with the geography of the terrain on which the Bible events occurred and additionally to have access to the other geographical and historical information related to the geographic objects.

  9. A review of underwater acoustic systems and methods for locating objects lost at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Information related to the location of objects lost at sea is presented. Acoustic devices attached to an object prior to being transported is recommended as a homing beacon. Minimum requirements and some environmental constraints are defined. Methods and procedures for search and recovery are also discussed. Both an interim system and a more advanced system are outlined. Controlled acoustic emission to enhance security is the theme followed.

  10. Prototyping an Interactive Electronic Book System Using an Object-Oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier-Boltuck, Jacques; Grossman, Ed; Collaud, Gérald

    An Integrated Electronic Book (IEB) represents a complex network of integrated information and "know how" on a given subject. In the design phase of WEBS (Woven Electronic Book System), we soon realized that, because we were describing the IEB in terms of "objects" and "methods," and because we wanted WEBS to be easily expandable and to offer a consistent user interface, we should use an object-oriented development system.

  11. SkyBoT, a new VO service to identify Solar System objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Thuillot, W.; Fernique, P.; Ochsenbein, F.; Genova, F.; Lainey, V.; Arlot, J.-E.

    2006-07-01

    The Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides (IMCCE, Paris Observatory) provides to the Astronomical Virtual Observatory a new service of identification and ephemeris computation dedicated to the solar system objects. This service, named SkyBoT {http://skybot.imcce.fr/} is fully VO compliant and provides solar system objects ephemeris in VOTable format through web service facilities.

  12. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  13. A signal and image processing object-based system using CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Sherwood, R.J.; Clark, G.A.; Lawver, B.S.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents a LISP based system for signal and image processing. Using an object based approach the system integrates signal and image processing algorithms, supervised and unsupervised neural network algorithms, and mild-level computer vision capabilities, into a cohesive framework. This framework is suitable for prototyping complex algorithms dealing with multiple classes of data. The system, known as VISION, is currently used as a prototyping environment for wide range of scientific applications internal to LLNL. This paper highlights some of the capabilities of VISION, and how they were implemented using the Common LISP Object System, CLOS. 13 refs.

  14. Activity of human motor system during action observation is modulated by object presence.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Chandrasekharan, Sanjay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2011-03-01

    Neurons in the monkey mirror neuron system (MNS) become active when actions are observed or executed. Increases in activity are greater when objects are engaged than when the actions are mimed. This modulation occurs even when object manipulation is hidden from view. We examined whether human motor systems are similarly modulated during action observation because such observation-related modulations are potentially mediated by a putative human MNS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of a grasping muscle while participants observed actual or pantomimed grasping movements whose endpoints were sometimes hidden from view. MEP amplitudes were found to be modulated by object presence. Critically, the object-based modulation was found when the participant directly observed object manipulation and when the object manipulation had to be inferred because it was hidden. These findings parallel studies of MNS activity in monkeys and support the hypothesis that the MNS influences motor system activity during action observation. Although the object-based modulation of MEP amplitudes was consistent with the hypotheses, the direction of the modulation was not--MEP amplitudes decreased during action observation in contrast to the increase that has previously been observed. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude on object-present trials resulted from inhibitory mechanisms that were activated to suppress the observation-evoked response codes from generating overt muscle activity.

  15. Fundamentals of object-oriented information systems specification and design: the OBLOG/TROLL approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrich, Hans-Dieter

    1994-12-01

    A survey of concepts for an information system specification is given, based on the viewpoint that an information system is a community of interacting objects. Objects are self-contained units of structure and behavior capable of operating independently and cooperating concurrently. The approach integrates concepts from semantic data modeling and concurrent processes, adopting structuring principles partly developed in the framework of object-orientation and partly in that of abstract data types. The languages OBLOG and TROLL are based on these concepts and their use is illustrated by examples.

  16. Classification of fragments of objects by the Fourier masks pattern recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas-García, Carolina; Solorza-Calderón, Selene; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2016-05-01

    The automation process of the pattern recognition for fragments of objects is a challenge to humanity. For humans it is relatively easy to classify the fragment of some object even if it is isolated and perhaps this identification could be more complicated if it is partially overlapped by other object. However, the emulation of the functions of the human eye and brain by a computer is not a trivial issue. This paper presents a pattern recognition digital system based on Fourier binary rings masks in order to classify fragments of objects. The system is invariant to position, scale and rotation, and it is robust in the classification of images that have noise. Moreover, it classifies images that present an occlusion or elimination of approximately 50% of the area of the object.

  17. HigB of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enhances Killing of Phagocytes by Up-Regulating the Type III Secretion System in Ciprofloxacin Induced Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Long, Yuqing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ronghao; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Lu; Jin, Yongxin; Yang, Liang; Bai, Fang; Jin, Shouguang; Cheng, Zhihui; Wu, Weihui

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are dormant and highly tolerant to lethal antibiotics, which are believed to be the major cause of recurring and chronic infections. Activation of toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems inhibits bacterial growth and plays an important role in persister formation. However, little is known about the overall gene expression profile upon toxin activation. More importantly, how the dormant bacterial persisters evade host immune clearance remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin-antitoxin system HigB-HigA is required for the ciprofloxacin induced persister formation. Transcriptome analysis of a higA::Tn mutant revealed up regulation of type III secretion systems (T3SS) genes. Overexpression of HigB increased the expression of T3SS genes as well as bacterial cytotoxicity. We further demonstrate that wild type bacteria that survived ciprofloxacin treatment contain higher levels of T3SS proteins and display increased cytotoxicity to macrophage compared to vegetative bacterial cells. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa accumulates T3SS proteins during persister formation, which can protect the persister cells from host clearance by efficiently killing host immune cells. PMID:27790409

  18. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Bannister, M. T.; Schmidt, B. P.; McNaught, R.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E.

    2015-02-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  19. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc. PMID:26593920

  20. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor’s infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc. PMID:26593920

  1. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-11-17

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  2. 3d Modeling of cultural heritage objects with a structured light system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Devrim

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects is an expanding application area. The selection of the right technology is very important and strictly related to the project requirements, budget and user's experience. The triangulation based active sensors, e.g. structured light systems are used for many kinds of 3D object reconstruction tasks and in particular for 3D recording of cultural heritage objects. This study presents the experiences in the results of two such projects in which a close-range structured light system is used for the 3D digitization. The paper includes the essential steps of the 3D object modeling pipeline, i.e. digitization, registration, surface triangulation, editing, texture mapping and visualization. The capabilities of the used hardware and software are addressed. Particular emphasis is given to a coded structured light system as an option for data acquisition.

  3. Multi-scale 2D tracking of articulated objects using hierarchical spring systems.

    PubMed

    Artner, Nicole M; Ion, Adrian; Kropatsch, Walter G

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework to build a target-specific, part-based representation for arbitrary articulated or rigid objects. The aim is to successfully track the target object in 2D, through multiple scales and occlusions. This is realized by employing a hierarchical, iterative optimization process on the proposed representation of structure and appearance. Therefore, each rigid part of an object is described by a hierarchical spring system represented by an attributed graph pyramid. Hierarchical spring systems encode the spatial relationships of the features (attributes of the graph pyramid) describing the parts and enforce them by spring-like behavior during tracking. Articulation points connecting the parts of the object allow to transfer position information from reliable to ambiguous parts. Tracking is done in an iterative process by combining the hypotheses of simple trackers with the hypotheses extracted from the hierarchical spring systems.

  4. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  5. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation.

    PubMed

    Merfa, Marcus V; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis-CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  6. NASA TSRV essential flight control system requirements via object oriented analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Keith S.; Hoza, Bradley J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the baseline flight control system of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) and to develop a system specification that offers high visibility of the essential system requirements in order to facilitate the future development of alternate, more advanced software architectures. The flight control system is defined to be the baseline software for the TSRV research flight deck, including all navigation, guidance, and control functions, and primary pilot displays. The Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) methodology developed is used to develop a system requirement definition. The scope of the requirements definition contained herein is limited to a portion of the Flight Management/Flight Control computer functionality. The development of a partial system requirements definition is documented, and includes a discussion of the tasks required to increase the scope of the requirements definition and recommendations for follow-on research.

  7. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Dennis J.; Patel, Ashay S.; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W.; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A.; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory responses during infection defines the course and severity of disease. Clinical UPEC isolates obtained from patients with a nonfebrile UTI elicited high systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI in a murine model and were attenuated in bladder and kidney persistence. Conversely, UPEC isolates obtained from patients with febrile UTI elicited low systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI and exhibited prolonged persistence in the bladder and kidney. Soluble factors in the supernatant from saturated cultures as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype correlated with the magnitude of proinflammatory responses in vitro. Our data suggest that the structure of the O-antigen sugar moiety of the LPS may determine the strength of cytokine induction by epithelial cells. Moreover, the course and severity of disease appear to be the consequence of the magnitude of initial cytokines produced by the bladder epithelium during infection. IMPORTANCE The specific host-pathogen interactions that determine the extent and course of disease are not completely understood. Our studies demonstrate that modest changes in the magnitude of cytokine production observed using in vitro models of infection translate into

  8. A bio-inspired method and system for visual object-based attention and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method and system of human-like attention and object segmentation in visual scenes that (1) attends to regions in a scene in their rank of saliency in the image, (2) extracts the boundary of an attended proto-object based on feature contours, and (3) can be biased to boost the attention paid to specific features in a scene, such as those of a desired target object in static and video imagery. The purpose of the system is to identify regions of a scene of potential importance and extract the region data for processing by an object recognition and classification algorithm. The attention process can be performed in a default, bottom-up manner or a directed, top-down manner which will assign a preference to certain features over others. One can apply this system to any static scene, whether that is a still photograph or imagery captured from video. We employ algorithms that are motivated by findings in neuroscience, psychology, and cognitive science to construct a system that is novel in its modular and stepwise approach to the problems of attention and region extraction, its application of a flooding algorithm to break apart an image into smaller proto-objects based on feature density, and its ability to join smaller regions of similar features into larger proto-objects. This approach allows many complicated operations to be carried out by the system in a very short time, approaching real-time. A researcher can use this system as a robust front-end to a larger system that includes object recognition and scene understanding modules; it is engineered to function over a broad range of situations and can be applied to any scene with minimal tuning from the user.

  9. Belief Network based Disambiguation of Object Reference in Spoken Dialogue System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakata, Yoko; Kawahara, Tatsuya; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Minoh, Michihiko

    This paper discusses a problem of human-machine interaction when spoken word to object reference ambiguity occurs. We study joint activity of several agents in which a remote robot finds an object while communicating with the user over a voice-only channel. We focus on the problem in which the robot disambiguates the reference of the uttered word or phrase to the target object. For example, the utterance of the word ``cup'' may refer to a ``teacup'', a ``coffee cup'', or even a ``glass'' for different users in some situations. This reference (hereafter, ``object reference'') is user and situation dependent. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment including 12 subjects confirmed that the user model of object references is significant. In the second experiment conducted on 20 subjects, we show the model reference sensitivity to the situation. In addition to the ambiguity of the object reference, the actual system must cope with two sources of uncertainty: speech and image recognition. We present the belief network based probabilistic reasoning system to determine the object reference. The resulting system demonstrates that the number of interactions needed to find a common reference is reduced as the user model is refined.

  10. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  11. Harmonization Without Homogenization: The Virginia Community College System's Approach to Management By Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Donald E.; And Others

    This panel report on the development of management of objectives (MBO) in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) will be useful to any community college or community college system interested in changing to the MBO method of administration. Following a discussion of the history of centralized administration and funding which preceded the…

  12. Object tracking and creation of linking information for distributed movie-based web-browsing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsunobu; Fuse, Keisuke; Komatsu, Naohisa; Komiya, Kazumi; Ikeda, Hiroaki

    1998-12-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract an accurate object from video streams. The new approach provides a useful tool creating linking information for a distributed movie-based Web-browsing system, and consists of a skip- labeling algorithm for feature-based segmentation, and a shrink-merge tracking algorithm for tracking an object. This skip-labeling algorithm can be used to segment an image into integrated regions of the same feature. The segmented regions belong to such a texture area as waves or forest. The shrink- merge tracking algorithm is executed, based on the time continuity of moving-objects, using morphological image processing, such as dilation and erosion. The dilation and erosion are repeatedly executed using the projection processing in which the object area in a next frame is derived from the object area in a current frame. The shrink-merge tracking algorithm can also project the area of a rotating- object in a current frame on the rotating-object containing the newly appearing regions in the next frame. The newly automated object extraction method works satisfactorily for the objects which move non-linearly within the video streams including MPEG and Motion JPEG, and works satisfactorily in approximately 450 frames, each with a full frame size of 704 X 480 pixels at video frame rate of 30 fps. This paper finally demonstrates that object-based linking information for a movie-based Web-browsing system contains information of objects obtained by the fully automated extraction from video- streams.

  13. Formation of the system indicators analytic dependence during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an analytical model of calculating the values of parametric clusters, a matrix of the parameters compliance and a model of the analyzed parameter values calculation allowing to form an analytical matrix of the indicators system during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects and to identify the quantitative relationship of the parameters values. The results are useful for solving problems of control over both technical and socio-economic systems for evaluating objects using parameter systems generated by different subjects taking into account their performance and priorities of decision-making.

  14. Object-oriented modeling and simulation of the closed loop cardiovascular system by using SIMSCAPE.

    PubMed

    de Canete, J Fernandez; del Saz-Orozco, P; Moreno-Boza, D; Duran-Venegas, E

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of physiological systems via mathematical equations reflects the calculation procedure more than the structure of the real system modeled, with the simulation environment SIMULINK™ being one of the best suited to this strategy. Nevertheless, object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation environments through the use of the individual components of the model and its interconnections to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper we describe the use of the SIMSCAPE™ simulation environment in the object-oriented modeling of the closed loop cardiovascular system. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical students.

  15. iWearSA: an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for perception of moving object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Li, Zushu; Chen, Dongyi

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose iWearSA, an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for detecting moving object based on wearable computing technology. The chief objective of iWearSA is to help human complete the surveillance tasks. The research presented here addresses some special challenges and correlative modules in system design, and the block diagram of the iWearSA system is explained in detail. The hardware components used in iWearSA are mentioned. The availability of iWearSA is verified by guarding the kid's activity in public grassplot scenario.

  16. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  17. Persistent nonequilibrium dynamics of the thermal energies in the spin and phonon systems of an antiferromagnet

    PubMed Central

    von Reppert, A.; Pudell, J.; Koc, A.; Reinhardt, M.; Leitenberger, W.; Dumesnil, K.; Zamponi, F.; Bargheer, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a temperature and fluence dependent Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction study of a laser-heated antiferromagnetic dysprosium thin film. The loss of antiferromagnetic order is evidenced by a pronounced lattice contraction. We devise a method to determine the energy flow between the phonon and spin system from calibrated Bragg peak positions in thermal equilibrium. Reestablishing the magnetic order is much slower than the cooling of the lattice, especially around the Néel temperature. Despite the pronounced magnetostriction, the transfer of energy from the spin system to the phonons in Dy is slow after the spin-order is lost.

  18. Persistent nonequilibrium dynamics of the thermal energies in the spin and phonon systems of an antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    von Reppert, A; Pudell, J; Koc, A; Reinhardt, M; Leitenberger, W; Dumesnil, K; Zamponi, F; Bargheer, M

    2016-09-01

    We present a temperature and fluence dependent Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction study of a laser-heated antiferromagnetic dysprosium thin film. The loss of antiferromagnetic order is evidenced by a pronounced lattice contraction. We devise a method to determine the energy flow between the phonon and spin system from calibrated Bragg peak positions in thermal equilibrium. Reestablishing the magnetic order is much slower than the cooling of the lattice, especially around the Néel temperature. Despite the pronounced magnetostriction, the transfer of energy from the spin system to the phonons in Dy is slow after the spin-order is lost. PMID:27679803

  19. Persistent nonequilibrium dynamics of the thermal energies in the spin and phonon systems of an antiferromagnet

    PubMed Central

    von Reppert, A.; Pudell, J.; Koc, A.; Reinhardt, M.; Leitenberger, W.; Dumesnil, K.; Zamponi, F.; Bargheer, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a temperature and fluence dependent Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction study of a laser-heated antiferromagnetic dysprosium thin film. The loss of antiferromagnetic order is evidenced by a pronounced lattice contraction. We devise a method to determine the energy flow between the phonon and spin system from calibrated Bragg peak positions in thermal equilibrium. Reestablishing the magnetic order is much slower than the cooling of the lattice, especially around the Néel temperature. Despite the pronounced magnetostriction, the transfer of energy from the spin system to the phonons in Dy is slow after the spin-order is lost. PMID:27679803

  20. Autonomic Management of Object Replication for FT-CORBA Based Intelligent Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Woonsuk; Lee, Eunseok

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) comprises the electronics, communications or information processing used singly or integrated to improve the efficiency or safety of surface transportation. Accordingly, the ITS has to perform collection, management, and provision of real time transport information reliably. It can be deployed based on the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) of the Object Management Group (OMG) because it consists of many interconnected heterogeneous systems deployed by independent organizations. Fault Tolerant CORBA (FT-CORBA) supports real time requirement of transport information stably through redundancy by replication of server objects. However, object replication, management, and related protocols of FT-CORBA require extra system resources of CPU and memory, and can degrade the system performance both locally and as a whole. This paper proposes an architecture to enhance performance of FT-CORBA based ITS in terms of CPU and memory by managing object replication adaptively during system operation with an agent. The application of the agent is expected to support fault tolerance of real ITS efficiently.

  1. System and method for representing and manipulating three-dimensional objects on massively parallel architectures

    DOEpatents

    Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.

    1996-01-30

    A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.

  2. System and method for representing and manipulating three-dimensional objects on massively parallel architectures

    DOEpatents

    Karasick, Michael S.; Strip, David R.

    1996-01-01

    A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modelling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modelling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modelling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication.

  3. Object library for a new generation of experiment-controlling applications under the UNIX operating system.

    PubMed

    Gaponov, Y A; Ito, K; Amemiya, Y

    1998-05-01

    The Interface Object Library based on the Motif extension of the X Windows system and on the ESONE SVIC-VCC Library is presented. Some features of the applications for controlling a synchrotron radiation experiment are discussed. The Interface Object Library is written in the object-oriented C++ language. The library class-hierarchy structure is presented and discussed. Several interfaces were realized in the Interface Object Library: the Windows interface, the CAMAC interface and the interface for supporting the experiment. The behaviour of the objects describing the CAMAC crate and CAMAC block is discussed. The application of these protocols for controlling the fast one-coordinate position-sensitive X-ray detector OD3 is presented.

  4. Perceived Value and Persistence of Web Publishing Skills: Implications for e-Portfolio Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Glenn; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Kidwai, Khusro

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that student control of their personal web space is an important factor that supports meaningful reflective learning within online web publishing contexts. The Penn State personal web space system allows for personal control of this learning space, although basic web publishing skills are required. The purpose of this study is…

  5. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  6. Causality and persistence in ecological systems: a nonparametric spectral granger causality approach.

    PubMed

    Detto, Matteo; Molini, Annalisa; Katul, Gabriel; Stoy, Paul; Palmroth, Sari; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    Abstract Directionality in coupling, defined as the linkage relating causes to their effects at a later time, can be used to explain the core dynamics of ecological systems by untangling direct and feedback relationships between the different components of the systems. Inferring causality from measured ecological variables sampled through time remains a formidable challenge further made difficult by the action of periodic drivers overlapping the natural dynamics of the system. Periodicity in the drivers can often mask the self-sustained oscillations originating from the autonomous dynamics. While linear and direct causal relationships are commonly addressed in the time domain, using the well-established machinery of Granger causality (G-causality), the presence of periodic forcing requires frequency-based statistics (e.g., the Fourier transform), able to distinguish coupling induced by oscillations in external drivers from genuine endogenous interactions. Recent nonparametric spectral extensions of G-causality to the frequency domain pave the way for the scale-by-scale decomposition of causality, which can improve our ability to link oscillatory behaviors of ecological networks to causal mechanisms. The performance of both spectral G-causality and its conditional extension for multivariate systems is explored in quantifying causal interactions within ecological networks. Through two case studies involving synthetic and actual time series, it is demonstrated that conditional G-causality outperforms standard G-causality in identifying causal links and their concomitant timescales.

  7. Three-axis optic-electronic autocollimation system for the inspection of large-scale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Alexandr N.; Konyakhin, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    Ways of refining autocollimation systems for the inspection of angular deformation of industrial objects are analyzed. Control elements based on tetrahedral reflectors with plane and cylinder reflecting sides are researched. Results of an analysis the action matrix of tetrahedral reflectors are considered. The features of tetrahedral reflector as the control elements for three-axis angular systems are discussed. Equations for static characteristics of the measuring system are shown.

  8. Statistical Model For Pseudo-Moving Objects Recognition In Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B.; Egorov, A.; Sidyakin, S.; Malin, I.; Vizilter, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers a statistical approach to define pseudo-moving (false) objects in video surveillance systems by constructing systems of hypothesis with the criteria based on statistical behavioral particularities. The obtained results are integrated in two ways: using the Bayes' theorem or the logistic regression. FAR-FRR curves are plotted for each system of hypothesis and also for the decision rule. The results of the proposed methods are obtained on test video databases.

  9. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K.; Palounek, P.T.; Day, C.

    1992-02-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM`s Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person`s perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.

  10. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K. ); Palounek, P.T. ); Day, C. )

    1992-01-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM's Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person's perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.

  11. Changes in Precipitation Amount, Frequency and Persistency and their Impacts on Eco-system in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Panmao; Wang, Yawei

    2015-04-01

    In northern China, one day and short duration precipitation (less than 5 days)events account for more than 95% of total precipitation days. Increase or decrease trend in number of precipitation days mainly attributes to the change in one day events and short duration events. At the same time, durations of the longest consecutive dry days plays a very important impact on eco-system since change in that precipitation extreme index strongly relates to the change in drought persistency. During the past 50 years, northern China has experienced dramatic warming at a rate much greater than that in the lower latitude regions. Further, precipitation total has increased in Northwest China, especially in northern Xinjiang, but has reduced in most parts of Northeast China. Under such climate change background, precipitation frequency and persistency also have changed with more frequent precipitation events in northern Xinjiang but less frequent precipitation in NE China. Meanwhile, number of dry days and the longest duration of dry days have increased in NE China but reduced in northern Xinjiang. Such types of precipitation structural changes are found to be related to the vegetation coverage, forest fire potential or even occurrence of dust storms in northern China. The increase frequency and amount in precipitation plus the warmer climate condition seem to be beneficial for vegetation coverage recovery, while decrease in precipitation amount and frequency as well as the prolonged dry days are likely related to the increase risk of forest fire danger in NE China. References: 1. Chen, Yang and *Panmao Zhai, Persistent extreme precipitation events in China during 1951-2010, Climate Research, 2013,57(2), 143-155 2. Liu Jing and *Panmao Zhai Panmao, Changes in Climate Regionalization Indices in China during 1961-2010. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 2013,4-, doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-3017-z 3.Liu, Lihong,Panmao Zhai,ZHENG Zuguang.Variations in longest consecutive dry days in warm half year

  12. Systems and methods for maintaining multiple objects within a camera field-of-view

    DOEpatents

    Gans, Nicholas R.; Dixon, Warren

    2016-03-15

    In one embodiment, a system and method for maintaining objects within a camera field of view include identifying constraints to be enforced, each constraint relating to an attribute of the viewed objects, identifying a priority rank for the constraints such that more important constraints have a higher priority that less important constraints, and determining the set of solutions that satisfy the constraints relative to the order of their priority rank such that solutions that satisfy lower ranking constraints are only considered viable if they also satisfy any higher ranking constraints, each solution providing an indication as to how to control the camera to maintain the objects within the camera field of view.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Goals/Objectives and Level 1 Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Johnson, Sandra K.; VanDerAar, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Requirements Document provides the basis for the development of an open architecture for NASA Software Defined Radios (SDRs) for space use. The main objective of this document is to evaluate the goals and objectives and high level (Level 1) requirements that have bearing on the design of the architecture. The goals and objectives will provide broad, fundamental direction and purpose. The high level requirements (Level 1) intend to guide the broader and longer term aspects aspects of the SDR Architecture and provide guidance for the development of level 2 requirements.

  14. A Vision-Based System for Object Identification and Information Retrieval in a Smart Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Raphael; Monekosso, Dorothy; de Jager, Deon; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a hand held device developed to assist people to locate and retrieve information about objects in a home. The system developed is a standalone device to assist persons with memory impairments such as people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. A second application is object detection and localization for a mobile robot operating in an ambient assisted living environment. The device relies on computer vision techniques to locate a tagged object situated in the environment. The tag is a 2D color printed pattern with a detection range and a field of view such that the user may point from a distance of over 1 meter.

  15. Object-Oriented Control System Design Using On-Line Training of Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the object-oriented model development of a neuro-controller design for permanent magnet (PM) dc motor drives. The system under study is described as a collection of interacting objects. Each object module describes the object behaviors, called methods. The characteristics of the object are included in its variables. The knowledge of the object exists within its variables, and the performance is determined by its methods. This structure maps well to the real world objects that comprise the system being modeled. A dynamic learning architecture that possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control is incorporated to enforce constraints on connections and control the dynamics of the motor. The control action is implemented "on-line", in "real time" in such a way that the predicted trajectory follows a specified reference model. A design example of controlling a PM dc motor drive on-line shows the effectiveness of the design tool. This will therefore be very useful in aerospace applications. It is expected to provide an innovative and noval software model for the rocket engine numerical simulator executive.

  16. 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency.

  17. A niched Pareto tabu search for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a new multi-objective optimization method, the niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS), for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed NPTS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport code, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to search for the near Pareto-optimal tradeoffs of groundwater remediation strategies. The difference between the proposed NPTS and the existing multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the use of the niche selection strategy and fitness archiving to maintain the diversity of the optimal solutions along the Pareto front and avoid repetitive calculations of the objective functions associated with the flow and transport model. Sensitivity analysis of the NPTS parameters is evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat remediation application involving two conflicting objectives, minimizations of both remediation cost and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Moreover, the proposed NPTS is applied to a large-scale pump-and-treat groundwater remediation system of the field site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, involving minimizations of both total pumping rates and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Additional comparison of the results based on the NPTS with those obtained from other two methods, namely the single objective tabu search (SOTS) and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), further indicates that the proposed NPTS has desirable computation efficiency, stability, and robustness and is a promising tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems.

  18. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Sze, Ying; Gray, Laura Jane; Chang, Cecilia Chin Roei; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT) mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI) mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS) stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A). The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex), will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7–11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7–11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7–11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  19. Coupled Low-thrust Trajectory and System Optimization via Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob Aldo; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of low-thrust trajectories is tightly coupled with the spacecraft hardware. Trading trajectory characteristics with system parameters ton identify viable solutions and determine mission sensitivities across discrete hardware configurations is labor intensive. Local independent optimization runs can sample the design space, but a global exploration that resolves the relationships between the system variables across multiple objectives enables a full mapping of the optimal solution space. A multi-objective, hybrid optimal control algorithm is formulated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm as an outer loop systems optimizer around a global trajectory optimizer. The coupled problem is solved simultaneously to generate Pareto-optimal solutions in a single execution. The automated approach is demonstrated on two boulder return missions.

  20. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  1. Building and Programming a Smart Robotic System for Distinguishing Objects Based on their Shape and Colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharari, T. M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a robotic system designed for holding and placing objects based on their colour and shape. The presented robot is given a complete set of instructions of positions and orientation angles for each manipulation motion. The main feature in this paper is that the developed robot used a combination of vision and motion systems for holding and placing the work-objects, mounted on the flat work-plane, based on their shapes and colors. This combination improves the flexibility of manipulation which may help eliminate the use of some expensive manipulation tasks in a variety of industrial applications. The robotic system presented in this paper is designed as an educational robot that possesses the ability for holding-and-placing operations with limited load. To process the various instructions for holding and placing the work objects, a main control unit - Manipulation Control Unit (MCU) is used as well as a slave unit that performed the actual instructions from the MCU.

  2. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Automated Object Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.; Swadley, Casey L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts at fully automated object recognition systems have met with varying levels of success over the years. However, none of the systems have achieved high enough accuracy rates to be run unattended. One of the reasons for this may be that they are designed from the computer's point of view and rely mainly on image-processing methods. A better solution to this problem may be to make use of modern advances in computational intelligence and distributed processing to try to mimic how the human brain is thought to recognize objects. As humans combine cognitive processes with detection techniques, such a system would combine traditional image-processing techniques with computer-based intelligence to determine the identity of various objects in a scene.

  3. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    PubMed

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  4. The design of the AIE: An object-oriented application development system

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.S.; Widing, M.A.

    1992-02-27

    Three years ago, in response to our challenging development context, the Advanced Modeling and Analysis Section designed and implemented an object-oriented environment -- the Application Interface Engine (AIE). Our prototyping requirements forced existing application development systems beyond their capabilities. Programmers at AMAS and its contractors have developed over twenty applications using AIE. Our initial experience has been very positive. AIE extends an object-oriented programming language with syntax and classes to support applications specification. This extended system improves all stages of the application engineering life cycle, from rapid prototyping to long term maintenance.

  5. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  6. Object-oriented software design for the Mt. Wilson 100-inch Hooker telescope adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas G.

    2000-06-01

    The object oriented software design paradigm has been instrumented in the development of the Adoptics software used in the Hooker telescope's ADOPT adaptive optics system. The software runs on a Pentium-class PC host and eight DSP processors connected to the host's motherboard bus. C++ classes were created to implement most of the host software's functionality, with the object oriented features of inheritance, encapsulation and abstraction being the most useful. Careful class design at the inception of the project allowed for the rapid addition of features without comprising the integrity of the software. Base class implementations include the DSP system, real-time graphical displays and opto-mechanical actuator control.

  7. Method for Determining the Weight of Functional Objectives on Manufacturing System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingshan; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jiekun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a three-dimensional integrated weight determination to solve manufacturing system functional objectives, where consumers are weighted by triangular fuzzy numbers to determine the enterprises. The weights, subjective parts are determined by the expert scoring method, the objective parts are determined by the entropy method with the competitive advantage of determining. Based on the integration of three methods and comprehensive weight, we provide some suggestions for the manufacturing system. This paper provides the numerical example analysis to illustrate the feasibility of this method. PMID:25243203

  8. Shape inspection system with real-time adaptation to the luminance of the objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Daniel F.; Usamentiaga, Ruben; Marin, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Juan A.; de Abajo, Nicolas

    2001-04-01

    This work presents an automated shape inspection system for 2D objects with variable luminance. The system installed in the steel industry, captures linear images of plates at high temperature (700 - 1200 degree(s)C) while they are moving on a roll path. The main objective of the system is to capture the shape of the head and tail of the plates. These shapes are used to optimize the rolling parameters of the plate mill in order to minimize waste. The radiation generated by the plates in the visible and infrared zones of the spectrum (largely dependent on their temperature) is directly captured by the linear camera of the system with no additional artificial illumination. While most of the research work has been focused on obtaining the optimal illumination for the objects inspected, this work deals with the particular case of objects which irradiate their own light. This system automatically adapts itself to acquire images of plates with different levels of luminance using a mechanisms that calculates the proper exposure time to acquire each image. The mechanism integrates two basic actions: a feedforward control and an adaptive feedback control loop.

  9. Detection Technique for Artificially Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10−3. Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope α ≡ (d log F/d log D)=−4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit α=−2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of α for thousands of KBOs. If objects with α=−2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. Key Words: Astrobiology—SETI—Kuiper belt objects—Artificial illumination. Astrobiology 12, 290–294. PMID:22490065

  10. Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-04-01

    Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope α ≡ (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit α=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of α for thousands of KBOs. If objects with α=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. PMID:22490065

  11. Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Lu, S.Y.

    1998-12-22

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

  12. Geometric filtration of classification-based object detectors in realtime road scene recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prun, Viktor; Bocharov, Dmitry; Koptelov, Ivan; Sholomov, Dmitry; Postnikov, Vassily

    2015-12-01

    We study the issue of performance improvement of classification-based object detectors by including certain geometric-oriented filters. Configurations of the observed 3D scene may be used as a priori or a posteriori information for object filtration. A priori information is used to select only those object parameters (size and position on image plane) that are in accordance with the scene, restricting implausible combinations of parameters. On the other hand the detection robustness can be enhanced by rejecting detection results using a posteriori information about 3D scene. For example, relative location of detected objects can be used as criteria for filtration. We have included proposed filters in object detection modules of two different industrial vision-based recognition systems and compared the resulting detection quality before detectors improving and after. Filtering with a priori information leads to significant decrease of detector's running time per frame and increase of number of correctly detected objects. Including filter based on a posteriori information leads to decrease of object detection false positive rate.

  13. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  14. Development of a reverse-genetics system for murine norovirus 3: long-term persistence occurs in the caecum and colon

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Dalan; Chaudhry, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, yet, due to the inability to propagate HuNoV in cell culture, murine norovirus (MNV) is typically used as a surrogate to study norovirus biology. MNV-3 represents an attractive strain to study norovirus infections in vivo because it establishes persistence in wild-type mice, yet causes symptoms resembling gastroenteritis in immune-compromised STAT1−/− mice. The lack of reverse-genetics approaches to recover genetically defined MNV-3 has limited further studies on the identification of viral sequences that contribute to persistence. Here we report the establishment of a combined DNA-based reverse-genetics and mouse-model system to study persistent MNV-3 infections in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Viral RNA and infectious virus were detected in faeces for at least 56 days after inoculation. Strikingly, the highest concentrations of viral RNA during persistence were detected in the caecum and colon, suggesting that viral persistence is maintained in these tissues. Possible adaptive changes arising during persistence in vivo appeared to accumulate in the minor capsid protein (VP2) and the viral polymerase (NS7), in contrast with adaptive mutations selected during cell-culture passages in RAW264.7 cells that appeared in the major capsid protein (VP1) and non-structural protein NS4. This system provides an attractive model that can be readily used to identify viral sequences that contribute to persistence in an immunocompetent host and to more acute infection in an immunocompromised host, providing new insights into the biology of norovirus infections. PMID:22495235

  15. Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile

    PubMed Central

    Vescovini, Rosanna; Telera, Anna Rita; Pedrazzoni, Mario; Abbate, Barbara; Rossetti, Pietro; Verzicco, Ignazio; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Calderaro, Adriana; Volpi, Riccardo; Sansoni, Paolo; Fagnoni, Francesco Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) imprints the immune system after primary infection, however its effect during chronic infection still needs to be deciphered. In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decreased, either in a statistically significant or non-significant manner. The trend of T cell pool representation with regard to CD4/CD8 ratio was in the opposing directions depending on HCMV serology. Globally, this study demonstrates different dynamic changes of most blood cell types depending on presence or absence of HCMV infection. Therefore, HCMV plays a continual role in modulating homeostasis of blood T cells and a broader expanding effect on other cell populations of lymphoid and myeloid origin. PMID:26990192

  16. QUALITY SYSTEMS AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality System Implementation Plan (QSIP) describes the quality assurance and quality control procedures developed for the CTEPP study. It provides the QA/QC procedures used in recruitment of subjects, sample field collection, sample extraction and analysis, data storage, and...

  17. User-specific interfaces for clinical data-management systems: an object-based approach.

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple user-specific visual interfaces are desirable in any computer-based clinical data-management system that is used by different people with different jobs to perform. The programming and maintenance problems of supporting multiple user interfaces to a single information system can be addressed by separating user-interface functionality from data-management subsystems, and by building user interfaces from object-based software components whose functionality is bound to an underlying server-client data-management architecture. Experience with this approach in a patient-tracking system suggests that this object-based approach is viable in the design of a user interface for a clinical information system. PMID:1482880

  18. Object oriented Simulation of Maintenance and Operations for Space Systems (OSMOSSYS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, Linda; Nguyen, Vien; Nguyen, Judy; Blumentritt, Will

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA/JSC Research Technology Opportunity Program (RTOP) activity to assess the supportability of space systems throughout their life cycles. Supportability analyses for space systems present unique attributes and problems. The OSMOSSYS (Object oriented Simulation of Maintenance and Operations for Space Systems) was developed using object-oriented design concepts to provide NASA an analysis tool which addresses the question `Will a proposed space facility be able to successfully perform the missions for which it is designed?' This model integrates the complete configuration of the system including the reliability and maintainability characteristics of each component, the logistics support, and the mission operations of the facility to assess the success rate of the planned mission(s). Two parallel design processes are being utilized; developing core modules utilizing C++, and incorporating as much code and ideas as possible from existing NASA models. The space station was used as a test case to demonstrate the applicability of the model.

  19. Object-Oriented Nesting System on Two-dimensional Highly Irregular Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jason; Hillman, Donald J.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the automatic nesting problem is to find an arrangement for cutting irregular Shaped pieces that most efficiently utilizes an available space in a reasonable amount of time automatically. The available space, in this case, is highly irregular. Highly irregular resources not only have irregular boundaries but also defective areas that cannot be utilized. To solve this problem physical objects and mental concepts were represented in a framework called object-oriented representation. A recursive lookahead approach was also used, a novel way of segmenting an image in order to localize the search space. An abstract heuristic hill-climbing search was combined with a best-first search using a limited backtracking method to create a hybrid search technique. This system has been developed and the preliminary result is satisfactory. The testing has been performed by comparing the system against a human expert. The average yield difference has been within five percent.

  20. Non-contact transportation system of small objects using Ultrasonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Koyama, D.

    2012-12-01

    A transportation system for small object or fluid without contact is investigated being based on ultrasonic levitation. Small objects are suspended against gravity at the nodal points in ultrasonic pressure field due to the sound radiation force generated as the gradient of the energy density of the field. In this study, the trapped object is transported in the horizontal plane by introducing the spatial shift of the standing waves by the switching the lateral modes or travelling waves. The goal of the study is to establish a technology which can provide a total system with the flexibility in composing various transportation paths. Methods for linear/rotary stepping motions and continuous linear transportation are explained in this report. All the transportation tracks are composed of a bending vibrator and a reflector. The design for these acoustic cavity/waveguide is discussed.

  1. Design Method for a Bilateral Control System Considering Ambient Environment around Operated Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Susa, Shigeru; Hyodo, Shoyo; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In teleoperation, the operated objects are often present in an ambient environment such as water or blood. It then becomes difficult to distinguish between the reaction force from the operated objects and the reaction force from the ambient environment. This affects the safety of the operation and the operation itself. In this paper, we propose a control method for reproducing the reaction forces from an operated object, excluding the reaction forces from the ambient environment. We introduced the concept of dynamic reproducibility, which is an ideal condition considering the ambient environment. Furthermore, a bilateral control system that considers the ambient environment is designed on the basis of dynamic reproducibility. The validity of the proposed system is confirmed by the simulation results and the experimental results.

  2. New model cell systems (PK and XTC-2) for studying acute and persistent infections with herpes simplex and pseudorabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Szántó, J; Lesso, J; Golais, F

    1980-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) showed limited replication in PK (pig kidney) and XTC-2 (Xenopus laevis frog) cell lines. Virus replication depended on the multiplicity of infection (MOI). At a high MOI, HSV-1 caused a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) in XTC-2 cells but a little marked CPE in PK cells. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) replicated intensively in PK cells (permissive system) but not in XTC-2 cells (nonpermissive system). Both viruses were adsorbed on to PK and XTC-2 cells. In infected PK cells, fluorescent HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated only in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane and in the paranuclear area of the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. In XTC-2 cells, HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated also in the nuclei. Persistent HSV-1 infection was induced in PK but not in XTC-2 cells; it was of limited duration. PK cells which had lost HSV-1 multiplied further and proved susceptible to infection with HSV-1 or PRV.

  3. A Type VI secretion system encoding locus is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica immunomodulation and persistence in vivo.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Laura S; Rolin, Olivier Y; Muse, Sarah J; Park, Jihye; Spidale, Nicholas; Kennett, Mary J; Hester, Sara E; Chen, Chun; Dudley, Edward G; Harvill, Eric T

    2012-01-01

    Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs) have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that circulates in a broad range of mammals, including humans, domestic animals, and mice. The 26 gene locus encoding the B. bronchiseptica T6SS contains apparent orthologs to all known core genes and possesses thirteen novel genes. By generating an in frame deletion of clpV, which encodes a putative ATPase required for some T6SS-dependent protein secretion, we observe that ClpV contributes to in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity while inducing several eukaryotic proteins associated with apoptosis. Additionally, ClpV is required for induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 production in J774 macrophages infected with RB50. During infections in wild type mice, we determined that ClpV contributes to altered cytokine production, increased pathology, delayed lower respiratory tract clearance, and long term nasal cavity persistence. Together, these results reveal a natural host infection system in which to interrogate T6SS contributions to immunomodulation and pathogenesis.

  4. Dual objective active suspension system based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Vaijayanti S.; Shendge, P. D.; Phadke, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an active suspension system to fulfil the dual objective of improving ride comfort while trying to keep the suspension deflection within the limits of the rattle space. The scheme is based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator which employs a nonlinear function of the suspension deflection. The scheme is analysed and validated by simulation and experimentation on a laboratory setup. The performance is compared with a passive suspension system for a variety of road profiles.

  5. An object-oriented expert system for sedimentary basin analysis with applications in petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Most of the world's energy resources and many of its metallic and mineral resources are derived from complex sources in sedimentary basins. A comprehensive basin analysis requires an understanding of data from many specialties, including sedimentology, stratigraphy geophysics, structural geology, and geochemistry. Such an integrated analysis is almost impossible without a computer. Research efforts in the US Geological Survey are currently being directed at exploring the feasibility of applying expert systems and knowledge acquisition techniques to the design and development of a global system of classification and geological analysis of sedimentary basins to assess their petroleum potential. The primary objective is the design of a prototype object-oriented expert system interfaced with a geographic information system (GIS) that captures both the logic used to define the geologic concepts and the reasoning under uncertainty that enables geologists to understand and reconstruct the geologic history of a sedimentary basin. NEXPERT OBJECT, a hybrid expert system that has the ability to support both a reasoning system and an object-oriented representation, is currently being used as the design tool to provide high-level, expert-oriented features to create, edit, and build knowledge bases for the basin analysis program. This system provides these capabilities through documentation of major basin analysis components such as stratigraphy, structural geology, and sedimentology. It is designed to analyze the traditional concepts of source, reservoir, and trapping mechanism; to help in the diagnosis of geological conditions favorable for the occurrence of petroleum or other energy resources; and to assist in the assessment of these resources. The design and content of the expert system program is discussed for application to basin analysis studies.

  6. Fast laser systems for measuring the geometry of complex-shaped objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Vorontsov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    1999-01-01

    The technical characteristics, advantages and applications of an automated optoelectronic measuring system designed by 'Optel' company, State Aviation University of Ufa, are presented in this paper. The measuring apparatus can be applied for industrial development and research, for example, in rapid prototyping, and for obtaining geometrical parameters in medicine and criminalistics. It essentially is a non-contact and rapid scanning system, allowing measurements of complex shaped objects like metal and plastic workpieces or parts of human body.

  7. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    PubMed

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items.

  8. Improving Educational Objectives of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Programme at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing programme educational objectives (PEOs) for the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University, and the process of deployment of these PEOs. Input of the four constituents of the programme, faculty, students, alumni, and employers, is incorporated in the development and…

  9. A Rule-Based System for Hybrid Search and Delivery of Learning Objects to Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletskiy, Yevgen; Baghi, Hamidreza; Steele, Jarrett; Vovk, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Presently, searching the internet for learning material relevant to ones own interest continues to be a time-consuming task. Systems that can suggest learning material (learning objects) to a learner would reduce time spent searching for material, and enable the learner to spend more time for actual learning. The purpose of this paper is…

  10. An Object-Oriented Architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Technical Report No. LSP-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Jeffrey; And Others

    This technical report describes a generic architecture for building intelligent tutoring systems which is developed around objects that represent the knowledge elements to be taught by the tutor. Each of these knowledge elements, called "bites," inherits both a knowledge organization describing the kind of knowledge represented and tutoring…

  11. Laser System Technician. A Catalog of Performance Objectives and Performance Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) catalog contains the state-of-the-art tasks and standards of performance for the occupation of laser system technician. It provides the curriculum specialist or instructor with the foundation for instructional development. Performance objectives and performance guides are provided…

  12. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  13. A Comparison of Time Delay and System of Least Prompts in Teaching Object Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godby, Stephanie; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of two response prompting procedures--progressive time delay and system of least prompts--to teach three severely handicapped students (ages 8-16) identification of functional objects indicated that both procedures were effective but that the time delay procedure required fewer sessions, trials, errors to criterion, and minutes of…

  14. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria...

  15. Learning Objects and Learning Content Management Systems in Engineering Education: Implications of New Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoer, Ellen; Dopper, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    Learning objects and learning content management systems are considered to be "the next wave in engineering education". The results of experiments with these new trends in ICT in engineering education are described in this paper. The prospects were examined and the concepts of reusability of content for teachers and for personalized education…

  16. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria...

  17. Using Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes to Teach Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Furletti, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the use of form and function analogy object boxes to more traditional lecture and worksheet instruction during a 10th-grade unit on human body systems. The study was conducted with two classes (N = 32) of mixed ability students at a high-needs rural high school in central New York State. The study used a pretest/posttest…

  18. Object-oriented Information System in the HELIOS Medical Software Engineering Environment.

    PubMed

    Jean, F C; Thelliez, T; Mascart, J J; Degoulet, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of the Information System of HELIOS, a medical Software Engineering Environment. It is an object oriented framework for the development of medical applications which puts particular emphasis on tools and techniques favouring reuse of previous work and enhancing collaboration between developers.

  19. Object-oriented Information System in the HELIOS Medical Software Engineering Environment.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, F. C.; Thelliez, T.; Mascart, J. J.; Degoulet, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of the Information System of HELIOS, a medical Software Engineering Environment. It is an object oriented framework for the development of medical applications which puts particular emphasis on tools and techniques favouring reuse of previous work and enhancing collaboration between developers. PMID:1482942

  20. The Basic Scheme of the Afocal System and Composition Variants of the Objectives Based on It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Gavriluk A.; V, Karpova G.; Ge, Romanova; Va, Zverev

    2006-10-01

    The flat refractive surface allows to achieve a perfect spherical aberration correction, so it can be used in different optical systems. For example, the parallel-sided plate can be used for the correction of spherical aberration of the spherical mirror. Similarly it can be applied in the afocal system consisting of the first concave and the second convex mirrors. In such a system the plate thickness is rather big. So the afocal system of two spherical mirrors and the plate was modified: the second mirror was combined with the second surface of a plate. In the afocal system which consist of a concave mirror and an catadioptric planoconcave lens the spherical aberration correction can be achieved by the variation of he lens thickness. The longfocus objective can be built by combination of that scheme and the additional lens system. The possibility of aberration correction in such systems is considered.

  1. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, James T.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bao, Qing; Cadule, Patricia; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Chris D.; Kawamiya, Michio; Khatiwala, Samar; Lindsay, Keith; Obata, Atsushi; Shevliakova, Elena; Six, Katharina D.; Tjiputra, Jerry F.; Volodin, Evgeny M.; Wu, Tongwen

    2014-01-01

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in

  2. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions.

  3. Optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using a multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiaomin; Yang, Yun; Wu, Jichun

    2012-12-01

    A new multi-objective optimization methodology is developed, whereby a multi-objective fast harmony search (MOFHS) is coupled with a groundwater flow and transport model to search for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems under general hydrogeological conditions. The MOFHS incorporates the niche technique into the previously improved fast harmony search and is enhanced by adding the Pareto solution set filter and an elite individual preservation strategy to guarantee uniformity and integrity of the Pareto front of multi-objective optimization problems. Also, the operation library of individual fitness is introduced to improve calculation speed. Moreover, the MOFHS is coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to search for optimal design of pump-and-treat systems, aiming at minimization of the remediation cost and minimization of the mass remaining in aquifers. Compared with three existing multi-objective optimization methods, including the improved niched Pareto genetic algorithm (INPGA), the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII), and the multi-objective harmony search (MOHS), the proposed methodology then demonstrated its applicability and efficiency through a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem and a three-dimensional field problem in Indiana (USA).

  4. A knowledge-based object recognition system for applications in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge-based three-dimensional (3D) object recognition system is being developed. The system uses primitive-based hierarchical relational and structural matching for the recognition of 3D objects in the two-dimensional (2D) image for interpretation of the 3D scene. At present, the pre-processing, low-level preliminary segmentation, rule-based segmentation, and the feature extraction are completed. The data structure of the primitive viewing knowledge-base (PVKB) is also completed. Algorithms and programs based on attribute-trees matching for decomposing the segmented data into valid primitives were developed. The frame-based structural and relational descriptions of some objects were created and stored in a knowledge-base. This knowledge-base of the frame-based descriptions were developed on the MICROVAX-AI microcomputer in LISP environment. The simulated 3D scene of simple non-overlapping objects as well as real camera data of images of 3D objects of low-complexity have been successfully interpreted.

  5. Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Shin-Yee

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

  6. Detection and Tracking of Dynamic Objects by Using a Multirobot System: Application to Critical Infrastructures Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Canosa, Gonzalo; Giner, Jaime del Cerro; Barrientos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The detection and tracking of mobile objects (DATMO) is progressively gaining importance for security and surveillance applications. This article proposes a set of new algorithms and procedures for detecting and tracking mobile objects by robots that work collaboratively as part of a multirobot system. These surveillance algorithms are conceived of to work with data provided by long distance range sensors and are intended for highly reliable object detection in wide outdoor environments. Contrary to most common approaches, in which detection and tracking are done by an integrated procedure, the approach proposed here relies on a modular structure, in which detection and tracking are carried out independently, and the latter might accept input data from different detection algorithms. Two movement detection algorithms have been developed for the detection of dynamic objects by using both static and/or mobile robots. The solution to the overall problem is based on the use of a Kalman filter to predict the next state of each tracked object. Additionally, new tracking algorithms capable of combining dynamic objects lists coming from either one or various sources complete the solution. The complementary performance of the separated modular structure for detection and identification is evaluated and, finally, a selection of test examples discussed. PMID:24526305

  7. Passage of a ''Nemesis''-like object through the planetary system

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.

    1985-09-01

    The probability that passing stars could have perturbed the hypothetical stellar companion, Nemesis, into an orbit that penetrates the planetary system is about 15%. The planetary orbits crossed by Nemesis would become highly eccentric, and some would even become hyperbolic. If Nemesis ejects Jupiter from the solar system, the semimajor axis of the orbit of Nemesis would shrink down to a few hundred AU. The probability of any object in the inner edge of the Oort cloud at a semimajor axis of 2 x 10/sup 4/ AU having passed inside the orbit of Saturn is about 80%. The apparent lack of damage to the planetary orbits implies a low probability of there being any objects more massive than 0.02 M/sub sun/ in the inner edge of the Oort comet cloud. However, several objects less massive than 0.01 M/sub sun/ or 10 Jupiter masses could pass through the planetary system from the Oort cloud without causing any significant damage to the planetary orbits. The lack of damage to the planetary system also requires that no black dwarf more massive than 0.05 M/sub sun/ has entered the planetary system from interstellar space.

  8. An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, W.A.; Hood, F.W.; King, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy.

  9. Multi-objective design of optical systems for space situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coder, Ryan D.; Holzinger, Marcus J.

    2016-11-01

    The successful implementation of Raven-class telescopes to detect, track, and characterize space objects has led to their widespread adoption. Selection of commercial-off-the-shelf components that optimizes the performance of such systems for a specific optical environment or mission is addressed. A collection of multi-disciplinary relationships and relevant assumptions necessary to create a physics-based optical systems model is presented. Several performance metrics are developed to quantify the utility of such systems. These metrics are used in a multi-objective optimization framework to produce optimal design points lying on the efficient frontier. Several trade studies are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of Raven-class telescopes.

  10. Chemical sensing system for classification of mine-like objects by explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Rodacy, P.J.; Jones, E.E.; Gomez, B.J.; Woodfin, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. The authors focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. They present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines which demonstrate their ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  11. A CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) implementation on top of KEE (Knowledge Engineering Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Egdorf, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    IntelliCorp's Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) is a popular AI shell running on top of Common Lisp. KEE implements a message-passing style of object-oriented programming. Common Lisp has adopted the different style of the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) as the standard object-oriented programming style. This paper describes an implementation of a subset of CLOS on top of KEE that uses the CLOS-style of programming to construct and manipulate KEE objects. The subset has been used to construct a moderate-sized discrete-event simulation of some facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado. Experiences constructing this model will be discussed. Several reasons are examined for use of such a system. Programmers may have to maintain and extend an existing KEE application, but wish to do so using the newer CLOS style of programming while staying within the KEE environment. A requirement may exist for support of a mixed CLOS/KEE system where CLOS is not available. Programmers may wish to begin developing in CLOS with a view toward migration from KEE when CLOS becomes more available.

  12. 40 CFR 142.311 - What procedures allow the Administrator to object to a proposed small system variance or overturn...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator to object to a proposed small system variance or overturn a granted small system variance for a....311 What procedures allow the Administrator to object to a proposed small system variance or overturn... comments received prior to proposal. (b) The Administrator may review and object to any proposed...

  13. Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award Talk: Formation and Evolution of Compact Objects in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, Vicky

    2008-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, first as X-ray sources and later as radio pulsars, binary stellar systems harboring neutron stars or black holes have been pivotal in our efforts to understand the formation and evolution of these most compact objects and the implications for gravitational wave searches. I will review some recent surprising results linking the formation of neutron stars and black holes. I will also discuss how studies of double compact objects can help uncover the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and assess the prospects for gravitational wave detections in the near future.

  14. A convolutional learning system for object classification in 3-D Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Danil

    2010-05-01

    In this brief, a convolutional learning system for classification of segmented objects represented in 3-D as point clouds of laser reflections is proposed. Several novelties are discussed: (1) extension of the existing convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to direct processing of 3-D data in a multiview setting which may be helpful for rotation-invariant consideration, (2) improvement of CNN training effectiveness by employing a stochastic meta-descent (SMD) method, and (3) combination of unsupervised and supervised training for enhanced performance of CNN. CNN performance is illustrated on a two-class data set of objects in a segmented outdoor environment.

  15. Data fusion concept in multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurapiński, Wieslaw; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marek; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Piszczek, Marek

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play" architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.

  16. An architecture for object-oriented intelligent control of power systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, Sven G.; Jayaram, Prakash; Jansen, Ben H.

    1993-01-01

    A control system for autonomous distribution and control of electrical power during space missions is being developed. This system should free the astronauts from localizing faults and reconfiguring loads if problems with the power distribution and generation components occur. The control system uses an object-oriented simulation model of the power system and first principle knowledge to detect, identify, and isolate faults. Each power system component is represented as a separate object with knowledge of its normal behavior. The reasoning process takes place at three different levels of abstraction: the Physical Component Model (PCM) level, the Electrical Equivalent Model (EEM) level, and the Functional System Model (FSM) level, with the PCM the lowest level of abstraction and the FSM the highest. At the EEM level the power system components are reasoned about as their electrical equivalents, e.g, a resistive load is thought of as a resistor. However, at the PCM level detailed knowledge about the component's specific characteristics is taken into account. The FSM level models the system at the subsystem level, a level appropriate for reconfiguration and scheduling. The control system operates in two modes, a reactive and a proactive mode, simultaneously. In the reactive mode the control system receives measurement data from the power system and compares these values with values determined through simulation to detect the existence of a fault. The nature of the fault is then identified through a model-based reasoning process using mainly the EEM. Compound component models are constructed at the EEM level and used in the fault identification process. In the proactive mode the reasoning takes place at the PCM level. Individual components determine their future health status using a physical model and measured historical data. In case changes in the health status seem imminent the component warns the control system about its impending failure. The fault isolation

  17. Inactivation of the Mismatch Repair System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Attenuates Virulence but Favors Persistence of Oropharyngeal Colonization in Cystic Fibrosis Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Ana; Maciá, María D.; Borrell, Nuria; Moya, Bartolomé; de Francisco, Teresa; Pérez, José L.; Oliver, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The inactivation of the mismatch repair (MMR) system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa modestly reduced in vitro fitness, attenuated virulence in murine models of acute systemic and respiratory infections, and decreased the initial oropharyngeal colonization potential. In contrast, the inactivation of the MMR system favored long-term persistence of oropharyngeal colonization in cystic fibrosis mice. These results may help in understanding the reasons for the low and high prevalences, respectively, of hypermutable P. aeruginosa strains in acute and chronic infections. PMID:17307847

  18. Balancing multiple objectives using a classification-based forest management system in Changbai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  19. Balancing Multiple Objectives Using a Classification-Based Forest Management System in Changbai Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S.

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  20. Discovery of a thermally persistent h.c.p. solid-solution phase in the Ni-W system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, S. J. B. Leineweber, A.; Maisel, S. B.; Höfler, M.; Müller, S.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2014-08-28

    Although the accepted Ni-W phase diagram does not reveal the existence of h.c.p.-based phases, h.c.p.-like stacking sequences were observed in magnetron-co-sputtered Ni-W thin films at W contents of 20 to 25 at. %, by using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The occurrence of this h.c.p.-like solid-solution phase could be rationalized by first-principles calculations, showing that the vicinity of the system's ground-state line is populated with metastable h.c.p.-based superstructures in the intermediate concentration range from 20 to 50 at. % W. The h.c.p.-like stacking in Ni-W films was observed to be thermally persistent, up to temperatures as high as at least 850 K, as evidenced by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses on specimens before and after annealing treatments. The tendency of Ni-W for excessive planar faulting is discussed in the light of these new findings.

  1. Object oriented software for simulation and reconstruction of big alignment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, P.

    2003-04-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments require tracking detectors to provide high precision under difficult working conditions (high magnetic field, gravity loads and temperature gradients). This is the reason why several of them are deciding to implement optical alignment systems to monitor the displacement of tracking elements in operation. To simulate and reconstruct optical alignment systems a general purpose software, named COCOA, has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. Thanks to the big flexibility in its design, COCOA is able to reconstruct any optical system made of a combination of the following objects: laser, x-hair laser, incoherent source—pinhole, lens, mirror, plate splitter, cube splitter, optical square, rhomboid prism, 2D sensor, 1D sensor, distance-meter, tilt-meter, user-defined. COCOA was designed to satisfy the requirements of the CMS alignment system, which has several thousands of components. Sparse matrix techniques had been investigated for solving non-linear least squares fits with such a big number of parameters. The soundness of COCOA has already been stressed in the reconstruction of the data of a full simulation of a quarter plane of the CMS muon alignment system, which implied solving a system of 900 equations with 850 unknown parameters. Full simulation of the whole CMS alignment system, with over 30,000 parameters, is quite advanced. The integration of COCOA in the CMS software framework is also under progress.

  2. Adaptive Morphological Feature-Based Object Classifier for a Color Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a Compact Color Microscope Imaging System (CCMIS), a unique algorithm has been developed that combines human intelligence along with machine vision techniques to produce an autonomous microscope tool for biomedical, industrial, and space applications. This technique is based on an adaptive, morphological, feature-based mapping function comprising 24 mutually inclusive feature metrics that are used to determine the metrics for complex cell/objects derived from color image analysis. Some of the features include: Area (total numbers of non-background pixels inside and including the perimeter), Bounding Box (smallest rectangle that bounds and object), centerX (x-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass of an entire object or multi-object blob), centerY (y-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass, of an entire object or multi-object blob), Circumference (a measure of circumference that takes into account whether neighboring pixels are diagonal, which is a longer distance than horizontally or vertically joined pixels), . Elongation (measure of particle elongation given as a number between 0 and 1. If equal to 1, the particle bounding box is square. As the elongation decreases from 1, the particle becomes more elongated), . Ext_vector (extremal vector), . Major Axis (the length of a major axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Minor Axis (the length of a minor axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Partial (indicates if the particle extends beyond the field of view), . Perimeter Points (points that make up a particle perimeter), . Roundness [(4(pi) x area)/perimeter(squared)) the result is a measure of object roundness, or compactness, given as a value between 0 and 1. The greater the ratio, the rounder the object.], . Thin in center (determines if an object becomes thin in the center, (figure-eight-shaped), . Theta (orientation of the major axis), . Smoothness and color metrics for each component (red, green, blue

  3. System and Method for Obtaining Simultaneous Levitation and Rotation of a Ferromagnetic Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subrata; Sarkar, Mrinal Kanti; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-06-01

    In this work a practical demonstration for simultaneous levitation and rotation for a ferromagnetic cylindrical object is presented. A hollow steel cylinder has been arranged to remain suspended stably under I-core electromagnet utilizing dc attraction type levitation principle and then arranged to rotate the levitated object around 1000 rpm speed based on eddy current based energy meter principle. Since the object is to be rotating during levitated condition the device will be frictionless, energy-efficient and robust. This technology may be applied to frictionless energy meter, wind turbine, machine tool applications, precision instruments and many other devices where easy energy-efficient stable rotation will be required. The cascade lead compensation control scheme has been applied for stabilization of unstable levitation system. The proposed device is successfully tested in the laboratory and experimental results have been produced.

  4. Real-time model-based vision system for object acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Gennery, Donald B.; Bon, Bruce; Litwin, Todd

    1987-01-01

    A machine vision system is described which is designed to acquire and track polyhedral objects moving and rotating in space by means of two or more cameras, programmable image-processing hardware, and a general-purpose computer for high-level functions. The image-processing hardware is capable of performing a large variety of operations on images and on image-like arrays of data. Acquisition utilizes image locations and velocities of the features extracted by the image-processing hardware to determine the three-dimensional position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of the object. Tracking correlates edges detected in the current image with edge locations predicted from an internal model of the object and its motion, continually updating velocity information to predict where edges should appear in future frames. With some 10 frames processed per second, real-time tracking is possible.

  5. System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goienetxea Uriarte, A.; Ruiz Zúñiga, E.; Urenda Moris, M.; Ng, A. H. C.

    2015-05-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune system genes and their association with clinical symptoms persistence in dengue-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tristão-Sá, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Silva, Franciane Figueiredo; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue clinical symptom persistence during 60days of disease follow up, in patients of Espírito Santo state (ES)-Brazil and to evaluate the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRIIa, CD209, VDR, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes with symptom persistence. During 2012-2013, 96 blood samples from individuals diagnosed with symptomatic dengue were collected. Clinical symptom persistence in 60days of follow-up was assessed by a clinical and epidemiological questionnaire filled in 4 interviews. SNP genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In two months of monitoring the dengue infection, we observed that symptoms persisted in 38.5% (37/96) of dengue patients at the end of the first month (D30) and in 11.5% (11/96) of dengue patients at the end of the second month (D60). Our results show an association between FcγRIIa, TNF-α and IL-6 gene SNPs and symptom persistence and an association trend with CD209, IL-4 and IFN-γ gene SNPs. Our findings may increase the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of persistent symptoms of infection with the dengue virus (DENV) and thus help the clinical management of patients.

  7. Active millimeter-wave imaging system for material analysis and object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kallfass, Ingmar; Tessmann, Axel; Zink, Martin; Schlechtweg, Michael; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The use of millimeter-waves for imaging purposes is becoming increasingly important, as millimeter-waves can penetrate most clothing and packaging materials, so that the detector does not require physical contact with the object. This will offer a view to the hidden content of e.g. packets or bags without the need to open them, whereby packaging and content will not be damaged. Nowadays X-ray is used, but as the millimeter-wave quantum energy is far below the ionization energy, it is less harmful for the human health. In this paper we report an active millimeter-wave imaging tomograph for material analysis and concealed object detection purposes. The system is build using in-house W-band components. The object is illuminated with low-power millimeter-waves in the frequency range between 89 and 96GHz; mirrors are used to guide and focus the beam. The object is moved through the focus point to scan the object pixel by pixel. Depending on the actual material some parts of the waves are reflected, the other parts penetrate the object. A single-antenna transmit and receive module is used for illumination and measurement of the material-specific reflected power. A second receiver module is used to measure the transmitted wave. All information is processed for amplitude and phase images by a computer algorithm. The system can be used for security, such as detecting concealed weapons, explosives or contrabands at airports and other safety areas, but also quality assurance applications, e.g. during production to detect defects. Some imaging results will be presented in this paper.

  8. Path branching in simulation of an intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    2001-02-01

    Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.

  9. Path branching in simulation of an intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    2000-02-01

    Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.

  10. Top-level modeling of an als system utilizing object-oriented techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. F.; Kang, S.; Ting, K. C.

    The possible configuration of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System capable of supporting human life for long-term space missions continues to evolve as researchers investigate potential technologies and configurations. To facilitate the decision process the development of acceptable, flexible, and dynamic mathematical computer modeling tools capable of system level analysis is desirable. Object-oriented techniques have been adopted to develop a dynamic top-level model of an ALS system.This approach has several advantages; among these, object-oriented abstractions of systems are inherently modular in architecture. Thus, models can initially be somewhat simplistic, while allowing for adjustments and improvements. In addition, by coding the model in Java, the model can be implemented via the World Wide Web, greatly encouraging the utilization of the model. Systems analysis is further enabled with the utilization of a readily available backend database containing information supporting the model. The subsystem models of the ALS system model include Crew, Biomass Production, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Food Processing and Nutrition, and the Interconnecting Space. Each subsystem model and an overall model have been developed. Presented here is the procedure utilized to develop the modeling tool, the vision of the modeling tool, and the current focus for each of the subsystem models.

  11. Top-level modeling of an ALS system utilizing object-oriented techniques.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, L F; Kang, S; Ting, K C

    2003-01-01

    The possible configuration of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System capable of supporting human life for long-term space missions continues to evolve as researchers investigate potential technologies and configurations. To facilitate the decision process the development of acceptable, flexible, and dynamic mathematical computer modeling tools capable of system level analysis is desirable. Object-oriented techniques have been adopted to develop a dynamic top-level model of an ALS system. This approach has several advantages; among these, object-oriented abstractions of systems are inherently modular in architecture. Thus, models can initially be somewhat simplistic, while allowing for adjustments and improvements. In addition, by coding the model in Java, the model can be implemented via the World Wide Web, greatly encouraging the utilization of the model. Systems analysis is further enabled with the utilization of a readily available backend database containing information supporting the model. The subsystem models of the ALS system model include Crew, Biomass Production, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Food Processing and Nutrition, and the Interconnecting Space. Each subsystem model and an overall model have been developed. Presented here is the procedure utilized to develop the modeling tool, the vision of the modeling tool, and the current focus for each of the subsystem models. PMID:14503522

  12. Toward a unified model of face and object recognition in the human visual system

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms and neural substrates underlying visual recognition has made considerable progress over the past 30 years. During this period, accumulating evidence has led many scientists to conclude that objects and faces are recognised in fundamentally distinct ways, and in fundamentally distinct cortical areas. In the psychological literature, in particular, this dissociation has led to a palpable disconnect between theories of how we process and represent the two classes of object. This paper follows a trend in part of the recognition literature to try to reconcile what we know about these two forms of recognition by considering the effects of learning. Taking a widely accepted, self-organizing model of object recognition, this paper explains how such a system is affected by repeated exposure to specific stimulus classes. In so doing, it explains how many aspects of recognition generally regarded as unusual to faces (holistic processing, configural processing, sensitivity to inversion, the other-race effect, the prototype effect, etc.) are emergent properties of category-specific learning within such a system. Overall, the paper describes how a single model of recognition learning can and does produce the seemingly very different types of representation associated with faces and objects. PMID:23966963

  13. R-MASTIF: robotic mobile autonomous system for threat interrogation and object fetch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aveek; Thakur, Dinesh; Keller, James; Kuthirummal, Sujit; Kira, Zsolt; Pivtoraiko, Mihail

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous robotic "fetch" operation, where a robot is shown a novel object and then asked to locate it in the field, re- trieve it and bring it back to the human operator, is a challenging problem that is of interest to the military. The CANINE competition presented a forum for several research teams to tackle this challenge using state of the art in robotics technol- ogy. The SRI-UPenn team fielded a modified Segway RMP 200 robot with multiple cameras and lidars. We implemented a unique computer vision based approach for textureless colored object training and detection to robustly locate previ- ously unseen objects out to 15 meters on moderately flat terrain. We integrated SRI's state of the art Visual Odometry for GPS-denied localization on our robot platform. We also designed a unique scooping mechanism which allowed retrieval of up to basketball sized objects with a reciprocating four-bar linkage mechanism. Further, all software, including a novel target localization and exploration algorithm was developed using ROS (Robot Operating System) which is open source and well adopted by the robotics community. We present a description of the system, our key technical contributions and experimental results.

  14. Toward a unified model of face and object recognition in the human visual system.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms and neural substrates underlying visual recognition has made considerable progress over the past 30 years. During this period, accumulating evidence has led many scientists to conclude that objects and faces are recognised in fundamentally distinct ways, and in fundamentally distinct cortical areas. In the psychological literature, in particular, this dissociation has led to a palpable disconnect between theories of how we process and represent the two classes of object. This paper follows a trend in part of the recognition literature to try to reconcile what we know about these two forms of recognition by considering the effects of learning. Taking a widely accepted, self-organizing model of object recognition, this paper explains how such a system is affected by repeated exposure to specific stimulus classes. In so doing, it explains how many aspects of recognition generally regarded as unusual to faces (holistic processing, configural processing, sensitivity to inversion, the other-race effect, the prototype effect, etc.) are emergent properties of category-specific learning within such a system. Overall, the paper describes how a single model of recognition learning can and does produce the seemingly very different types of representation associated with faces and objects. PMID:23966963

  15. A new high-perihelion a ~ 700 AU object in the distant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Jakubik, Marian; Kaib, Nathan A.; Kavelaars, JJ; Shankman, Cory; Benecchi, Susan D.; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Schwamb, Megan Elizabeth; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alexandersen, Mike; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) plausibly diffusing out of the inner Oort Cloud reservoir. This TNO is on an orbit with q ~ 50 AU, a ~ 700 AU, the largest semi-major axis yet detected for an orbit with perihelion q beyond the q ≤ 38 zone of strong influence of Neptune, exceeding the semi-major axes of (90377) Sedna, 2012 VP113 and 2010 GB174. Such objects are rarely observed. Trans-Neptunian objects with these high orbital perihelia have no confirmed formation mechanism in the present planetary architecture of the Solar System. The orbit of this new TNO can be formed by inward diffusion of objects from a Galactic-tide-dominated population with a ~ 1000-2000 AU; the formation mechanism is highly inefficient, and would require on the order of a hundred times more objects in that population than in the a ~ 700 AU population. We also report colour and light curve measurements of the new TNO with Gemini North and Subaru-HSC. The longitude of the ascending node and argument of perihelion of this TNO's orbit have implications for the hypothesis of a ninth planet.

  16. Polarization distance: a framework for modelling object detection by polarization vision systems.

    PubMed

    How, Martin J; Marshall, N Justin

    2014-02-01

    The discrimination of polarized light is widespread in the natural world. Its use for specific, large-field tasks, such as navigation and the detection of water bodies, has been well documented. Some species of cephalopod and crustacean have polarization receptors distributed across the whole visual field and are thought to use polarized light cues for object detection. Both object-based polarization vision systems and large field detectors rely, at least initially, on an orthogonal, two-channel receptor organization. This may increase to three-directional analysis at subsequent interneuronal levels. In object-based and some of the large-field tasks, the dominant e-vector detection axes are often aligned (through eye, head and body stabilization mechanisms) horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. We develop Bernard and Wehner's 1977 model of polarization receptor dynamics to apply it to the detection and discrimination of polarized objects against differently polarized backgrounds. We propose a measure of 'polarization distance' (roughly analogous to 'colour distance') for estimating the discriminability of objects in polarized light, and conclude that horizontal/vertical arrays are optimally designed for detecting differences in the degree, and not the e-vector axis, of polarized light under natural conditions.

  17. An archived multi-objective simulated annealing for a dynamic cellular manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Hossein; Kia, Reza; Javadian, Nikbakhsh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2014-05-01

    To design a group layout of a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) in a dynamic environment, a multi-objective mixed-integer non-linear programming model is developed. The model integrates cell formation, group layout and production planning (PP) as three interrelated decisions involved in the design of a CMS. This paper provides an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features used in the design of CMSs and enhances the flexibility of an existing model in handling the fluctuations of part demands more economically by adding machine depot and PP decisions. Two conflicting objectives to be minimized are the total costs and the imbalance of workload among cells. As the considered objectives in this model are in conflict with each other, an archived multi-objective simulated annealing (AMOSA) algorithm is designed to find Pareto-optimal solutions. Matrix-based solution representation, a heuristic procedure generating an initial and feasible solution and efficient mutation operators are the advantages of the designed AMOSA. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, the performance of AMOSA is compared with an exact algorithm (i.e., ∈-constraint method) solved by the GAMS software and a well-known evolutionary algorithm, namely NSGA-II for some randomly generated problems based on some comparison metrics. The obtained results show that the designed AMOSA can obtain satisfactory solutions for the multi-objective model.

  18. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Milk: Evidence of a Systemic and Persistent Infection in Experimentally Infected Cows.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rivetti, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Cerqueira, Mônica Maria Oliveira Pinho; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-11-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects lactating cows and milkers. VACV DNA and infectious particles have been detected in milk of naturally infected cows. However, the period and pattern of VACV shedding in milk is unknown, as is whether the presence of VACV in milk is due to a localized or a systemic infection. To address those questions, eight lactating cows were inoculated with VACV in previously scarified teats. The experiment was divided in two phases. In Phase 1, milk samples were collected daily for 33 days, and in Phase 2, four animals from the first phase were immunosuppressed. In both phases, milk was collected with a sterile catheter on even days and by hand milking on odd days. All animals showed typical BV lesions in the inoculated teats. All milk samples were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR to detect VACV DNA. PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation. VACV DNA was intermittently detected in milk in both phases and infectious viral particles could be detected only in phase 2, on the 69th, 73rd, 74th, 77th, 79th, and 81st days postinfection. Despite the possibility of propagation of VACV through milk, it is known that milk continues to be drawn and marketed normally during outbreaks of the disease. The detection of both VACV DNA and infectious particles in milk samples draws attention to the potential public health risk associated with the consumption of milk from BV outbreaks. Detection of VACV in the milk from noninfected teats demonstrated that VACV shedding in milk might be related to a systemic infection. Moreover, it was shown that VACV DNA and viral infectious particles could be detected in milk even after healing of the lesions, demonstrating that VACV may cause a persistent infection in cattle.

  19. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  20. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; D'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  1. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  2. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  3. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  4. Clinical simulation as a boundary object in design of health IT-systems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Jensen, Sanne; Lyng, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are very complex, holding numerous stakeholders with various approaches and goals towards the design of health IT-systems. Some of these differences may be approached by applying the concept of boundary objects in a participatory IT-design process. Traditionally clinical simulation provides the opportunity to evaluate the design and the usage of clinical IT-systems without endangering the patients and interrupting clinical work. In this paper we present how clinical simulation additionally holds the potential to function as a boundary object in the design process. The case points out that clinical simulation provides an opportunity for discussions and mutual learning among the various stakeholders involved in design of standardized electronic clinical documentation templates. The paper presents and discusses the use of clinical simulation in the translation, transfer and transformation of knowledge between various stakeholders in a large healthcare organization. PMID:23941951

  5. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  6. Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.; Mehta, S.; Qin, Xiao

    1993-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for path planning (long duration) paths of dynamical systems, given a persistent object store containing suitable collections of short duration trajectory segments. We also describe experimental results from a proof-of-concept implementation of the algorithm. The basic idea is to interpret a path planning algorithm as a suitable query on a persistent object store consisting of short duration trajectory segments. The query returns a concatenation of short duration trajectory segments which is close to the desired path. The needed short duration segments are computed by using a divide and conquer algorithm to break up the original path into shorter paths; each shorter path is then matched to a nearby trajectory segment which is part of the persistent object store by using a suitable index function.

  7. Use of object-oriented techniques in a beam-line control system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Butler, H.; Yang, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors describe the use of object-oriented programming in the control and data-acquisition system for the upgraded CERN neutrino beam-line. C++ in conjunction with Posix threads running under Lynx-OS have been used in several front-end PCs. These communicate using Remote Procedure Calls over ethernet with a workstation running the commercial supervisory package, FactoryLink.

  8. Clarifying Objectives and Results of Equivalent System Mass Analyses for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Drysdale, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the analytical decisions that an investigator must make during the course of a life support system trade study. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is often applied to evaluate trade study options in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. ESM can be used to identify which of several options that meet all requirements are most likely to have lowest cost. It can also be used to identify which of the many interacting parts of a life support system have the greatest impact and sensitivity to assumptions. This paper summarizes recommendations made in the newly developed ALS ESM Guidelines Document and expands on some of the issues relating to trade studies that involve ESM. In particular, the following three points are expounded: 1) The importance of objectives: Analysis objectives drive the approach to any trade study, including identification of assumptions, selection of characteristics to compare in the analysis, and the most appropriate techniques for reflecting those characteristics. 2) The importance of results inferprefafion: The accuracy desired in the results depends upon the analysis objectives, whereas the realized accuracy is determined by the data quality and degree of detail in analysis methods. 3) The importance of analysis documentation: Documentation of assumptions and data modifications is critical for effective peer evaluation of any trade study. ESM results are analysis-specific and should always be reported in context, rather than as solitary values. For this reason, results reporting should be done with adequate rigor to allow for verification by other researchers.

  9. Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representations: An investigation of programming paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The project was initiated to research Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representation systems, their significance and applicability, and their implementation in or relationship to Ada. Object orientated is currently a very popular conceptual adjective. Object oriented programming, in particular, is promoted as a particularly productive approach to programming; an approach which maximizes opportunities for code reuse and lends itself to the definition of convenient and well-developed units. Such units are thus expected to be usable in a variety of situations, beyond the typical highly specific unit development of other approaches. Frame represenation systems share a common heritage and similar conceptual foundations. Together they represent a quickly emerging alternative approach to programming. The approach is to first define the terms, starting with relevant concepts and using these to put bounds on what is meant by OOPS and Frames. From this the possibilities were pursued to merge OOPS with Ada which will further elucidate the significant characteristics which make up this programming approach. Finally, some of the merits and demerits of OOPS were briefly considered as a way of addressing the applicability of OOPS to various programming tasks.

  10. Surveillance of aseptic central nervous system infections in Poland: is it meeting its objectives?

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, P; Rogalska, J; Zajkowska, J; Czerska, M; Seroka, W; Czarkowski, M P

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, a surveillance system capturing generic information on both diagnosed and undiagnosed aseptic central nervous system infections (ACI) has been in operation since 1966. This study evaluates to what extent the ACI surveillance is able to meet its objectives to monitor ACI trends and to detect signals of public health importance such as enteroviral outbreaks, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic foci, poliovirus appearance or emergence of new neurotropic viruses. Between 2004 and 2008, aetiology was established for 17% of ACI cases. Of the 1,994 reported ACI cases, 232 (11.6%) were diagnosed with TBE virus, 46 (2.3%) with enterovirus, 35 (1.8%) with herpesvirus, and 32 (1.6%) had other viral causes such as Epstein Barr virus or adenovirus. The system's performance varied between the provinces, with the frequency of suspected ACI cases referred for viral aetiology investigation in 2008 ranging from 1.98 to 285.4 samples per million inhabitants. The sensitivity of physicians' reporting, estimated as the proportion of hospitalised ACI cases reported to the surveillance system, was 48% nationally, with vast regional differences (range 30–91%). To conclude, the ACI surveillance system in Poland does currently not meet its objectives, due to limited availability of aetiological diagnosis and microbiological confirmation and to regional differences in reporting sensitivity. PMID:21801691

  11. Simulation of multicomponent light source for optical-electronic system of color analysis objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretiagin, Vladimir S.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of lighting technology has led to possibility of using LEDs in the specialized devices for outdoor, industrial (decorative and accent) and domestic lighting. In addition, LEDs and devices based on them are widely used for solving particular problems. For example, the LED devices are widely used for lighting of vegetables and fruit (for their sorting or growing), textile products (for the control of its quality), minerals (for their sorting), etc. Causes of active introduction LED technology in different systems, including optical-electronic devices and systems, are a large choice of emission color and LED structure, that defines the spatial, power, thermal and other parameters. Furthermore, multi-element and color devices of lighting with adjustable illumination properties can be designed and implemented by using LEDs. However, devices based on LEDs require more attention if you want to provide a certain nature of the energy or color distribution at all the work area (area of analysis or observation) or surface of the object. This paper is proposed a method of theoretical modeling of the lighting devices. The authors present the models of RGB multicomponent light source applied to optical-electronic system for the color analysis of mineral objects. The possibility of formation the uniform and homogeneous on energy and color illumination of the work area for this system is presented. Also authors showed how parameters and characteristics of optical radiation receiver (by optical-electronic system) affect on the energy, spatial, spectral and colorimetric properties of a multicomponent light source.

  12. Multi-objective approach for the automatic design of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Carneiro de Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca; Luis de Sousa, Fabiano; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2016-03-21

    An innovative method for the automatic design of optical systems is presented and verified. The proposed method is based on a multi-objective evolutionary memetic optimization algorithm. The multi-objective approach simultaneously, but separately, addresses the image quality, tolerance, and complexity of the system. The memetic technique breaks down the search for optical designs in to three different parts or phases: optical glass selection, exploration, and exploitation. The optical glass selection phase defines the most appropriate set of glasses for the system under design. The glass selection phase limits the available glasses from hundreds to just a few, drastically reducing the design space and significantly increasing the efficiency of the automatic design method. The exploration phase is based on an evolutionary algorithm (EA), more specifically, on a problem-tailored generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm, named Optical GEO (O-GEO). The new EA incorporates many features customized for lens design, such as optical system codification and diversity operators. The trade-off systems found in the exploration phase are refined by a local search, based on the damped least square method in the exploitation phase. As a result, the method returns a set of trade-off solutions, generating a Pareto front. Our method delivers alternative and useful insights for the compromise solutions in a lens design problem. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified through real-world examples, showing excellent results for the tested problems. PMID:27136851

  13. X-ray computed tomography system for laboratory small-object imaging: Enhanced tomography solutions.

    PubMed

    Kharfi, F; Yahiaoui, M L; Boussahoul, F

    2015-07-01

    A portable X-ray tomography system has been installed and actually being tested at our medical imaging laboratory. This tomography system employs a combination of scintillator screen and CCD camera as image detector. The limit of spatial resolution of 290 μm of this imaging system is determined by the establishment of its modulation transfer function (MTF). In this work, we present attempts to address some issues such as limited resolution and low contrast through the development of affordable post-acquisition solutions based on the application of super-resolution method (projection onto convex sets, POCS) to create new projections set enabling the reconstruction of an improved 3D image in terms of contrast, resolution and noise. In addition to small-object examination, this tomography system is used for hands-on training activities involving students and scientists.

  14. An Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for a Reusable Rocket Engine Intelligent Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  15. Design of an active millimeter-wave concealed-object imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulter, Nicholas G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Stenbakken, G. N.; Waltrip, B. C.; Nolen, Shalva; Reintsema, Carl D.

    2001-08-01

    The research and design of an active millimeter-wave concealed object imaging system is described. Several illumination and detection methods were analyzed via computer simulation to assess the effects of system parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal. The results of many of these simulations were experimentally verified using either a 10 MHz or a 100 GHz measurement system. Based on this assessment, two design using pulsed illuminate with gated detection were selected for development. Pulsed illumination is provided using a pulsed broadband noise source. For detecting the reflected noise pulse, two methods were examined, one using micro bolometers and the other using electrooptics. Based on imaging system considerations, such as cost of manufacture, ruggedness, etc., and technical parameters, micro bolometer arrays were selected for further development. The electronics interface, including image display capability, was developed. We examined the absorption of some common clothing materials at 100 Ghz and compared this to results previously reported.

  16. An object-oriented graphical user interface for a reusable rocket engine intelligent control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-10-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  17. Object Recognition System-on-Chip Using the Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyna-Rojas, Roberto; Houzet, Dominique; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Carlier, Florent; Ouadjaout, Salim

    2005-12-01

    The first aim of this work is to propose the design of a system-on-chip (SoC) platform dedicated to digital image and signal processing, which is tuned to implement efficiently multiply-and-accumulate (MAC) vector/matrix operations. The second aim of this work is to implement a recent promising neural network method, namely, the support vector machine (SVM) used for real-time object recognition, in order to build a vision machine. With such a reconfigurable and programmable SoC platform, it is possible to implement any SVM function dedicated to any object recognition problem. The final aim is to obtain an automatic reconfiguration of the SoC platform, based on the results of the learning phase on an objects' database, which makes it possible to recognize practically any object without manual programming. Recognition can be of any kind that is from image to signal data. Such a system is a general-purpose automatic classifier. Many applications can be considered as a classification problem, but are usually treated specifically in order to optimize the cost of the implemented solution. The cost of our approach is more important than a dedicated one, but in a near future, hundreds of millions of gates will be common and affordable compared to the design cost. What we are proposing here is a general-purpose classification neural network implemented on a reconfigurable SoC platform. The first version presented here is limited in size and thus in object recognition performances, but can be easily upgraded according to technology improvements.

  18. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  19. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  20. Detection of hidden objects using a real-time 3-D millimeter-wave imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon, Avihai; Levanon, Assaf; Abramovich, Amir; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, N. S.

    2014-10-01

    Millimeter (mm)and sub-mm wavelengths or terahertz (THz) band have several properties that motivate their use in imaging for security applications such as recognition of hidden objects, dangerous materials, aerosols, imaging through walls as in hostage situations, and also in bad weather conditions. There is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric degradation of THz radiation is relatively low for practical imaging distances. We recently developed a new technology for the detection of THz radiation. This technology is based on very inexpensive plasma neon indicator lamps, also known as Glow Discharge Detector (GDD), that can be used as very sensitive THz radiation detectors. Using them, we designed and constructed a Focal Plane Array (FPA) and obtained recognizable2-dimensional THz images of both dielectric and metallic objects. Using THz wave it is shown here that even concealed weapons made of dielectric material can be detected. An example is an image of a knife concealed inside a leather bag and also under heavy clothing. Three-dimensional imaging using radar methods can enhance those images since it can allow the isolation of the concealed objects from the body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The GDDs enable direct heterodyning between the electric field of the target signal and the reference signal eliminating the requirement for expensive mixers, sources, and Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs).We expanded the ability of the FPA so that we are able to obtain recognizable 2-dimensional THz images in real time. We show here that the THz detection of objects in three dimensions, using FMCW principles is also applicable in real time. This imaging system is also shown here to be capable of imaging objects from distances allowing standoff detection of suspicious objects and humans from large distances.

  1. Monitoring deformations of industrial objects using optical-electronic autoreflection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, optical-electronics measuring instruments for control the linear deformations in the monitoring industrial constructions (turbines, dams, booms, bases plates, walls, etc) are used effectively. Autocollimating and auto-reflecting schemes are two main basic of such systems. The autocollimating system has larger sensitive than auto reflecting ones. However, the auto reflecting system is more effective for using IR LED as a source and using CCD matrix as a photo-receiver. In addition, the auto-reflecting system has larger working distance than autocollimating system. The experimental test-bed of auto-reflecting system for alignment control was realized. Parameters of a system are the following: IR LED L2656-03 with power 9 mW as sources of radiation; the focal length of autocollimators objective is 250 mm, the matrix change couple devise as photo-receiver with dimension of pixel 2.2μm. The experimental error of this system is 0,007 mm on a working distance of 0.5 m and 0.06 mm on a distance of 8 m.

  2. Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

  3. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  4. Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Scott J; Bromley, Benjamin C

    2004-12-01

    The Kuiper belt extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 au to an abrupt outer edge about 50 au from the Sun. Beyond the edge is a sparse population of objects with large orbital eccentricities. Neptune shapes the dynamics of most Kuiper belt objects, but the recently discovered planet 2003 VB12 (Sedna) has an eccentric orbit with a perihelion distance of 70 au, far beyond Neptune's gravitational influence. Although influences from passing stars could have created the Kuiper belt's outer edge and could have scattered objects into large, eccentric orbits, no model currently explains the properties of Sedna. Here we show that a passing star probably scattered Sedna from the Kuiper belt into its observed orbit. The likelihood that a planet at 60-80 au can be scattered into Sedna's orbit is about 50 per cent; this estimate depends critically on the geometry of the fly-by. Even more interesting is the approximately 10 per cent chance that Sedna was captured from the outer disk of the passing star. Most captures have very high inclination orbits; detection of such objects would confirm the presence of extrasolar planets in our own Solar System. PMID:15577903

  5. A Foreign Object Damage Event Detector Data Fusion System for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A Data Fusion System designed to provide a reliable assessment of the occurrence of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in a turbofan engine is presented. The FOD-event feature level fusion scheme combines knowledge of shifts in engine gas path performance obtained using a Kalman filter, with bearing accelerometer signal features extracted via wavelet analysis, to positively identify a FOD event. A fuzzy inference system provides basic probability assignments (bpa) based on features extracted from the gas path analysis and bearing accelerometers to a fusion algorithm based on the Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence. Details are provided on the wavelet transforms used to extract the foreign object strike features from the noisy data and on the Kalman filter-based gas path analysis. The system is demonstrated using a turbofan engine combined-effects model (CEM), providing both gas path and rotor dynamic structural response, and is suitable for rapid-prototyping of control and diagnostic systems. The fusion of the disparate data can provide significantly more reliable detection of a FOD event than the use of either method alone. The use of fuzzy inference techniques combined with Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence provides a theoretical justification for drawing conclusions based on imprecise or incomplete data.

  6. Multi-objective Decision Based Available Transfer Capability in Deregulated Power System Using Heuristic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasam, Gopi Krishna; Manohar, T. Gowri

    2015-07-01

    Determination of available transfer capability (ATC) requires the use of experience, intuition and exact judgment in order to meet several significant aspects in the deregulated environment. Based on these points, this paper proposes two heuristic approaches to compute ATC. The first proposed heuristic algorithm integrates the five methods known as continuation repeated power flow, repeated optimal power flow, radial basis function neural network, back propagation neural network and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system to obtain ATC. The second proposed heuristic model is used to obtain multiple ATC values. Out of these, a specific ATC value will be selected based on a number of social, economic, deregulated environmental constraints and related to specific applications like optimization, on-line monitoring, and ATC forecasting known as multi-objective decision based optimal ATC. The validity of results obtained through these proposed methods are scrupulously verified on various buses of the IEEE 24-bus reliable test system. The results presented and derived conclusions in this paper are very useful for planning, operation, maintaining of reliable power in any power system and its monitoring in an on-line environment of deregulated power system. In this way, the proposed heuristic methods would contribute the best possible approach to assess multiple objective ATC using integrated methods.

  7. Multi-objective Decision Based Available Transfer Capability in Deregulated Power System Using Heuristic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasam, Gopi Krishna; Manohar, T. Gowri

    2016-09-01

    Determination of available transfer capability (ATC) requires the use of experience, intuition and exact judgment in order to meet several significant aspects in the deregulated environment. Based on these points, this paper proposes two heuristic approaches to compute ATC. The first proposed heuristic algorithm integrates the five methods known as continuation repeated power flow, repeated optimal power flow, radial basis function neural network, back propagation neural network and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system to obtain ATC. The second proposed heuristic model is used to obtain multiple ATC values. Out of these, a specific ATC value will be selected based on a number of social, economic, deregulated environmental constraints and related to specific applications like optimization, on-line monitoring, and ATC forecasting known as multi-objective decision based optimal ATC. The validity of results obtained through these proposed methods are scrupulously verified on various buses of the IEEE 24-bus reliable test system. The results presented and derived conclusions in this paper are very useful for planning, operation, maintaining of reliable power in any power system and its monitoring in an on-line environment of deregulated power system. In this way, the proposed heuristic methods would contribute the best possible approach to assess multiple objective ATC using integrated methods.

  8. Multi-objective H ∞ control for vehicle active suspension systems with random actuator delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyi; Liu, Honghai; Hand, Steve; Hilton, Chris

    2012-12-01

    This article is concerned with the problem of multi-objective H ∞ control for vehicle active suspension systems with random actuator delay, which can be represented by signal probability distribution. First, the dynamical equations of a quarter-car suspension model are established for the control design purpose. Secondly, when taking into account vehicle performance requirements, namely, ride comfort, suspension deflection and the probability distributed actuator delay, we present the corresponding dynamic system, which will be transformed to the stochastic system for the problem of multi-objective H ∞ controller design. Third, based on the stochastic stability theory, the state feedback controller is proposed to render that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable in mean-square while simultaneously satisfying H ∞ performance and the output constraint requirement. The presented condition is expressed in the form of convex optimisation problems so that it can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software. Finally, a practical design example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. A portrait of the extreme solar system object 2012 DR30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Cs.; Szabó, Gy.; Horner, J.; Conn, B. C.; Müller, T. G.; Vilenius, E.; Sárneczky, K.; Kiss, L. L.; Bannister, M.; Bayliss, D.; Pál, A.; Góbi, S.; Verebélyi, E.; Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.

    2013-07-01

    2012 DR30 is a recently discovered solar system object on a unique orbit, with a high eccentricity of 0.9867, a perihelion distance of 14.54 AU, and a semi-major axis of 1109 AU, in this respect outscoring the vast majority of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). We performed Herschel/PACS and optical photometry to uncover the sizeand albedo of 2012 DR30, together with its thermal and surface properties. The body is 185 km in diameter and has a relatively low V-band geometric albedo of ~8%. Although the colours of the object indicate that 2012 DR30 is an RI taxonomy class TNO or Centaur, we detected an absorption feature in the Z-band that is uncommon among these bodies. A dynamical analysis of the target's orbit shows that 2012 DR30 moves on a relatively unstable orbit and was most likely only recently placed on its current orbit from the most distant and still highly unexplored regions of the solar system. If categorised on dynamical grounds 2012 DR30 is the largest Damocloid and/or high inclination Centaur observed so far. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Algorithms for detection of objects in image sequences captured from an airborne imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Gandhi, Tarak

    1995-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to design a computer vision based system that can enhance the safety of navigation by aiding the pilots in detecting various obstacles on the runway during critical section of the flight such as a landing maneuver. The primary goal is the development of algorithms for detection of moving objects from a sequence of images obtained from an on-board video camera. Image regions corresponding to the independently moving objects are segmented from the background by applying constraint filtering on the optical flow computed from the initial few frames of the sequence. These detected regions are tracked over subsequent frames using a model based tracking algorithm. Position and velocity of the moving objects in the world coordinate is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are tested using the NASA line image sequence with six static trucks and a simulated moving truck and experimental results are described. Various limitations of the currently implemented version of the above algorithm are identified and possible solutions to build a practical working system are investigated.

  11. Pareto-optimal multi-objective design of airplane control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    A constrained minimization algorithm for the computer aided design of airplane control systems to meet many requirements over a set of flight conditions is generalized using the concept of Pareto-optimization. The new algorithm yields solutions on the boundary of the achievable domain in objective space in a single run, whereas the older method required a sequence of runs to approximate such a limiting solution. However, Pareto-optimality does not guarantee a satisfactory design, since such solutions may emphasize some objectives at the expense of others. The designer must still interact with the program to obtain a well-balanced set of objectives. Using the example of a fighter lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) design over five flight conditions, several effective techniques are developed for obtaining well-balanced Pareto-optimal solutions. For comparison, one of these techniques is also used in a recently developed algorithm of Kreisselmeier and Steinhauser, which replaces the hard constraints with soft constraints, using a special penalty function. It is shown that comparable results can be obtained.

  12. Motion-cancelled PSP system for obtaining global unsteady fields of a moving object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Kensueke; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    A motion-cancelled PSP system is introduced for obtaining global unsteady fields on a moving object. This system uses a reference- and signal-image simultaneously acquired by a digital camera. Each image is provided by a two-color pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). The luminescent outputs from the PSP are converted to the pressures or the oxygen concentrations. The existing system uses a color CMOS camera. The green and red images of the camera correspond to the reference and signal images, respectively. Due to the spectral overlay of the images, the pressure sensitivity of the existing system is poor (0.13 percent/kPa). To improve the sensitivity, a spectral separation is necessary. As an improved system, we use a two-CCD chip camera, which can select the band-pass filters in front of the chips. The filters can limit the wavelength range of each luminescent image that prevents the spectral overlay. A comparison with the existing system is provided, and the developed system is applied to an oscillating unsteady motion of a flat plate for demonstration.

  13. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2004-01-13

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  14. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  15. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2010-09-21

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  16. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives and targets : annual results summary - FY2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2011.

  17. Bi-Objective Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Control for Systems with Input Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-reference adaptive control method based on a bi-objective optimal control formulation for systems with input uncertainty. A parallel predictor model is constructed to relate the predictor error to the estimation error of the control effectiveness matrix. In this work, we develop an optimal control modification adaptive control approach that seeks to minimize a bi-objective linear quadratic cost function of both the tracking error norm and predictor error norm simultaneously. The resulting adaptive laws for the parametric uncertainty and control effectiveness uncertainty are dependent on both the tracking error and predictor error, while the adaptive laws for the feedback gain and command feedforward gain are only dependent on the tracking error. The optimal control modification term provides robustness to the adaptive laws naturally from the optimal control framework. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  18. VAS: A Vision Advisor System combining agents and object-oriented databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eilbert, James L.; Lim, William; Mendelsohn, Jay; Braun, Ron; Yearwood, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A model-based approach to identifying and finding the orientation of non-overlapping parts on a tray has been developed. The part models contain both exact and fuzzy descriptions of part features, and are stored in an object-oriented database. Full identification of the parts involves several interacting tasks each of which is handled by a distinct agent. Using fuzzy information stored in the model allowed part features that were essentially at the noise level to be extracted and used for identification. This was done by focusing attention on the portion of the part where the feature must be found if the current hypothesis of the part ID is correct. In going from one set of parts to another the only thing that needs to be changed is the database of part models. This work is part of an effort in developing a Vision Advisor System (VAS) that combines agents and objected-oriented databases.

  19. An objectively-analyzed method for measuring the useful penetration of x-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Jack L.; Hudson, Lawrence T.

    2016-06-01

    The ability to detect wires is an important capability of the cabinet x-ray imaging systems that are used in aviation security as well as the portable x-ray systems that are used by domestic law enforcement and military bomb squads. A number of national and international standards describe methods for testing this capability using the so called useful penetration test metric, where wires are imaged behind different thicknesses of blocking material. Presently, these tests are scored based on human judgments of wire visibility, which are inherently subjective. We propose a new method in which the useful penetration capabilities of an x-ray system are objectively evaluated by an image processing algorithm operating on digital images of a standard test object. The algorithm advantageously applies the Radon transform for curve parameter detection that reduces the problem of wire detection from two dimensions to one. The sensitivity of the wire detection method is adjustable and we demonstrate how the threshold parameter can be set to give agreement with human-judged results. The method was developed to be used in technical performance standards and is currently under ballot for inclusion in an international aviation security standard.

  20. Objective and subjective evaluation of motor priming and warning systems applied to lateral control assistance.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jordan; Mars, Franck; Forzy, Jean-François; El-Jaafari, Myriam; Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that a device called "motor priming" (MP) was more effective than other lane departure warning systems. MP prompts drivers to take action by means of small asymmetric oscillations of the steering wheel. The first objective of this experiment was to provide a deeper understanding of MP mechanisms through a series of comparisons with other haptic and auditory systems. The results suggest that much of the improvement in recovery manoeuvres observed with MP is due to the motor cue (proprioceptive pre-activation of the gesture). Other factors, such as delivering the signal directly to the hands (stimulation of response effectors) or using the tactile modality rather than auditory warning, play a lesser role. This supports the hypothesis that MP devices directly intervene at the motor level, in contrast to more traditional warning systems, which only improve situation diagnosis. The second objective was to assess drivers' acceptance of the assistance devices. A dissociation between efficiency and acceptance of the devices was observed: drivers globally preferred auditory warning to MP. The combination of auditory warning and motor priming appeared to be a good compromise to achieve both effectiveness and acceptance. This experiment illustrates the relevance of simulator studies when dangerous situations are the main targets of the investigation.

  1. Design of Frame Transfer Area CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Yan, Y. H.

    2015-05-01

    To realize the requirement of low-noise observation of the dark objects in deep-space missions, a simple and stable design method for the imaging system of space camera is proposed in this paper, and it is performed for the schematic circuit diagram design of each part of the CCD47-20 back illuminated AIMO produced by E2V company. The long exposure for the dark object observation can be realized by adjusting the delay time. The imaging system circuit uses the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) and correlated double sampling (CDS) analog-to-digital converter (AD) which can remove the noise in the image signal. The Altera's CycloneIII EP3C25Q240C8 field programmable gate array (FPGA) is adopted as the core control device in the imaging system to write the driver, which is modularly designed and portable as well. The simulation and measurement show that the drive circuit works normally to satisfy the requirement of systematic design.

  2. The efficient and economic design of PEM fuel cell systems by multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Woonki; Gou, Bei

    Since the efficiency of fuel cells is the ratio of the electrical power output and the fuel input, it is a function of power density, system pressure, and stoichiometric ratios of hydrogen and oxygen. Typically, the fuel cell efficiency decreases as its power output increases. In order for the fuel cell system to obtain highly efficient operation with the same power generation, more cells and other auxiliaries such as a high-capacity compressor system, etc. are required. In other words, fuel cell efficiency is closely related to fuel cell economics. Therefore, an optimum efficiency should exist and should result in the definition of a cost-effective fuel cell system. Using a multi-objective optimization technique, the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method, the efficiency and cost of a fuel cell system have been optimized under various operating conditions. This paper has obtained some analytical results that provide a useful suggestion for the design of a cost-effective fuel cell system with high operation efficiency.

  3. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Joanne M.; Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric; Wales, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  4. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  5. Spectra and Photochemistry of Relevance to Icy Outer Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Lab at NASA Ames (www.astrochem.org) has an interest in the organic photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices, having traditionally performed experiments under interstellar conditions. We have recently embarked on projects for PG\\&G to measure spectra and elucidate the photochemistry of ices relevant to outer Solar System objects. 1) We will report on the determination of real and imaginary indicies of refraction of H2O and N2 dominated ices containing simple, common, extraterrestrial molecules such as NH3, HCN, formaldehyde, \\& methanol. 2) We will compare and contrast the photochemistry of H2O ices containing organic molecules at 100 K with previously reported work at 15 K.

  6. Experimental results supporting the determination of service quality objectives for DBS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, G.; Whyte, W. A., Jr.; Goldberg, A. A.; Jones, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the results of a joint United States and Canadian program on subjective measurements of the picture degradation caused by noise and interference on an NTSC encoded color television signal is given in this paper. The effects of system noise, cochannel and adjacent channel interference, and both single entry and aggregate as well as a combination of these types of interference were subjectively evaluated by expert and nonexpert viewers under reference conditions. These results were used to develop the rationale used at RARC '83 to establish the service quality objective for planning the DBS service for the American continents.

  7. Improving educational objectives of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the process of developing programme educational objectives (PEOs) for the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University, and the process of deployment of these PEOs. Input of the four constituents of the programme, faculty, students, alumni, and employers, is incorporated in the development and update of the PEOs. For each PEO an assessment process is employed where performance measures are defined along with target attainment levels. Results from assessment tools are compared with the target attainment levels to measure performance with regard to the PEOs. The assessment indicates that the results meet or exceed the target attainment levels of the PEOs' performance measures.

  8. Track-to-track association for object matching in an inter-vehicle communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ting; Roth, Tobias; Chen, Qi; Breu, Jakob; Bogdanovic, Miro; Weiss, Christian A.

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous driving poses unique challenges for vehicle environment perception due to the complex driving environment the autonomous vehicle finds itself in and differentiates from remote vehicles. Due to inherent uncertainty of the traffic environments and incomplete knowledge due to sensor limitation, an autonomous driving system using only local onboard sensor information is generally not sufficiently enough for conducting a reliable intelligent driving with guaranteed safety. In order to overcome limitations of the local (host) vehicle sensing system and to increase the likelihood of correct detections and classifications, collaborative information from cooperative remote vehicles could substantially facilitate effectiveness of vehicle decision making process. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) system provides a powerful inter-vehicle wireless communication channel to enhance host vehicle environment perceiving capability with the aid of transmitted information from remote vehicles. However, there is a major challenge before one can fuse the DSRC-transmitted remote information and host vehicle Radar-observed information (in the present case): the remote DRSC data must be correctly associated with the corresponding onboard Radar data; namely, an object matching problem. Direct raw data association (i.e., measurement-to-measurement association - M2MA) is straightforward but error-prone, due to inherent uncertain nature of the observation data. The uncertainties could lead to serious difficulty in matching decision, especially, using non-stationary data. In this study, we present an object matching algorithm based on track-to-track association (T2TA) and evaluate the proposed approach with prototype vehicles in real traffic scenarios. To fully exploit potential of the DSRC system, only GPS position data from remote vehicle are used in fusion center (at host vehicle), i.e., we try to get what we need from the least amount of information; additional feature

  9. The research and design for a high availability object storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ling; Tan, Zhihu; Gu, Peng; Wan, Jiguang

    2008-12-01

    With the growing scale of the computer storage systems, the likelihood of multi-disk failures happening in the storage systems has increased dramatically. Based on a thorough analysis on the fault-tolerance capability on various existing storage systems, we propose a new hierarchical, highly reliable, multi-disk fault-tolerant storage system architecture: High Availability Object Storage System (HAOSS). In the HAOSS, each object has an attribute field for reliability level, which can be set by the user according to the importance of data. Higher reliability level corresponds to better data survivability in case of multi-device failure. The HAOSS is composed of two layers: the upper-layer and the lower-layer. The upper-layer achieves the high availability by storing multiple replicas for each storage object in a set of storage devices. The individual replicas can service the I/O requests in parallel so as to obtain high performance. The lower-layer deploys RAID5, RAID6 or RAID_Blaum coding schemes to tolerate multi-disk failures. In addition, the disk utilization rate of RAID_Blaum is higher than that of multiple replicas, and it can be further improved by growing the RAID group size. These advantages come at the price of more complicated fault-tolerant coding schemes, which involve a large amount of calculation for encoding and cause an adverse impact on the I/O performance, especially on the write performance. Results from both our internal experiments and third-party independent tests have shown that HAOSS servers have better multi-disk- failure tolerance than existing similar products. In a 1000Mb Ethernet interconnection environment, with a request block size of 1024KB, the sequential read performance for a HAOSS server reaches 104MB/s, which is very close to the theoretical maximum effective bandwidth of Ethernet networks. The HAOSS offers a complete storage solution for high availability applications without the compromises that today's storage systems

  10. New Extreme Trans-Neptunian Objects: Towards A Super-Earth In Our Solar System Beyond A Few Hundred AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Tholen, David J.

    2016-10-01

    We are conducting the widest and deepest survey ever obtained for extreme distant solar system objects. Our goal is to increase understanding of the origin of extremely high perihelion objects like Sedna and 2012 VP113. We also want to determine if the extreme trans-Neptunian objects cluster in their orbital angles, which would be an indication of a yet unobserved massive shepherding planet in the distant solar system, as first shown in Trujillo and Sheppard (2014). Our survey, started in 2012, has covered about 2000 square degrees to over 24th magnitude using the wide-field imagers on the Subaru 8 meter and CTIO 4 meter telescopes. We have found several new extreme solar system objects and inner Oort cloud objects as well as discovered the first outer Oort cloud object with a perihelion beyond Neptune. We will discuss these objects along with several other interesting objects discovered in our ongoing survey.

  11. The generation and use of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Thomas, Peter C.; Carcich, Brian T.; Veverka, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    We describe a procedure that allows the efficient generation of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects, where a numerical model is simply a table of evenly spaced body-centered latitudes and longitudes and their associated radii. This modeling technique uses a combination of data from limbs, terminators, and control points, and produces shape models that have some important advantages over analytical shape models. Accurate numerical shape models make it feasible to study irregular objects with a wide range of standard scientific analysis techniques. These applications include the determination of moments of inertia and surface gravity, the mapping of surface locations and structural orientations, photometric measurement and analysis, the reprojection and mosaicking of digital images, and the generation of albedo maps. The capabilities of our modeling procedure are illustrated through the development of an accurate numerical shape model for Phobos and the production of a global, high-resolution, high-pass-filtered digital image mosaic of this Martian moon. Other irregular objects that have been modeled, or are being modeled, include the asteroid Gaspra and the satellites Deimos, Amalthea, Epimetheus, Janus, Hyperion, and Proteus.

  12. Scope of linguistic influence: does a classifier system alter object concepts?

    PubMed

    Saalbach, Henrik; Imai, Mutsumi

    2007-08-01

    Whether and to what extent conceptual structure is universal is of great importance for understanding the nature of human concepts. Two major factors that might affect concepts are language and culture. The authors investigated whether these 2 factors affect concepts of everyday objects in any significant ways. Specifically, they tested (a) whether the system of grammatical categorization by classifiers influenced the conceptual structure of speakers of classifier languages, and (b) whether Westerners organized object concepts around taxonomic relations whereas Easterners organized them around thematic relations, as proposed by R. E. Nisbett (2003). The relative importance of 3 types of relations--taxonomic, thematic, and classifier--for Chinese and German speakers was tested using a range of tasks, including categorization, similarity judgment, property induction, and fast-speed word-picture matching. Some support for linguistic relativity as well as for the cultural-specific cognition proposal was found in some tasks, but these effects were miniscule compared with the importance of taxonomic and thematic relations for both language-culture groups. The authors conclude that the global structure of everyday object concepts is strikingly similar across different cultures and languages. PMID:17696695

  13. The generation and use of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, D. P.; Thomas, P. C.; Carcich, B. T.; Veverka, J.

    1993-05-01

    We describe a procedure that allows the efficient generation of numerical shape models for irregular Solar System objects, where a numerical model is simply a table of evenly spaced body-centered latitudes and longitudes and their associated radii. This modeling technique uses a combination of data from limbs, terminators, and control points, and produces shape models that have some important advantages over analytical shape models. Accurate numerical shape models make it feasible to study irregular objects with a wide range of standard scientific analysis techniques. These applications include the determination of moments of inertia and surface gravity, the mapping of surface locations and structural orientations, photometric measurement and analysis, the reprojection and mosaicking of digital images, and the generation of albedo maps. The capabilities of our modeling procedure are illustrated through the development of an accurate numerical shape model for Phobos and the production of a global, high-resolution, high-pass-filtered digital image mosaic of this Martian moon. Other irregular objects that have been modeled, or are being modeled, include the asteroid Gaspra and the satellites Deimos, Amalthea, Epimetheus, Janus, Hyperion, and Proteus.

  14. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  15. A multi-objective model for designing a group layout of a dynamic cellular manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Reza; Shirazi, Hossein; Javadian, Nikbakhsh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to design a group layout of a cellular manufacturing system in a dynamic environment, in which the number of cells to be formed is variable. Cell formation (CF) and group layout (GL) are concurrently made in a dynamic environment by the integrated model, which incorporates with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features used in the design of CMSs. Additionally, there are some features that make the presented model different from the previous studies. These features include the following: (1) the variable number of cells, (2) the integrated CF and GL decisions in a dynamic environment by a multi-objective mathematical model, and (3) two conflicting objectives that minimize the total costs (i.e., costs of intra and inter-cell material handling, machine relocation, purchasing new machines, machine overhead, machine processing, and forming cells) and minimize the imbalance of workload among cells. Furthermore, the presented model considers some limitations, such as machine capability, machine capacity, part demands satisfaction, cell size, material flow conservation, and location assignment. Four numerical examples are solved by the GAMS software to illustrate the promising results obtained by the incorporated features.

  16. Design of Frame-transferred Surface Array CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-heng; Yan, Yi-hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the requirement of low-noise observations of dark objects in deep-space explorations, the design method for a simple and stable space camera imaging system is proposed in this paper. Based on the back-illuminated frame-transferred surface array CCD (CCD47-20AIMO) produced by the British E2V company, the circuitry design is given for the every part of the system. In which the applications of the correlated double-sampling analog-digital converter (AD) and the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) can effectively suppress the correlated noise in the image signal. In addition, a drive control method favorable to the adjustment of exposure time is proposed, in the light-sensing stage it provides the exposure time with an independent and adjustable time delay to make the imaging system satisfy the requirement of long exposure time setting. The imaging system adopts the Cyclone III-series EP3C25Q240C8 field programable gate array produced by the Altera company as the kernel control device, and the drives are programmed in modules according to the function of the every device, in favor of transplantation. The simulative and experimental results indicate that the drive circuitry works normally, and that the system design can satisfy the preset requirement.

  17. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  18. Streamflow forecasting using the modular modeling system and an object-user interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), developed a computer program to provide a general framework needed to couple disparate environmental resource models and to manage the necessary data. The Object-User Interface (OUI) is a map-based interface for models and modeling data. It provides a common interface to run hydrologic models and acquire, browse, organize, and select spatial and temporal data. One application is to assist river managers in utilizing streamflow forecasts generated with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System running in the Modular Modeling System (MMS), a distributed-parameter watershed model, and the National Weather Service Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) methodology.

  19. An object-oriented programming system for the integration of internet-based bioinformatics resources.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2006-01-01

    The Internet consists of a vast inhomogeneous reservoir of data. Developing software that can integrate a wide variety of different data sources is a major challenge that must be addressed for the realisation of the full potential of the Internet as a scientific research tool. This article presents a semi-automated object-oriented programming system for integrating web-based resources. We demonstrate that the current Internet standards (HTML, CGI [common gateway interface], Java, etc.) can be exploited to develop a data retrieval system that scans existing web interfaces and then uses a set of rules to generate new Java code that can automatically retrieve data from the Web. The validity of the software has been demonstrated by testing it on several biological databases. We also examine the current limitations of the Internet and discuss the need for the development of universal standards for web-based data.

  20. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.