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Sample records for persistent organochlorine compounds

  1. Persistent organochlorine compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Niida, Mami; Hashim, Hatijah

    2005-10-01

    This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and TCPMe. The residue levels of DDTs, HCHs, and CHLs were comparable to or higher than those in general populations of other countries, whereas PCBs and HCB were relatively low. In addition, dioxins and related compounds were also detected with a range of dioxin equivalent concentrations from 3.4 to 24 pg-TEQs/g lipid wt. Levels of toxic equivalents (TEQs) were slightly higher than those in other developing countries but still much lower than those of industrialized nations. One donor mother contained a high TEQs level, equal to the mean value in human breast milk from Japan, implying that some of the residents in Malaysia may be exposed to specific pollution sources of dioxins and related compounds. No association was observed between OCs concentrations and maternal characteristics, which might be related to a limited number of samples, narrow range of age of the donor mothers, and/or other external factors. The recently identified endocrine disrupter, TCPMe, was also detected in all human breast milk samples of this study. A significant positive correlation was observed between TCPMe and DDTs, suggesting that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in Malaysia. The present study provides a useful baseline for future studies on the accumulations of OCs in the general population of Malaysia.

  2. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Influence of parasitism in dogs on their serum levels of persistent organochlorine compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Cordón, Yaiza Falcón; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals, which accumulate in humans and animals, as only few species have the capability of eliminating them. However, some authors have pointed to the possibility that certain species of invertebrates (i.e. nematodes) could metabolize this type of compounds. As certain species of nematodes act as parasites of vertebrates, this research was designed to explore the influence of some of the most common parasites of the dogs in their serum levels of 56 common POPs. The study included three groups of dogs (n=64), which were prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) dogs tested positive for intestinal parasites and negative for other parasites (n=24); and c) dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=16). The presence of Dirofilaria immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, anthracene and pyrene). We also found an inverse association between the hosts' serum levels of PCBs and intestinal parasites. We did not find any association with DDT or its metabolites, but this might be explained by the recently suggested ability of dogs for the efficient metabolization of these compounds. According to the results of this study certain forms of parasitism would reduce the bioavailability of the major classes of POPs in dogs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate whether this phenomenon is due to a competence between parasites and hosts or could respond to a possible capability of parasitic nematodes for the metabolization of these POPs.

  4. Blood concentrations and risk assessment of persistent organochlorine compounds in newborn boys in Turkey. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, İsmet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-12-01

    Even early life in utero cannot provide a safe place for newborns. The first acquaintance with chemicals takes place in utero and/or with mother's milk after delivery. Besides legislations and bans to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these chemicals are still affecting the general population especially the children as they are one of the populations most susceptible to chemicals, and also the health problems may arise in the future. Our objective is to collect the first data in newborns in Turkey to determine baseline levels of POPs in the general population and estimate the potential cancer risk related to exposure. Twenty-nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in blood samples of newborn boys (0-1 month old) who were born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 2010-2012 were evaluated with high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds are as follows: hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) 1828 ± 3650 pg/g lipid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) 10,000 ± 15,398 pg/g lipid, and ΣPCB 1068 ± 1823 pg/g lipid. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene, and PCB 138 and 153 are the major contaminants. New POPs as lindane 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid, pentachlorobenzene 13 ± 74 pg/g lipid, and endosulfan 29 ± 106 pg/g lipid are also detected in blood. Estimated total risk for lifetime PCB exposure is less than 1 × 10(-5), an acceptable risk. Blood concentration levels will be important base data in the assessment of health concerns of newborns as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans.

  5. Toxic contaminants in the environment: Persistent organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Indicators in this bulletin are part of a national set of environmental indicators designed to provide a profile of the state of Canada`s environment and measure progress towards sustainable development. Some toxic substances associated with industry are of particular concern because of adverse effects on wildlife and humans. One of these groups is persistent organochlorines and this bulletin focuses on levels of these in biota. Organochlorines are a family of chemicals that have been used as insecticides, such as DDT, or as industrial chemicals, such as PCBs. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans are by-products of certain industrial processes. This document looks at these organochlorines and the use of wildlife indicators. It then provides more specific information on contaminant levels in double-crested cormorant eggs -- DDE and PCBs, or dioxins and furans.

  6. Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, A; Hura, C; Schepens, P

    2001-12-03

    Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants, including PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined in soil, animal fat and human serum samples from Romania. All methods were rigorously tested and adequate quality control was ensured. Soil samples from lassy County showed a lower contamination with organochlorines than samples from other Romanian regions. While DDTs concentrations in soil were significantly higher at rural sites, only few samples (three out of 47) exceeded the official Romanian norms for DDTs. PCBs concentrations were low in rural sites (< 8 ng/g soil), but rather high (up to 134 ng/g soil) in urban soils collected mostly from parks (Bucharest, Arad, Baia Mare, Pitesti and Ploicsti). Animal fat samples from lassy showed high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs concentrations up to 12370 ng/g fat), but similar PCB concentrations when compared with Arad samples. Two samples (from 24) exceeded the EU norms (1000 ng/g fat) for HCHs and DDTs in animal fat. Organochlorines were found in higher concentrations in some samples of human serum from Timisoara due to a broader age range. Samples of human serum from lassy mothers showed higher HCHs and DDTs concentrations than samples from a similar group from Antwerp, Belgium. HCB and PCBs were higher in Antwerp cohort. Romanian samples showed a higher ratio DDT/sigmaDDTs, but similar ratios PCB 153/sigmaPCBs.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in internal organs of coypu, Myocastor coypus.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Ryszard; Beutling, Dorothea; Budzyk, Jolanta; Pietrzak, Marian; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify persistent organochlorine pesticides, (18 compounds including primary compounds and metabolites), in animal internal organs (kidneys, liver, and brain) has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimized for each target compound in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode to obtain maximum sensitivity. Prior to instrumental analysis, a sample preparation method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by acidic digestion with sulfuric acid to reduce matrix co-extractives was employed. Analyses of real samples were carried out on coypus (Myocastor coypus) from the autumn slaughter of 19 animals. In the analyzed samples, three of the target compounds, namely DDE-pp' (DDT metabolite), HCB and lindane, were detected. Their concentration levels fell in the ranges of 0.003-0.007, 0.003-0.025, and 0.003-0.021 mg kg(-1) (0.005, 0.010, and 0.010 mg kg(-1) on average) in the case of DDE-pp', HCB and lindane, respectively. Although low quantities of organochlorine pesticides do not pose an immediate danger to consumers' health, they should be of public health concern considering long-term, low-dose exposure.

  8. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  9. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Waliszewski, S.M. ); Szymczynski, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

  11. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J.; Cerne, K.

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

  13. The synthesis of organochlorine compounds from one-carbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treger, Yurii A.; Rozanov, V. N.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the synthesis of organochlorine compounds from one-carbon molecules are surveyed. The thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanisms of the direct and oxidative chlorination of methane, the esterification of methanol by hydrogen chloride, the hydrochlorination of acetylene, the hydrodechlorination of carbon tetrachloride, and the carbonylation of chloromethanes, the catalysts employed, and the practical applications of these reactions are examined. The bibliography includes 143 references.

  14. Evidence for persistent organochlorine pollutants in the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fommei, Enza; Turci, Roberta; Ripoli, Andrea; Balzan, Silvana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Morelli, Luca; Coi, Alessio

    2017-03-23

    Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed. A gas-chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Triple Quad GC-MS) system was used for the analysis. Data were analyzed using Random Forest and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. OCPs and PCBs were found in specimens from both types. A subset of pollutants characterized APA more than NA. Higher concentrations (μg g(-1) ) in APA were observed for α-, β-, and γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1.48 ± 3.32 vs. 0.17 ± 0.19, P = 0.028; 2.81 ± 2.10 vs. 0.96 ± 0.98, P = 0.011; 2.16 ± 4.85 vs. 0.17 ± 0.26, P = 0.004, respectively), as well as for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and for PCBs 28, 52 and 101 (3.41 ± 3.11 vs. 0.97 ± 1.06, P = 0.021; 2.34 ± 4.68 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P = 0.039; 0.58 ± 1.19 vs. 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.002; 0.26 ± 0.43 vs. 0.05 ± 0.00, P = 0.001, respectively). Environmental organochlorine pollutants were shown to be present in the human normal and abnormal adrenal cortex, deserving future investigation on their possible role as adrenal endocrine disruptors in human disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue in the South Platte River Basin, USA, 1992-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Heiny, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected in the South Platte River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the basin. During August-November 1992 and August 1993, bed sediment (23 sites) and fish tissue (subset of 19 sites) were sampled and analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and 27 compounds in fish tissue. More types of organochlorine compounds were detected in fish tissue than in bed sediment. Total DDT, p,p???-DDE, o,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, total PCS, Dacthal??, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p???-DDT were detected in fish tissue at >25% of the sites; p,p???-DDE, total DDT, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were detected in bed sediment at >25% of the sites. Organochlorine concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue were related to land-use settings. Few organochlorine compounds were detected at minimally impacted sites located in rangeland, forest, and built-up land-use settings. Chlordane-related compounds and p,p???-methoxychlor in bed sediment and fish tissue, endrin in fish tissue, and endosulfan I in bed sediment were associated with urban and mixed (urban and agricultural) sites. Dacthal?? in bed sediment and fish tissue was associated with agricultural sites. The compounds HCB, ??-HCH, PCA, and toxaphene were detected only at mixed land-use sites. Although DDT and DDT-metabolites, dieldrin, and total PCB were detected in urban, mixed, and agricultural land-use settings, highest mean concentrations were detected at mixed land-use sites. Mixed land-use sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue, whereas urban and mixed sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in bed sediment. Measuring concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue at the same site offers a more complete picture of the persistence of organochlorine compounds in the environment and their

  16. Organochlorine compounds in the marine atmosphere of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in high-volume air samples collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) over the sea surface of Singapore during the summer monsoon period of 2004. A novel and quality assured microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure for PUF was developed as an alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). Average concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣHCHs and ΣDDTs in air samples were 32, 311 and 8 pg m -3, respectively. Overall, a decline in the ocean atmospheric concentration of DDTs was noted relative to data obtained from the early 1990s, but current data are in a similar range for HCH and PCBs. Levels of OCs in the equatorial atmosphere were compared to equivalent data from temperate regions available in the literature. On a global scale, the levels of DDTs and PCBs in the atmosphere of Singapore are low, but moderate for HCHs.

  17. Premature delivery and organochlorine compounds: polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Wassermann, M.; Ron, M.; Bercovici, B.; Wasserman, D.; Cucos, S.; Pines, A.

    1982-06-01

    Some organochlorine compounds (OCC), DDT and metabolites, ..gamma..-HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and polychlorinated biphenyls were assessed in the serum of 17 women with premature delivery (PD) and 10 women with normal, third-trimester pregnancy. Out of 17 cases of PD, 8 cases were associated with high PCB serum levels (128.0 ppb versus 19.25 ppb in the control group), and 5 cases with high DDT serum levels (119.6 ppb versus 26.5 ppb in the control group). Two of the cases with high PCB serum levels also had high total DDT serum levels. The 5 cases with high total DDT serum levels also has high ..gamma..-HCH and heptachlor epoxide serum levels and 4 out of these 5 cases also had high dieldrin serum levels. The higher chlorinated PCB isomers constituted a higher percentage of total PCBs in the study group in comparison with the control group (about 30% versus 8.94%). At the same time, the percentage of total o.p'-DDT was unusually high (50% of total DDT in the study group versus 30% in the control group). The possible role of the relatively high serum levels of the organochlorine compounds assessed in this study, in the occurrence of PD, is discussed.

  18. Temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in Greenland walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Born, E W; Koczansky, K; Stern, G A

    2000-01-17

    Persistent organochlorines [PCBs, DDT and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the Avanersuaq (Thule) region of north-west Greenland and in 1989 from Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund) in east Greenland. Lowest concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) were found in the samples from the Avanersuaq region while much higher levels of all compounds, except HCH isomers and mono/dichlorobiphenyls (CB5/8), were observed in samples (all males) from Ittoqqortoormiit. Total PCBs (sigma PCB) averaged 246 ng/g (wet wt.) male walrus from Avanersuaq and 2860 ng/g in samples from Ittoqqortoormiit. DDT isomers showed the greatest difference between the two locations, 50 x for p,p'-DDE and 69 x higher for p,p'-DDT. Ittoqqortoormiit walrus showed the pattern of OCs characteristic of seal-eating animals although the consumption of other organisms cannot be ruled out. The higher levels of OCs in east Greenland compared to north-west Greenland animals were consistent with results for polar bears, seals and gulls from the same regions. Principal components analysis showed that the pattern of OCs in Ittoqqortoormiit walrus was very similar to that in walrus from Inukjuaq in east Hudson Bay, which have previously been reported to be seal eaters, and quite distinct from the Avanersuaq walrus. No significant differences in mean concentrations of any OCs were found between male walrus from 1978 and 1988. For females, there were significantly higher levels of CB5/8, trichlorobiphenyls, dieldrin, toxaphene and alpha HCH as well as sigma HCH but not for sigma PCBs or DDT compounds. The data for Greenland walrus from the 1970s and late 1980s provide a baseline for future trend monitoring in walrus.

  19. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  20. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  1. Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.

    PubMed

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2001-09-01

    We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans.

  2. Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. PMID:11673122

  3. Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

  4. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

  5. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs.

  6. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in bovine fat from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Gomez-Arroyo, S; Infanzon, R M; Carvajal, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Trujillo, P; Maxwell, M

    2004-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. The pesticides applied drift to areas where cattle graze and plants grow. Because of their chemical stability, they accumulate in the lipid-rich tissues of the body. In the body, they circulate throughout all compartments and accumulate in adipose fat. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in bovine muscle fat and kidney fat from cows living in an endemic malaria zone, where the environmental contamination can be suspected as being higher. Two hundred samples (100 muscle fat, 100 kidney fat) were analysed by gas chromatography. From the pesticides, only hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), gamma-HCH, pp'-1.1.1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), op'-DDT and pp'-DDE, were detected frequently and at levels above the detection limits. The HCB mean level was low at 0.009 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomers, beta-HCH mean concentration was 0.039 mg kg(-1) and gamma-HCH was 0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. Among DDTs, pp'-DDT was the major constituent (0.032 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDE (0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) and op'-DDT (0.023 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis). The DDT total (sigma DDT) level was 0.067 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. Comparing the previous study (1994) and the present one (2002-03), organochlorine pesticide levels were decreased. HCB decreased 3.7 times from 0.033 to 0.009 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis; beta-HCH decreased 3.8 times from 0.149 to 0.039 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis; pp'-DDE did not reveal a significant difference at 0.026 versus 0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. However, pp'-DDT decreased substantially, 6.7 times from 0.215 to 0.032 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. The DDT total decreased 3.5 times from 0.236 to 0.067 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. The tendency for reduced concentrations in organochlorine pesticide

  8. Epidemiological analysis of persistent organochlorine contaminants in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Colborn, T; Smolen, M J

    1996-01-01

    Information is provided to test the hypothesis that organochlorines introduced into the environment since the early 1940s could threaten the reproductive potential of baleen whales and other cetaceans. Comparisons are made using data on the role of organochlorines in a model system, the Great Lakes region of North America, and in model animals, including humans, pinnipeds, and other wildlife. DDT and PCB are used as model organochlorines with the caveat that there may be thousands of other chemicals in the environment also involved. Improved sensitivity in analytical quantification of synthetic chemicals in biological tissue has been accompanied by an increase in knowledge about biochemical processes that control development and function. The effects described in this review are the result of disrupted gene expression, not damage to the gene. The mechanisms of action of the organochlorines reveal their ability to affect developing organisms at very low concentrations during critical life stages: embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal. Exposure during early development can disrupt the organization of the endocrine, reproductive, immune and nervous systems, effecting irreversible damage that may not be expressed until the individuals reach adulthood. The recent discovery that human sperm count is declining worldwide at a rate of 1 x 10(6) sperm/(mL.yr) suggests common exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during prenatal and early postnatal development. This raises concern for other top predator species that also share the same exposure. Periods of intense feeding followed by long periods of fasting are common among species of baleen whales. This unique strategy places the embryonic and nursing calves in vulnerable positions, because under both situations maternal blood levels are elevated as a result of absorption from food intake or as a result of mobilization as fat is metabolized. Estimates of Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) based on the occurrence of four PCB congeners

  9. Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Muraoka, Masayoshi; Ohtake, Masako; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Ueno, Daisuke; Higaki, Yumi; Ochi, Miyuki; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Kamikawa, Satoko; Tonegi, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Junya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-08-01

    Contamination levels of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) was examined in human breast milk collected during 2001-2004 from Fukuoka prefecture in Japan. The concentrations of OCs such as dioxins and related compounds, DDTs, CHLs and HCB in human breast milk from primiparae were comparable to or slightly higher than the data obtained during 1998, indicating that the levels of these contaminants in Japanese human breast milk have not decreased since 1998 and Japanese are continuously exposed to these chemicals, presumably via fish intake. In addition, OC levels in human breast milk from primiparae were significantly higher than those from multiparae, implying elimination of OCs via lactation. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between levels of OCs in human breast milk and the age of primiparae. These results indicate that the mothers with higher age may transfer higher amounts of OCs to the first infant than to the infants born afterwards through breast-feeding, and hence the first born children might be at higher risk by OCs.

  10. Accumulation status of persistent organochlorines in albatrosses from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Watanabe, M; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Current status of contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were examined in 61 individuals belonging to eight albatross species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Generally high OC concentrations were found in albatrosses from the North Pacific than those from the Southern Oceans. Black-footed albatrosses had noticeably high PCBs and DDTs concentrations with mean values of 92 and 33 micrograms/g wet weight in subcutaneous fat, respectively. Among the other OCs, concentration of CHLs was higher than that of HCB in North Pacific albatrosses. HCHs accumulation was the lowest among all the OCs analyzed. Species-specific differences were observed for HCB, CHLs and DDTs in some species in the Southern Ocean. No significant difference of gender and age-related accumulation was observed in total OCs. However, PCB concentrations were higher in mature birds than those from immature ones in the Southern Ocean. Species-specific accumulation patterns of OCs in albatrosses were closely related with their feeding, migration, age and geographical ranges.

  11. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in hair samples of Northern Poland population, 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    Wielgomas, Bartosz; Czarnowski, Wojciech; Jansen, Eugene H J M

    2012-11-01

    The concentrations of persistent chlorinated organic pollutants were determined in hair samples (n=40) collected from inhabitants of Northern Poland in 1968, 1989 and 2009 using gas chromatography ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Among the analytes were β- and γ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (β- and γ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD) and 6 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). The following: p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and PCB congeners: 28, 52 and 101 could be quantified in all samples. Overall total organochlorines level was found to decrease in that order: 1968>1989>2009. The most significant time-dependent decrease was noticed for sum of mean values, ∑DDTs (1658, 143.9 and 36.5 ng g(-1)) and ∑PCBs (42.2, 29.4 and 14.9 ng g(-1)) while ∑HCHs (β-HCH and γ-HCH) were present at comparable levels (22.2, 9.8 and 12.6 ng g(-1)) in 1968, 1989 and 2009 respectively. The highest concentrations of DDTs were found in samples from 1968. Despite the long storage time of samples, metabolites either parent compound p,p'-DDT are still present in those samples at very high concentrations. p,p'-DDE as the predominant and stable metabolite of DDT was detected in every sample in the highest concentration. A significant, continuous decrease of total concentration of all studied PCB congeners was observed over the studied period of time. Current results confirm previous reports of other authors upon the utility of hair as an alternative matrix for evaluation of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants.

  12. A mass balance model describing multiyear fate of organochlorine compounds in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Helm, Paul A; Diamond, Miriam L; Semkin, Ray; Strachan, William M J; Teixeira, Camilla; Gregor, Dennis

    2002-03-01

    Data collected over a 3-year study of a high arctic watershed and lake are used to understand the fate of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and form the basis of a mass balance contaminant fate model. The model uses the fugacity/aquivalence approach to describe OC dynamics between air, stream inflows and outflow, the water column, and surficial sediments. The steady-state model results indicate that stream inflows contributed from 96 to >99% of total chemical loadings, but 57-98% of total loadings were lost from the lake via the outlet, the percentage of which is controlled by the hydrologic regime of the high arctic lake. Conversely, only 0.4-3.4% of loadings were retained within the sediments due to the high export rate, minimal scavenging from the water column and low organic carbon fraction of the sediments. Using the unsteady-state model, which includes year-round processes, degradation was estimated to account for losses of 7-32% for the more persistent OCs and 42-50% for the less persistent OCs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan I). If loadings were eliminated, water column concentrations would decline with half-lives <1 year for less persistent OCs and 1-2 years for the more persistent OCs, whereas the half-lives for OCs in sediment are 8-25 years.

  13. Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Jayanthi, Palanisamy

    2011-02-01

    The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences among species were detected for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), ∑HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning.

  14. Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds.

  15. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  16. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges.

  17. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, L.L.; Kucklick, J.R.; Bidleman, T.F.; Ivanov, G.P.; Chernyak, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

  19. Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2000-07-01

    Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue.

  20. Mutagenic potential of acute exposure to organophosphorus and organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, M; Nagarajan, B

    1994-04-01

    The cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects of the pesticides methyl parathion, Bayleton and Hinosan were evaluated in mammalian test systems. The frequency of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in bone marrow cells and the arginase enzyme profile in the liver tend to show the genotoxicity of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in a single-exposure response study. Methyl parathion was the most hazardous among the three, showing definite pathology in the livers of treated rats.

  1. Residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Elephant Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Metcalfe, Chris D; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Muelbert, Mônica M C; Colares, Elton P; Martinez, Pablo E; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-06-01

    Contamination of blubber tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OC) and PCBs was assessed in female and male pups and juveniles, as well as in adult females and subdominant adult males of the Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, from Elephant Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. All residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants analyzed were found in blubber samples, except for beta-HCH, endosulfan II, endrin, heptachlor, and aldrin. The relative concentrations of the analytes detected were sigmaDDT > sigmaPCB > sigmachlordane > mirex > dieldrin > HCB> sigmaendosulfan > methoxychlor > sigmaHCHs > other OC pesticides. OC and PCBs concentrations were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found in pinnipeds from northern hemisphere. The ratio sigmaDDT/sigmaPCB was higher in southern elephant seals. The relative importance of some OC residues indicates that pesticides used either currently or in the recent past in countries in the southern hemisphere are the sources of contamination in the Antarctic region. Data showed that concentrations of contaminants generally increased from pups < juveniles < adults and suggested that pups accumulated contaminants through transfer from the mother seals via transplacental and lactational routes.

  2. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  3. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  4. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in cow's milk samples from tropical regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. Their residues accumulate in lipid-rich tissues due to their chemical stability and persistence. In the body they circulate throughout all compartments, deposit themselves in adipose fat and can be excreted during lactation. These pesticides are applied in tropical zones and drift to areas where cattle graze. Therefore, analyses of cow's milk samples can serve as an indicator of environmental and cows' exposure to them. One hundred and fifty milk samples were taken each year in 1998 and 2001 and analysed to determine concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH, pp"-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT. Results obtained indicate that beta-HCH is one of the main contaminants (0.106 and 0.087 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.078 and 0.037 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) and pp'-DDE (0.051 and 0.033 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). The HCB and op'-DDT were detected in lower quantities respectively (0.008 and 0.006 mg x kg(-1), and 0.031 and 0.010 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). When comparing the results obtained with those from the previous study, it was noted that DDT levels decreased significantly in 2001 as a result of the substitution of the organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids sprayed by the Mexican Ministry of Health to combat malaria since 1999.

  6. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards.

  7. Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine pesticides in three species of albatrosses from the north and south Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek C G; Jones, Paul D; Karlsson, Heidi; Koczansky, Krystina; Stern, Gary A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ludwig, James P; Reid, Hamish; Robertson, Chris J R; Giesy, John P

    2002-02-01

    Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds [sigmaCHL], DDT-related compounds [sigmaDDT], hexachlorocyclohexanes [sigmaHCH], tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi) collected in New Zealand. Toxaphene was detected in fat samples at mean +/- standard deviation (SD) levels ranging from 243 +/- 61 ng/g wet weight in Laysan albatross to 1,020 +/- 237 ng/g wet weight in blackfooted albatross. These levels were higher than sigmaCHL and sigmaHCH but lower than sigmaDDT. In eggs of blackfooted albatross, toxaphene was the major OC pesticide, averaging 513 ng/g wet weight in two pooled samples compared with 293 ng/g wet weight for sigmaDDT. Two toxaphene congeners, the octachloroborane B8-1413 (Parlar 26) and the nonachlorobornane B9-1679 (P50), comprised about 38% of total toxaphene in both albatross species. All OC compounds were present at significantly higher levels in blackfooted than Laysan albatross fat with the exception of sigmaHCH, dieldrin, and octachlorostyrene. Mean levels of sigmaDDT and sigmaHCH in northern royal albatross eggs from New Zealand were 4 and 60 times lower, respectively, than in blackfooted albatross eggs. The pattern of OC pesticide accumulation was consistent with differences in distribution of the three species in the Pacific Ocean, with highest levels in blackfooted albatross, which feed off the west coast of North America, intermediate levels in Laysan albatross, which frequent the western Pacific, and lowest levels in northern royal albatross, which are confined to the southern oceans surrounding the Antarctic.

  8. Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2000-01-01

    Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10903611

  9. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  10. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Field screening of volatile organochlorine compounds using ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doering, H.R.; Flachowsky, J.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated alkanes and alkenes produce due to a dissociative charge transfer reaction strong signals of Cl{sup {minus}} ions in ion mobility spectra. This reaction can be used to analyze these compounds in on site analyses. The method is applicable to dump gases, soil air or soil using head space techniques and volatile halogen compounds dissolved in organic solvents. The results obtained by ion mobility spectrometry correlate with GC/MS or AOX measurements in most cases.

  12. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Exposure Related to a Formerly Used Defense Site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Data from Sentinel Fish and Human Sera.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C Loren; von Hippel, Frank A; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence way of life. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, mercury, and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. In total, 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers who represented three geographic regions of the island. In addition, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and gender, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but nonsignificant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, data suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides.

  13. Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and in biological tissue from streams and their relations to land use, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebler, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    suggests that there is a correlation between contaminants in sediment and biological-tissue samples and land uses. As with other studies of the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine contaminants in streambed sediments and biological tissue, this study shows that many organochlorine compounds continue to persist in the environment and thus could pose a threat to aquatic life, fish-eating wildlife, and possibly to humans who consume contaminated fish.

  14. Assessment of persistent organochlorine pollutants in sediments from Lake Manzala, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

    2012-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in surface and core sediment samples collected from Manzala Lake, the largest of the Egyptian coastal lakes. Total concentrations of OCPs and ∑7 PCBs (ICES) in sediments ranged from 0.63 to 31.31 ng/g and 0.26 to 31.27 ng/g, respectively. Geographical distribution indicates that levels of contaminants were significantly higher in areas which are mainly influenced by municipal discharge, indicating significant sources of these compounds in urbanised areas. The composition of DDT and its metabolites suggest old input of DDT. The levels of contaminants in Manzala Lake were similar or lower than those observed in comparable areas worldwide. The profiles of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs in a core from a site heavily impacted by sewage discharge have highest concentrations in the surface core section indicating recent inputs. Assessment of ecotoxicological risk indicated that sediments in two sites were likely to pose potential biological adverse impact.

  15. Permeability and toxicological profile estimation of organochlorine compounds by biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Escuder-Gilabert, L; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Sagrado, S; Medina-Hernandez, M J

    2009-04-01

    This paper points out the usefulness of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as a high-throughput primary screening tool providing key information about the oral absorption, skin permeability (K(p)), brain-blood distribution coefficient (BB) and ecotoxicological parameters such as median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and bioconcentration factors of 15 organochloride compounds. The retention data of compounds in BMC conditions were interpolated in previously developed quantitative-retention activity relationships by our research group. Results show that the compounds studied readily cross the intestinal barrier (oral absorption > 90%) and the blood-brain barrier (log BB > 0.4). In addition, the organochlorines DDE, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are the compounds which can more quickly cross the skin barrier (log K(p ) > -0.74 cm/h). From a ecotoxicological point of view, it can be concluded that the most retained compounds, DDE, DDD, hexachlorobenzene and dicofol, are the most toxic and bioacumulative.

  16. Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.

    1988-01-01

    Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

  17. Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers.

    PubMed

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H; Pyysalo, H; Antervo, K

    1988-01-01

    Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of organochlorine compounds over titanium oxide and titanium oxide containing zinc oxide decatungstate and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sattari, D.

    1995-12-01

    Ten organochlorine solvents, commonly used in industry, which are di- tri- and tetra- chloro derivatives of methane, ethane and ethylene were photocatalytically degraded over titanium oxide and titanium oxide containing zinc oxide: decatungstate and hydrogen peroxide. The study has been carried out by determining the yield of organochlorine degradation at different irradiation time. It was found that for derivatives of the three compounds the degradation rates were in the order of di>tri>tetra and for those containing the same number of chlorine substituents the order was ethylene>ethane. During the degradation of each organochlorine solvent chloride was liberated. Stoichiometry for photocatalytic degradation of organochlorine solvents are C{sub x}H{sub y-z}Cl{sub z} + xO{sub 2}{yields}xCO{sub 2} + (y-z)H{sup +} + zCl{sup -}.

  19. Contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and persistent organochlorines in catfish and feed from Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Tuyen, But Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-10-01

    Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 700 ng/g lipid weight, followed by PCBs (1.0-80 ng/g), CHLs (<0.01-8.2 ng/g), PBDEs (0.12-3.7 ng/g), HCHs (<0.03-5.1 ng/g), and HCB (<0.07-3.2 ng/g). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in all samples, suggesting their widespread contamination in the region. However, PBDE contamination levels in the present catfish specimens were low in comparison to levels worldwide. Interestingly, residue levels of all the contaminants were significantly higher in catfish collected near a municipal dumping site compared to farmed catfish. This suggests that runoffs from the dumping site during floods and rains may have brought pollutants to the surrounding areas. Contamination pattern in aquaculture feeds revealed elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in samples from foreign companies, perhaps implying their higher residues in some imported ingredients. Congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs demonstrated similarity between the farmed catfish and the aquaculture feeds, suggesting these feeds as a major source of pollution to the farmed catfish. On the other hand, the PBDE and PCB profiles in the dumpsite catfish are clearly different from those of the farmed catfish, revealing their exposure to different sources. Risk assessment showed significantly higher intake of the contaminants by people who eat catfish cultured near the dumping areas. Further investigation regarding fate and occurrence of the contaminants in dumping sites is necessary.

  20. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  1. Changing patterns of cow's milk contamination with organochlorine compounds in Israel (1976-1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, A.; Cucos, S.; Grafstein, O.; Lemesch, C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental pollution with organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCGs) has decreased due to restriction and/or banning of these compounds. However, several recent reports indicate that pollution with OCIs and PCBs still does exist, and may be of public and environmental health significance even in developed countries. Cow's milk is one of the most important media where organochlorine compound (OCC) levels are monitored. On the one hand, milk and its products play a central role in human nutrition and, on the other, highly lipophilic OCCs can accumulate in fat-rich milk products. In a previous study, the authors reported a significant decrease in OCC content in both farm and market milk in Israel between the mid-1970s and early 1980s. The clearest decrease was seen in the cases of DDT, dieldrin and lindane, but not as much as for heptachlor epoxide (HE) and PCBs. The present study was undertaken to follow up the observed trends and to determine whether cow's milk contamination with OCC presently poses a public health problem in Israel.

  2. Modeling Organochlorine Compounds and the σ-Hole Effect Using a Polarizable Multipole Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The charge distribution of halogen atoms on organochlorine compounds can be highly anisotropic and even display a so-called σ-hole, which leads to strong halogen bonds with electron donors. In this paper, we have systematically investigated a series of chloromethanes with one to four chloro substituents using a polarizable multipole-based molecular mechanics model. The atomic multipoles accurately reproduced the ab initio electrostatic potential around chloromethanes, including CCl4, which has a prominent σ-hole on the Cl atom. The van der Waals parameters for Cl were fitted to the experimental density and heat of vaporization. The calculated hydration free energy, solvent reaction fields, and interaction energies of several homo- and heterodimer of chloromethanes are in good agreement with experimental and ab initio data. This study suggests that sophisticated electrostatic models, such as polarizable atomic multipoles, are needed for accurate description of electrostatics in organochlorine compounds and halogen bonds, although further improvement is necessary for better transferability. PMID:24484473

  3. Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones.

    PubMed

    So, M K; Zhang, X; Giesy, J P; Fung, C N; Fong, H W; Zheng, J; Kramer, M J; Yoo, H; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng/g lipid weight for total OCs and 170-1000 ng/g lipid weight for total PCBs (based on 28 congeners). Relatively smaller DDT concentrations in mussels compared with previous studies suggest reduced discharges of DDTs from nearby regions into Hong Kong waters. Detection of a mixture of HCH isomers in the mussels indicated that Hong Kong waters were predominantly contaminated by technical HCHs rather than lindane. Mussel samples from all sampling locations elicited significant dioxin-like activity in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. The greatest magnitude of dioxin-like response (39 pg TEQ/g wet wt.) was detected in mussels from Ma Wan in the western waters of Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the Pearl River discharge. Human health risk assessment was undertaken to evaluate potential risks associated with the consumption of the green-lipped mussels. Risk quotient (RQ) for dioxin-like compounds was greater than unity suggesting that adverse health effects may be associated with high mussel consumption.

  4. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal

    2013-05-01

    As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0.05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended.

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticide exposure related to a formerly used defense site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: data from sentinel fish and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C. Loren; von Hippel, Frank A.; Carpenter, David O.

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence lifestyle. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. A total of 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers that represented three geographic regions of the island. Additionally, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and sex, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but non-significant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, the results suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  6. Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deti, Habtewold; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohamed, Abdel Maaboud I; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in two milk-producing animals (goats and cows) grazed on the same feed to explore the extent of organochlorines availability in milk and any species effect on the bioaccumulation pattern. Six organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in samples collected from four regions in Ethiopia. Aldrin (11.6μgkg(-1)) was detected only in one cow milk sample and α-endosulfan was detected in one goat milk sample at a level of 142.1μgkg(-1), and in one cow milk sample (47.8μgkg(-1)) from the same region. p,p'-DDE was detected in 40% of the milk samples analyzed while o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were found in high amounts in almost all samples. The average total DDT (excluding DDD) in the samples was 328.5μgkg(-1). Regions known for their malaria epidemics were the most contaminated with DDT residue. The accumulation pattern in both species was not clear under natural sampling.

  7. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Miriam N. . E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T.; Hood, Steven R.

    2005-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid

  8. Contamination status and spatial distribution of organochlorine compounds in fishes from Nansei Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Two species of fishes (n=52; tilapia and mullet) from industrialized and urbanized areas of Okinawa Island (Manko-Noha river, Hija river and Shikaza river) and from a remote area of Ishigaki Island (Anparu mudflat), Japan were collected between August 2005 and July 2006, and analyzed for five organochlorine compounds (OCs), viz., DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. Concentrations and the contamination patterns of OCs in fishes varied between locations. Considerable residue levels of OCs, especially CHLs and DDTs were found in both fishes from the main Okinawa Island. These levels were relatively higher than the reported values for seafood from Japanese coasts, indicating that even now pollution sources of these contaminants still exist in this region. On the other hand, lower concentrations of OCs were detected in fishes from Ishigaki Island waters than those of other Japanese coastal waters, suggesting that this region is less contaminated by OC contaminants.

  9. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high

  10. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263 ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed.

  11. Levels of persistent organochlorine residues in eggs of greater flamingos from the Guadalquivir marshes (Doñana), Spain.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Clavero, Raquel; Mateo, Rafael; Máñez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residue levels were determined in 53 unhatched eggs from greater roseus flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Eggs were collected in 1996 from the National Park of Doñana (Guadalquivir marshes, Southwest Spain), immediately after one breeding colony abandoned the nesting site due to predator attacks. The main metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was the OCP residue found at higher concentrations, with a geometric mean of 721 ng/g wet weight. Residues of other pesticides, including some hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor-epoxide, were detected at much lower concentrations. The sum of PCBs was 528 ng/g, with PCB congeners #187 and #153 being the most prominent in eggs. The pattern observed in these compounds of industrial origin corresponded more to Aroclor 1260 than to any other commercial mixture. Levels of organochlorine residues indicate a medium degree of exposure, and they are not considered of any concern for the flamingo population. In particular, neither p,p'-DDE nor PCB levels were found to be correlated with the eggshell thickness.

  12. Atmospherc deposition of organochlorine compounds to remote high mountain lakes of Europe.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Grimalt, Joan O; Ventura, Marc; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi; Nickus, Ulrike; Thies, Hansjörg; Psenner, Roland

    2002-06-15

    Bulk deposition samples were taken near three mountain lakes located in the Pyrenees (Estany Redó), Alps (Gossenköllesee), and Caledonian Mountains (Ovre Neådalsvatn) for evaluation of the atmospheric deposition load of organochlorine compounds (OC), namely, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and endosulfans, in the remote European high mountain areas. The compounds of present use in agriculture, namely, endosulfans and gamma-HCH, exhibit large differences in mean deposition fluxes between the three sites. They occur in large amounts in Estany Redó (340 and 430 ng m(-2) month(-1) for endosulfans and gamma-HCH, respectively), reflecting the impact of agricultural activities in southern Europe. This lake showed also the highest proportion of the more labile endosulfan isomers (alpha and beta = 82%) whereas only the most recalcitrant species, endosulfan sulfate, was found in Ovre Neådalsvatn. In contrast, the OC whose use is now banned exhibit a more uniform geographic distribution with deposition fluxes of 31-40, 30-100, and 1.4-15 ng m(-2) month(-1) for alpha-HCH, PCBs, and HCB. Both compounds of present and past use exhibit a clear seasonal pattern, with higher deposition in the warm periods, which is consistent with enhanced volatilization at higher temperatures. In the case of the agricultural pesticides it may also reflect higher use during application periods. The OC distributions in the atmospheric deposition of the three sites are rather uniform and highly enriched in compounds with volatilities larger than 0.0032 Pa. However, more than 90% of these compounds are not retained in the lake waters or sediments. Comparison of OC composition in atmospheric and sedimentary deposition evidences a selective trapping of the less volatile compounds. Trapping efficiencies increase at decreasing air temperatures of the lacustrine systems.

  13. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments of Hong Kong Victoria Harbour and Xiamen Western Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Luo-Ping; Xu, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    1998-03-01

    Samples of surface sediment were collected from Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong (Aug. 1992), and Xiamen Western Bay (Nov. 1993), and analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCHs, DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the survey area of Victoria Harbour were from undetectable to 9.4 μg/kg, 1.38 97 μg/kg and 3.2 81 μg/kg, respectively; those for Xiamen Western Bay were 0.14 1.12 μg/kg, 4.45 311 μg/kg and 0.05 7.24 μg/kg, respectively. The determined residue levels and distribution patterns of these organochlorines are discussed, and the Harbour and Bay contamination levels are compared. Two sediment cores were collected (Oct. 1994) from Xiamen Western Bay for study on the vertical profiles and pollution history of the above contaminants. The vertical profile characteristics indicated that the inner part of Xiamen Western Bay was once polluted by PCBs moderately and that there are still new inputs of DDT.

  14. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem.

  15. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic compounds of different molecular size and water solubility in surficial sediment of an intertidal sandflat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcock, R.J.; Northcott, G.L.; Corban, G.A.; Wilkins, A.L.; Langdon, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The persistence of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two- to six-ring compounds, in an intertidal sandflat was studied by applying uniform amounts (0.10 g) of each to the surface of the sandflat and then monitoring concentrations over time. The mass of total PAH, after initial losses, declined slowly, so that after 256 d 12% of the applied material remained. Vertical concentration profiles indicated that little downward movement occurred and that most of the mass was concentrated in the top 2 cm, where most losses also occurred. The study has shown that anthropogenic PAHs have persistences comparable with organochlorine pesticides in aerobic sediments of intertidal sandflats. Rank correlations showed that the order of persistence may be predicted on the basis of molecular size parameters, such as molecular weight, molecular volume, and area. Persistence of PAHs in intertidal sandflats appears to be regulated by simple, physical processes.

  16. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  17. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from

  18. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer.

  19. Organochlorine Compounds and Ultrasound Measurements of Fetal Growth in the INMA Cohort (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vizcaino, Esther; Costa, Olga; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; Guxens, Mònica; Gascon, Mireia; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective We examined the relationship between prenatal OC concentrations and fetal anthropometry. Methods We measured 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (138, 153, and 180) in 2,369 maternal and 1,140 cord serum samples in four Spanish cohorts (2003–2008). We used linear mixed models to obtain longitudinal growth curves for estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and femur length (FL) adjusted by parental and fetal characteristics. We calculated standard deviation (SD) scores of growth at 0–12, 12–20, and 20–34 weeks of gestation as well as size at gestational week 34 for the four parameters. We studied the association between OCs and the fetal outcomes by cohort-specific linear models and subsequent meta-analyses. Results PCBs were associated with a reduction in AC up to mid-pregnancy, and BPD and FL from gestational week 20 onward. An inverse association was also found between HCB and AC growth in early pregnancy. The reduction of these parameters ranged from –4% to –2% for a doubling in the OC concentrations. No association between 4,4´-DDE and fetal growth was observed. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between prenatal exposure to some PCBs and HCB and fetal growth: AC during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, and BPD and FL later in pregnancy. Citation Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Murcia M, Iñiguez C, Vizcaino E, Costa O, Fernández-Somoano A, Basterrechea M, Lertxundi A, Guxens M, Gascon M, Goñi-Irigoyen F, Grimalt JO, Tardón A, Ballester F. 2016. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort

  20. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  1. Temperature dependence of the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the mosses of the Andean mountains.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Joan O; Borghini, Francesca; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Barra, Ricardo; García, Carlos J Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2004-10-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OC), namely pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and DDTs, have been studied in mosses distributed over three altitude gradients of the Andean mountains in Chile at 18 degrees S (3200-4500 m above sea level), 37 degrees S (345-1330 m), and 45 degrees S (10-700 m). The observed concentrations range among the lowestvalues ever reported in remote sites, but they are still higher than those found in previously studied Antarctic areas. The log transformed OC concentrations show a significant linear dependence from reciprocal of temperature independently of the origin of the compounds, e.g. industrial, agricultural, or mixed. In the case of the more volatile OC these correlations involve variance percentages higher than 50%. This good agreement gives further ground to temperature as the driving factor for the retention of long-range transported OC in remote ecosystems, including those in the southern hemisphere such as the Andean mountains. In the context of the samples selected for study, the temperature dependences in the areas of similar latitude are related to altitude. Thus, all OC in the highest altitude gradient (18 degrees S) and most compounds in the other two profiles (37 degrees S and 45 degrees S) exhibit higher concentrations with decreasing annual average temperature and thus increase with elevation above sea level. However, theoretical examination of the exponential equation relating OC concentrations to reciprocal of absolute temperatures shows that besides the temperature differences between highest and lowest elevation, the most relevant factor determining the OC concentration gradients is the lowest temperature value of each altitudinal series. That is, the point at highest elevation.

  2. Semivolatile organochlorine compounds in the free troposphere of the Northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Van Drooge, Barend L; Grimalt, Joan O; Torres, García Carlos J; Cuevas, Emilio

    2002-03-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and DOTs were analyzed over 1 entire year period in the air of a high altitude remote site (2367 m above sea level) located in Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, 28 degrees N16 degrees W) in the Eastern North Atlantic region. Twenty samples were collected providing information on the concentrations of these semivolatile organochlorine compounds (SOCs) in the free troposphere since the stable and persistenttemperature inversion in the subtropics defines a clear separation from the marine boundary layer. More than 80% of total SOCs were in the gas phase. HCB was the individual SOC in higher concentration, 51 pg m(-3), well above than the other SOCs identified, 1-11 pg m(-3). Sum PCB concentrations were 78 pg m(-3). These concentrations range among the lowest described in atmospheric samples. The collected air originated from four main sectors, high and middle latitudes in the north Atlantic, Europe, and Africa, as determined from isentropic backward air mass trajectories. No significant differences were observed for the concentrations of these compounds between air masses showing a high uniform SOC composition of the free troposphere. Only the more volatile PCB congeners, #18 and #28, exhibited significant differences between air masses from northern and southern latitudes. A seasonal temperature dependence for the less volatile PCB congeners, five or more chlorine subtituents, was also observed. Free tropospheric concentrations of all SOCs except HCB were lower than those measured near sea level for reference. PCB concentrations at the two altitudes exhibited consistent differences according to degree of chlorination. The stronger decrease of the more volatile compounds with altitude might reflect higher photodegradation.

  3. Land use, organochlorine compound concentrations, and trends in benthic-invertebrate communities in selected stream basins in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, Mark A.; Wetzel, Kim L.; Moore, Craig R.

    1995-01-01

    Land use was analyzed for the drainage areas of 26 stream sites in Chester County, Pa., that cover a total area of 227 square miles or about 30 percent of the country. The most significant land-use changes during 1967-87 were decreased agricultural land use, increased residential land use, and increased commercial and industrial land use. Bulk samples of stream-bottom materials were collected at 42 sites in the study area from October 1985 through November 1987 and analyzed for content of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). Organochlorine compounds and (or) PCB's were detected in streambed materials collected at 40 of the 42 sites sampled. The most enriched compounds (greater than 15 micrograms per kilogram) were PCB's, chlordane, and DDT plus its breakdown products. Data suggest that chlordane residues are closely associated with residential land use. PCB residues are closely associated with industrial and commercial land use. Cores of labeled sediments from the site of Icedale Lake, a drained reservoir on the West Branch Brandywine Creek, indicate that DDT was the first organochlorine pesticide to enter the Brandywine Creek; concentrations peaked in the late 1940's and early 1950's. As DDT influx subsequently decreased, influxes of chlordane and dieldrin increased and peaked in the mind-1960's, before the Chester County biological monitoring program. Influx of all pesticides appears to have decreased significantly since the 1960's. Contingency analyses showed that the relation between the Kendall slope estimator for trend and the increases in residential land use of 12 percent or greater were significant at the 95-percent confidence level. The contingency tables also showed that the relation between diversity indices of less than 2.25 and organochlorine-compound concentrations greater than 45 micrograms per kilogram was significant at the 95-percent confidence level.

  4. Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  5. Organochlorine turnover in forest ecosystems: The missing link in the terrestrial chlorine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  6. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  7. Detection of organochlorine compounds formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite with dentin and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Varise, Tiago Gilioli; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2014-01-01

    This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the products formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine pulp and dentin. For analysis of the products formed in the volatile phase, 11 mg of bovine pulp tissue were placed in contact with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl until complete tissue dissolution occurred. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane and immediately injected into the GC-MS system. 30 mg of the of dentin were kept in contact with NaOCl, and then the SPME fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane for adsorption of the products and injected into the GC-MS system. The same protocol was used for the aqueous phase. For analysis of the volatile compounds, the final solution was extracted using pure ethyl ether. The suspended particulate phase of the mixture was aspirated, and ether was separated from the aqueous phase of the solution. The ether containing the products that resulted from the chemical interaction of dentin and pulp with the NaOCl was filtered and then injected into the GC-MS system for analysis of the aqueous phase. The aqueous and volatile phases of both dentin and pulp showed the formation of chloroform, hexachloroethane, dichloromethylbenzene and benzaldehyde. In conclusion, organochlorine compounds are generated during the contact of dentin and pulp with NaOCl at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25%.

  8. Effects of additives on the formation of organochlorine compounds during the combustion of a chlorine-containing polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Banaee, J.; Larson, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The general focus of this study has been to establish the temperature conditions under which organochlorine compounds were most and least efficiently formed from combustion of a commercial polymerized vinyl resin, (CH[sub 2] [double bond] CCl[sub 2]), namely Saran[reg sign], and how the yields of these compounds were affected by changes in physical and chemical conditions of combustion. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures, ranging from 400 to 700 C. Important chlorinated compounds produced were benzenes, styrenes, naphthalenes, and biphenyls. The highest distribution of the chlorinated compounds was between 400 to 600 C; however the optimum temperature at which the compounds formed the most efficiently was at 500 C (with the exception of the chlorinated benzenes). The second set of experiments were undertaken to investigate the effects of various additives. Among the additives used (K[sub 2]CO[sub 3], KOH, and CaO), addition of KOH in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (based on chlorine) diminished the total amount of organochlorine compounds by 51%.

  9. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors analyzed streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls ({Sigma}PCB). The objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. The authors detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was {Sigma}DDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and {Sigma}chlordane. Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, {Sigma}DDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although {Sigma}DDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, the study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  10. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  11. Using passive air samplers to assess urban-rural trends for persistent organic pollutants. 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Diamond, Miriam; Stern, Gary; Rosenberg, Bruno

    2004-09-01

    Passive air samplers were used to investigate urban-rural differences of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over an integrated time period. Samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were housed in protective chambers and deployed at six sites for a 4 month duration in the summer of 2000. The sampling transect originated in downtown Toronto and extended approximately 75 km northward into a rural region. Results for the two types of samplers agreed well with one another. Higher blank levels were encountered for the SPMDs, especially for the OCPs, whereas blanks were very low for the PUF disks. Passive sampler-derived air concentrations were consistent with previous measurements of PCBs and OCPs in the region. The largest urban-rural gradient was observed for PCBs (approximately 5-10 times). Chlordanes also showed an urban-rural gradient, possibly reflecting past usage of chlordane on residential lawns and emissions from treated house foundations. Other OCPs exhibited a rural-urban gradient (dieldrin, endosulfan 1, and DDT isomers), which was attributed either to off-gassing from previously treated agricultural soils (dieldrin and DDTs) or to continued usage in agriculture (endosulfan 1). The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of using such devices to determine air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and to assess their spatial distribution for time-integrated samples. Data such as this is essential for: model validation and for process research and addressing international monitoring strategies on POPs.

  12. Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

  13. Mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in a lactating cow

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-03-01

    A contaminant mass balance was conducted of a lactating cow in its natural state. PCBs, HDHs, DDE, DDT, HCB, and several other chlorinated substances were investigated. It was found that virtually all of the cow's exposure was through feed. The contaminant absorption in the cow and hence the carry-over rate of persistent compounds was found to be a function of K[sub ow], with approximately constant values up to a log K[sub ow] of 6.5 and thereafter rapidly decreasing absorption with increasing lipophilicity of the contaminant. The key to PCB persistence in the cow was the 4,4[prime] substitution pattern. The 2,3,5 substitution was a less effective hindrance for PCB metabolism. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Spatial budgetary evaluation of organochlorine contaminants in the sediments of Cochin Estuary, India.

    PubMed

    Akhil, P S; Sujatha, C H

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the first detailed investigation on the residual levels of organochlorine insecticide (OCI) concentrations in the Cochin estuarine sediment. It aims in elucidate their distribution and ecological impact on the aquatic system. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compound (OC) were determined for 17 surface sediment samples which were collected from specific sites of Cochin Estuarine System (CES) over a period of November 2009 and November 2011. The contaminant levels in the CES were compared with other worldwide ecosystems. The sites bearing high concentration of organochlorine compounds are well associated with the complexities and low energy environment. Evaluation of ecotoxicological factors suggests that adverse biological effects are expected in certain areas of CES.

  15. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P F; O'Hara, T M; Fisk, A T; Borgå, K; Solomon, K R; Muir, D C G

    2003-01-01

    Stable isotope values (13C, 15N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. -HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. -HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is attributed to differences in regional sources of contamination rather than trophic position.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and ancillary data for the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements were assayed in fish tissue collected from the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 1992-94. These data were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the study unit. Ancillary data included are land-use categories by percentage of the sampling-site basins and the size, gender, and age of the individual fish collected for this study. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine compounds in composited whole fish samples were measured at 32 sites, and concentrations of 22 trace elements in composited fish liver samples were measured at 14 of the 32 sites. Most frequently detected organochlorines were DDT related compounds at 31 sites, total PCBs at 28 sites, and chlordane related compounds at 25 sites. Concentrations of total PCBs in fish tissue were generally higher at the large river sites than at the smaller tributary sites. Concentrations of chlordane-related compounds in fish tissue were higher at sites from more urbanized basins than at sites from predominately agriculture and forested basins. Concentrations of the DDT related compounds were undifferentiated among sites comprising different land uses. Trace elements detected at all 14 sites included boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. Trace elements detected at 10 or more sites included arsenic, mercury, silver, strontium, and vanadium. Antimony, beryllium, and uranium were not detected at any site.

  18. Engineering bacteria for bioremediation of persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Strategies were designed for bioremediation of the highly persistent toxic pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) or lindane from the environment. Lindane caused the loss of stress-protective chaperone GroEL, and inhibited photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen-fixation in Anabaena, resulting in growth arrest. To alleviate lindane toxicity, the linA2 gene, encoding HCH dehydrochlorinase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90, was knocked-in at an innocuous locus in Anabaena genome and over-expressed from an eco-friendly light-inducible PpsbA1 promoter. The recombinant Anabaena degraded >98% of 10 ppm lindane within 6-10 days. A LinA2 overexpressing Escherichia coli strain could degrade 10 ppm of all the isomers of lindane within 1h and displayed a visual degradation zone on a newly designed histochemical plate containing 50mg lindane within 12h. The study demonstrates (a) bioremediation of traces of lindane prevalent in paddy fields, using bioengineered photoautotrophic Anabaena, and, (b) biodegradation of huge stockpiles of lindane, by employing recombinant live/dead E. coli.

  19. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    PubMed

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  20. Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

  1. The neurotoxicity of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine and pyrethroid compounds represent an old and a new class, respectively, of insecticides. Organochlorines such as DDT, dieldrin, or chlordecone, have been banned, primarily because of environmental issues. DDT is still used in certain countries to fight malaria-bearing mosquitoes, while lindane still finds some limited used against head lice. In contrast, pyrethroids find widespread use because of their efficacy, low environmental persistence, and relatively low mammalian toxicity. Like all insecticides, organochlorines and pyrethroids target the nervous system of insects and of nontarget species. All pyrethroids and DDT interact with the sodium channel; by keeping it open longer, they increase the likelihood of action potentials developing, thus creating a condition of hyperexcitability, whose main clinical sign is tremors. Most other organochlorines (except chlordecone), as well as certain (type II) pyrethroids, block the chloride channels of the GABA-A receptor, and cause seizures. Evidence of an association between exposure to organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease) is weak, at best.

  2. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  3. Monitoring of evaporating organochlorine compounds from compost and soil using semipermeable membrane device (SPMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergqvist, P.A.; Strandberg, B.; Wagman, N.; Rappe, C.

    1995-12-31

    The organisms are exposed for contaminants in soil via skin uptake, gut uptake or inhalation. The compounds evaporating from the soil surface is easily sequestered with a SPMD deployed above the surface, In this case a 90 cm long 1 inch layflat polyethylene tubing filled with 1 mL triolein situated 15 cm above the ground were used. The SPMD were placed inside a semi-enclosed container with a bottom hole of 660 CM{sup 2} and a container volume of 13 dM{sup 3}. The final sample, were taken 28 days after deployment on the soil surface and the content of persistent compounds in the SPMD lipid (triolein) were used for the analysis using HRGC/LRMS. A limited clean up were required before analysis e.g. dialysis and HRGPC. Before GPC, labelled internal standards and before sample injection, labelled recovery standards were added. Several PCBs and other persistent OCs including DDTS, chlordane`s, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlorobenzenes and dieldrin were monitored in this study. Since the air sampling rate of SPMD is approx. 10 m{sup 3} air per day essentially all air in the enclosure were continuously sampled during the 28 day sampling period. The sequestering of compounds in the SPMD will be compared with soil/compost concentrations for natural and spiked household compost matrices. Soil/compost extraction were performed with toluene in a Soxhlet apparatus followed by an extensive clean up. For surface soil monitoring, the study design including SPM D suggest to be an efficient and simple sampling and analysis methodology but still precise utilizing GC/MS as detector instrument.

  4. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  5. Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, N; Niimi, S; Watanabe, M; Ito, Y; Takahashi, S; Tanabe, S; Khuraskin, L S; Miyazaki, N

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 microg/g on a lipid-weight basis. Caspian seals collected in 2000 during the epizootic had higher concentrations of organochlorines than healthy individuals sampled in 1998. However, the blubber layer was generally thinner in the seals collected in 2000 than those in the previous surveys. Although compositions of organochlorine pesticides in seals suggested that the contamination status in the Caspian Sea is improving, the levels found in Caspian seals in 2000 were comparable to those in other marine mammals that have suffered from epizootics. This implies that the present status of contamination found in Caspian seals poses a risk of immunosuppression. Concentrations of butyltin compounds in livers of seals ranged from 0.49 to 17 ng/g on a wet-weight basis and octyltin compounds were below limit of detection in all the samples analyzed, suggesting less contamination by organotin compounds in the Caspian Sea.

  6. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  7. [Occurrence of residues of organochlorine pesticides, nitromusk compounds and polychlorobiphenyls in Turkish canned fish products].

    PubMed

    Ozden, O; Kruse, R; Erkan, N

    2001-04-01

    In our study we elaborated an overview on the contamination grade of fish from Turkish waters by selected organochlorine pesticides, nitromusks and chlorobiphenyl congenres. We could demonstrate, that the tested fish species, being prior processed to canned products and brought to the market, contained particularly unmistakable amounts of the above mentioned analytes. Sardines, sardelles and trout gave results generally far below the German regulatory limits. However total DDT in pelamides reached an order of magnitude near the German limit of 0.5 mg/kg (based on wet weight). The necessity of enhanced systematic measurements for monitoring pollutants in fish from Turkish waters thus becomes evident.

  8. Organochlorine compounds in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, and Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from seven sites in the Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, Southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Barbara; Liebezeit, Gerd

    2009-12-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected at seven locations in the Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea in January and February 2007 were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Contaminants were present in all samples, albeit with variable amounts and composition. The highest values were found in the Jade Bay. Congener PCB 153 was the contaminant which had the highest content of all organochlorines tested (475.75-937.39 ng/g lipid). DDT was detected in one sample only while DDD and DDE were found in all samples, the latter with contents up to 351.34 ng/g lipid. No clear differentiation could be made in terms of accumulation of organochlorines for M. edulis and C. gigas. Comparison with data from 2001 to 2006 showed an increase in 2007, which may be due to the different season the samples were taken.

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  11. Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, B.G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

  12. Persistent halogenated compounds in two typical marine aquaculture zones of South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Bao, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-01-01

    Samples of two seawater farmed fish (crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythopterus) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii)), water, air, sediment, fish feed, macroalgae and phytoplankton were collected from two estuarine bays (Daya Bay and Hailing Bay) in South China. The concentrations of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) varied widely with the different sample matrices under investigation. The compositional patterns in fish, fish feed, macroalgae and phytoplankton, as well as the good correlations between the abundances of p,p'-DDT and BDE-209 and their metabolites (i.e., p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE for p,p'-DDT and BDE-47 for BDE-209) in fish indicated the occurrence of DDT and PBDE biotransformation in fish body. Finally, the marine aquaculture environment in South China is somewhat biologically impaired by DDT-contaminated water, sediment and fish feed, and there may be some cancer risk associated with fish consumption for humans, especially for urban residents.

  13. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in whole body soft tissue homogenates and in muscles of resident and migratory birds collected from Lake Baikal, Russia. The residue pattern in both resident and migratory birds was in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > CHLs. OC concentrations in migratory birds varied, depending on the feeding habit. The maximum levels of OCs were found in piscivores, followed by insectivores, omnivores, and herbivores. OC residue levels in Lake Baikal birds were lower than those in the Great Lakes region as well as in other lakes in Europe and Japan. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in most of the migratory birds collected in the spring were higher than for those collected in the autumn, indicating a notable accumulation in wintering grounds. Compilation and analysis of the available data in fish and birds from Asia suggested that the tropical and subtropical regions in south Asian countries may be a source of pollution for the wintering accumulation of migratory birds from Lake Baikal. Relatively higher compositions of alpha- and gamma-HCH in total HCHs, p,p'-DDT in total DOTs were observed in some migratory species, indicating recent exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Lake Baikal or wintering areas. PCB isomer patterns were different between residents and migrants, with the predominance of lower chlorinated congeners in migratory species, suggesting recent PCB accumulation in stopover sites during wintering. TEQ concentrations of toxic non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in common terns from Lake Baikal were comparable to those reported in some species from Japan, the United States, and Europe. Relative contributions of non-ortho coplanar congeners to toxic equivalents (TEQs) were predominant, in which CB-126 accounted for the highest toxicity contribution. Estimated TEQ

  14. Blood persistent organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women in relation to physical and environmental variables in The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ayako; Miyasita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Washino, Noriaki; Sasaki, Seiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Mizutani, Futoshi; Chisaki, Youichi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the exposure levels of pregnant women in Hokkaido to persistent organochlorine (POC) pesticides and the relationship between the body burdens of these pesticides and the study population's characteristics, such as age, pre-pregnancy body weight and calendar year in which blood was collected. From 2002 to 2005, whole blood samples were obtained from 186 pregnant women (aged 17 to 47 years) from the population of 514 women registered with the Sapporo Toho hospital cohort of the Hokkaido Study. Blood samples were analyzed by GC/NCIMS and GC/HRMS to quantify 29 POC pesticides. The subjects' demographic details were obtained from medical records and self-administered questionnaires. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to determine relevant trends in the chemical concentrations of these pesticides and their relationship to the subjects' demographic details. Twenty-one of the 29 targeted compounds (including pesticides that have never been used in Japan, such as Mirex, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50) were detected in whole blood samples, and their log-transformed concentrations were found to significantly correlate with each other. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50 declined from 2002 to 2005 (p<0.05). The pesticide concentrations appeared to have stronger associations with past conception than with parity, with most pesticide concentrations declining in a manner that appeared inversely related to past conceptions (p<0.05). Maternal age was positively associated with the following pesticide concentrations: p,p'-DDE, chlordanes group, cis-heptachlorepoxide, β-HCH and mirex. Maternal pre-pregnancy body weight was positively associated with the concentrations of dieldrin, HCB, β-HCH, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50, and appeared to be more strongly related to the body burdens of POC pesticides when compared with BMI associations. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of POC pesticides on human

  15. Air concentrations of organochlorine compounds related to wind direction and compared with biota concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Egebaeck, A.L.; Wideqvist, U.; Asplund, L.; Strandell, M.; Alsberg, T.; Litzen, K.; Eriksson, U.; Haeggberg, L.; Zakrisson, S.; Oisson, M.; Bignert, A.

    1995-12-31

    Persistent organic compounds are long-range transported by air. Air samples were collected at two background meteorological stations, one southern at Gotland in the central Baltic and one northern, close to the polar circle. The collection was a part of the Swedish Dioxin Survey Project. Air sampling was carried out from fall 1990 to spring 1991 using a high-volume sampler. Air trajectories suggesting stable weather conditions decided which samples to be analyzed for e.g. PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), chloroparaffines, HCHs and Toxaphene. The gas-phase concentrations of the seven PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 were in the low pg/m{sup 3} range, while the concentration of the nonortho PCB 77 was about two orders of magnitude lower. High concentrations were usually correlated with SW winds and low concentrations with N to NW winds. Air masses coming from N to both sampling sites, resulted in nearly equal concentrations of the seven PCB congeners. PCNs were found in the gas phase of all samples at the pg/m{sup 3} level (total PCNs). The relative concentrations of the various contaminants were compared between air and four biological matrices collected in the vicinity of the air sampling locations. Cod, Herring and Herring feeding Guillemot from the Baltic and Pike from the northern sampling site were all collected within the Swedish National Monitoring Program.

  16. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects

  17. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzeds streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for or ganochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB). Our objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. We detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was ΣDDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and Σchlordane (sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor oxychlordane, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide). Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, ΣDDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although ΣDDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, our study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  18. Development of a high-throughput method for the determination of organochlorinated compounds, nitromusks and pyrethroid insecticides in indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-12-07

    Investigation of chemical exposure inside the homes and offices where people spend the majority of their lives has only recently begun. These chemicals are degraded much more slowly than outdoor because they are more protected from sunlight, severe environmental conditions and microbial activity. Hence, indoor dust has been recognized as an important exposure pathway for organic contaminants. Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in domestic environment for numerous applications and also in agriculture. Chlorobenzenes are a family of compounds used as intermediates in the production of a wide range of household consumer products. Nitromusks are a kind of synthetic musks used in the production of cleaning agents, detergents, and personal care products. A high-throughput method for the determination of these compounds in indoor dust samples has been developed. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction was used as the extraction technique whereas quantification of compounds was carried out by gas chromatography with micro-electron-capture detection. Several cleanup procedures were tested and finally a non-classical "on batch" procedure was selected, which allows increasing the throughput of the analysis while decreasing sample manipulation. Extraction conditions were optimized using a multifactorial experimental design approach. Quantitative recovery (84-103%) was achieved for all compounds and method precision was satisfactory. Limits of detection ranged from 0.22 ng g(-1) for lindane to 40 ng g(-1) for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Standard reference material SRM 2585 was analyzed and the obtained values were in good agreement with the reported reference values for organochlorinated compounds and nitromusks. Pyrethroids and polychlorobenzenes have been analyzed for the first time in this reference material and some of them have been found. In addition, real samples collected in houses of north-western Spain have been analyzed by the proposed method and 17 of the 22

  19. First compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis of environmentally-bioaccumulated organochlorines indicates a degradation-relatable kinetic isotope effect for DDT.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Henry; Mandalakis, Manolis; Zencak, Zdenek; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2007-11-01

    Compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) in blubber from Baltic Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was performed in order to investigate if a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) could be observed concomitant to environmental degradation of DDT. The delta(37)Cl of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were -0.69 +/- 0.21 per thousand and -2.98 +/- 0.57 per thousand (1s igma, n = 3), respectively. Both samples were enriched relative to the hypothesized initial isotope composition (-4.34 per thousand), thus indicating a composite KIE associated with the degradation mechanisms pertaining to DDT. An isotope fractionation factor for degradation of dichloromethane, from the literature, was adapted and modified for use in the calculation of DDT degradation. A subsequent simplified Rayleigh distillation model of the DDT chlorine-isotope composition yielded an estimated fraction (f) of 7 +/- 2% of released DDT presently remaining as undegraded compound in the environment. The consistency between the result of the Rayleigh model (f approximately 7%) and the use of the DDT/(DDT + DDE) ratio as a measure of DDT degradation ( approximately 10% undegraded DDT) suggests that the KIE of DDT degradation may be significant, and that the novel approach of CSIA-Cl may be a valuable tool for degradation/persistence studies of lipophilic organochlorines in the environment.

  20. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. ); Bruneau, S. ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2006-07-01

    Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in marine sediment was developed and optimized by means of two-level factorial designs. Six variables (microwave power, extraction time and temperature, amount of sample, solvent volume, and sample moisture) were considered as factors in the optimization process. The results show that the amount of sample to be extracted and solvent volume are statistically significant for the overall recovery of the studied pesticides, although compromise conditions have to be established with the object of avoiding overpressure in closed vessels. After extraction, a clean up step including the use of a silica cartridge was performed prior to chromatographic determination in order to remove interferences. The optimized procedure was compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction. The MS-MS ion preparation mode was applied to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the chromatographic technique.

  2. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  3. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment.

  4. Poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) as novel stationary phase for stir bar sorptive extraction of organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Wang, Yanjuan; Xu, Feng; Guan, Yafeng

    2008-01-04

    A novel poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) film prepared by immersion precipitation technique was coated on stir bars for sorptive extraction. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the coating has a denser porous surface (about 1 microm in thickness) with a sponge-like sublayer, and the thickness of the coating was 250 microm. The PPESK coated stir bar has high thermostability (290 degrees C) and long lifetime (50 times). The extraction properties of this stir bar were evaluated for the extraction of both polar and semi-polar analytes, including organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides. The PPESK stir bar was proved to show higher affinity towards polar compounds than that of PDMS coated stir bar and higher sample load compared with corresponding PPESK fiber. It was applied to the determination of organochlorine compounds in seawater samples and organophosphorus pesticides in juices by gas chromatographic analysis. The effect of sample matrix was evaluated at optimized condition of extraction temperature, extraction time and salt concentration. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.05-2.53 ng L(-1) for organochlorine compounds in seawater samples using electron capture detector (ECD), with precisions of less than 11% RSD. Limits of detection for organophosphorus pesticides were in the range of 0.17-2.25 ng L(-1) and 2.47-10.3 ng L(-1) in grape and peach juice, respectively, using thermionic specified detector (TSD), with precisions of less than 12% RSD and 20% RSD, respectively.

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  6. Analysis of organochlorine compounds and extractable organic halogen in three subspecies of ringed seal from northeast Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kostamo, A.; Medvedev, N.; Pellinen, J.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2000-04-01

    Organochlorine compounds in blubber samples of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis, P. H. ladogensis, and P. h. hispida) were analyzed in order to estimate the state of pollution in three different water areas in Northeast Europe, namely, Lake Saimaa in Finland, Lake Lodoga, and the White Sea in Russia. Geographic differences in concentrations and in relative concentrations of tri- and tetrachlorocymenes, hexachlorobenzene, {alpha}-HCH, {beta}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH (Lindane), seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and p,p{prime}-DDT and its metabolites in ringed seals were compared. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons varied between the water areas. The highest concentrations were found in Saimaa ringed seals, followed by Lodaga ringed seals, and the lowest concentrations were detected in ringed seals from the White Sea. Extractable organic halogen (EOX) concentrations in blubber were also analyzed. The concentrations showed a geographic trend similar to those for the individual compounds identified. In Lakes Ladoga and Saimaa, the concentrations of EOX and chlorinated hydrocarbons in the blubber were dependent on the age and sex of the seals, but no such relationship was observed in samples from the White Sea.

  7. Are Biometric Parameters Helpful to Assess the Health Risk of Consuming Organochlorine Compounds Contaminated Silver European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)?

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria C; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Meli, Rosaria; Clausi, Maria T

    2016-04-01

    Several organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in European eels from the Tevere river (Italy). It followed that some of them are still important chemical contaminants. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are hazardous for the consumer health; those of the 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often close to the current European maximum residue limit and always higher than the former limit. The relationship between OC concentrations, biometric parameters and the lipid content was then investigated. A strong positive correlation with eel size emerged for the indicator PCBs and DDTs concentrations expressed on wet weight basis. This is explained by the corresponding higher lipid percentage that characterizes bigger eels and the absence of a dilution effect for compounds of main concerns. On the basis of the PCB-TDI threshold for a 70 kg person, we suggest that 1 should consume no more than 2 eels per week each weighing about 100 g. Thus, we conclude that eel consumption should be limited and restricted to eels relatively shorter and lighter.

  8. Detection limits of organochlorine pesticides and related compounds in blood serum

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, M.S.; Rivera, M.; Baker, D.B. )

    1991-10-01

    Determinations of organochlorine pesticides and similar chemical residues in blood serum have often reported detection limits of 1 ng/mL. When a study group has incurred body burdens lower than this, underestimates and misclassifications of exposure may occur because persons with pesticide residue concentration below the limit of detection are usually treated as zeros.' Thus in order to more accurately assess exposures in such populations, analysis of adipose tissue has been done. Recently, with TCDD, use of a sufficient volume of serum, as much as 0.5 L, in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques has been shown to achieve detection limits necessary for epidemiological assessments, i.e., comparable to analysis of adipose tissue. In a population-based study involving children in which the authors were involved, it was not feasible to obtain specimens of either adipose or a large volume of serum. There was no compelling health motivation for such measures, nor did they wish to impair participation rates. Therefore, they chose to optimize the existing serum analysis, in order to achieve a detection limit low enough to assess reasonably the anticipated exposures.

  9. Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Fayzieva, Dilorom; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  12. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.

  13. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  14. Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brendan; Law, Robin J; Allchin, Colin R; Rogan, Emer; Murphy, Sinead; Foley, M Barry; Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin

    2007-11-01

    Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters.

  15. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-07-01

    Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations.

  16. Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow

  17. Organochlorine residues in bird species collected dead in Ontario 1972-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Organochlorine residues have been reported in many species of birds found dead or shot around the Great Lakes Basin. Raptors and fish-eating birds have had very high residues in the past while terrestrial seed- and insect-eaters have had relatively low residues. Most of the organochlorine insecticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin and heptachlor have been removed from field use, and controls have been placed on the dispersal of organochlorine industrial chemicals like mirex and PCB. These substances are very persistent. The major sources of contamination now are environmental residues picked up by birds in their normal feeding. These compounds bioaccumulate in bird species, and the highest residues accumulate at the top of the food chain. This paper is a compilation of data obtained from dead birds collected in the Great Lakes Basin over the last 16 years and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants.

  18. Accumulation of background levels of persistent organochlorine and organobromine pollutants through the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Frouke; Covaci, Adrian; D'Havé, Helga; Van den Brink, Nico W; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and DDT and metabolites, was investigated in the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain. Concentrations of selected POPs were measured in soil and earthworms collected in grassland and open woodland and in hair and blood of hedgehogs foraging in two parks containing these habitats. Despite background concentrations in soil (ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 ng/g for DDTs, 2.3 to 6.5 ng/g for PCBs and 0.08 to 0.20 ng/g for PBDEs), biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) indicated that earthworms accumulated POPs (0.48-1.70 for DDTs, 1.09-2.76 for PCBs and 1.99-5.67 for PBDEs) and that animals feeding on earthworms are potentially exposed to higher concentrations of pollutants. BSAFs decreased with increasing soil concentrations for the three groups of compounds, suggesting that steady-state equilibrium was not reached in soil or earthworms. Positive, but low, log-linear relationships were found for DDT (r(2)=0.23, p<0.05 for Brasschaat and r(2)=0.63, p<0.01 for Hoboken) and PCB (r(2)=0.13, p<0.05 for both parks) concentrations between soil and earthworms. In order to relate earthworm to hedgehog POP concentrations, the foraging behavior of each individual was taken into account. The use of hair as a potential biomonitoring tissue in exposure and risk assessment of POPs was evaluated by examining the relationship between PCB and p,p'-DDE levels in hedgehogs' hair and blood. Contaminant profiles were used to gain insight into biotransformation of the studied compounds in each step of the investigated food chain and in the blood of hedgehogs, as well as the consequences thereof for their incorporation in hair. The absence of a discernable relationship between POP concentrations in earthworms and hair is possible due to variation in individual foraging behavior and POP uptake. Our results suggest that POPs in tissues should be measured from an

  19. Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.; Kiaer, H.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Olsen, J.; Clausen, J.

    1984-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE)) are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship between levels of PCB and DDT (i.e., DDT + DDE) in breast fat tissue and the occurrence of mammary cancer. To elucidate this theory, the organochlorine levels of 14 breast fat tissue samples from breast cancer patients and similar samples from 18 decreased mammary cancer patient were compared to that of 21 similar samples from noncancer patients and finally to adipose tissue samples from 35 non-cancer autopsy specimens. No significant differences were traced. Thus it seems that the accumulation of PCB and DDT measured in breast fat tissue do not relate to the occurrence of mammary cancer.

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in whole fish tissue from streams of the lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Campbell, Harry L.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue samples of whole body white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were collected at 15 sites and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected at 5 sites during 1992 in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of 28 selected organochlorine compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Only 12 of the 28 compounds occurred at concentrations greater than the 5 mg/kg reporting limit (total PCB?s reporting limit is 50 percent) sites than in forest-dominated (>50 percent) sites with the exception of Deer Creek and Big Beaver Creek. These two sites are located more in grazing areas that lack a substantial crop-land use. Concentrations of total PCB?s were highest in basins with greater than 10 percent urban land use excluding the larger river sites. Concentrations of total chlordane were highest at sites with greater than 70 percent agricultural and 10 percent urban land use. Regional comparisons of total DDT, total PCB?s, and total chlordane in white sucker tissue from the Lower Susquehanna, Hudson (in New York), and Connecticut River Basins showed that median concentrations of total DDT were different (p=0.05), with the Lower Susquehanna Basin being the lowest. Total PCB?s and total chlordane medians were similar. Comparison of the data from national and regional studies with data from this local study showed concentrations of p,p?-DDE in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin are similar to those nationwide and lower than the concentrations measured in the Northeast. PCB concentrations in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and the Northeast were higher than those nationwide.

  1. Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources

  3. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific

  4. Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.W.; Alexander, M.

    1997-03-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) assimilated decreasing amounts of atrazine, phenanthrene, and naphthalene that had been incubated for increasing periods of time in sterile soil. The amount of atrazine and phenanthrene removed from soil by mild extractants also decreased with time. The declines in bioavailability of the three compounds to earthworms and of naphthalene to bacteria were not reflected by analysis involving vigorous methods of solvent extraction; similar results for bioavailability of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol to bacteria were obtained in a previous study conducted at this laboratory. The authors suggest that regulations based on vigorous extractions for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants in soil do not appropriately estimate exposure or risk to susceptible populations.

  5. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world.

  6. Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

  7. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanling; Zou, Enmin

    2009-11-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC 3.2.1.30) mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues from the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The NAG mRNA was found to be inducible by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) in cultured epidermal tissues. The inducibility of NAG mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues by 20-HE is not only further direct evidence that epidermal expression of NAG gene in U. pugilator is controlled by the molting hormone but also validates the use of the NAG mRNA as a biomarker for epidermal ecdysteroid signaling. When Aroclor 1242, 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29), endosulfan or kepone was administered alone, the expression of NAG gene in cultured epidermal tissues was upregulated, while heptachlor had no effects. Under binary exposure to both 20-HE and an OC, a condition similar to the natural hormonal milieu of epidermal tissues of animals impacted by OCs, both Aroclor 1242 and endosulfan were found to be capable of antagonizing ecdysteroid signaling in cultured epidermal tissues. This antagonizing effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling can at least partly explain the inhibitory effects of these two agents on crustacean molting. PCB29, when given together with 20-HE, produced an additive effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling but such an additive effect was not observed when kepone was combined with 20-HE.

  8. Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

    2013-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 μg·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 μg·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 μg·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth.

  9. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    PubMed

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  10. Role of dense shelf water cascading in the transfer of organochlorine compounds to open marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Joan A; Grimalt, Joan O; López, Jordi F; Palanques, Albert; Heussner, Serge; Pasqual, Catalina; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel

    2012-03-06

    Settling particles were collected by an array of sediment trap moorings deployed along the Cap de Creus (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers (LDC) submarine canyons and on the adjacent southern open slope (SOS) between October 2005 and October 2006. This array collected particles during common settling processes and particles transferred to deep waters by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)--pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene--and hexachlorocyclohexanes were analyzed in all samples. The results show much higher settling fluxes of these compounds during DSWC than during common sedimentation processes. The area of highest deposition was located between 1000 and 1500 m depth and extended along the canyons and outside them showing their channelling effects but also overflows of dense shelf water from these canyons. Higher fluxes were observed near the bottom (30 m above bottom; mab) than at intermediate waters (500 mab) which is consistent with the formation and sinking of dense water close to the continental shelf and main displacement through the slope by the bottom. DSWC involved the highest settling fluxes of these compounds ever described in marine continental slopes and pelagic areas, e.g., peak values of PCBs (960 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), DDTs (2900 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), CBzs (340 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)) and lindane (180 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)).

  11. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Rignell-Hydbom, A.; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H.; Elmstahl, S.; Bjellerup, P.; Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U.; Akesson, A.

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  12. Comparison of the residue levels of some organochlorine compounds in breast milk of the general and indigenous Canadian populations

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.; Mes, J.

    1987-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organochlorine resides to be present in mothers' milk of the general Canadian population, but there has been little work done with respect to Canada's native population. A small survey was therefore undertaken to determine organochlorine resides in breast milk of Canadian Indian and Inuit mothers as a follow-up to the recent national survey of the general population. Analyses were conducted for 14 individual isomers of PCBs, photomirex, four hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, oxychlordane, ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-chlordane, trans-nonaclor, four analogs of DDT and vie isomers of chlorobenzenes. The results were compared to those of the national survey.

  13. Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

    1986-11-01

    Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

  14. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  15. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  16. Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.

  17. Effect of landscape tree cover, sex and season on the bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides in fruit bats of riparian corridors in eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Carolina; Sosa, Vinicio J

    2017-05-01

    Riparian forests are recognized as important ecosystems for biodiversity conservation in transformed landscapes. Many animal species that use this type of vegetation facilitate its recovery through pollination and seed dispersal. In landscapes dominated by agrosystems and cattle ranching, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the riparian system may have an effect on the physiology and fitness of animals. In this study, we measured bioaccumulation of OCPs in the most abundant frugivorous bat, Sturnira hondurensis, from the upper part of La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico and, from these data, estimated accumulation by the frugivorous bat community of riparian forests in contrasting, transformed (TL) and forested (FL) landscapes. Concentration of ΣDDT, Σdrines, Σclordano, ΣHCH, Σheptachlor and Σendosulfan was measured by gas-chromatography in 23 female and 33 male adult Sturnira captured during the dry and rainy seasons. Using censored data statistics, we found that the sex of the individual was significant for ΣHCH, and that interactions of landscape type (TL vs. FL) and season (dry vs. wet), and sex and season were significant for Σendosulfan and Σdrines, respectively. Mean ΣDDT (6.86 μg/g) and ΣHCH (28.22 μg/g) concentrations were lower than those reported for frugivorous bats in India but concentrations of Σdrines (13.86 μg/g) were higher than those reported in insectivorous bats. In our study sites, frugivorous bats are bioaccumulating higher amounts of OCPs in TL than in FL. We discuss the potential of this species as a bio-indicator of OCPs contamination in river basins.

  18. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  19. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of suspended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

  20. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the lower Columbia River using semipermeable membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. They deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. They also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the

  2. The effect of long-range atmospheric transport of organochlorine compounds by soil studies from Mongolia to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies on the distribution regularities are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of different degrees of chlorination and for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH), and DDT with its metabolites in the soils along the Lena River valley and in background areas of Eastern Siberia and Mongolia. A statistically reliable correlation is found between the PCB-OCP and Corg concentrations. The highest levels of HCB are registered in the soils between 50 and 60° N. The concentrations of αand γ-HCCH increase reliably, while those of pp'-DDT and pp'-DDE decrease from south to north. A trend of the decrease in concentrations from Mongolia to the Laptev Sea is revealed for tri-, tetra-, and penta-chlorine-substituted PCB congeners. However, the soils sampled northwards from 60° N show a reliable increase in the concentrations of tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorine-substituted congeners.

  3. Anthropogenic organochlorine compounds as potential tracers for regional water masses: A case study of estuarine plume, coastal eddy, wind-driven upwelling and long-range warm current.

    PubMed

    Ya, Miaolei; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Xinhong

    2017-03-01

    Water masses are the crucial factor driving the terrigenous anthropogenic organochlorine compounds (OCs) migration from the coast to open sea. Therefore, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), where different types of water masses are generated by the East Asian summer monsoon: Pearl River estuary plume (PREP), Guangdong offshore eddy (GDEC), South China Sea warm current (SCSWC) and wind-driven upwelling current (WDUC). No discrepant distributions of OC concentrations were found in these water masses (p > 0.05). However, compositions and diagnostic ratios of HCHs, DDTs, trans- or cis-chlordane and PCBs could reflect the discrepancies in the input, transport and transformation of OCs caused by the hydrological characteristics of water masses, therefore, this allowing them to serve as potential tracers of regional water masses. In detail, α/γ-HCH and β-HCH percentages could indicate the weathered residue in the GDEC, long-range transport in the SCSWC, rapid photodegradation in the surface WDUC and biodegradation in the deep WDUC, respectively. The predominance of o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT could indicate fresh input in the PREP, GDEC and WDUC. DDT/DDTs of ratios <0.5 also reflected long-range transport in the SCSWC. Different DDD/DDE ratios indicated different oxygen environments of microbial degradation in the surface and deep water of the WDUC. Trans/cis-chlordane ratios could indicate the selective degradation of trans-chlordane in different water masses. Finally, a higher proportion of penta-PCB could reflect the strong paint additive sources carried by river erosion in the PREP.

  4. Distributions of organochlorine compounds in sediments from Jiulong River Estuary and adjacent Western Taiwan Strait: Implications of transport, sources and inventories.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuling; Wang, Xinhong; Ya, Miaolei; Li, Yongyu; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries and coastal areas strongly influenced by terrestrial inputs resulted from anthropogenic activities. To study the distributions, origins, potential transport and burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from river to marginal sea, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in surface sediments collected from a subtropical estuary (Jiulong River Estuary, JRE) and the inner shelf of adjacent Western Taiwan Strait (WTS). The concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were from 5.2 to 551.7 and 1.0-8.1 ng g(-1) (dry weight), respectively. OCP concentrations in the JRE were higher than in adjacent WTS, and a decreasing trend with the ascending distance from the estuary to the open sea was observed. Concentrations of DDTs were quite high in the upper reach of the estuary, inferred from antifouling paint on fishing boats of a local shipping company. According to established sediment quality guidelines, DDTs in the JRE posed potential ecological risk. HCHs in the estuary were mainly derived from the weathered HCHs preserved in the agriculture soils via local major river runoffs. OCPs patterns showed that OCPs in the south coast of WTS were resulted from local sources via river input, while OCPs in the north coast attributed to the long-range transport derived by the Fujian-Zhejiang Coastal Current. Minor variations of PCB concentrations and homologs indicated that PCBs were not the main pollutant in the agricultural region, consistent lighter PCBs reflected industrial PCBs were transported via atmospheric deposition derived by East Asia Monsoon. Moreover, the primary distribution pattern founded for DDTs and the considerable mass inventories and burdens calculated (258.1 ng cm(-2) and 10.4 tones for OCPs) that higher than Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, together suggested that the contaminated sediments in the study area may be a potential source of OCPs to the global ocean.

  5. Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine (Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P F; Braune, B M; Wong, C S; Williamson, M; Elkin, B; Muir, D C G

    2003-11-01

    Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were also determined. Results were compared to OC concentrations and EFs of chiral contaminants in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from Ulukhaqtuuq (Holman), NT (n=20); a closely related species that scavenges the marine and terrestrial arctic environment. The rank order of hepatic concentrations for sum ( summation operator ) OC groups in wolverines were polychlorinated biphenyls ( summation operator PCB)>chlordane-related components ( summation operator CHLOR)>DDT-related compounds ( summation operator DDT)>hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ( summation operator HCHs). The most abundant OC analytes detected in wolverine liver were PCB-153, PCB-180, and oxychlordane (OXY). Wolverine age and gender did not influence OC concentrations, which were comparable to lipid-normalized values in arctic fox. The EFs of several chiral OCs (alpha-HCH, cis- and trans-chlordane, OXY, heptachlor exo-epoxide) and PCB atropisomers (PCB-136, 149) were nonracemic in arctic fox and wolverine liver and similar to those previously calculated in arctic fox and polar bears from Iceland and the Canadian Arctic. Results suggest that these species have similar ability to biotransform OCs. As well, contaminant profiles suggest that terrestrial mammals do not represent the major source of OC exposure to wolverines and that wolverines are scavenging more contaminated prey items, such as marine mammals. While summation operator PCB did not exceed the concentrations associated with mammalian reproductive impairment, future research is required to properly evaluate the potential affect of

  6. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds in Relation to Timing of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Girls

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Voss, Robert W.; Sjödin, Andreas; Biro, Frank M.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Stewart, Susan; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to hormonally active chemicals could plausibly affect pubertal timing, so we are investigating this in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program. Objectives Our goal was to examine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in relation to pubertal onset. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of 6- to 8-year-old girls (n = 645) provided serum for measure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and lipids. Tanner stages [breast (B) and pubic hair (PH)], and body mass index (BMI) were measured at up to seven annual clinic visits. Using accelerated failure time models, we calculated time ratios (TRs) for age at Tanner stages 2 or higher (2+) and POPs quartiles (Q1–4), adjusting for confounders (race/ethnicity, site, caregiver education, and income). We also calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) of Tanner stages 2+ at time of blood sampling. Results Cross-sectionally, the prevalence of B2+ and PH2+ was inversely related to chemical serum concentrations; but after adjustment for confounders, only the associations with B2+, not PH2+, were statistically significant. Longitudinally, the age at pubertal transition was consistently older with greater chemical concentrations; for example: adjusted TR for B2+ and Q4 for ΣPBDE = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, for ΣPCB = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08, and for ΣOCP = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.14, indicating median ages of about 6 and 11 months older than least exposed, and with similar effect estimates for PH2+. Adjusting for BMI attenuated associations for PCBs and OCPs but not for PBDEs. Conclusions This first longitudinal study of puberty in girls with serum POPs measurements (to our knowledge) reveals a delay in onset with higher concentrations. Citation Windham GC, Pinney SM, Voss RW, SjÖdin A, Biro FM, Greenspan LC, Stewart S, Hiatt RA, Kushi LH. 2015. Brominated flame retardants and other persistent organohalogenated compounds in relation to

  9. Effects of gestational and lactational exposure to organochlorine compounds on cellular, humoral, and innate immunity in swine.

    PubMed

    Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Wagner, Eric; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Bailey, Janice L; Ayotte, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the immunotoxic potential of complex mixtures of organochlorines (OCs) that bear environmental relevance. We monitored immune parameters in male piglets exposed in utero and through lactation to an OC mixture which was designed to approximate that found in the traditional diet of Arctic aboriginal populations. Prepubertal sows were administered orally either corn oil (control group) or the OC mixture in increasing doses (low, medium, and high). The sows were inseminated with the semen from an untreated boar and OC treatment was continued throughout gestation and lactation (21 days). Blood was collected from the sows at delivery and monthly from piglets until 8 months of age for the determination of plasma OC concentrations and parameters of innate, cellular, and humoral immunity. Treatment with the OC mixture had no dose-dependent effect on the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, and did not modulate the functional activity of the complement component C2. The proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells, CD8+DR+ cells, and the mitogenic lymphoproliferative response increased in OC-treated, 4-month-old piglets. At 6 months, the lymphoproliferative response to mitogen and the proportion CD4+CD8+ cells were still elevated in the OC-treated piglets, but the proportion of CD8+DR+ cells was decreased as compared to the controls. Animals in the high-dose group also exhibited a slight increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity at 8 months of age. Furthermore, the high dose decreased the antibody response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Our results indicate that developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant OC mixture alters the immune function in swine.

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in albatrosses and petrels during migration in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-02-01

    Albatrosses and petrels (Procellariiformes) are migratory oceanic birds of considerable conservational interest. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed in the subcutaneous fat, liver and muscle of 100 birds belonging to eight species of Procellariiformes collected during their migration period in southern Brazil, one of the most important feeding areas for these species. Although the profiles of PCBs and OCPs were similar among the individuals, with predominance of penta, hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls and p'p-DDE, organochlorine concentrations exhibited a high degree of intra-species variability. The influence of body condition during the migration period in the distribution of organochlorine contaminants was also evaluated, showing that it is a significant factor in the variation and redistribution of these compounds in the tissues of these birds. The intense use of lipid reserves associated to the contamination from organochlorine compounds could be a troubling factor for seabirds with extended breeding periods and that spend most of their lives at sea migrating long distances, such as most of Procellariiformes. Studies on contamination are necessary to improve the knowledge of the threats to these birds and their populations as well as to contribute with information about persistent organic pollutants in the South Atlantic marine environment.

  11. (PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  12. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  13. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  14. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.

  15. Association of In Utero Organochlorine Pesticide Exposure and Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation in an Agricultural Population

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Laura; Eskenazi, Brenda; Anderson, Meredith; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Hernandez, Hedy; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B.

    2006-01-01

    From 1940 through the 1970s, organochlorine compounds were widely used as insecticides in the United States. Thereafter, their use was severely restricted after recognition of their persistence in the environment, their toxicity in animals, and their potential for endocrine disruption. Although substantial evidence exists for the fetal toxicity of organochlorines in animals, information on human reproductive effects is conflicting. We investigated whether infants’ length of gestation, birth weight, and crown–heel length were associated with maternal serum levels of 11 different organochlorine pesticides: p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCCH), γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and mirex. Our subjects were a birth cohort of 385 low-income Latinas living in the Salinas Valley, an agricultural community in California. We observed no adverse associations between maternal serum organochlorine levels and birth weight or crown–heel length. We found decreased length of gestation with increasing levels of lipid-adjusted HCB (adjusted β= −0.47 weeks; p = 0.05). We did not find reductions in gestational duration associated with any of the other organochlorine pesticides. Our finding of decreased length of gestation related to HCB does not seem to have had clinical implications for this population, given its relatively low rate of preterm delivery (6.5%). PMID:16581552

  16. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  17. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  18. Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Stream Bed Sediment and Fish From Selected Streams on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.; Anthony, Stephen S.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were heavily used from the mid-1940s to the mid-1980s. The persistence of organochlorine pesticides, their tendency to accumulate in soil, sediment, and biota, and their harmful effects on wildlife brought this class of compounds into disfavor and eventually resulted in restriction or cancellation of most of them in the United States (Nowell and others, 1999). Despite use restrictions, these compounds continue to be detected in sediment and fish tissue samples. This study was undertaken as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NAWQA program assesses watersheds as integrated systems, focusing on chemical concentrations, physical conditions, and biological status in streams. One component of NAWQA is an occurrence survey of organic contaminants and trace elements in stream bed sediment and fish tissue. The goal of the Oahu stream bed sediment and fish tissue occurrence survey was to determine which organochlorine contaminants are present in streams around the island, and with which land uses they are associated. An understanding of relations between land use and organochlorine compounds will allow land management practices to be designed to reduce the loading of contaminants to streams and nearshore waters.

  19. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  20. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Krysiak-Baltyn, K; Toppari, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T S; Virtanen, H E; Schramm, K-W; Shen, H; Vartiainen, T; Kiviranta, H; Taboureau, O; Brunak, S; Main, K M

    2010-04-01

    Recent reports have confirmed a worldwide increasing trend of testicular cancer incidence, and a conspicuously high prevalence of this disease and other male reproductive disorders, including cryptorchidism and hypospadias, in Denmark. In contrast, Finland, a similarly industrialized Nordic country, exhibits much lower incidences of these disorders. The reasons behind the observed trends are unexplained, but environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that affect foetal testis development are probably involved. Levels of persistent chemicals in breast milk can be considered a proxy for exposure of the foetus to such agents. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive ecological study of 121 EDCs, including the persistent compounds dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and flame retardants, and non-persistent phthalates, in 68 breast milk samples from Denmark and Finland to compare exposure of mothers to this environmental mixture of EDCs. Using sophisticated, bioinformatic tools in our analysis, we reveal, for the first time, distinct country-specific chemical signatures of EDCs with Danes having generally higher exposure than Finns to persistent bioaccumulative chemicals, whereas there was no country-specific pattern with regard to the non-persistent phthalates. Importantly, EDC levels, including some dioxins, PCBs and some pesticides (hexachlorobenzene and dieldrin) were significantly higher in Denmark than in Finland. As these classes of EDCs have been implicated in testicular cancer or in adversely affecting development of the foetal testis in humans and animals, our findings reinforce the view that environmental exposure to EDCs may explain some of the temporal and between-country differences in incidence of male reproductive disorders.

  1. Effects of organochlorine compounds on cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in an immortal sea turtle cell line.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; McClellan-Green, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Many classes of environmental contaminants affect the reproductive function of animals through interactions with the endocrine system. The primary components affected by endocrine active compounds (EACs) are the steroid receptors and the enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis. This study sought to develop an in vitro model for assessing EAC effects in sea turtles by examining their ability to alter cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) activity. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. This enzyme is critical in the sexual differentiation of reptiles which demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination. An immortal testis cell line GST-TS from a green sea turtle was grown in culture at 30 degrees C in RPMI 1640 media. The cells were exposed to three known aromatase inducers; dexamethasone (Dex), 8Br-cyclic AMP, or human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) and one aromatase inhibitor 4-androstenol-dione (4-OHA). In addition, the GST-TS cells were exposed to 0.1-30 microM atrazine and 3-100 microM 4,4'-DDE. The inducing compounds that have been shown to increase aromatase activity in other systems failed to induce aromatase activity in the GST-TS cells, yet exposure to the inhibiting compound, 4-OHA, did result in a significant reduction. Atrazine (0.1, 1.0 and 10 microM) significantly induced aromatase activity following a 24 h exposure, and 4,4'-DDE inhibited the activity but only at cytotoxic concentrations (100 microM). Based on these results, this in vitro model can be useful in examining the endocrine effects of EACs in sea turtles.

  2. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  3. Deposition of semi-volatile organochlorine compounds in the free troposphere of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Van Drooge, B L; Grimalt, J O; Torres-García, C J; Cuevas, E

    2001-08-01

    Deposition samples were taken at a height of 2367 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.) on the Island of Tenerife from May 1999 until July 2000 and analysed for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) and DDTs. This site is located above the inversion layer, so samples represent background concentrations of the free troposphere. The average deposition fluxes of HCB, total HCH, DDTs and PCBs were 86, 400, 110 and 780 ng m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, being lower than those reported at sea level in continental or marine areas. All compounds are generally found in higher abundance in the wet precipitation samples. However, these samples only represent a fraction, e.g. 33%, of the total deposition load. Annual mass balance calculations show that wet precipitation is essentially responsible for the deposition of the low molecular weight OC whereas dry deposition accounts for more than 50% of the higher molecular weight PCBs.

  4. Bees eavesdrop upon informative and persistent signal compounds in alarm pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwei; Wen, Ping; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators such as bees provide a critical ecosystem service that can be impaired by information about predation. We provide the first evidence for olfactory eavesdropping and avoidance of heterospecific alarm signals, alarm pheromones, at food sources in bees. We predicted that foragers could eavesdrop upon heterospecific alarm pheromones, and would detect and avoid conspicuous individual pheromone compounds, defined by abundance and their ability to persist. We show that Apis cerana foragers avoid the distinctive alarm pheromones of A. dorsata and A. mellifera, species that share the same floral resources and predators. We next examined responses to individual alarm pheromone compounds. Apis cerana foragers avoided isopentyl acetate (IPA), which is found in all three species and is the most abundant and volatile of the tested compounds. Interestingly, A. cerana also avoided an odor component, gamma-octanoic lactone (GOL), which is >150-fold less volatile than IPA. Chemical analyses confirmed that GOL is only present in A. dorsata, not in A. cerana. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that A. cerana antennae are 10-fold more sensitive to GOL than to other tested compounds. Thus, the eavesdropping strategy is shaped by signal conspicuousness (abundance and commonality) and signal persistence (volatility). PMID:27157595

  5. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude.

  6. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P.; Robertson, Erle S.; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:26837574

  7. Mind the Gap: Persistent and Mobile Organic Compounds-Water Contaminants That Slip Through.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Berger, Urs; Arp, Hans Peter H; Gallard, Hervé; Knepper, Thomas P; Neumann, Michael; Quintana, José Benito; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-10-04

    The discharge of persistent and mobile organic chemicals (PMOCs) into the aquatic environment is a threat to the quality of our water resources. PMOCs are highly polar (mobile in water) and can pass through wastewater treatment plants, subsurface environments and potentially also drinking water treatment processes. While a few such compounds are known, we infer that their number is actually much larger. This Feature highlights the issue of PMOCs from an environmental perspective and assesses the gaps that appear to exist in terms of analysis, monitoring, water treatment and regulation. On this basis we elaborate strategies on how to narrow these gaps with the intention to better protect our water resources.

  8. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. ); Ludwicki, J. )

    1991-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings.

  10. [Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].

    PubMed

    Ingel', F I; Legostaeva, T B; Antipanova, N A; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air.

  11. Smoking as a determinant of high organochlorine levels in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Jørgensen, Eva C Bonefeld; Hansen, Jens C

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p < 0.001). Body mass index was inversely correlated with organochlorine accumulation, independent of smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs.

  12. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the

  13. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  14. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  15. Organochlorine compound residues in muscle of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Maršálek, Petr; Zelníčková, Lenka; Mikuláštíková, Jitka; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Hutařová, Zdeňka

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the Czech Republic. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while PCBs and HCH were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the most prominent pollutants in both red deer and wild boar.

  16. Fertility and Markers of Male Reproductive Function in Inuit and European Populations Spanning Large Contrasts in Blood Levels of Persistent Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Giwercman, Aleksander; Spano, Marcello; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Ludwicki, Jan K.; Zvyezday, Valentina; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective We synthesized the main findings from an international epidemiologic study on the impact of biopersistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human reproductive function. Data sources and extraction We used a database with interview and biological data from 2,269 women and their spouses, and 18 published core papers. Data synthesis The study did not provide direct evidence of hormone-like activity of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 and the main dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), as serum concentrations of these compounds were not consistently related to either endogenous or exogenous hormone activity in serum. Nevertheless several links bewteen POP exposure and biomarkers of male reproductive function were identified. First, an association between high CB-153 serum levels and low sperm counts was detected within a subgroup of men with short androgen receptor CAG repeat length. Second, a relationship between increased CB-153 serum concentrations and decreased sperm motility was seen in all four studied regions, and indications of reduced neutral α-glucosidase activity in seminal plasma point to a post-testicular effect. Third, damage of sperm chromatin integrity was considerably less frequent in Greenlandic Inuits compared with that in European groups, and only in the latter was impairment of sperm chromatin integrity related to POPs. Despite these effects, fertility in terms of time taken to conceive was not related to POPs except in Inuits. A likely explanation of the latter was not identified. Conclusions POPs may interfere with male reproductive function without major impact on fertility. The data do not provide direct evidence for endocrine disruption, hence other mechanisms should also be considered. PMID:18335090

  17. Coexistence of electron-glass phase and persistent photoconductivity in GeSbTe compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that persistent photoconductivity (PPC), well studied in lightly-doped semiconductors, is observable in GeSbTe compounds using infrared excitation at cryogenic temperatures. The low levels of energy flux necessary to induce an appreciable effect seems surprising given the high carrier concentration n of these ternary alloys (n >1020cm-3 ). On the other hand, their high density of carriers makes GeSbTe films favorable candidates for exhibiting intrinsic electron-glass effects with long relaxation times. These are indeed observed in GeSbTe thin films that are Anderson-localized. In particular, a memory dip is observed in samples with sheet resistances larger than ≈105Ω at T ≈4 K with similar characteristics as in other systems that exhibit intrinsic electron-glass effects. Persistent photoconductivity, however, is observable in GeSbTe films even for sheet resistances of the order of 103Ω , well below the range of disorder required for observing electron-glass effects. These two nonequilibrium phenomena, PPC and electron glass, are shown to be of different nature in terms of other aspects as well. In particular, their relaxation dynamics is qualitatively different; the excess conductance Δ G associated with PPC decays with time as a stretched exponential whereas a logarithmic relaxation law characterizes Δ G (t ) of all electron glasses studied to date. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the memory dip is enhanced when the system is in the PPC state. This counter-intuitive result may be related to the compositional disorder in these materials extending over mesoscopic scales. Evidence in support of this scenario is presented and discussed.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hypothesis is that increased exposure to these compounds will be...Parkinson’s disease, polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, methylmercury, Alaska natives, neurodegeneration 16. SECURITY

  19. Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

    2013-05-15

    This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45μgL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters.

  20. Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

    2014-09-01

    While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and ΣDDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ΣDDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians.

  1. Fate and risk evaluation of persistent organic contaminants and related compounds in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Connell, D W; Wu, R S; Richardson, B J; Leung, K; Lam, P S; Connell, P A

    1998-04-01

    The Environment Protection Department of Hong Kong has a monitoring program for persistent organic contaminants in sediments of Victoria Harbour, the main harbour of Hong Kong. A fugacity model has been used, based on this sedimentary data, to estimate inputs to the system (probably from sewage, stormwater and industrial discharges) as well as the fate of the contaminants, particularly in terms of the aqueous and biotic concentrations. The risk of deleterious effects on the natural marine system, as well as on the consumers of seafood from the system, was carried out using the estimated aqueous and biotic concentrations together with accepted environmental quality guidelines. The result of our analysis indicated that the chlorohydrocarbons, PCBs (as Aroclor 1254) total DDT and total HCH pose a significant risk, and probably have caused damage to the marine ecosystem as well as posing a hazard to seafood consumers. Much higher concentrations of the less toxic total alkanes, nonaromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkyl benzenes and the compounds giving a unresolved complex mixture (UCM) cannot be evaluated due to a lack of environmental guidelines and the complexity of these substances. However, it is probable that these substances add adverse effects to those due to the other contaminants.

  2. Formation of organochlorine by-products in bleached laundry.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Anthony, Laura N

    2013-02-01

    Laundering fabrics with chlorine bleach plays a role in health and hygiene as well as aesthetics. However, laundry bleaching may create chlorinated by-products with potentially adverse human health effects. Studies have shown that toxic chlorinated gases are produced in the headspace of washing machines when hypochlorite-containing bleach is used. Laundry bleaching has also been implicated in contributing dissolved organochlorine to municipal wastewater. However, there have been no reports of organochlorines produced and retained in fabric as a result of laundry bleaching. We have used a chlorine-specific X-ray spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the formation of organochlorine by-products in cotton fabrics laundered with chlorine bleach under typical household conditions. Organochlorine formation increases at higher wash temperature. At least two pools of organochlorine are produced in bleached fabric: a labile fraction that diminishes over several months of storage time as well as a more stable fraction that persists after more than 1 year. Our results also suggest that residual hypochlorite remains in fabric after laundering with bleach, presenting the possibility of direct and sustained dermal contact with reactive chlorine. This study provides a first step toward identifying a new risk factor for elevated organochlorine body burdens in humans.

  3. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: Results of an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Davis, Meghan F.; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 organochlorines (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

  4. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  5. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  6. Over 100-year sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yizhi; Wang, Xinhong; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Ya, Miaolei

    2016-12-01

    Historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in two dated sediment cores (DH05 and DH11) collected from the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on marine sediment over the past century. The concentrations and fluxes of 15 PAHs were in the range of 28.6-96.5 ng g(-1) and 7.6-35.2 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) in DH05 (1920s-2009), 18.8-76.4 ng g(-1) and 13.9-30.9 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) in DH11 (1860s-2009). The sedimentary records of PAHs in the two cores generally reflected the economic development and energy consumption change in China. Identification of sources suggested that PAHs in ECS were predominantly from petrogenic origin and various combustion sources. A change of source from low- and moderate-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion process was observed. Although a production ban of technical HCH and DDT was imposed in China in 1983, their sedimentary fluxes display increasing trends or strong rebounds from 1980s to 1990s as recorded in the core profiles. High proportions of DDD + DDE and γ-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly derived from early residuals. Temporal trends of PCBs presented relative high levels from 1970s to 1980s and high proportions of PCB congeners with 3-6 chlorines atoms indicated industrial sources.

  7. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  8. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas.

  9. Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

  10. Effect of persistent trace compounds in landfill gas on engine performance during energy recovery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sevimoğlu, Orhan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons.

  11. Impaired maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development of porcine oocytes following exposure to an environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture.

    PubMed

    Campagna, C; Sirard, M A; Ayotte, P; Bailey, J L

    2001-08-01

    The reproductive health risks related to exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the environment remain controversial. This debate is partly because most studies have investigated only one or two chemicals at a time, whereas populations are exposed to a large spectrum of persistent chemicals in their environment. Using the pig as a toxicological model, we hypothesized that exposing immature cumulus-oocyte complexes to an organochlorine mixture during in vitro maturation (IVM) would adversely affect oocyte maturation, fertilization, and subsequent embryo development. This organochlorine mixture mimics that which contaminates the Arctic marine food chain. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in IVM medium containing increasing concentrations of the organochlorine mixture, similar to that found in women of highly exposed populations. Organochlorines reduced the quality of cumulus expansion and the viability of cumulus cells in a dose-response manner. The proportion of apoptotic cumulus cells also increased due to organochlorine exposure. Half of the oocytes were fixed after insemination, and the remainders were cultured for 8 days. Concentrations of organochlorines did not affect the rates of oocyte degeneration, sperm penetration, and development to morula. However, incidence of incompletely matured oocytes increased and polyspermy rate decreased, both in a dose-response manner with increasing organochlorine concentrations. Blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst declined with organochlorine concentration. Exposing porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes to an environmentally pertinent organochlorine mixture during IVM disturbs oocyte development, supporting recent concerns that such pollutants harm reproductive health in humans and other mammalian species.

  12. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

    2014-06-01

    While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n = 208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n = 34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1 µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2 µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51 µg/g and 0.66 µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481 pmol/min/mg protein and 55 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297 pmol/min/mg protein and 234 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response

  13. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    SciTech Connect

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  14. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-12-01

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ΣTEQ was comprised mainly of ΣTEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds.

  15. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health.Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes.Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research.Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as

  16. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies.

  17. Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, B.; Andersson, R.; Asplund, L.; Litzen, K.; Nylund, K.; Sellstroem, U.; Uvemo, U.; Wahlberg, C.; Wideqvist, U. . Inst. of Applied Environmental Research); Odsjoe, T.; Olsson, M. . Section for Vertebrate Zoology)

    1993-07-01

    Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and areas. An attempt to describe an environmental distribution profile is demonstrated for some of the compounds using the concentration ratio between these compounds and 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153). Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were found in all samples and in some of them at higher concentrations than the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ratio of CP to PCB 153 is higher in the investigated terrestrial species than in the aquatic, which is not the case for the other compounds. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were also found in all but one sample. The concentrations were highest in industrialized areas but were also present in samples from background areas. Seven major cogeners of PCBs were determined; the sum ranged from 50 to 200,000 ng/g lw in the investigated samples. Three coplanar PCB congeners were also analyzed as well as polychlorinated naphthalenes, which were found at levels between 0.038 and 50 ng/g lw. The latter two groups do not seem to biomagnify in the foot chain of herring to grey seal to the same extent as the major PCB compounds. Pentachlorobenzene was found in only three of the samples, whereas hexachlorobenzene was present in all samples.

  18. PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and reproduction in river otters from Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Linscombe, G.; Kinler, N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Reproductive tracts from 89 3-year-old female river otters (Lutra canadensis), from Louisiana were examined. Eighteen of these were in a reproductive phase out of synchrony with the expected population norms. Eight of 32 otters had fewer embryos than corpora lutea, indicating intrauterine mortality in 25% of the sample. Chemical analyses of liver tissue from 57 otters revealed a low prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide contamination. These low Ievels of organochlorine compounds were not associated with atypical reproductive synchrony or intrauterine mortality.

  19. The association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine chemicals and blood lead with growth and pubertal development in a longitudinal cohort of boys: a review of published results from the Russian Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Lee, Mary M; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2017-03-01

    Organochlorine chemicals and lead are environmental exposures that have endocrine disrupting properties (EDCs) which interfere with many aspects of hormone action. Childhood and adolescence are windows of susceptibility for adverse health effects of EDCs. Our ongoing study, the Russian Children's Study (RCS), is one of the few longitudinal studies investigating the impact of EDCs on growth and puberty in boys. It is conducted in the historically contaminated city of Chapaevsk, in the Samara region. The study focuses on evaluating the associations of persistent organochlorine chemicals and lead with growth and pubertal timing. At enrollment in 2003-2005, we collected blood from 516 boys at ages 8-9 years to measure dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides and lead. At enrollment and at annual visits through the ages of 18-19 years, a physician performed physical examinations that included pubertal staging and testicular volume measurements. We review the history of Chapaevsk as a research site and summarize published RCS data on the association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorines and blood lead levels with growth, pubertal onset and sexual maturity. Overall, we found that persistent organochlorines and lead negatively affected growth during puberty. Our results also suggest that total toxic equivalents (TEQs), dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides and lead may delay, while nondioxin-like-PCBs may advance, the timing of male puberty. These findings promoted remediation programs in Chapaevsk, with improvement in health indicators, resulting in Chapaevsk being designated a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) network "Healthy Cities" in 2015.

  20. Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

  1. Bivalve, Mytilus edulis, as a test organism for bioconcentration studies. I. Designing a continuous-flow system and its application to some organochlorine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Renberg, L.; Tarkpea, M.; Linden, E.

    1985-04-01

    Most bioconcentration studies have previously been carried out using fish as a test organism. Equally important is the use of bivalves for this purpose, from both an ecological and an economic point of view. A continuous-flow system has thus been designed for use also with extremely hydrophobic substances and evaluated using 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl, methoxychlor, pentachlorobenzene, and lindane. The variation of the uptake in the individuals after 3 weeks exposure was quite small (relative standard errors varied from 10.1 to 15.3% depending on the test substance), indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The bivalves, however, are known to close their valves under unfavorable conditions, which occasionally may bias the results. To overcome this disadvantage, it is suggested that an internal standard--i.e., a chemically defined compound--be added to the water simultaneously with the test substances. Although there is a principal risk for interactive effects, unexpected variations in the uptake can thus be compensated for by relating the concentration of the test substance to the concentration of the internal standard in the organisms. Comparisons between continuous-flow systems and static systems have also been made. It is concluded that continuous-flow systems are more suitable for studying hydrophobic compounds than static systems.

  2. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal

  3. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Henderson, Alden K; Reissman, Dori B

    2004-08-15

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal

  4. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time.

    PubMed

    Gibs, Jacob; Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael; Zaugg, Steven D; Lippincott, Robert Lee

    2007-02-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2 mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10 days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24 h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution.

  5. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, and milk from inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzon, R M; Silva, C S; Siliceo, J

    2001-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings. These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of the maternal body, including their crossover of the placental barrier. The greatest residue levels found correspond to DDTs, with highest levels determined in colostrum (5.71 mg/kg of DDT total), followed by adipose tissue with 5.66 mg/kg and in mature milk with 4.70 mg/kg. Among DDTs, pp'DDE is the most predominant compound. The paired analyses of organochlorine pesticide residue levels between mother blood serum and umbilical blood serum demonstrate significant correlation and their transfer from mother to fetus through the placenta. The paired analyses of adipose tissue and colostrum and mature milk contamination levels indicate a high degree of coherence, principally of DDT, in the body and lactation as a decontamination means.

  7. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler.

  9. [Microbial degraders of some organochlorine compounds].

    PubMed

    Mitsevich, E V; Mitsevich, I P; Perelygin, V V

    2000-01-01

    A possibility of isolation of microorganisms, potential destructors of chlorinated organics from aged Vietnamese soils polluted with dioxine-containing defoliants was demonstrated. As an example, the ability of one isolated strain to metabolize pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was shown under laboratory conditions. An attempt was made to identify intermediates of pentachlorophenol metabolism using HPLC.

  10. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

    1985-12-01

    The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

  11. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  12. Simplification and validation of a large volume polyurethane foam sampler for the analysis of persistent hydrophobic compounds in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Kannan, K

    2008-08-01

    The use of a large volume polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler was validated for rapid extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in raw water and treated water from drinking water plants. To validate the recovery of target compounds in the sampling process, a (37)Cl-labeled standard was spiked into the 1st PUF plug prior to filtration. An accelerated solvent extraction method, as a pressurized liquid extractor (PLE), was optimized to extract the PUF plug. For sample preparation, tandem column chromatography (TCC) clean-up was used for rapid analysis. The recoveries of labeled compounds in the analytical method were 80-110% (n = 9). The optimized PUF-PLE-TCC method was applied in the analysis of raw water and treated potable water from seven drinking water plants in South Korea. The sample volume used was between 18 and 102 L for raw water at a flow rate of 0.4-2 L min(-1), 95 and 107 L for treated water at a flow rate of 1.5-2.2 L min(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was a function of sample volume and it decreased with increasing sample volume. The LOQ of PCDD/Fs in raw waters analyzed by this method was 3-11 times lower than that described using large-size disk-type solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The LOQ of PCDD/F congeners in raw water and treated water were 0.022-3.9 ng L(-1) and 0.018-0.74 ng L(-1), respectively. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was found in some raw water samples, while their concentrations were well below the tentative criterion set by the Japanese Environmental Ministry for drinking water. OCDD was below the LOQ in the treated drinking water.

  13. Is there biomagnification of organochlorines in a Rocky Mountain aquatic food web?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.M.; Schindler, D.W.; Kidd, K.; Donald, D.D.; Muir, D.

    1995-12-31

    In 1991--92, 14 lakes in the Canadian Rocky Mountains were surveyed for organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDT isomers, toxaphene, and other pesticides) of water and lake trout. Lake trout from Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide, in Banff National Park, contained particularly high concentrations of organochlorines, notably toxaphene, in their tissue compared to other mountain lake trout populations. The hypothesis that the high degree of contamination in fish is caused by biomagnification is being tested by analysis of lake trout (Salveninus namaycush), mountain whitefish (Propsopium williamsoni), benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for organochlorine compounds and stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N). Fish, invertebrates, sediments and water collected from Bow Lake in 1994 were all found to contain organochlorines, and the authors are investigating the apparent patterns of contamination present. The possibility that contaminants deposited in past decades on the glaciers that feed Bow Lake contributes to the high values is also being examined.

  14. Determination by combustion of the total organochlorine content of tissue, soil, water, waste streams, and oil sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.; Pollak, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution and concentration of organochlorine pesticides have been intensively investigated, but there is much less information on the total organochlorine overburden either in the environment or in man. The reason for this paucity of information seems to be that while there were many methods available for the determination of individual organochlorines, there was no simple method which permitted the determination of the total organochlorine content of biological and environmental samples. In this communication a method is described which is suitable for measuring gram quantities of total lipid-soluble organochlorine. Chloride in tissues, tissue fluids, water, soil, liquid industrial wastes and oil sludges. The method is simple and consists of three steps. The first step is a small volume extraction procedure, which extracts organic compounds containing chlorine, but excludes inorganic chlorides. The other two steps involve the degradation of organically bound chlorine to inorganic chlorides and a colorimetric assay of these chlorides.

  15. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. ); Vassilieff, I. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

  16. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Janet A; Davis, Meghan F; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines (OCs) and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 OCs, including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development.

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in the Great Lakes: The risks are real and demand action

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, T.; Schmidt, W.

    1995-05-01

    This article supports the conclusions of the report of the International Joint Commission which includes a strategy for the virtual elimination of 11 persistent toxic substances from the Great Lakes. The author presents evidence of toxicity of organochlorine contaminants and strongly advocates a phase-out approach of certain chlorine-based industrial processes. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (rural), India

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, V.K.; Patel, J.S.; Variya, M.R.; Venkaiah, K.; Shah, M.P.; Kashyap, S.K. )

    1992-02-01

    Assessments of human exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides (OCI) through biological monitoring offers a profound criteria to evaluate the magnitude of potential health risk, if any, due to use of these chemicals. Residues of these chemicals especially DDT and HCH have been identified and reviewed in man and his environment from different parts of the world however, by comparison very high levels of DDT and its metabolites have been reported in human body fat, blood and milk samples in India. Since there is a definite relationship between the amount of DDT and its residues in blood and those present in human fat depot, blood can be easily be used for assessing the total body burden of persistent OCI in various populations. In view of fragmentary reports on the levels of DDT and HCH in human blood samples from India which categorically pertain to the general population of urban areas like Delhi and Lucknow. The authors attempted to provide a database on residues of DDT and HCH including other cyclodiene compounds, e.g. heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, oxygchlordane, HCB and dieldrin in blood samples collected from general population of Ahmedabad (rural) area.

  20. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  1. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  3. Evidence for organochlorine contamination in Lake Tahoe, California

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Matsumura, F.

    1995-12-31

    Organochlorine pollutants were measured in mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Tahoe, California. This is the first report of organochlorine contamination in this lake which is considered to be pristine; Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake, located in the Sierra Nevadas, has not been subject to direct contamination by industrial discharges or agricultural runoff. Multiresidue analysis of chlorinated compounds in the belly flap tissues of lake trout revealed wet weight concentrations of PCBs and DDE in the low ppb range using EIMS and SIM. Full spectra of specific PCB congeners and DDE were obtained using extracts of fish fat tissue. The presence of these pollutants in biota suggests that atmospheric transport may be a significant source of input to the Lake Tahoe ecosystem.

  4. Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru )

    1991-05-01

    Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

  5. Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2013-07-01

    Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process.

  6. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  7. Contamination and toxic effects of persistent endocrine disrupters in marine mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, several species of marine mammals and birds have been affected by uncommon diseases and unusual mortalities. While several possible causative factors have been attributed for these events, a prominent suspect is exposure to man-made toxic contaminants. Particularly, some of these man-made chemicals can disrupt normal endocrine physiology in animals. At CMES, our studies focus on exposure and toxic effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals, particularly organochlorines, in higher trophic level wildlife. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, organotins etc. are found in tissues of a wide variety of wildlife. Extremely high concentrations have been found in animals afflicted with diseases and/or victims of mass mortalities. Elevated contamination by organochlorines has been found in open sea animals such as cetaceans and albatrosses, which seemed to be attributable to their low capacity to metabolize toxic persistent contaminants. Significant correlations between biochemical parameters (serum hormone concentrations and cytochrome P450 enzyme activities) and residues of endocrine disrupting chemicals were found in some species of marine animals, which indicates that these chemicals may impose toxic effects in animals even at the current levels of exposure. In general, water birds and marine mammals accumulated the dioxin-like compounds with much higher concentrations than humans, implying higher risk from exposure in wildlife. The future issues of endocrine disrupting chemicals in humans and wildlife will have to be focused in developing countries.

  8. Effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds using a modified QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds were investigated using a modified half life equation. The potential future pharmaceutical compounds investigated were approximately 2000 pharmaceutical drugs currently undergoing the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) testing. EPI Suite (BIOWIN) model estimates the fates of compounds based on the biodegradability under aerobic conditions. While BIOWIN considered the biodegradability of a compound only, the half life equation used in this study was modified by biodegradability, sorption and cometabolic oxidation. It was possible that the potential future pharmaceutical compounds were more accurately estimated using the modified half life equation. The modified half life equation considered sorption and cometabolic oxidation of halogenated aromatic/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics in the sub-surface, while EPI Suite (BIOWIN) did not. Halogenated aliphatics in chemicals were more persistent than halogenated aromatics in the sub-surface. In addition, in the sub-surface environment, the fates of organic chemicals were much more affected by halogenation in chemicals than by nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics.

  9. Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S.

    1994-12-31

    It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

  10. Cyclic organochlorines in epibenthic organisms from coastal waters around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, J. P.; Everaarts, J. M.; Kastoro, W. W.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.; Sumarno; Nelissen, P. H.; Stefels, J.; Hillebrand, M. Th. J.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and their persistent metabolites were identified in epibenthic animals from the estuaries of the rivers Brantas and Solo and from Strait Madura, Strait Bali and the Java Sea in July and November 1984. Samples of different phyla showed similar general geographical trends for the compounds investigated. Contamination with p,p'-DDE was of major importance in the river Porong, a distributary of the Brantas river system. Increased concentrations of PCBs were found near Surabaya. In Strait Madura, p,p'-DDE and PCBs were increased only in animals from the western part. Therefore the dispersion of the contaminants in biota appeared to be determined by the residual currents caused by the SE trade winds prevailing in both periods of sampling (July and November 1984). Generally no differences existed between the two sampling periods, except in the Java Sea, where PCBs were only detected during the November cruise. Compared to the animals from Strait Madura, the PCB patterns showed increased contributions of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This could not be related to differences in PCB-patterns of water or suspended particles. The compounds QCB, HCB, α-HCH, ß-HCH, o,p'-DDD, methoxychlor and several cyclodienes were generally below detection limits.

  11. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindoruk, S. Sıddık; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of Σ10OCPs.

  12. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  13. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  14. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  15. Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water.

    PubMed

    Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry

    2014-07-01

    This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water.

  16. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: a cluster analysis application.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues related to time and exposure dose were subjected to cluster analysis to separate them into subgroups. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis. To evaluate the classification accuracy, compared to intra-group and inter-group variability by ANOVA for each dimension. The aggregation strategy was accomplished by the method of Ward. It was, for the creation of clusters, variables associated with exposure and routes of contamination. The information on the estimated intake doses of compound were used to weight the values of exposure time at each of the routes, so as to obtain values proxy exposure intensity. The results showed three clusters: cluster 1 (n = 45), characteristics of greatest exposure, the cluster 2 (n = 103), intermediate exposure, and cluster 3 (n = 206), less exposure. The bivariate analyzes performed with groups that are groups showed a statistically significant difference. This study demonstrated the applicability of cluster analysis to categorize populations exposed to organochlorines and also points to the relevance of typological studies that may contribute to a better classification of subjects exposed to chemical agents, which is typical of environmental epidemiology studies to a wider understanding of etiological, preventive and therapeutic contamination.

  17. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults.

  18. Trace elements and organochlorines in the shoalgrass community of the lower Laguna Madre, Texas.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Mitchell, C A

    1993-05-01

    Our objectives were to measure concentrations of seven trace elements and 14 organochlorine compounds in sediment and biota of the shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) community of the lower Laguna Madre of south Texas and to determine whether chemicals associated with agriculture (e.g. mercury, arsenic, selenium, organochlorine pesticides) were highest near agricultural drainages. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, cadmium, and organochlorines were generally at background concentrations throughout the lower Laguna Madre. Nickel and chromium concentrations were exceptionally high in shrimp and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), which is difficult to explain because of no known anthropogenic sources for these trace elements. For sediment and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), mercury was highest near agricultural drainages. Also, DDE was more frequently detected in blue crabs near agricultural drainages than farther away. In contrast, selenium concentrations did not differ among collecting sites and arsenic concentrations were lowest in shoalgrass, blue crabs, and brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) near agricultural drainages.

  19. Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M.; Johns, D.M.; Paine, M.D.

    1997-07-01

    Organisms exposed to organochlorinated compounds in sediments are likely to suffer chronic rather than acute effects. Thus, acute toxicity tests are unlikely to truly assess their potential impact. A 120-d toxicity test was designed to assess the impact of polychlorinated biphenyl on the marine polychaete Neanthes arenacedodentata. A two-tiered approach was used: Tier 1 involved reference sediment spiked with a range of concentrations of the organochlorine bracketing the concentrations found in natural sediments, and tier 2 involved field sediments collected from a coastal area contaminated with high concentrations of the same organochlorine. Testing measured a number of endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction. Survival and growth were unaffected in either tier by any of the test sediments. Reproductive endpoints, however, were depressed in both tiers relative to the reference sediment.

  20. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in Falconiforme and Ciconiforme eggs (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Aranda, A.

    1988-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been documented to have adverse effects of the reproduction and survival of wild birds. Also, environmental contamination from heavy metals has been shown to be a threat to the survival and reproduction of certain birds. The hazard to Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds is high because a) they are sensitive to eggshell thinning b) they are high in the food chain. The present paper reports the levels of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in 69 eggs of five species of the avian Falconiforme order and two species of the avian Ciconiforme order collected at Donana National Park and Castile Plateau (Spain). Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in eggs of Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds of Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the contaminants detected on reproductive potential; (3) to evaluate regional patterns of residues.

  1. Trace elements and organochlorines in the shoalgrass community of the lower Laguna Madre Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to measure concentrations of seven trace elements and 14 organochlorine compounds in sediment and biota of the shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) community of the lower Laguna Madre of south Texas [USA] and to determine whether chemicals associated with agriculture (e.g. mercury, arsenic, selenium, organochlorine pesticides) were highest near agricultural drainage. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, cadmium, and organochlorines were generally at background concentrations throughout the lower Laguna Madre. Nickel and chromium concentrations were exceptionally high in shrimp and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), which is difficult to explain because of no known anthropogenic sources for these trace elements. For sediment and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), mercury was highest near agricultural drainages. Also, DDE was more frequently detected in blue crabs near agricultural drainages than farther away. In contrast, selenium concentrations did not differ among collecting sites and arsenic concentrations were lowest n shoalgrass, blue crabs, and brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) near agricultural drainages.

  2. Kinetic differences of legacy organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Vietnamese human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Tu Binh; Nhat, Bui Hong; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the current contamination status and evaluated several kinetic-related features of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs in human breast milk collected from northern Vietnam. The variation in the levels of these contaminants was found to be strongly associated with total lactation time and dietary habits. OCPs exhibited the characteristics of steadily declining compounds: the overall levels of DDTs and HCHs in the population decreased with a half-time of only 5years and it can be suggested that OCPs depurated relatively fast with breastfeeding (5% per month). PCBs were slower in both regards, with a temporal decrease half-time of 12years and a suggested depuration rate via breastfeeding of 2.5% per month, indicating that the exposure level was still high relative to the human body burden. It was found that the PCB exposure levels of infant from breastfeeding exceeded the reference dose, and this situation may continue for the next two or three decades. Knowledge of these kinetic-related characteristics not only is useful for risk assessment and prediction of future trends of legacy contaminants but also may provide insight regarding similar kinetic processes of emerging persistent pollutants.

  3. Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Ganges river (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Ajmal, M.; Nomani, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely toxic to fish, used more as preventive measures rather than cure in controlling insects and some of them were found to biomagnify in organisms. Their accumulation about 26 mg DDT in their body through food items. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds but may also be synthesized by some bacteria, algae and plants. PAHs are on the USEPA and EC priority pollutants list since some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens/mutagens. In surface waters, they are known to be strongly adsorbed on sediment clays and other particles while their degradation in sediment also occur. Therefore, during low stream flow, fluvial materials settle down and may contain concentrations of OCs and PAHs. Hence, it is necessary to include sediment in the determination of organic contaminants in surface waters. This paper refers to a monitoring programme for screening the OCs and PAHs concentrations in the Ganges river sediments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Organochlorine contamination in anuran amphibians of an artificial lake in the semiarid midwest of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jofré, Mariana B; Antón, Rosa I; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Artificial water reservoirs are important for fauna in arid-semiarid regions, because they provide suitable habitats for species that depend on water, such as amphibians. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are toxic, persistent compounds that tend to bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate. We evaluated contaminant levels in anurans from an artificial lake (Embalse La Florida) in a semiarid region of the Midwest Argentina. This lake is one of the few sources of permanent water in the area. OCPs were detected in all individuals. Levels ranged from 2.34 +/- 0.62 ng/g wet mass of heptachlors to 9.76 +/- 1.76 ng/g wet mass of hexachlorocyclohexanes. The distribution pattern of OCP was Sigma HCH > Sigma DDT > endosulfan > Sigma chlordane > metoxichlor > Sigma aldrin > Sigmaheptachlor. Contaminant levels in individuals were positively correlated with contaminant levels in the water. Burden differed between species, but not among sites differing in water contaminant levels. Results suggest that anurans may concentrate OCPs and thus provide an important source of exposure for amphibian predators. This study provides important information for potential risk assessment of amphibians in the region and contributes to our understanding of the extent of OCP contamination.

  5. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  6. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  7. Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Takita, Marco A; Olivato, Jacqueline C; Kishi, Luciano T; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2012-09-01

    Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable.

  8. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana Gomes; Amaya Chávez, Araceli; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Colín Cruz, Arturo; García Fabila, María Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can cause environmental damage and human health risks since they are lipophilic compounds with high resistance to degradation and long half-lives in humans. As most persistent OCPs have been banned years ago, it is expected to find these compounds at trace levels in environment. Therefore, increasingly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques are required to ensure effective monitoring of these compounds. The aim of this review is to discuss extraction and clean-up methods used to monitor OCP residues in milk, reported in the last 20 years. To carry out this review, an exhaustive bibliographic review was conducted. Despite the disadvantages of conventional extraction and clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid, solid-phase or Soxhlet extractions, these procedures are still used due to their reliability. New extraction methods, like solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion or QuEChERS, have not been thoroughly evaluated for OCP determination in milk. Almost all the methodologies analyzed in this review presented good performance characteristics according to the performance acceptability criteria set in SANCO's procedure. Comparison between limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD), for the reported methodologies, is not always possible due to the heterogeneity of the units. Thus, researchers should take into account an homogenization of LOD and LOQ units, according to the international regulations and MRLs established. Finally, more research is necessary to obtain the ideal methodology for OCPs determination in milk, which comprises the environmentally friendly characteristics of the new techniques and the reliability of the traditional methodologies.

  9. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in soils and rye plant tissues in a field study.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Carvajal, Octavio; Infanzon, Rosa M; Trujillo, Patricia; Aguirre, Angel A; Maxwell, Mary

    2004-11-17

    The organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic and persistent and tend to accumulate in soils and growing plants. The contamination of growing plants occurs by adhesion of volatile substances from the air to the plant surface and by the migration of contaminants through xylem in inner ascendant transport. Persistent organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha,gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels were determined in soils and rye plants. The aims of the study were the monitoring of organochlorine pesticide concentrations and the comparison of these levels among soil, rye straw, and rye grains. Fifty soil samples and 50 rye plant (50 straw and 50 grains) samples were taken. The GLC-ECD chromatographic results indicated the following contamination levels distributed among soil, straw, and grains: HCB (0.7-1.2-0.7 microg.kg(-1)), alpha-HCH (0.6-3.4-1.2 microg.kg(-1)), gamma-HCH (1.8-27.3-4.4 microg.kg(-1)), Sigma-HCH (2.5-30.7-5.6 microg.kg(-1)), pp'DDE (1.0-7.8-5.5 microg.kg(-1)), op'DDT (16.1-20.4-17.0 microg.kg(-1)), pp'DDT (38.0-41.7-49.6 microg.kg(-1)), and Sigma-DDT (54.2-63.2-72.1 microg.kg(-1)). The study verified the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the Mexican agricultural environment and their migration from soil to the growing rye plants. However, DDT has been banned since 1999 for sanitary reasons, and Lindane is applied only in some cases as a seed dresser. The determined organochlorine pesticide levels in rye plants are low, at residual levels that are below Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum residue limits.

  10. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

  11. Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.W.; Haggland, A.L.; Voss, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well.

  12. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  13. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

    1981-03-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  14. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in Argentinian butter.

    PubMed

    Lenardón, A; Maitre de Hevia, M I; Enrique de Carbone, S

    1994-04-29

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, o,p' DDT and p,p' DDT). Most samples contained residues of gamma-HCH (Lindane) and heptachlor (92% and 78%, respectively); alpha-HCH and aldrin were detected in 58% and 55% of samples; dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, DDT isomers were found in few cases (30%). Mean values of pesticides residues in butter fat were: sigma HCH 0.029 ppm; sigma heptachlor 0.064 ppm; sigma aldrin 0.11 ppm and sigma DDT 0.024 ppm. Residue levels exceeded the limits prescribed by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization in only very few cases.

  16. Organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Luckas, B; Heidemann, G; Skírnisson, K

    1996-07-16

    Levels of organochlorines (PCBs, sigma DDT, lindane and its isomers, HCB, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. Differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, HCB, toxaphene, and DDT and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Compared to such elementary differences in the organochlorine pattern in different marine mammals, the influence of age and sex on the results was only minimal. Varying ratios of contaminants in individual harbour porpoises were explained by migration. Constant PCB/DDT ratios were measured in harbour seals. Due to the sedentariness of harbour seals, even local sources of contaminants could be recognized. Careful evaluation of the organochlorine levels and ratios in marine mammals made it possible to monitor the transport of PCBs from the European continent to European Arctic regions.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish from southern Italian rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive use of pesticides in agricultural and municipal fields contributed all over the world to an effective increase of production and to a limitation of the vector injuries to health. However the large quantities of synthetic chemical products employed to achieve these purposes have resulted in an extended environmental pollution, especially worrying about the organochlorine insecticides that are very persistent and suspected of carcinogenicity. For these reasons, this group of pesticides has been banned or strongly restricted in many countries including Italy, where just Lindane and Endosulfan are now allowed in agriculture, representing only 7% of the annual use of synthetic pesticides. In order to control the amount of contamination of surface water from organochlorine pesticides, some surveys were carried out in northern and central Italy, but information regarding situation in southern Italy is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the magnitude of chlorinated pesticide aquatic pollution in southern Italy by the analysis of some permanent freshwater fish species.

  18. Organochlorine contamination in some marketable fish in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2004-03-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were analyzed in four species of fish (Bouri Mugil spp., Denis Sparus auratus, Moza Boops boops and Mousa Pegusa lascaris), from four Egyptian governorates (South Sinai, Suez, Port-Said and Demietta). Although all fish studied are bottom or near-bottom feeders, remarkable variations between studied species were noticed. The grand total values recorded at the studied governorates were in descending order: Bouri>Denis>Moza>Mousa. The highest concentration of pesticides was recorded in Demietta governorate fish (20-211 ng/g of wet weight) and the p,p'-DDE dominated over the other p,p'-isomers in all studied fish, while dieldrin was the dominated in the studied cyclodiene compounds. However, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) occurred at all studied governorate fish except Mousa fish from South Sinai. Toxaphene was detected only in fish (Bouri, Denis, and Mousa) from Demietta governorate. Chlordane was not detected in any studied fish. The level of organochlorine pesticides contamination in fish from the studied governorates is relatively low and should not pose a health risk to consumers.

  19. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunbo; Guo, Jipeng; Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Yang; Na, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27597971

  1. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area

    SciTech Connect

    Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

    1989-02-01

    The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma of older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle

    2011-11-01

    No nationwide study has ever measured polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) body burden in Canadians aged 65 years and over. The objective of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of PCB congeners and OCPs in participants from a sub-cohort of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging and to examine the effects of socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics on selected organochlorine concentrations. Archived plasma samples collected from 2023 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization for 15 PCB congeners and 11 OCPs. Descriptive statistics were used to report PCB congeners and OCP plasma concentrations. Multivariate models were used to study whether age at blood collection, sex, education, body mass index, rural residence, geographic region, smoking status and alcohol intake influences PCB 153, the most abundant congener, and the major OCP (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE) plasma concentrations. Statistical analyses were restricted to 1979 subjects and 17 organochlorine compounds for which at least 50% of the samples had concentrations above the limit of detection. Of these, 775 were men (mean age: 82.2 years) and 1204 were women (mean age: 84.6 years). The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of PCB 153 in the plasma of men and women were 70.9 and 75.4, respectively. The levels of the sum of PCBs and the sum of dioxin-like PCBs were 276 and 31.3 for men, and 300 and 45.5 for women, respectively. The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE, the most abundant OCP, were 565 for men and 828 for women. All compounds were positively and significantly intercorrelated (rs=0.39-0.99; p<0.001). Except for trans-nonachlor, the multivariate models revealed that age and male sex were the determining characteristics that showed, respectively, strongly positive and negative associations with selected organochlorine

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia).

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  5. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies.

  6. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation.

  7. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    PubMed

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (<2.6 ng g(-1)) and its byproducts α-HCH (<3.5 ng g(-1)) and β-HCH (<0.6 ng g(-1)). Among the DDT and its metabolites, only two were found: p,p'-DDT was found in a cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards.

  8. The heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) seems to be able to metabolize organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: A case-control study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Falcón-Cordón, Yaiza; Falcón-Cordón, Soraya; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-01-01

    It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum. The study included three groups of dogs prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) a group constituted by dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (D. immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=25); and c) the same group of parasitized dogs after the treatment against the parasite (n=25). The presence of D. immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 105, 118, 123, 138, 153, 167 and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor). The serum levels of these substances remained at very low levels after the treatment against the parasite, suggesting that D. immitis do not simply store such compounds, but they probably have some ability to metabolize these pollutants. We encourage the use of the parasite infestation status as a cofactor that needs to be taken into account in studies aimed to evaluate the serum levels of POPs.

  9. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

  10. Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J.; Weseloh, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  12. Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

    1982-01-01

    A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges.

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-04-01

    Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of β-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast.

  14. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  15. Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

    2004-05-01

    Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill).

  16. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  17. Persistent Persister Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically. PMID:28082974

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  19. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

  20. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  1. Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

    2013-06-04

    Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (∑Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ∑Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ∑Hg. ∑Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (∑Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with δ(13)C nor δ(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ∑TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ∑PCBs > ∑DDTs > ∑chlordanes > ∑mirex compounds > ∑BDEs ∼ ∑chlorobenzenes ∼ octachlorostyrene > α-hexachlorocyclohexane ∼ hexachlorobenzene ∼ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.

  2. Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney A; Nichols, Peter D; Schlabach, Martin; Noad, Michael; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxic lipophilic organochlorine (OC) compounds, accumulate in the blubber tissue of marine mammals. Toxicological sampling methods most frequently target only the superficial blubber layer. Vertical distribution of these contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs). It is therefore critical to assess stratification patterns in a species of interest as a quality control measure for interpretation of toxicological data. Here, we analysed and compared the distribution of lipids, FAs, and OCs in the outermost and innermost blubber layer of southern hemisphere humpback whales. FA stratification was evident for short-chain (≤18) monounsaturated fatty acids (SC-MUFA), which were concentrated in the outer layer, consistent with the thermoregulatory role of this blubber layer. This stratification was, however, not reflected in OC distribution, which was similar in the inner and outer blubber layers of male humpback whales. By comparison, a noticeable gradient in total blubber lipid from the outer to the inner layer was observed in two lactating females, which coincided with higher lipid normalised contaminant levels in the inner layer. This study contains the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale blubber stratification to date, however, further investigation of biological and ecological influencing factors is required.

  3. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in human breast milk from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Wang, Dongli; Ni, Rong; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent organic pollutants that could cause deleterious effects on human health. Breast milk represents a noninvasive specimen source to assess maternal and infant exposure to OCPs. This study recruited 142 pregnant mothers in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China, and their breast milk samples were collected during lactation and analyzed for 27 OCP compounds. Detection rates were in a range of 65.5 to 100 %. In particular, metabolites of 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) such as 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (DDOH), bis(4-chlorophenyl)ketone (DBP), and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were detected in most milk samples. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were dominant OCPs with mean levels of 316, 49.8, and 41.5 ng/g lipid content, respectively, whereas levels of methoxychlor, ∑Drins, ∑Heptachlor, ∑Chlordane, and ∑Endosulfan were fairly low (0.87-5.6 ng/g lipid content). Milk concentrations of OCPs were weakly correlated with maternal age, body weight, and body mass indexes (BMIs). ∑OCPs in this study were much lower than those in human breast milk samples collected in 2002 and 2007. Consumption of higher amounts of fish was associated with higher milk levels of OCPs. Specific OCP patterns in breast milk samples from migrant mothers in Shanghai reflected features of OCP production, use, and exposure in their home provinces. The probabilistic exposure assessment model reveals that Shanghai infants were exposed to low levels of OCPs through breast milk consumption. However, infants as the vulnerable group might be subject to the potential additive and/or synergistic health effects from complex OCP exposure.

  5. Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

  6. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  7. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act.

  8. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  9. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2).

  10. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  11. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L.; Clark, D.R.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  12. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  13. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-02-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  14. Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today. PMID:15175172

  15. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  16. Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Gaus, Caroline; Müller, Jochen; Dennison, William

    2005-01-01

    Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel in a number of individual animals were elevated in comparison to concentrations previously reported in Australian dugong. Dieldrin, DDT (and its breakdown products) and/or heptachlor epoxide were detected in 59% of dugong blubber samples. In general, concentrations of organochlorines were similar to those reported in dugong 20 years earlier, and were low in comparison to concentrations recorded from marine mammal tissue collected elsewhere in the world. With the exception of lead, the extent of carcass decomposition, the presence of disease or evidence of animal starvation prior to death did not significantly affect dugong tissue concentrations of metals or organochlorines. The results of the study suggest that bioaccumulation of metals and organochlorine compounds (other than dioxins) does not represent a significant risk to Great Barrier Reef dugong populations, particularly in the context of other pressures associated with coastal development and other anthropogenic activities.

  17. Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta.

    PubMed

    Aurigi, S; Focardi, S; Hulea, D; Renzoni, A

    2000-07-01

    In this study we report the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of aquatic birds from the Danube Delta, a major European wetland. The eggs were collected in 1997 and belonged to the following species: the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the greylag goose (Anser anser), the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the coot (Fulica atra), the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), the spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), the little egret (Egretta garzetta), the night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), the great white egret (Egretta alba), the red-necked grebe (Podiceps griseus), the Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), the Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) and the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were higher in eggs of the little egret, the great white egret, the cormorant and the Pygmy cormorant with respect to the other species (48,399, 13,613, 12,400 and 10,417 ng/g dry wt., respectively). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were lower than 1393 ng/g dry wt. in all species while polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the Pygmy cormorant (2565 ng/g dry wt.) were higher than in the other species. The toxicity evaluation was based on 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent factors (TEF) and non-ortho PCB congeners contributed much more than mono-ortho PCBs in most of species. A further aim of this study was to evaluate the possible differences of organochlorine levels in bird eggs collected in the same area in 1982 and in 1997; generally speaking the levels detected in the latter period were lower than those detected in the earlier one.

  18. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    PubMed

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  19. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  20. Response to comment on “Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Henderson, Alden K.; Reissman, Dori B.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Centers for Disease Control thank Dr. Till for her comments concerning our research (Till, 2005) and welcome the opportunity to respond. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs), including pharmaceuticals, to survive a conventional drinking-water-treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Our study was supported by two USGS laboratories: the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), which provided the HPLC/ESI-MS and CLLE GC/MS data and the Ocala Water Quality and Research Laboratory (OWQRL), which provided the LC/MS data (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Although discussed as distinct techniques by Dr. Till and indicated by differing acronyms to distinguish the laboratories producing the data, as described in our paper, the two LC/MS methods are very similar; they consist of a solid-phase extraction method with analysis of the extract produced using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer operated in the positive mode. The NWQL and OWQRL report ‘trace’ and ‘ultratrace’ determinations of analytes that provide significant benefit for describing the presence and fate of low-level contaminants. For mass spectral methods, an analyte is qualitatively identified by its retention time on the chromatographic column as well as the presence of two or more confirming ions with area ratios that match that of the reference standard compounds. Because of a recognized increased risk of false positives, these qualitative identification criteria are used in conjunction with abundant quality-control samples (detailed below) to confirm detection prior to making an estimate of the concentration. These qualitative identification criteria must be met before a compound is considered present (or detected) in a sample (Oblinger Childress et al., 1999). When a compound has been

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PAHs in the surface water and atmosphere of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Gioia, Rosalinda; Jones, Kevin C; Nizzetto, Luca; Temme, Christian; Xie, Zhiyong; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Hand, Ines; Morgan, Eric; Jantunen, Liisa

    2009-08-01

    Surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were collected on the FS Polarstern during cruise ARKXX in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean in 2004. Samples were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), with a focus on organochlorine pesticides, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of pesticides, notably alpha-HCH and cis-chlordane (CC), were determined. Concentrations of dissolved HCB increased from near Europe (approximately 1-2 pg/L) toward the high Arctic (4-10 pg/L). For dissolved HCB, strongest correlations were obtained with the average air or water temperature during sampling, not latitude. In the western Arctic Ocean, surface waters with elevated concentrations of HCB (5-10 pg/ L) were flowing out of the Arctic Ocean as part of the East Greenland current In contrast to dissolved compounds, atmospheric POPs did not display trends with temperature. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for all compounds, though HCB was closest to air-water equilibrium. EFs for alpha-HCH in seawater ranged from 0.43 to 0.50, except for two samples from 75 degrees N in the East Greenland Sea, with EFs of 0.31 and 0.37. Lowest EF (0.47) for CC were also at 75 degrees N, other samples had EFs from 0.49 to 0.52. It is suggested that samples from around 75 degrees N in the Greenland Gyre represented a combination of surface and older/deeper Arctic water.

  2. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Concern Over the Link with Insulin Resistance Related Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly halogenated compounds tending to persist in the environment, enter into the food chain, and accumulate in fat mass of mammals due to their high lipophilicity. They include some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these chemicals were widely used in the past so that their residues can be detected in the human body, though their usage has been banned for years. POPs have been shown to perturb the health of biological systems in different ways evidenced by carcinogenicity and disrupting effects on endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems. There are many epidemiologic and experimental studies on the association of exposure to POPs with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation as a known mechanism accompanying insulin resistance has also been shown to arise in insulin target tissues exposed to POPs. This review addresses the breast milk concentration of POPs in different regions of the world, synthesizes the current information on the association of POPs with insulin resistance related metabolic disorders, and discusses the inflammation as an involved mechanism. Considering high prevalence of insulin resistance related metabolic diseases and their relation with POPs, much need is felt regarding international and regional programs to not only limit their production and usage but eliminate these persistent pollutants from the environment.

  3. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  4. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment.

  5. Organochlorine residues in adipose tissue of chamois from the Catalan Pyrenees, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Guitart, R.; Riu, J.L.; Puigdemont, A.; Arboix, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Organochlorine chemicals have been found to be present in aquatic and terrestrial mammal species. Although some of these animals are not edible or not specially important as a source of proteins for human or domestic animals, the detection of accumulated organochlorine compounds in their bodies is useful to control the grade of extension and to monitor the evolution of these xenobiotics in biosphere. Data on this subject in south-west European non-migratory mammalian wildlife are for the most part unknown. The chamois or izard (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a typical inhabitant of many euroasiatic high mountains. There are two subspecies of chamois in Spain. The pyrenean chamois is fortunately present in sufficient number in some zones of the Catalan Pyrnees, that its hunting for population control is allowed during a short period of the year. The Natural Park of Cadi-Moixero is one of these zones. Only an insignificant part of its soil is dedicated to agricultural uses, and no industries are found inside or near its domain. The purpose of this work is to present organochlorine residue data for chamois collected in this zone.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly.

  7. Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.

    2002-01-01

    Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace

  8. Regulation of discharge of organochlorines from pulp mills in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Jennifer

    1991-03-01

    Organochlorines are a group of chemicals including dioxins and furans, at least some of which are highly toxic to humans. Organochlorines are formed as a byproduct of the chlorine bleaching process in pulp mills, as well as in other ways. Current federal and provincial environmental protection legislation in Canada is too general to adequately deal with the problem of organochlorine discharge. In Sweden and Germany strict new guidelines have been set for the discharge of organochlorines; strict guidelines are also planned for Alberta. The author recommends that new regulations, dealing specifically with organochlorine discharge, be promulgated under the new Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The new regulations should apply equally to all pulp mills. Strict enforcement, through cooperation of federal and provincial authorities, is also advised.

  9. Organochlorine compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Pacific walrus blubber.

    PubMed

    Seagars, D J; Garlich-Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    Blubber samples were collected from 8 male and 19 female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) taken during a 1991 joint USA/USSR cruise traveling widely through the Bering Sea. Dieldrin was found at a level similar to that reported 10 years earlier; oxychlordane was found at a slightly higher concentration than reported previously (Taylor et aL, 1989). Heptachlor epoxide was detected for the first time and found at a low concentration. An initial testing for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH detected concentrations similar to those in other Bering Sea pinnipeds. Mean summation of PCB was 0.45 microg g(-1) wet weight in males and 0.16 microg g(-1) in females; only one sample was > 1 microg g(-1). Traces of aliphatic hydrocarbons were detected in all sampled animals, only pristane (x = 0.48 microg g(-1)) was found in concentrations > 1 microg g(-1). Small sample sizes, a lack of samples from immature animals, and uniformly low concentrations of contaminants precluded meaningful analysis of age-related effects and regional differences.

  10. Atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides across some West African countries.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Nahomi; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Oyediran, Femi; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Ayonghe, Samuel N; Fobil, Julius; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-07-31

    Most African countries have ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are expected to reduce emissions of POPs such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to the atmosphere. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that there are contemporary sources of OCPs in African countries despite the global ban on these products. This study investigated the atmospheric contamination from OCPs in four West African countries-Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon-to ascertain the emission levels of OCPs and the characteristic signatures of contamination. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in each country for ca. 55 days in 2012 and analyzed for 25 OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in the target countries, at average concentrations of 441 pg m(-3) (range 23-2718) and 403 pg m(-3) (range 91-1880), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration, ranged between 0.1 and 3.3 pg m(-3). The concentration of OCPs in rainy season was higher than in dry season in Cameroon, and presupposed inputs from agriculture during the rainy season. The concentrations of ∑25 OCPs in each country were in the following order: Cameroon > Nigeria > Benin > Togo. There was significant evidence, based on chemical signatures of the contamination that DDT, aldrin, chlordane, and endosulfan were recently applied at certain sites in the respective countries.

  11. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Gaido, K; Dohme, L; Wang, F; Chen, I; Blankvoort, B; Ramamoorthy, K; Safe, S

    1998-12-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses. This study focused on estrogenic chemicals in the diet and compared the relative potencies or estrogen equivalents (EQs) of the daily consumption of xenoestrogenic organochlorine pesticides in food (2.44 micrograms/day) with the EQs in a single 200-ml glass of red cabernet wine. The reconstituted organochlorine mixture contained 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, endosulfan-1, endosulfan-2, p,p'-methoxychlor, and toxaphene; the relative proportion of each chemical in the mixture resembled the composition reported in a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration market basket survey. The following battery of in vitro 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-responsive bioassays were utilized in this study: competitive binding to mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); proliferation in T47D human breast cancer cells; luciferase (Luc) induction in human HepG2 cells transiently cotransfected with C3-Luc and the human ER, rat ER-alpha, or rat ER-beta; induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with E2-responsive cathepsin D-CAT or creatine kinase B-CAT plasmids. For these seven in vitro assays, the calculated EQs in extracts from 200 ml of red cabernet wine varied from 0.15 to 3.68 micrograms/day. In contrast, EQs for consumption of organochlorine pesticides (2.44 micrograms/day) varied from nondetectable to 1.24 ng/day. Based on results of the in vitro bioassays, organochlorine pesticides in food contribute minimally to dietary EQ intake.

  12. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Lawrence S.; White, Alexandra J.; Eng, Sybil M.; Cleveland, Rebecca J.; Khankari, Nikhil K.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides (p,p’-DDT, its primary metabolite, p,p’-DDE, and chlordane) assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996–1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n=633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR=2.19; 95%CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR=2.72; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR=1.42; CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR=1.42; 95%CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR=0.66; 95%CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals. PMID:26285160

  13. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n = 633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals.

  14. Ascorbic acid requirements and metabolism in relation to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Street, J C; Chadwick, R W

    1975-09-30

    Those organochlorine pesticides which possess both high lipoid solubility and high resistance to biodegradation are prone to accumulation in animal tissues and produce relatively long-term effects as toxicants. Such compounds, typified by DDT, Dieldrin, and Lindane, are profound inducers of hepatic microsomal enzymes, including parts of the glucuronic acid and ascorbic acid biosynthetic pathways. Consequently, administering such pesticides to rats in accompanied by enhanced formation and excretion of D-glucuronic acid and L-ascorbic acid, or D-glucaric acid in the case of guinea pigs. Secondarily, the efficiency in biodegrading the pesticides is reduced in ascorbic-acid-deficient guinea pigs with correspondingly greater residue accumulation in tissue. This would aggravate chronic toxic effects of the compounds. Finally, the capacity of the liver to adapt to the presence of such toxicants through enhanced microsomal enzymatic levels appears to be sensitive to its ascorbate status. Impaired enzyme induction is apparent quite early during ascorbic acid depletion in guinea pigs. The enhanced turnover of ascorbate produced by such pesticides, the poor enzymatic adaptation to them during ascorbate depletion and the dependency of the oxidase system upon adequate ascorbate, all point to the central significance of ascorbate status in the liver, and possibly other tissues, as a determinant of their chronic toxicity.

  15. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound.

  16. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  17. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Asunción; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age< or =1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable.

  18. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb dry weight (dry wt.), while in the soil from conventional farming of beets 0.53 ppb dry wt. Among vegetables, higher concentrations of pesticides were detected in organically grown beets (190.63 ppb dry wt.). Soil samples from the organic farming contained lower levels of organochlorine pesticide residues compared to the conventional farming. Taking into account toxicity equivalent (TEQ), the conventionally grown carrots accumulated the most toxic PCBs. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs were also noted in the grain of conventionally grown rye and amounted to 3.05 pg-TEQ/g wet wt.

  19. Evaluation of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in the upper Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.; Rostad, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Petty, J.D.; MacCarthy, P.

    1995-11-01

    Organochlorine contaminants sequestered in lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were compared to those found in tangential-flow ultrafilter permeates as part of a pilot study at 10 sites in the Upper Mississippi River system. Caged and feral fish from three primary sites were also analyzed for comparison. Concentrated organochlorine (OC) compounds were readily extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis into hexane, and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Fish and water samples were processed by conventional methods. Reasonable agreement was found between analyte SPMD-derived water concentrations and measured values of ultrafilter permeates; however, concentrations of the same analytes in caged fish did not appear to be proportional to water concentrations derived from SPMDs and ultrafilter permeates. The greatest number of OC compounds was detected in SPMDs; fewer were detected in caged fish and feral fish.

  20. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    by adding as many additional Tier 1 compounds as are analytically compatible. About 35 percent of the Tier 1 compounds for sediment are high priority on the basis of measured occurrence. A total of 74 compounds, or 42 percent, are high priority on the basis of predicted likelihood of occurrence according to physical-chemical properties, and either have potential toxicity to aquatic life, high pesticide useage, or both. The remaining 22 percent of Tier 1 pesticide compounds were either degradates of Tier 1 parent compounds or included for other reasons. As with water, the Tier 1 pesticide compounds for sediment are distributed across the major pesticide-use groups; insecticides and their degradates are the largest fraction, making up 45 percent of Tier 1. In contrast to water, organochlorines, at 17 percent, are the largest chemical class for Tier 1 in sediment, which is to be expected because there is continued widespread detection in sediments of persistent organochlorine pesticides and their degradates at concentrations high enough for potential effects on aquatic life. Compared to water, there are fewer available benchmarks with which to compare contaminant concentrations in sediment, but a total of 19 Tier 1 compounds have at least one sediment benchmark or screening value for aquatic organisms. Of the 175 compounds in Tier 1, 77 percent have high aquatic-life toxicity, as defined for this process. This evaluation of pesticides and degradates resulted in two lists of compounds that are priorities for USGS analytical methods development, one for water and one for sediment. These lists will be used as the basis for redesigning and enhancing USGS analytical capabilities for pesticides in order to capture as many high-priority pesticide compounds as possible using an economically feasible approach.

  1. Inhibition of final maturation of Atlantic croaker oocytes in vitro by organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in teleosts is induced by a maturation inducing steroid (MIS) secreted in response to a surge in maturational gonadotropin secretion. Recently the authors found that a variety of organochlorine pesticides bind to the ovarian plasma membrane receptor for the MIS in the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). In the present study the interaction of various xenobiotics (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) with MIS-induced final maturation of follicle-enclosed oocytes of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), a closely related species, was investigated using an in vitro oocyte maturation bioassay. A wide range of organochlorine compounds (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) inhibited MIS-induced FOM 10%-80% in a concentration-dependent manner. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most potent inhibitor among the compounds tested. The minimum concentration of TCDD which inhibited final maturation of 50% of the oocytes (EC{sub 50}) was in the 10{sup {minus}7} M range whereas the EC{sub 50} values for Kepone and naphthalene were in the 10{sup {minus}5}M range. The relative potencies of DDT analogs varied greatly, with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}4}M (o,p{prime}-DDD > o,p{prime}-DDE > o,p{prime}DDT > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDT). PCBs only inhibited FOM at higher concentrations (2--200 ppm); congeners with higher chlorine contents were the most inhibitory. These results indicate that organochlorine compounds at environmentally realistic concentrations can affect reproduction in fish by interfering with FOM, a critical stage of the reproductive cycle.

  2. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  3. Concentrations and mass fluxes estimation of organochlorine pesticides in Three Gorges Reservoir with virtual organisms using in situ PRC-based sampling rate.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Cedrique; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Deyerling, Dominik; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. Due to their persistence and toxicity, it is important to know their fluxes and spatial and temporal distribution in the environment. In this study, a new procedure to estimate OCP concentration based on a set of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was used. Their occurrence and mass fluxes were assessed on a regional scale ranging from Chonqging to Maoping in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as part of Yangtze River. The results are based on three sampling campaigns in 2009 (twice) and 2011. Due to different factors, the measured concentrations varied from 410 to 1418 pg/L. The highest total OCP concentration was localized in Wanzhou while the lowest was downstream Maoping near the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The highest load of OCP mass fluxes was observed at Wanhzou with 9.6 mg/s and the lowest load at Maoping with 2.97 mg/s. Studies at Maoping show an increase in OCP water concentration from 2009 to 2012. Comparison between free dissolved OCP water concentration and total OCP water concentration in TGR 2009, 2011 and 2012 show a slight variation, indicating the important role of dilution in the OCP removal process in TGR.

  4. Levels and distribution of organochlorines in fish from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin; Hartono, Philippus; Muawanah; Omori, Koji; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-08-01

    Organochlorines such as PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB were determined in pooled whole body homogenized of fish samples collected from five locations during 1998 and 2003 in order to understand their contamination status, temporal and spatial variation in Indonesian waters. PCBs and DDTs were the predominant contaminants with concentrations from 9.7 to 2700 ng/g lipid wt. and 12 to 1100 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, while HCHs (nd-24 ng/g lipid wt.), CHL compounds (nd-81 ng/g lipid wt.) and HCB (0.22-28 ng/g lipid wt.) were one to two orders of magnitude lower. Among the locations, PCBs and CHLs were higher in the samples from highly industrialized and thickly populated-locations, whereas OC pesticides such as DDTs and HCHs were particularly more prominent in suburban and rural areas. Levels of OCs observed in the waters surrounding Java Island were higher than those in Sumatra Island, implying significant use of OCs in highly populated Java Island. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in fish from Jakarta Bay were significantly lower in the samples collected in 2003 as compared to fish in 1998, indicating decreasing trend of these compounds in the Indonesian environment. Recent estimated average daily intakes of PCBs (0.81 microg/person/day), DDTs (1.1 microg/person/day), HCHs (0.018 microg/person/day), CHLs (0.010 microg/person/day) were much lower than the threshold values recommended by various agencies, suggesting minimal risk of this compound via fish ingestion to Indonesians.

  5. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  6. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

  7. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: inferences from spatial and trophic variation.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Anthony, Robert G

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (delta15N) and carbon source (delta13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Sigma PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Sigma PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Sigma PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with delta15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Sigma PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of

  8. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Anthony, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (δ15N) and carbon source (δ13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Σ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a ‘U’-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Σ PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Σ PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Σ PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′ DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with δ15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Σ PCBs and p,p′ DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric

  9. Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    PubMed

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America.

  11. Reduction of organochlorine emissions from municipal and hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, R.C.; Collazo-Lopez, H.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have modeled some chemical processes that occur in municipal incinerators that result in the emission of organochlorine compounds by studying the high-temperature destruction of noncombustible polymers, specifically poly(vinylidene chloride), in a stream of heated, flowing, moist air. The dominant volatile products form the thermal destruction of poly(vinylidene chloride) were polychloroaromatic hydrocarbons. The thermochemistry for the reaction of calcium, oxide, chloroacetylene, and oxygen to give calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water is very favorable (-571 kcal/mol). Calcium oxide is available by the heat treatment of crushed limestone. Fluidized-bed technology involving calcium oxide is already in place for reduction of acidic emissions (SO/sub 2/) from coal-fired power plants. Preliminary experiments in which a fluidized bed of calcium oxide was placed above the thermal destruction zone for poly(vinyldene chloride) in a 1000/sup 0/C tube furnace results in a decrease in aromatic polychloride effluents of a factor of 3 x 10/sup 2/. 18 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Synergistic activation of human pregnane X receptor by binary cocktails of pharmaceutical and environmental compounds

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Dendele, Béatrice; Huet, Tiphaine; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Beucher, Bertrand; Roecklin, Dominique; Muller, Christina; Rahmani, Roger; Cavaillès, Vincent; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Vivat, Valérie; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2015-01-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to multiple exogenous substances, including environmental pollutants, drugs and dietary components. Many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. Here we demonstrate that a pharmaceutical oestrogen and a persistent organochlorine pesticide, both exhibiting low efficacy when studied separately, cooperatively bind to the pregnane X receptor, leading to synergistic activation. Biophysical analysis shows that each ligand enhances the binding affinity of the other, so the binary mixture induces a substantial biological response at doses at which each chemical individually is inactive. High-resolution crystal structures reveal the structural basis for the observed cooperativity. Our results suggest that the formation of ‘supramolecular ligands' within the ligand-binding pocket of nuclear receptors contributes to the synergistic toxic effect of chemical mixtures, which may have broad implications for the fields of endocrine disruption, toxicology and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26333997

  13. Sources and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the soil and sediment along the Kaidu-Peacock River, Northwest of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Fei; Qu, Chengkai; Zhang, Yuan; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a sub-group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have raised the concerns from researchers all around the world for several decades. But very little research has been conducted on POPs in the arid zone of Northwest China. More than 100 soil and sediment samples were collected from Kaidu-Peacock River of Xinjiang, Northwest of China, to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in this region analysed by the gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Our pre-study in 2006 (Chen et al. 2011) in the same region, showed that OCPs except o,p'-DDT were detected in sediments from the Peacock River. Similar results were found in the whole river catchment in this investigation. DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and endosulfans were the dominant OCPs residual in the soil and sediments. This study confirmed that POPs, such as OCPs in this region were contributed to by both local emissions and long-term atmospheric transport and may pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. Chen, W., Jing, M., Bu, J., Ellis Burnet, J., Qi, S., Song, Q., Ke, Y., Miao, J., Liu, M. & Yang, C. (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 1-21.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in dusts that settled indoors in lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, John H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Gigliotti, Cari L; Chen, Lung Chi; Xiong, Judy Q; Quan, Chunli; Lou, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Mianhua; Gorczynski, John; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Illacqua, Vito; Lioy, Paul J

    2004-03-01

    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol impacting many residents, workers, and commuters after September 11, 2001. In all, 12 bulk samples of the settled dust were collected at indoor locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, including one sample from a residence that had been cleansed and was once again occupied. Additionally, one sample was collected from just outside a fifth story window on the sill. These samples were analyzed for many components, including inorganic and organic constituents as well as morphology of the various particles. The results of the analyses for persistent organic pollutants on dusts that settled at indoor locations are described herein, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and select organo-chlorine pesticides. The Sigma(86)-PCB concentrations, comprising less than one part per million by mass of the bulk in the two samples analyzed, indicated that PCBs were of limited significance in the dust that settled at indoor locations across lower Manhattan. Likewise, organo-chlorine pesticides, Hexachlorobenzene, Heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT and Mirex were found at even lower concentrations in the bulk samples. Conversely, Sigma(37)-PAHs comprised up to 0.04% (<0.005-0.036%) by mass of the bulk indoor dust in the 11 WTC impacted bulk indoor samples. Analysis of one sample of indoor dusts collected from a vacuum cleaner of a rehabilitated home shows markedly lower PAH concentrations (<0.0005 mass%), as well as differing relative contributions for individual compounds. In addition to similar concentrations, comparison of PAH concentration patterns (i.e. chemical fingerprints) shows that dusts that settled indoors are chemically similar to previously measured WTC dusts found at outdoor locations and that these PAH analyses may be used in identifying dusts of WTC origin at indoor locations, along with ascertaining further

  15. Maternal transfer of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Evi; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    Although eggs have frequently been used as a biomonitoring tool for contamination with organohalogenated pollutants (OHPs), few studies have investigated the processes of maternal transfer in birds. Here, maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated through comparison of the concentrations and profiles between whole homogenised female blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and their eggs. In addition, we examined if there was an effect of laying order on the concentrations of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. PCBs were the most abundant contaminants in female blue tits and their eggs, followed by OCPs and PBDEs. Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE was the most dominant compound and accounted for more than 80% of the sum OCPs. Egg concentrations decreased significantly in relation to the laying order from 1623+/-148 ng/g lipid weight (lw) to 1040+/-47 ng/g lw for the sum PCBs, from 342+/-24 ng/g lw to 235+/-17 ng/g lw for the sum OCPs and from 49+/-5 ng/g lw to 27+/-5 ng/g lw for the sum PBDEs. When reviewing all studies investigating laying order effects of OHPs in birds, no clear patterns emerged, which may be due to differences in study species and methodology among studies. Despite the fact that there were laying order effects in blue tit clutches, the variance in concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs was larger among clutches than within clutches. Variance in OCP concentrations among clutches was similar to the variance within clutches. These results suggest that one randomly collected blue tit egg from a clutch is useful as biomonitoring tool for PCBs and PBDEs, while for OCPs it is recommended to consistently use the same egg from the laying sequence as a biomonitoring tool. Lipid-normalized concentrations of sum PCBs, sum OCPs and sum PBDEs in female blue tits after clutch completion were comparable to the concentrations in the first-laid eggs. The egg/female lipid concentration ratios for

  16. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  17. Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Greig, Denise J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Hall, Ailsa J; Fauquier, Deborah A; Gulland, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxin-like congeners, as well as DDTs and hexachlorobenzene. Summed values of PCBs (sigmaPCBs), of DDTs (sigmaDDTs), and of PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were calculated from these data. The ratios of mean blubber concentrations of fetal sigmaPCBs to maternal blubber concentrations of sigmaPCBs were 0.45 by wet weight and 0.97 by lipid weight, but these ratios varied widely among mother-fetus pairs. Mean ratios of fetal sigmaDDTs to maternal sigmaDDTs were 0.53 by wet weight and 1.12 by lipid weight. Fetuses were classified into two age groups, based on date of recovery, to examine differences in OC transfer because of gestational age. Fetal to maternal ratios for individual PCB congeners, DDT compounds, and sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and sigmaPCB TEQs were lower among premature compared with late-term fetuses. These ratios increased for both groups as the logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for each compound decreased. Linear predictions for sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in fetal blubber could be obtained using the sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in maternal blubber, maternal and fetal blubber lipid content, maternal mass, and maternal age. Fetal TEQ was explained by maternal TEQ and maternal age. The ability to predict contaminant concentrations in fetal blubber from maternal parameters is important for developing risk assessment models for marine mammals.

  18. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico.

  19. Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

    2006-03-01

    Samples of breast muscle from 32 species of waterfowl collected from 123 sites across Canada were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury. SigmaDDT, SigmaCBz and SigmaPCB were the compounds most frequently found above trace levels. SigmaHCH and SigmaMirex were detected the least often. Mercury was detected in all of the mergansers, over 50% of dabbling, bay and sea ducks, and in less than 2% of the geese analysed. The highest levels of contaminants were generally found in birds feeding at higher trophic levels such as sea ducks and mergansers. With the exception of a few samples of mergansers and long-tailed ducks from eastern Canada, which contained SigmaPCB concentrations of 1.0-2.4 mg kg(-1), SigmaPCB levels were less than 1 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Only one merganser from eastern Canada had a SigmaDDT concentration (2.6 mg kg(-1) ww) which was greater than 1 mg kg(-1) ww. The highest SigmaCHL (0.10 mg kg(-1) ww) was also found in mergansers from eastern Canada. Levels of total mercury in breast muscle were either low (< 1 mg kg(-1) ww) or below detection limits with the exception of a few samples of mergansers from eastern Canada which contained mercury concentrations of 1.0-1.5 mg kg(-1) ww. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and mercury levels found in samples of breast muscle of ducks and geese analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these waterfowl were safe to eat.

  20. Levels and spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the environment: a case study of German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2013-11-19

    The Of/Oh-horizons of 447 forest stands in Germany were evaluated for concentrations and spatial distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). While concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and PCBs show similar spatial distribution patterns for all measured compounds within each compound class, significantly different distributions were identified for concentrations of low-molecular-weight PAHs [2- and 3-ring PAHs plus fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR)] in contrast to high-molecular-weight PAHs (4-6-ring PAHs without FLA and PYR). Maxima of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations could be mostly explained by specific locatable sources. Because of the slow degradation rates of these target substances, this is especially relevant for historic contamination sources, such as extensive 1980s DDT usage in the former German Democratic Republic and industrial facilities that produced hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or PCBs. A contribution of ubiquitous background pollution derived from long-range atmospheric transport is likely for some compounds in the studied area, e.g., DDT in the western part of Germany and dieldrin. However, most target compounds appear to be mainly sourced from local or regional emissions. This is supported by the absence of clear dependencies between POP concentrations and most evaluated environmental and local parameters. We suggest that these results generally reflect the distribution of POPs in densely populated and industrialized countries located in temperate regions.

  1. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  2. Exposure to an organochlorine pesticide (chlordecone) and development of 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Muckle, Gina; Rouget, Florence; Kadhel, Philippe; Bataille, Henri; Chajès, Véronique; Dallaire, Renée; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-03-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used in the French West Indies until the early 1990s for banana weevil borer control. Human exposure to this chemical in this area still occurs nowadays due to consumption of contaminated food. Although adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including tremors and memory deficits, have been documented in experimental studies conducted with rodents exposed during the gestational and neonatal periods, no study has been conducted yet to determine if chlordecone alters child development. This study examines the relation of gestational and postnatal exposure to chlordecone to infant development at 18 months of age in a birth-cohort of Guadeloupean children. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in Guadeloupe (Timoun mother-child cohort study), exposure to chlordecone was measured at birth from an umbilical cord blood sample (n=141) and from a breast milk sample collected at 3 months postpartum (n=75). Toddlers were assessed using an adapted version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Higher chlordecone concentrations in cord blood were associated with poorer fine motor scores. When analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls, this effect was only observed among boys. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to chlordecone is associated with specific impairments in fine motor function in boys, and add to the growing evidence that exposure to organochlorine pesticides early in life impairs child development.

  3. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  4. Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1992-08-01

    Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in China's surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J

    2017-02-15

    Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values. These areas are mainly distributed along the southeast coast of China, within or downstream of major manufacturing districts, intensive agricultural basins, and other industrial centers. A comparison of the levels of OCPs in the aquatic environment of China with other indicative regions worldwide shows comparable levels of pollution (overall range from below detection limit (BDL) to 5104.8ng/L and regional means from 2.9-929.6ng/L). PAHs and PCBs pollution appear to be particularly serious in China (PAHs overall ranging from BDL to 474,000ng/L with regional means from 15.1-72,400ng/L; PCBs from BDL to 3161ng/L with regional means ranging from 0.2-985.2ng/L). There is as yet limited evidence of serious perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) pollution. We discuss major sources and processes responsible for high POP occurrence using a range of measures (including diagnostic ratios of different compounds), regulatory oversight and policy gaps in the control of POPs in China, and potential long-term health and ecological effects. We argue that water quality guidelines, pollution control measures and cleanup strategies for POPs in China should be

  6. Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

    1995-01-01

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet.

  7. Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even

    2008-04-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p<0.05). The frequency of liver lesions (steatosis, intravascular granulocyte accumulations, interstitial cell infiltrations, lipid granulomas, portal fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasia) were also highest in the exposed group, although not significantly (chi-square: all p>0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain.

  8. Development of compound-specific isotope analysis of stable chlorine in sub-µmol quantities of chlorinated organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrand, H.; Andersson, P.; Gustafsson, O.

    2003-04-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a common class of substances known to be of high ecotoxicity largely due to their persistence and strongly lipophilic properties. This group of chemicals include the semivolatile compounds dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which, together with solvents like trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), are globally present at detectable levels in all natural environments. Recent reports on the possibility of enzymatic synthesis of chlorinated dioxins and furans, illustrate the need for means to distinguish the naturally produced contribution from anthropogenic input to the environment. Shifts in the chlorine isotope composition due to degradation, or synthesis, of a compound are in the order of a few per mil of the initial isotope ratio. The cause of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) arises from differences in preferential phase distribution of isotopic species. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of stable chlorine should accordingly provide knowledge relevant to degradation rates, distribution patterns and reaction pathways for organochlorines. Isotope analysis of chlorine, derived from chlorinated hydrocarbons, can be performed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) with positive ions. This lowers the limit of determination from about 30 μmol Cl for conventional electron ionisation mass spectrometry (EIMS), to less than 0.3 μmol Cl with a precision of 0.25 ppm (1s) for TIMS. Such a decrease by a factor 100 in the requirements of sample size will enable CSIA of sediment samples collected away from the immediate vicinity of strongly contaminated areas. The aim of this study is to develop a functioning sequence for i) sealed tube combustion with CuO of solid phase chlorinated hydrocarbons equivalent to <0.7 μmol Cl, ii) conversion of formed chloride to CsCl by ion exchange chromatography and iii) analysis of chlorine isotopes in TIMS. The described method can open new

  9. Molecular perspectives and recent advances in microbial remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jaya; Das, Surajit

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and pollution stress stimulate genetic adaptation in microorganisms and assist in evolution of diverse metabolic pathways for their survival on several complex organic compounds. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic in nature and cause adverse effects to the environment and human health by biomagnification through the food chain. Diverse microorganisms, harboring numerous plasmids and catabolic genes, acclimatize to these environmentally unfavorable conditions by gene duplication, mutational drift, hypermutation, and recombination. Genetic aspects of some major POP catabolic genes such as biphenyl dioxygenase (bph), DDT 2,3-dioxygenase, and angular dioxygenase assist in degradation of biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxins/furans, respectively. Microbial metagenome constitutes the largest genetic reservoir with miscellaneous enzymatic activities implicated in degradation. To tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, recent techniques like sequence and function-based screening and substrate-induced gene expression are proficient in tracing out novel catabolic genes from the entire metagenome for utilization in enhanced biodegradation. The major endeavor of today's scientific world is to characterize the exact genetic mechanisms of microbes for bioremediation of these toxic compounds by excavating into the uncultured plethora. This review entails the effect of POPs on the environment and involvement of microbial catabolic genes for their removal with the advanced techniques of bioremediation.

  10. Photochemical Transformations of Trace Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Rowland, G. A.; Sprenkle, A.; Bausch, A.

    2007-12-01

    Polar snowpacks have been established as active matrices for chemical processing of atmospheric species such as molecular halogens, volatile organics and ozone. It has previously been demonstrated that photochemical transformations of anthropogenic persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in ice occur under laboratory conditions, but there is little in the published literature regarding these processes. In the study described here, we consider the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on trace amounts of various organochlorine compounds in ice; the compounds selected are of interest because of their known presence in polar regions and their detrimental effect on organisms in polar ecosystems. Both direct photochemical transformations and indirect photo-oxidation by OH radical were investigated. To differentiate between pure liquid-phase, solid phase and interfacial processes, experiments were conducted on POPs in aqueous solution, ice and crushed ice/snow at various temperatures. In all cases, the degradation of the POP was monitored by the extraction of photolyzed samples followed by GC analysis. On the basis of these degradation studies, some reactive systems were selected for more detailed investigation. Reaction products were identified from irradiated samples by SPME with GCMS analysis. On the basis of the kinetic studies and identified reaction products, mechanisms for selected photochemical transformations are proposed. Potential implications of these transformations for environmental partitioning and interactions of the selected POPs will be discussed.

  11. Organochlorine residues in eggs of black-crowned night-herons from Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; Stafford, C.J.; Hensler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Eggs of black-crowned night-herons N. nycticorax were collected for analysis from 7 nesting sites in Colorado and Wyoming in 1979. One egg was taken/nest from as many as 20 nests/site during early incubation. The nests were marked and revisited after hatching, but before fledging, to record the number of live young. DDE was detected in all collected eggs (147) at a mean concentration of 3.1 ppm, fresh basis (residue means were geometric). Mean DDE at the 7 sites varied from 1.8-7.6 ppm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in 81 eggs (mean 1.0 ppm); the highest mean at any site was 2.2 ppm. Twelve other organochlorines were each detected in 1-30 eggs, usually at a concentration of lt 1.0 ppm. Mean total organochlorines in the eggs from the 7 sites ranged from 2.0-10.1 ppm and the median number of compounds/egg ranged from 1-5. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated (P lt 0.001, r = -0.585) with DDE levels in the 147 eggs. Average shell thickness (0.258 +- 0.030 mm) was 8.8% lower than the average thickness (0.283 +- 0.016 mm) of 40 pre-DDT eggs from this region. The nesting sites with the highest DDE and total organochlorine residues in the eggs had the thinnest shells, produced the fewest young and had more nonviable eggs and dead young. At 4 of 7 sites, the average number of live young/nest was lt 2.0, the minimum long-term mean required for population maintenance. The source of the contaminants found in the heron eggs in this study was not determined.

  12. Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

  13. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  14. Organochlorine residues in Baluchistan/Pakistan: Blood and fat concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Krawinkel, M.B.; Plehn, G.; Kruse, H.; Kasi, A.M. Bolan Medical College and Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta )

    1989-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC)-residues are detected in measurable concentrations in various tissues of human beings because of the worldwide pollution of air, water, soil, and foods. The concentrations vary from region to region according to chemical, climatic, socio-economic, and geographic factors. Persisting pesticides used in agriculture are found in relevant concentrations in agriculture products, meat, and fish. As developing countries face economic pressure to increase their agricultural exports cheap pesticides are sometimes used without the precautions necessary to prevent contaminations of water and food. The authors conducted a small survey monitoring the OC-concentrations in human blood and fat tissue under the aim to detect more recent as well as elder expositions.

  15. Organochlorine insecticides and heavy metals in fish from Mutek Lake, N. E. Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, J.; Smoczynski, S.; Skibniewska, K.A.; Amarowicz, R.

    1986-10-01

    The ability of organochlorine insecticides to accumulate in fat tissue and their stability in the environment has created threat for correct functioning of biocenoses and indirectly, for health of man. Similarly, compounds of heavy metals, due to their stability in the environment and tendency to cumulation in living organisms, cause the danger for human and animal health. The subject of our interest is the quality of food. The aim of the present work was to determine the level of residues of HCH, DDT and its metabolites and of compounds of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) in fish which, on the one hand are the indicators of toxic substance's presence in their environment, and on the other hand they may become a food for man.

  16. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  17. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  18. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

  19. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission.

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk.

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid.

  3. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  4. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    SciTech Connect

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  5. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Hernandez, Antonio F; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-05-10

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level.

  6. Concentrations of organochlorines in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from Southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark; Hince, Greg

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of DDTs, PCBs and HCHs were measured in sperm whales involved in two mass stranding events on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. DDTs and PCBs were present in all samples analysed, while only three contained HCHs. The relationships between organochlorines, sex, age and reproductive groups were marked by high variability. Differences in organochlorine concentrations were observed between animals from the two stranding sites and discussed in light of the ecology of this species. Concentrations of all pollutants were stratified throughout the vertical aspect of the blubber and possible reasons for and the implications of this are discussed. Concentrations of compounds were higher than those documented in this species in the Southern Hemisphere previously, although were relatively lower than those documented in the Northern Hemisphere. However, comparisons were confounded by spatial and temporal differences. Continued monitoring of marine mammals throughout this region in a co-coordinated, standardized manner is essential for establishing definite temporal and spatial variations in pollutant concentrations.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in snow, snowmelt, and runoff at Bow Lake, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Melissa J; Blais, Jules M; Sharp, Martin J; Schindler, David W

    2006-08-15

    We present analyses of the concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants (including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in snow, snowmelt, and runoff in glacier and snowmelt fed streams at Bow Lake, Alberta in two contrasting hydrological years (1997 and 1998). The study investigates the variability in OC burdens in snow across the catchment, the elution of OCs from the snowpack, and the relationship between OC concentrations in streams and the annual snowpack. Snowpacks in forested sites were thinner and had lower OC concentrations than snowpacks in open or sparsely vegetated sites. The first snowmelt samples exhibited very high contaminant concentrations relative to the snowpack, and even the more hydrophobic compounds (Dieldrin, DDTs, and PCBs) were highly concentrated in meltwater. Interannual changes in the mean OC concentrations in streams did not reflect year-to-year changes in the snowpack contaminant concentrations. The results indicate that the extent of glacial ice melt may be more important than mean snowpack burdens as a control on OC concentrations in runoff in glacial catchments.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  10. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton, Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriwong, W; Thirakhupt, K; Sitticharoenchai, D; Borjan, M; Robson, M

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10-3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Sigma endosulfan > Sigma HCH > Sigma heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Sigma HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p

  12. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

    2013-06-01

    Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts.

  14. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures-including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls-can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans.

  15. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  17. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used.

  18. Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations

    SciTech Connect

    Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

    1987-12-01

    PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

  19. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  20. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  1. Effects of local and distant contaminant sources: polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in bottom-dwelling animals from an Arctic estuary.

    PubMed

    Bright, D A; Dushenko, W T; Grundy, S L; Reimer, K J

    1995-01-15

    Elevated concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues of large marine predators in the Canadian Arctic are well documented. This paper presents some of the first data on the composition and distribution of chlorinated organic compounds in some arctic coastal animals found at lower levels of the marine food chain. Organisms include bottom-dwelling invertebrates: clams (Mya truncata), mussels (Mytilus edulis), sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and fish: sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). The majority of samples were collected in the vicinity of Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada; however, samples were also collected near another inhabited area (Hall Beach, NWT) and at a reference site (Wellington Bay, NWT). PCBs and other organochlorines typically originate in more industrialized parts of the northern hemisphere, enter the Arctic, and are subsequently biomagnified. In this study, differences in the PCB congener compositions and concentrations, as well as the relative concentrations of a larger suite of organochlorines in biota, allowed the discrimination between local and distant PCB sources. Terrestrial runoff from southern Victoria Island, NWT, has resulted in localized elevation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in marine sediment and bottom-dwelling animals. The major inputs of PCBs to coastal waters within Cambridge Bay were derived from local sources (the hamlet dump and DEW Line site). In addition, transport from more distant sources via riverine input accounts for locally elevated concentrations of other organochlorines in upper Cambridge Bay. This process may also account for concentrations of all measured organochlorines that are higher in Wellington Bay than in Queen Maud Gulf. The high PCB concentrations in the whole tissue (excluding liver) or livers of four-horned sculpins in Cambridge Bay (up to 220 ng/g and 1950 ng/g, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, Wellington Bay (3.8 ng/g and 47 ng/g, respectively

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide levels in human breast milk from the Mediterranean city Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Yelken, Ciğdem; Durmaz, Emre; Uner, Mine; Sever, Barış; Satır, Funda

    2011-04-01

    In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels were determined in 100 human milk samples from the city of Antalya. The levels of seven major PCB congeners; 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and nine OCPs, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, p.p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan-α and endosulfan-β were determined by gas chromatography with ECD detection. The levels of analyzed compounds were as follows: ΣPCBs 27.46 ± 11.58, ΣDDT 1,407 ± 123, and ΣBHC 160 ± 490 ng/g lipid wt.basis. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the dominant contaminants. The results have been discussed and compared with similar studies from other regions of Turkey.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human fat in the United Kingdom 1976-7.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, D C; Collins, G B; Goulding, R; Hoodless, R A

    1981-01-01

    Between May 1976 and August 1977 samples of human body fat were taken during routine necropsies in the United Kingdom on 236 subjects aged over 5 years and four infants aged under 4 months. Comparison with results from earlier studies showed a further decline in residues of pp'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp'-DDT) and dieldrin (HEOD) and increased amounts of hexachlorobenzene residues; concentrations of other compounds were similar to those observed in the studies carried out in 1963-4, 1965-7, and 1969-71. Comparison of the data with those from other countries, showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorobiphenyls in human fat samples from residents of the United Kingdom remain among the lowest in Europe and, indeed, the world. PMID:6797569

  5. {gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S.

    1995-02-01

    The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide contamination in waterbirds from an agricultural region, Central China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Yuan, Linxi; Liu, Hongxia; Xing, Xinli

    2016-10-25

    Twenty-one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle of six predominant waterbird species from Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, Central China. Among OCPs, DDTs were the most prevalent compounds, with average concentration ranging from 31.1 to 1445 ng/g lipid weight. Little egrets (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese pond herons (Ardeola bacchus) showed significantly higher concentrations of OCPs (p < 0.05) due to their dietary habits and migratory patterns. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for most OCPs between sex and age groups. The accumulation profiles of HCHs and DDTs suggested that these OCPs in Jianghan Plain were largely derived from historical usage. Risk assessment indicated that heptachlor could be likely to pose adverse health effects on people consuming ducks in Jianghan Plain.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk from agricultural region in Northwestern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    La Riva, C. de ); Anadon, A. )

    1991-04-01

    During the past 30 years, the variety and usage of pesticides have increased in Spain and worldwide. Agricultural use of pesticides can be expected to result in residues in or food and feed. Several limited monitoring programs have received an extensive investigation in order to detect residues from organochlorine compounds in milk. This paper reports the findings of a pesticide residue study in cow's milk samples examined during the time period of one year between May of 1987 and March of 1988. The cow's milk samples destined to human consumption were collected from an agrarian area located at a geographic region of northwestern Spain. Analyses were conducted for DDT complex DDT{sub s}, DDD, DDE and isomers alpha, beta and gamma (lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, metoxichlor and mirex.

  9. Food habits and organochlorine contaminants in the diet of olivaceous cormorants in Galveston Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    More than 1,000 food items, representing 32 species of fish and one invertebrate, were identified from olivaceous cormorants. Six species of fish comprised 79% of the diet by frequency of occurrence and 78% by weight. Almost half of the diet consisted of a single species, the sheepshead minnow. Concentrations of pp-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cormorant carcasses were 27 times greater than those in fish and 57 times higher in cormorant eggs than fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) were 18 times higher in carcasses and 15 times higher in eggs than in fish. The biomagnification of other organochlorine contaminants through the cormorant food base in Galveston Bay is difficult to evaluate because the only compounds detected in all three tissues at greater than 50% frequency of occurrence were DDE and PCB.

  10. Variation in organochlorine accumulation in relation to the life history of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-03-15

    Members of the catadromous eel live in various fresh, brackish and marine habitats. Therefore, these eels can accumulate organic pollutants and are a suitable bioindicator species for determining the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The ecological risk for organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Anguilla japonica with various migration patterns, such as freshwater, estuarine and marine residences, was examined to understand the specific accumulation patterns. The concentrations of HCB, ∑HCHs, ∑CHLs and ∑DDTs in the silver stage (maturing) eel were significantly higher than those in the yellow stage (immature) eel, in accordance with the higher lipid contents in the former versus the latter. The OC accumulations were clearly different among migratory types in the eel. The ecological risk of OCs increased as the freshwater residence period in the eel lengthened. The migratory histories and the lipid contents directly affected the OC accumulation in the catadromous eel species.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  12. Changes in levels of organochlorines in woodcock wings from 1971 to 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Hughes, D.L.; Heinz, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Wings from woodcock (Philohela minor) were first monitored for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the eastern U.S. in 1971. Regional differences in these compounds were clearly demonstrated and baseline residue levels were obtained for later comparisons. An expanded sampling of wings in 1972 revealed that residues in wings of adult woodcock may differ significantly from those in immatures, and that residues of several important agricultural insecticides and PCBs had declined significantly. More extensive sampling was undertaken in 1975 to determine if changes in residue levels had taken place in the intervening years. PCBs, mirex, and heptachlor epoxide increased significantly between 1972 and 1975 in adult woodcock wings. In immature woodcock wings mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs increased significantly between 1972 and 1975, but DDT residues decreased significantly.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon, 1988-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lee, Karl K.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were detected in unfiltered samples from Johnson Creek that were collected during a storm in March, 2002. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites), as well as dieldrin, potentially exceeded Oregon chronic, freshwater criteria at all four Johnson Creek stream-sampling sites. The total DDT criterion was also potentially exceeded at a storm drain at SE 45th Avenue and Umatilla Street. The concentration of total DDT in water samples has decreased by an order of magnitude since previous sampling was done on Johnson Creek in 1989?1990. This decrease was probably due to the movement of these compounds out of the basin and to degradation processes. Concentrations and loads of the organochlorine pesticides were largest at the most upstream sampling site, Johnson Creek at Palmblad Road, which has historically been primarily affected by agricultural land cover. Concentrations and loads were smaller at downstream locations, and there were only a few detections from storm drains. For the purposes of assessing trends in total DDT concentration in Johnson Creek, data for total suspended solids (TSS) were examined, because TSS is often correlated with DDT concentrations, and TSS data are collected routinely by regulatory agencies. As an intermediate step, linear regression was used to relate TSS (measured in the recent study) and turbidity (measured both in the earlier and in the recent studies). For 77 samples, TSS (in mg/L [milligrams per liter]) = 0.88 x Turbidity (in nephleometric turbidity units). The r2 value was 0.82. The TSS concentration (measured, or estimated by the regression) was compared to the concentration of total DDT using linear regression. The TSS concentration associated with meeting the Oregon water-quality criterion for total DDT was 15 to 18 mg/L in the lower and middle part of the basin and 8 mg/L in the upper reaches of the basin. This TSS/DDT relationship is based on only one storm and may not be valid for other conditions

  14. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  15. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention.

  16. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.

    PubMed

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg

    2011-05-15

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2014-01-01

    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported.

  1. Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to second and from the first to third group. At the same time, the increase of mean and medians levels from the second to third group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in colostrums in case of normal and preterm labor (Iasi, Romania).

    PubMed

    Cioroiu, Mona; Tarcau, Doina; Mocanu, Raluca; Cucu-Man, Simona; Nechita, Bogdan; Luca, Maria

    2010-06-01

    Assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human body is important for human health because they have weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects and are considered endocrine disrupters. We used colostrum of women as indicator for levels of OCPs in human body for mothers with normal and preterm labor from eastern part of Romania. Sixty- three samples of colostrum were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). OCPs have been detected in all samples, with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) being at the highest concentrations. Of the organochlorines measured in clostrum samples from women in preterm labor, median levels of DDTs (470 ng/g) and HCHs (99 ng/g) were higher than for the same compounds from women in normal labor (median of DDTs=268 ng/g and median of HCHs=96 ng/g). Normal labor had higher median concentrations of HCB (19.5 ng/g) versus preterm labor (14 ng/g). Statistical data show high Spearman correlation coefficients between various OCPs. We found a good correlation between alpha-, gamma-, beta- and delta- HCH isomers (p<0.001) for both normal and preterm labor. The most abundant target compound was p,p'-DDE (median value 96 ng/g, and 137 ng/g for mother with normal and preterm labor, respectively) in all colostrum samples. The estimated daily intakes of HCHs by infants exceeded corresponding Health Canada guidelines.

  4. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001–2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p’-DDE (100%), p,p′-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p′-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 μg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in δ13C and δ15N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, δD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. δD values also were negatively and significantly correlated with DDE concentrations in carcass

  5. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated

  6. Historical contamination of Yukon Lake sediments by PCBs and organochlorine pesticides: influence of local sources and watershed characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F; Lockhart, W L; Wilkinson, P; Savoie, D A; Rosenberg, G B; Muir, D C

    2001-12-03

    PCBs and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides were analyzed in sediment cores collected from six lakes in Yukon Territory and one in northern British Columbia, Canada, with the objective of establishing sources and historical trends of these contaminants. DDT was found to be the most prominent OC in the sediment profiles of most of the lakes. Maximum sigmaDDT levels (3.47-2680 ng g(-1) dw) were observed in sediment slices dated to the 1950s from lakes near populated areas. In contrast, in more remote lakes (Hanson, Kusawa and Lindeman), the maximum sigmaDDT concentrations were observed in the sediments dated to the 1970s. Highest sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations were measured in sediments from Watson Lake, near a suspected PCB waste disposal site and in a region where DDT was heavily applied in the 1950s and 1960s. Elevated sigmaPCB concentrations [16.1-93.6 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)] were also observed in sediments from lakes situated near populated areas, relative to Kusawa and Lindeman (11.1 and 12.7 ng g(-1) dw, respectively). Recent sigmaPCB fluxes ranged from 621 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Kusawa Lake to 16400 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Little Atlin Lake. The extremely high sedimentation rate (2050 g m(-2) y(-1)) in glacial fed Lindeman Lake gave rise to elevated fluxes of sigmaPCB (2410 ng m(-2) y(-1)) and other OCs, despite much lower concentrations in the sediment. Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigmaHCH), chlordane-related compounds (sigmaCHL), and chlorobenzenes (sigmaCBz) were in the low ng g(-1) (dw) range in all lake sediments, similar to concentrations previously reported for Arctic lakes in Canada, indicating that their major source was long range atmospheric transport. Contamination of the lakes with PCBs and DDT near populated areas of the Yukon Territory appears to be a result of regional activities rather than long range transport and deposition. The results also point to glacial runoff as a significant source of OCs to small, high elevation

  7. Field deployment of thin film passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants: a study in the urban atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Farrar, N J; Harner, T; Shoeib, M; Sweetman, A; Jones, K C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first field deployment of rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers under ambient conditions. The POlymer-coated Glass (POG) samplers have a coating of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) less than 1 microm thick applied to a glass surface. This can be dissolved off after exposure and prepared for the quantification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have partitioned into the film during field exposure. In this study, POGs were deployed at various heights on the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, to investigate the vertical distribution of selected compounds (PCBs, PAHs, organochlorine pesticides) in the atmospheric boundary layer of an urban area. The feasibility of the method to detect POPs from a few cubic meters of air was demonstrated, indicating the potential for rapid, low-volume sampling of air for ambient levels of POPs. PAH levels declined sharply with height, confirming ground-level emissions in urban areas as sources of these compounds; PCBs did the same, although less strongly. Different sampling events detected different vertical distributions of OC pesticides which could be related to local or distantsources, and variations in POPs on the samplers in these different events/heights demonstrate the dynamic nature of sources and atmospheric mixing of POPs.

  8. Immunomodulation of human natural killer cell cytotoxic function by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Reed, Adrian; Dzon, Leticia; Loganathan, Bommanna G; Whalen, Margaret M

    2004-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are used worldwide. To our knowledge there have been no studies dealing with the effects of these agents under in vitro conditions on human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic function. NK cells play a central role in immune defense against tumor development and viral infections. Thus, any agent that interferes with the ability of NK cells to lyse their targets could increase the risk of tumor incidence and/or viral infections. In this study, we examined the effects of organochlorine pesticides and some of their breakdown products on the ability of human NK cells to lyse tumor cells. A total of 11 compounds were tested. The compounds were tested in both purified NK cells as well as a cell preparation that contained other mononuclear cells (predominantly T cells) and NK lymphocytes (referred to as T/NK cells). Lymphocytes were exposed to the compounds for periods of time ranging from 1 hour to 6 days. Exposure of highly purified NK cells to 5 microM alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, 4,4'-DDT, heptachlor, oxychlordane, or pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited their ability to destroy K562 tumor-cells by 88+/-5, 92+/-8, 61+/-13%, 64+/-10%, 69+/-11%, 76+/-12%, respectively, after a 24 h exposure. The loss of cytotoxic function seen with alpha-and gamma-chlordane remained essentially constant out to 6 days, while that seen with 4,4'-DDT, oxychordane and PCP increased with longer exposures (6 d). PCP was the most effective of the compounds tested at decreasing NK function. Of the compounds that caused decreased lytic function when tested in purified NK cells, only PCP and oxychordane decreased the lytic function of the T/NK cell preparation after any exposure. The results provide evidence of relative toxic potential for the 11 compounds and their immunomodulatory effects on other mononuclear cells (such as T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes) as well as NK lymphocyte function.

  9. National contaminant biomonitoring program: rEesidues of organochlorine chemicals in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Zajicek, Jim L.; Peterman, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service periodically determines concentrations of organochlorine chemicals in freshwater fish collected from a nationwide network of stations as part of the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP, formerly a part of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program). From late 1984 to early 1985, a total of 321 composite fish samples were collected from 112 stations and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues. The mean concentrations of total DDT did not change from 1980–81 to 1984, following a period of steady decline through the 1970's; however, the mean concentrations ofp,p′-DDT declined significantly. The most persistent DDT homolog (p,p′-DDE) was detected at 98% of the stations sampled in 1984, and constituted 73% of total DDT residues, up from 70% in 1974–79. Collectively, these findings indicate a low rate of influx and continued weathering of DDT in the environment. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also remained widespread, but a significant downward trend in total PCBs was evident, and early eluting PCB components were present at fewer stations than in the past. Mean concentrations of dieldrin have not changed since 1978–79; concentrations remained highest in Hawaii and in the Great Lakes. Toxaphene concentrations declined from 1980–81 to 1984, especially in the Great Lakes, and the incidence of toxaphene declined from 88% of the stations sampled in 1980–81 to 69% in 1984. Mean chordane concentrations did not change from 1980–81 to 1984, following a period of decline; however,trans-nonachlor replacedcis-chlordane as the most abundant component, suggesting a lower influx of chlordane to the aquatic environment. Residues of other organochlorines—mirex, pentachloroanisole (PCA), benzene hexachloride (BHC) isomers, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and Dacthal® (DCPA)—were either found at relatively few (<25%) of the stations sampled in 1984 or were characterized by relatively low

  10. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  11. A column test for leaching of organochlorines from soil by amphiphilic nonionic nanopolymers.

    PubMed

    Karnchanasest, Benjalak; Hawker, Darryl W

    2011-01-01

    Amphiphilic nonionic cross-linked nanopolymers (NPs) were synthesized to examine removal of five organochlorines (OCs), namely lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT, from a range of Thai agricultural soils. The synthesized NP particles had polarity characteristics similar to those of nonionic surfactant micelles and were largely in the size range of 55-155 nm. This work aimed to determine the optimal conditions for leaching of OC contaminated soil with NPs and also to investigate the role and influence of soil properties on this leaching. An investigation of the concentrations of aqueous dispersions of these particles found that a concentration of 10 g L(-1). was found most effective in leaching the OCs from a column of spiked soil. The optimal contact time that allowed a NP dispersion and spiked soil to reach equilibrium was 48 h. The results indicated influencing factors for OC removal and soil remediation were properties both of the soil and the compounds themselves. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil texture played an important role on the sorption as well as compound hydrophobicity expressed as log K(OW) values. The removal efficiency was found to be in the range of 85.2-92.8 % for all soil samples and in the order of DDT < aldrin < heptachlor < dieldrin < endrin < lindane regardless of soil type. This order is inversely related to the log K(OC) values of these compounds. For OC compounds with a similar molecular structure, removal efficiency was related to molecular weight (MW).

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in shallow percolated water of the Alps Karst system (Zugspitze summit, Germany).

    PubMed

    Levy, Walkiria; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Fischer, Norbert; Antritter, Felix; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-02-01

    In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system. However, the percentage distribution of contaminants in the percolated water differed significantly from that found in surface waters. The highest chlorinated PCDD homologues were the predominant compounds of the PCDD/F family, whereas percentages of PCB #52 increased in percolated water. Toxic equivalent values (TEQ) of samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.2pgTEQ/m(3) and from 0.017 to 0.069pgTEQ/m(3) for PCDD/F and PCB, respectively. Low and intermediate molecular weight PAH were the prevailing compounds in the samples. Endosulfan sulfate, endrin, and cis-heptachlor epoxide were enhanced after water percolation through the Karst system in comparison with the surface waters (wet deposition). The relative enrichment on these pesticides was related to the environmental bedrock conditions and glacier melting sources. In summary, the Karst system highly influenced the fate of organic persistent pollutants generating different chemical patterns in their percolated waters than those found at the surface systems.

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1-0490 TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in Alaskan Natives 5b. GRANT NUMBER...to pol ychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hy pothesis is that increased exposure to t

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caroline M. Tanner, M.D...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in...now in progress in Anchorage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Parkinson’s disease, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Organochlorine pesticides, Methylmercury, Alaska

  15. Use of stable isotopes of N and C to explain unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and other organochlorines in walrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Segstro, M.; Stewart, R.; Hobson, K.; Olpinski, S.

    1994-12-31

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber from Inukjuak and Akulivik (E. Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin and E. Baffin Is. was analyzed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes) as part of studies documenting spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian arctic marine biota. Samples from 18 of 53 individuals had wet weight concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs ranging from 1 to 20 {mu}g//g; the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where 11 of 13 animals (males and females) had high levels. {Sigma}PCB concentrations greater than 0.5 {mu}g/g were unexpected based on previous studies in Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because DDT, chlordanes and toxaphene were all elevated, and high levels were found in both males and females from 2 of 4 other locations. {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope measurements using muscle samples from the jaws of walrus and seals, showed that walrus with high EPCB had higher {delta}{sup 15}N values than those with low PCBs. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals (Phoca hispida) for a significant proportion of their diet.

  16. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian flue-cured tobacco with gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Zareen S; Rao, C V N; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Murthy, T G K; Johnson, Nalli; Ray, Deb Prasad

    2014-08-01

    Presence of pesticide residues in tobacco increases health risk of both active and passive smokers, apart from the imminent potential health problems associated with it. Thus, monitoring of pesticide residue is an important issue in terms of formulating stringent policies, enabling global trade and safeguarding the consumer's safety. In this study, a gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based upon quantifier-qualifier ions (m/z) ratio was employed for detecting and assessing ten organochlorine pesticide residues (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, endrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate) in 152 flue-cured (FC) tobacco leave samples from two major tobacco growing states, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, of India. In the majority of samples, pesticide residue levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). In few samples, pesticide residues were detected and they found to comply with the guidance residue levels (GRL) specifications of the Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA). Detection of the phase out pesticides like DDT/HCH might be due to transfer of persistent residues from the environmental components to the plant. This is the first report on these ten organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian FC tobacco.

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites.

  18. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Frank, D S; Mora, M A; Sericano, J L; Blankenship, A L; Kannan, K; Giesy, J P

    2001-03-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites.

  19. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  20. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dodin, Sylvie; Blanchet, Claudine; Mulvad, Gert; Petersen, Henning S; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric

    2006-01-01

    Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS) at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old) from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p < 0.001). However, PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with QUS values in multivariate analyses that comprised potential confounding factors such as age, body weight, former oral contraceptive use and current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use, which were all significant predictors of bone stiffness (total R2 = 0.39; p < 0.001). Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention. PMID:17184534

  1. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthacker, B. )

    1991-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

  2. Interlaboratory analysis of high molecular weight organochlorines in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.

    High volume air samples were collected in Boston, MA, and Columbia, SC using a glass fiber filter — polyurethane foam trap, and the pooled sample extracts from each location were distributed among nine laboratories for organochlorine analysis. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were reported by all laboratories, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 26-39 % for total PCB. The total PCB concentration in Boston was 7.1 ng m -3, compared to 4.4 ng m -3 in Columbia. Other organochlorines identified by three or more laboratories included hexachlorobenzene and the pesticides DDT, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane, and polychloroterpenes. RSDs for most pesticides ranged from 35-75% and as high as 116% for polychloroterpenes (quantified as toxaphene). In general, pesticide levels were an order of magnitude higher in Columbia than in Boston.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  4. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Jiménez, M; Olea-Serrano, M F; Moreno-Frías, M; Cañabate, F; Olea, N; Bayés, R; Molina-Font, J A

    2001-11-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.

  5. Mercury, selenium, cadmium and organochlorines in eggs of three Hawaiian seabird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Harrison, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Eggs of three representative species of seabirds (wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus; red-footed booby Sula sula; and sooty tern Sterna fuscata) were collected in 1980 to determined differences in heavy metal, Se, and organochlorine residues among species nesting in the Hawaiian Archipelago and among the four nesting sites sampled (Oahu, French Frigate Shoals, Laysan, and Midway). Hg and Se were present in all eggs analysed, but Cd was not detected. Hg was usually highest in booby eggs, and there was a southeast-to-northeast trend toward higher concetrations in this species; booby eggs from Midway contained the highest mean concentration of Hg (0?36 :g g-1, wet weight). Se consistently occurred at lowest concentrations in booby eggs. When Se and Hg concentrations were expressed as nanomoles per gram, Se constituted 94?96% of the combined total at each location for shearwater and tern eggs. In booby eggs, the proportion as Se declined significantly (' = 0?05) from Oahu (93?4%) westward to Midway (85?9%). Although DDT occurred in most of the shearwater eggs from each site, it was not found in booby or tern eggs. DDE occured in all eggs, but mean concentrations did not exceed 0?6 :g g-1. DDE concentrations were higher in eggs from the two south-eastern nesting sites and were consistently highest in shearwater eggs. PCBs were found in most of the shearwater and booby eggs, but were not detected in tern eggs. Other organochlorines usually occurred more frequently in eggs of shearwaters than in other species. The only exception were '-HCH and HCB, which occurred more frequently in booby eggs. Kepone, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane compounds, and toxaphene were not detected. Differences in residue concentrations seem to reflect differences in diets and seasonal movements of the birds, and perhaps other factors such as atmospheric and oceanic transport of chemicals and physiological differences among the species.

  6. Biomarker measurements in a coastal fish-eating population environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H; Perkins, Sherry L; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria

    2005-10-01

    The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p < 0.01). Liver CYP1A2 activity was in turn negatively correlated with PCB-105:PCB-153 and PCB-118:PCB-153 congener ratios (p < 0.05). Hence, despite the relatively high body burden of PCBs and DLCs in this population, only smoking had a significant correlation with biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

  7. Endometriosis and Organochlorinated Environmental Pollutants: A Case–Control Study on Italian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Porpora, Maria Grazia; Medda, Emanuela; Abballe, Annalisa; Bolli, Simone; De Angelis, Isabella; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferro, Annamaria; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Maggi, Antonella; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti; De Felip, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. In industrialized countries, it affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Its etiology is unclear, but a multifactorial origin is considered to be most plausible. Environmental organochlorinated persistent pollutants, in particular dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been hypothesized to play a role in the disease etiopathogenesis. However, results of studies carried out on humans are conflicting. Objective We evaluated the exposure to organochlorinated persistent pollutants as a risk factor for endometriosis. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Rome on 158 women comprising 80 cases and 78 controls. In all women, serum concentrations of selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined by ion-trap mass spectrometry. DR-CALUX bioassay was employed to assess the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and DL-PCBs. Results We found an increased risk of endometriosis for DL-PCB-118 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61–8.91], NDL-PCB-138 (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.60–8.94), NDL-PCB-153 (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 2.01–11.0), NDL-PCB-170 (OR = 3.52; 95% CI, 1.41–8.79), and the sum of DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs (OR = 5.63; 95% CI, 2.25–14.10). No significant associations were observed with respect to HCB or to the sum of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs given as total TEQs. Conclusions The results of this study show that an association exists between increased PCB and p,p′-DDE serum concentrations and the risk of endometriosis. PMID:19654915

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and female puberty in South Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Bapayeva, Gauri; Issayeva, Raushan; Zhumadilova, Akmaral; Nurkasimova, Raushan; Kulbayeva, Saltanat; Tleuzhan, Renata

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the puberty of females living in cotton-growing regions of South Kazakhstan, where organochlorine pesticides are widely used. The physical growth and sexual development were assessed; organochlorine pesticides, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 in the peripheral blood were determined. 524 females (adolescents aged 10-17) were examined. They were divided into 2 groups, depending on their place of residence. The clinical research included the assessment of physical and sexual development. All examined females lived in rural areas, i.e. they were comparable in terms of social, welfare, and climatographic factors. A high concentration of organochlorine pesticides (lindane-18.51±0.16mg/l, dieldrin-169.16±3.13mg/l, DDT-177.78±2.71mg/l, endrin-37.57±0.9mg/l) in the blood of females living in regions exposed to pesticides compared to their peers (4.05±0.41mg/l, 30.8±3.7mg/l, 109.7±2.58mg/l, 4.85±0.69mg/l respectively) was found (p<0.001). The physical and sexual development of such females was delayed. The research established a correlation between the concentration of pesticides and the endocrine status, as well as with the insulin-like growth factor 1. This shows the adverse effect of organochlorine pesticides on the development of the female reproductive system during puberty.

  10. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  11. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardio, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Infanzon, R M; Rivera, J

    1996-01-01

    This monitoring study of 192 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean DDT and HCH levels were 0.057 and 0.098 mg/kg respectively expressed on fat basis and are within FAO tolerances and similar to those found in other tropical countries.

  12. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticides (OCLs), which were introduced in the decade following World War II, were used extensively in Europe, the U.S., and other developed countries into the 1970s. However, data began to accumulate on their persistence in soils and aquatic sediments, their potential to be taken up into animal tissues and to bioconcentrate in birds and mammals in the higher tropic levels of food chains and even in humans. As a result, registration authorities phased out their use progressively, in Europe and the U.S., from 1973 onward. However, the production of OCLs in developed countries and their use in developing countries continued through the 1970s and 1980s into the 1990s because they were, no longer under patent agreement, were inexpensive to manufacture, and were very effective in pest control. In Africa, the use of OCLs continued well into the 1990s for the control of mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and desert locusts as well as to combat various crop, animal, and human pests. Some of these uses involved extensive spraying of large areas of nonagricultural land, thereby exposing many groups and species of wildlife to their residues. Although there is some evidence of a gradual decline in the use of OCLs in Africa, they are still being used in appreciable quantities. During the past 25 yr, there have been 50 published reports of OCL residues in the various groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals constituting the African fauna. These have been based on a diverse range of surveys, target animals, sampling methods, and analytical techniques. Moreover, they are extremely regionally-biased, the most intense surveys being in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Egypt, and South Africa. DDT was the most commonly used OCL, accounting for about half the total use, followed closely by dieldrin and HCH. Birds and fish have been sampled most intensively, with relatively few studies on other taxa. We reviewed the OCL residue data on African fauna from these reports and summarized the

  13. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  14. Organochlorine residues and eggsh