Science.gov

Sample records for personality development

  1. Personal Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sumathi; Gledhill, Igle; Hartline, Beverly K.; Lakhdar, Zohra Ben; MacLachlan, Anne J.; Mack, Kelly; Mehta, Anita; Wu, Ling-An; Zhang, Hong

    2009-04-01

    Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways to transition into scientific leadership positions in their own countries.

  2. Personal Development Planner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie

    We are facing many ever changing and increasing learning needs in our information society. Society is changing at an increasing pace, constantly pushed forward by emerging new information and communication technologies. New and changing demands of society on the individual, both on and off the job, are following these technological changes in a similar pace. In just one generation, information and communications technologies have revolutionised the way we live, learn, work and play. As a result, technical skills, communication skills, knowledge, in short competences are quickly outdated and require constant updating. Jobs for a lifetime have become the exception and are in fact considered undesirable by both the employer and the employee. Therefore, the traditional approach towards learning, which mainly took place during very specific stages of someone’s life, has been replaced by the idea of professional development. The information society has also lead to more active and involved society members, who are increasingly more demanding regarding their personal goals and developments. Individuals are regularly confronted with question such as: are my competences still up-to-date?; is my current job still satisfying and challenging enough?; in what directions can I change my career?; can I improve myself?; what other opportunities do I have? These types of question are not necessarily work related, although they often are.

  3. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the divide that still characterizes the field of personality development; 4) the application of the sociogenomic model of personality traits to issues of personality trait development, and 5) a “Newtonian” vision for the future of personality psychology. PMID:20161194

  4. Physical attractiveness and personality development.

    PubMed

    Shea, J; Crossman, S M; Adams, G R

    1978-05-01

    A test of the relationship between physical attractiveness and ego development was completed through an interview study of 294 men and women college students. Ss responded to personality measures assessing identity formation, locus of control, and ego functioning and were rated on facial attractiveness and body form scales. Contrary to the physical attractiveness stereotype, attractive and unattractive Ss did not differ in their personality styles.

  5. Personality and Development in Childhood: A Person-Centered Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Atkins, Robert; Fegley, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Applied a person-centered approach to childhood personality development in 28 diverse samples of 3- to 6-year-olds studied over 6 years. Identified resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types. Found that the undercontrolled personality type related to intellectual decline over 6 years. The number of family risks predicted…

  6. Personality Plus. (Your Guide to Better Health and Personal Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Concha, Hector

    This manual is designed to acquaint individuals with basic principles of personal health, grooming, and personality development. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: self-evaluation and completion of a personal inventory; proper diet and principles of maintaining a sound body; relaxation techniques; key words…

  7. Development of alexithymic personality features

    PubMed Central

    Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the development of alexithymic personality features. Modern brain imaging technologies provide interesting data on the associations of alexithymia with different aberrations in brain function related to emotion regulation; however, the development of these deviations is poorly understood. A notable amount of research covers the relation of alexithymia to different environmental factors. Many of these associations, for example, with low socio-economic status and general psychopathology in childhood, are well established. However, the retrospective and cross-sectional designs commonly used in these studies, as well as the use of self-report measures, hinder the ability to firmly establish causality. Certain individual developmental factors, such as lagging speech development and congenital cardiac malformations in childhood, have been associated with the development of alexithymia. Regarding the stability of alexithymia, a systematic review of the literature was conducted for this paper. In addition to being characterized as a personality feature in the general population, alexithymia also clearly has a state-like dimension that results in increases and decreases in alexithymic features in conjunction with mental disorder symptoms. An essential question is whether the alexithymic features in adulthood are, in fact, infantile features of a restricted ability to identify and describe emotions that simply persist in individuals through adolescence to adulthood. To firmly establish the roots of alexithymia development, longitudinal studies, particularly in younger populations, are needed. Furthermore, multifaceted study settings are encouraged. PMID:25540724

  8. Theoretical Perspectives on Chicano Personality Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Raymond T.; Lipton, Jack P.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional theories of personality development are critically examined, emphasizing their applications to Mexican Americans. A preliminary framework for an interactional model of multiculturalism and personality development which can synthesize and integrate the effects of Chicano culture on the development of personality is proposed and…

  9. Personal Development Planning: Pedagogy and the Politicisation of the Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Mark; Peters, John; Scott, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects the findings of an initial investigation of the origins of Personal Development Planning (PDP) and is part of a wider study of the impacts and influences of the implementation. Through an analysis of the socio-political contexts within which PDP as a set of educational processes took form, together with the many theories and…

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  11. Keeping Up: Personal Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche

    2009-01-01

    Some essential components of "keeping current" with trends and new developments in the school library field for library media specialists includes attending conferences and reading professional literature. Beginning in May 2007, one article on "keeping up" each year has been devoted to summarizing the major themes in conferences and professional…

  12. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  13. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  14. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  15. Employee Motivation for Personal Development Plan Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Lisa; Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to understand conditions under which personal development plans (PDPs) can effectively be implemented for professional learning. Both the organization's manner of supporting the PDP practice as well as the individual employee's motivation is taken into account. Design/ methodology/approach: A questionnaire was…

  16. Developing a Personal Philosophy of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Cuneen, Jacquelyn

    2001-01-01

    Suggests five questions to initiate critical reflection, followed by five steps to guide the development of a personal philosophy of sport. The five questions (upon which the five steps are based) include examining the basis for one's values, what one values in sport, and what values are exhibited by others in the sport. Sample ethical dilemmas…

  17. Meaningful Professional Development: A Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article shares a personal story of the evolution of professional development in practice in K-12 schools from three states over a 30 year period. The article begins with reference to general subject area life awarded teaching credentials and concludes with the addition of language addressing prekindergarten, specifically the inclusion of…

  18. Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Herry

    2004-01-01

    Henry Tomlinson discusses how important it is that leaders of educational organizations know themselves in order to be successful. How that process of self-knowing can be undertaken is carefully developed in the first six chapters through discussion of a variety of approaches for this. The focus is initially very much on personal development…

  19. Personal Development: A Call to Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It discusses personal development, providing readers with new insights and positive ways of thinking and feeling about themselves, others, places, and things in their lives. The booklet's emphasis is…

  20. Emotional and Personality Development: Symposium III C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrani, Naeem; And Others

    This symposium reports an investigation of correlates of self-disclosure among Indian college students, by Sarla Jawa, and provides abstracts of both a Pakistani perspective on personality and moral development, by Naeem Durrani, and a study of Indian students' attitudes toward sex, by Premala S. Kale. Findings of the study of correlates of…

  1. Social and Personality Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E., Ed.; Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text contains parts of Bornstein and Lamb's "Developmental Science, 6th edition", along with new introductory material, providing a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of social and personality development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  2. Personality and Social Development of Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Clara P.; Baldwin, Alfred L.

    Discussed are the personality and social development of children with physical handicaps, intellectual difficulties, or social and emotional disturbances, and recommended is the actual observation of the interactions of handicapped children with others in naturalistic situations. Stressed is the importance of pathological social interactions to…

  3. Personal and Family Development. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-credit comprehensive laboratory course for grades 9-12 provides a broad range of knowledge and skills related to personal development and management, promotion of strong families, and preparation for adult roles. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities,…

  4. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27556119

  5. [Personality development as a lifelong process and consequences for promoting personality development in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Wolf, E

    1987-01-01

    The paper explains the fact, that personality development mainly depends on the requirements of life activity and derives possibilities for promoting development in old age. These possibilities are primarily seen in forming such life conditions and requirements of activity, which grant latitude for autonomous acting and deciding to the aged as much and as long as possible as well as encourage them to use it, thereby helping them to maintain or regain every kind of autonomy and activity still possible.

  6. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Method Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high-school grades and SES indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Results Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g. Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Conclusions Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. PMID:23336723

  7. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12th graders personality. Additionally, we found evidence for an indirect link between parent personality and later adolescent personality through positive parenting. The results suggest that parents may play a significant role in the development of adolescent personality traits that promote competence and personal well-being across the life course. PMID:22822287

  8. Development of Personality and the Remission and Onset of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    The current study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset (Lenzenweger, 1999) to examine the development of personality traits in the context of the remission and onset of personality disorder (PD) symptoms. Despite high levels of stability, past research that has examined the development of basic personality traits has also found a mean trend towards increased maturity, and that individuals vary in their trajectories of trait development. Research on PD change has shown a similar pattern. We employ individual growth curve modeling to examine the relationship between personality trait development and PD symptom course. We found that the two are indeed related, and that remission in PD symptoms is associated with patterns of trait development associated with more rapid maturity. In contrast, deviating from the mean of trait development either through no change (i.e., stagnation) or change in the opposite direction (i.e., regression) was associated with developing PD symptoms over the course of the study. PMID:21967009

  9. Impact of Personal Growth Projects on Leadership Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Summer F.; Boyd, Barry L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Within personal leadership education courses, leadership educators should include experiences which help students develop themselves as leaders. In this article, the authors discuss results from a qualitative research study involving the analysis of Personal Growth Project (PGP) assignments in a personal leadership education collegiate course. The…

  10. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    PubMed

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  11. A Multicultural Discussion About Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon; Kurato, Yoshiya; Ruiz, Elizabeth; Ng, Kok-Mun; Yang, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The use of knife and fork common in Western cultures has influenced Japanese people not only in terms of eating habits but also Japanese personality characteristics. This influence fosters the notion of segmentation - that all areas of life, including people, can be sectioned into parts and so analyzed. Mind and body are considered two discrete…

  12. Identity Development in Personal Branding Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ann K.; Anumudu, Chinedu

    2016-01-01

    Increased technology, integration of the global economy, and the shift from investing in long-term employees to hiring temporary contract workers have spawned pervasive employment insecurity. This trend has led to a growing industry of career and marketing professionals, who have found a career niche in helping job seekers create personal brands…

  13. Role of Proteomics in the Development of Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kewal K

    2016-01-01

    Advances in proteomic technologies have made import contribution to the development of personalized medicine by facilitating detection of protein biomarkers, proteomics-based molecular diagnostics, as well as protein biochips and pharmacoproteomics. Application of nanobiotechnology in proteomics, nanoproteomics, has further enhanced applications in personalized medicine. Proteomics-based molecular diagnostics will have an important role in the diagnosis of certain conditions and understanding the pathomechanism of disease. Proteomics will be a good bridge between diagnostics and therapeutics; the integration of these will be important for advancing personalized medicine. Use of proteomic biomarkers and combination of pharmacoproteomics with pharmacogenomics will enable stratification of clinical trials and improve monitoring of patients for development of personalized therapies. Proteomics is an important component of several interacting technologies used for development of personalized medicine, which is depicted graphically. Finally, cancer is a good example of applications of proteomic technologies for personalized management of cancer.

  14. Developing a Structure for Personalization in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Robert A.; Rasmussen, Patty

    1996-01-01

    Personalization is achieved when teachers and students have the time and the desire to develop a relationship. One Georgia high school lends itself to personalization by encouraging a mentoring relationship between teachers and students. Developing academic teaching teams and block schedules for all grades was the key to reducing teacher isolation…

  15. Successful negotiations. Develop your personal strategy for negotiating.

    PubMed

    Brooks, E; Anderson, L H

    1995-01-01

    Successful managers are successful negotiators. This article addresses how to develop a negotiation strategy that fits an individual manager's personality and objectives. The authors provide 12 rules aimed at developing that personal strategy and also define the elements of power, skill, and timing, and their relevance to the negotiating process.

  16. Nature over nurture: temperament, personality, and life span development.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T; Ostendorf, F; Angleitner, A; Hrebícková, M; Avia, M D; Sanz, J; Sánchez-Bernardos, M L; Kusdil, M E; Woodfield, R; Saunders, P R; Smith, P B

    2000-01-01

    Temperaments are often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. It is argued that this definition applies to the personality traits of the five-factor model. Evidence for the endogenous nature of traits is summarized from studies of behavior genetics, parent-child relations, personality structure, animal personality, and the longitudinal stability of individual differences. New evidence for intrinsic maturation is offered from analyses of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores for men and women age 14 and over in German, British, Spanish, Czech, and Turkish samples (N = 5,085). These data support strong conceptual links to child temperament despite modest empirical associations. The intrinsic maturation of personality is complemented by the culturally conditioned development of characteristic adaptations that express personality; interventions in human development are best addressed to these.

  17. Intellectual College Development Related to Alumni Perceptions of Personal Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary

    2012-01-01

    Alumni self-ratings of their personal growth were linked to their intellectual development during college four to seven years earlier. Graduates that were satisfied with their personal growth in the arts, creative thinking, making logical inferences, learning independently, exercising initiative, and tolerating other points of view had higher…

  18. Humanistic Education: Developing the Total Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valett, Robert E.

    To aid elementary school classroom teachers and others interested in developing humanistic education programs, the book suggests materials, resources, and activities which work toward humanistic goals. Humanistic education is interpreted as a process of helping people develop human potential. The book is presented in 13 chapters. Chapter I defines…

  19. Thoughts on Good Practice in Personal Development Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Chris

    2000-01-01

    A trainer in personal development gives advice, in the form of reflective questions, to group facilitators on appropriate language use, interpreting nonverbal communications (body language), and the appropriate use of nonverbal communications. (TD)

  20. The Development of Commercial ESCA Instrumentation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael A.

    2004-12-01

    This article is a personal account of one person involved in ESCA development over these three decades at Hewlett-Packard, later at Surface Science Instruments, and finally as a research worker using ESCA at Stanford University. I discuss some of my experiences designing and marketing instruments in this emerging field, my thoughts about the key innovations responsible for the success ESCA has enjoyed, and some thoughts about its future development.

  1. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits—especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan. PMID:22822278

  2. Developing Manpower Legislation. A Personal Chronicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolberg, William H.

    This is a study of the development and passage of employment legislation between 1973 and 1977. A primary focus is on how the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) became law. The author is former Assistant Secretary of Labor and Administrator of the Employment and Training Administration, 1973-1977. The first of four chapters traces…

  3. Personal Development and Comprehensive Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidel, Celia Marie McCullough

    Holistic educational advancement programs at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, that are designed to develop the potential of underprepared and disadvantaged students are considered. Obstacles to success that might confront disadvantaged students include problems in adjustment to university life, loneliness, and negative self-concept. It is…

  4. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  5. Relativism versus Universalism: Developing a Personal Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gareis, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    At the core of intercultural communication lies the issue of cultural difference. Textbooks and courses focus on how difference can be approached and ultimately bridged by developing intercultural competence, particularly awareness of intercultural theory, knowledge of specific target cultures, and the communication skills necessary for engaging…

  6. Personality Development in Infancy; A Biological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, D. G.

    This comprehensive paper proposing the use of evolutionary theory as a basis for studies in developmental psychology includes these specific sections: (1) Developmental Theories--a brief overview, (2) Individual Differences, (3) Culture and Inbreeding, (4) Sexual Dimorphism, (5) Critical Periods in the Development of Attachments, (6) Continuity…

  7. Personal Development Plans: Case Studies of Practice. Report 280.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkin, P.; And Others

    The use and effectiveness of personal development plans (PDPs) in planning career and skill development activities for individuals within employing organizations in the United Kingdom was examined through case studies of seven firms and telephone interviews with representatives of seven other firms. The case studies/interviews focused on the…

  8. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  9. Ego Development and Preferred Social Distance from Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Sias, Shari M.; Toriello, Paul J.; Cubero, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Bias toward persons with disabilities (PWD) is of particular interest in the rehabilitation counseling and allied health professions since negative attitudes among providers can marginalize the treatment of PWD. This exploratory study examined the influence of socio cognitive development, as measured by ego development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996), on…

  10. Personal Development Plans: Insights from a Case Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In light of contemporary shifts away from annual appraisals, this study aims to explore the implications of using a personal development plan (PDP) as a means of focussing on continuous feedback and development to improve individual performance and ultimately organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected…

  11. Becoming the Harvard man: person-environment fit, personality development, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Harms, P D; Roberts, Brent W; Winter, David

    2006-07-01

    The continuity and change of the needs and evaluations of the college environment and person-environment fit (PE fit) with the college environment were studied in a 4-year longitudinal study of students (N = 191). Perceptions of the environment changed more dramatically than corresponding self-perceived needs. PE fit demonstrated moderate levels of consistency over the 4-year span, but no significant increases in mean levels were found over time. Antecedents to PE fit in the college environment included both intelligence and openness to experience. Outcomes associated with PE fit included changes in personality traits linked to openness to experience and higher academic achievement. The implications of the findings for personality development and the relationship of PE fit to successful outcomes are discussed.

  12. A physiome interoperability roadmap for personalized drug development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simon; Wolstencroft, Katherine; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    The goal of developing therapies and dosage regimes for characterized subgroups of the general population can be facilitated by the use of simulation models able to incorporate information about inter-individual variability in drug disposition (pharmacokinetics), toxicity and response effect (pharmacodynamics). Such observed variability can have multiple causes at various scales, ranging from gross anatomical differences to differences in genome sequence. Relevant data for many of these aspects, particularly related to molecular assays (known as '-omics'), are available in online resources, but identification and assignment to appropriate model variables and parameters is a significant bottleneck in the model development process. Through its efforts to standardize annotation with consequent increase in data usability, the human physiome project has a vital role in improving productivity in model development and, thus, the development of personalized therapy regimes. Here, we review the current status of personalized medicine in clinical practice, outline some of the challenges that must be overcome in order to expand its applicability, and discuss the relevance of personalized medicine to the more widespread challenges being faced in drug discovery and development. We then review some of (i) the key data resources available for use in model development and (ii) the potential areas where advances made within the physiome modelling community could contribute to physiologically based pharmacokinetic and physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in support of personalized drug development. We conclude by proposing a roadmap to further guide the physiome community in its on-going efforts to improve data usability, and integration with modelling efforts in the support of personalized medicine development. PMID:27051513

  13. Development of the Personal Responsibility Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Amanda; Shield, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Increasing interest by policy makers and educators in enhancing the non-cognitive factors that impact on the wellbeing of young people across the school years requires valid and reliable measurement scales. This paper reports the psychometric development of the Personal Responsibility Scale drawing on a preliminary 34-item measure developed using data from focus groups with secondary students in Australia. This scale was then administered to 513 students across Years 9-12. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors, 'personal accountability', 'behavioural and emotional control', and 'cognitive control'. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the congeneric measurement models for these factors. The multidimensional nature of the personal responsibility construct was then examined through multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses supported a three-factor structure to propose a final 15-item scale. Additional validation requirements, future research possibilities, and implications of this study are addressed.

  14. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  15. Personal Development in Secondary Education: The Irish Transition Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerkin, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Ireland includes an optional Transition Year (TY) between the junior and senior examination cycles, when students are typically about 15 years old. Transition Year is an innovative programme, unique to Irish education, which is intended as a non-academic year devoted to personal and social development in the absence of…

  16. Strengthening Democracy and Personal Development through Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author states his belief that community based learning among adults can be a powerful force for encouraging personal development and for strengthening democracy in this multicultural, globally interdependent, battered world. To do so, however, it needs to pervade all the curricula, degree programs, learning contracts, and…

  17. International Students and Their Experiences of Personal Development Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kate L.; Perkins, Joy; Comber, Darren P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Taught postgraduate students are a unique group, undergoing a short, intensive period of study. Many taught postgraduate students are international, engaging for the first time with new learning approaches, including Personal Development Planning (PDP). This article provides analysis of the views of international taught postgraduates about the…

  18. Personality Development at Preadolescence; Explorations of Structure Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Riley W.; Moriarty, Alice

    Personality development and structure formation were studied in 60 preadolescent children (aged 9 to 13). Six major aspects of preadolescent individuality were assessed: cognitive controls, performance on the Holtzman Inkblot Test, intellectual abilities, general response to clinical testing, general response to laboratory testing, and defense…

  19. Exploring Values and Personal and Social Development: Learning through Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Peter; Von Wald, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Travel and overseas experiences, particularly those involving some form of outdoor education, are regarded by many young people, parents, university admissions and employers as somehow beneficial to a young person's development. Often, expedition experiences are happening at crucial times in life (the teen years) when metaphysical (rather than…

  20. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  1. The Early Development of the Interpersonal System of Personality (ISP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForge, Rolfe

    2004-01-01

    This note sketches aspects of the development of the Interpersonal System of Personality (ISP), using information appearing in dissertations, theses, notes, correspondence, and publications prior to the classic 1951 paper by M. B. Freedman, T. F. Leary, A. G. Ossorio, and H. S. Coffey. Topics include the setting and the creation of the ISP, the…

  2. Development of a metabolic syndrome personal health record system.

    PubMed

    López, Diego M; Álvarez-Rosero, Rosa E; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a quarter of the world population is affected with metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper describes the development process of a Personal Health Record System (PHR) for the management of MS. Following the recommendations of ISO 9241-210:2010, a PHR for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition was implemented. PMID:25980887

  3. Pedagogic Approach to the Mechanisms of Personality Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakurova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the problem of defining and attributing pedagogic essence to the mechanisms of personality identity development. It is based on the general mechanism of social interaction. Its structure contains, on the one hand, pedagogic interaction, including the forms of pedagogic assistance and pedagogic support; on the other hand, it…

  4. A Study: The Relationship of Personality Type to Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covner, Thelma Crockin

    To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…

  5. Your Personal Learning Network: Professional Development on Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, William I.

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and resources can enhance our efficiency and effectiveness as music educators, supporting personal learning networks for ongoing professional growth and development. This article includes (a) an explanation of Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and the use of an RSS reader/aggregator; (b) a discussion of blogs, podcasts, wikis,…

  6. Pitfalls of Personal Development Plans--The User Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate which pitfalls users of personal development plans (PDPs) perceive in business and governmental organisations with mandatory PDP use. Hundred and thirty-one written statements of PDP users across three Dutch organisations were analysed and categorised into nine pitfalls. Next to an overall lack of use and…

  7. Self-Renewal, Personal Development and Change: An Inexorable Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupp, Judy-Arin

    1995-01-01

    Self-renewal, personal development, and change create an inexorable link. Change management processes include the following: (1) internal locus of control; (2) freedom from institutional crutches; (3) flexible teaching; (4) recognition of emotional reactions to change; and (5) identification of the causes of indecisiveness and insecurities. (JOW)

  8. EHF (28/19 GHz) personal communications satellite terminal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Corey

    1991-01-01

    The concept of communicating on a personal basis using a small terminal has been investigated globally from many different applications and technology perspectives. Applications range from terrestrial handheld communicators for paging, cellular, zone voice/data networks, etc., to satellite terminals of pocket dimensions for voice/low speed data or similar terminals using larger antennas for VSAT, news gathering (30 cm), and video (1.2 m). A brief status of some developments in the satellite personal communications at CRC will be presented.

  9. Development and Validation of a Personality Assessment Instrument for Traditional Korean Medicine: Sasang Personality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Han; Lee, Siwoo; Park, Soo Hyun; Jang, Eunsu; Lee, Soo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .817) and test-retest reliability (r = .837). Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (r = .462), harm avoidance (r = −.390), and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (r = .629). The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43 ± 4.93), Tae-Eum (27.33 ± 5.88), and So-Yang (30.90 ± 5.23) types were significantly different from each other (P < .01). Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective. PMID:22567034

  10. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  11. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience. PMID:27427797

  12. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  13. Personality.

    PubMed

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  14. Development of a personal-computer-based intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. A prototype ITS for tutoring students in the use of CLIPS language: CLIPSIT (CLIPS Intelligent Tutor) was developed. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. While most ITSs have been developed on powerful workstations, CLIPSIT is designed for use on the IBM PC/XT/AT personal computer family (and their clones). There are many issues to consider when developing an ITS on a personal computer such as the teaching strategy, user interface, knowledge representation, and program design methodology. Based on experiences in developing CLIPSIT, results on how to address some of these issues are reported and approaches are suggested for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.

  15. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

  16. Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

    The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

  17. Development of Personalized Radiant Cooling System for an Office Room

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Vaibhav; Sharma, Anuj; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2015-01-01

    The building industry nowadays is facing two major challenges increased concern for energy reduction and growing need for thermal comfort. These challenges have led many researchers to develop Radiant Cooling Systems that show a large potential for energy savings. This study aims to develop a personalized cooling system using the principle of radiant cooling integrated with conventional all-air system to achieve better thermal environment at the workspace. Personalized conditioning aims to create a microclimatic zone around a single workspace. In this way, the energy is deployed only where it is actually needed, and the individual s needs for thermal comfort are fulfilled. To study the effect of air temperature along with air temperature distribution for workspace, air temperature near the vicinity of the occupant has been obtained as a result of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using FLUENT. The analysis showed that personalized radiant system improves thermal environment near the workspace and allows all-air systems to work at higher thermostat temperature without compromising the thermal comfort, which in turn reduces its energy consumption.

  18. Adolescent resilience: the potential impact of personal development in schools.

    PubMed

    Raphael, B

    1993-01-01

    The challenges and stresses faced by adolescents include entry into secondary school, the development of adolescent sexuality, family conflicts, parental mental illness, socio-cultural factors, substance use and abuse, work and career abuse, social and antisocial behaviour, and the carry-over of problems from childhood. The ways in which programmes through schools can address these issues, enhance resilience and promote adolescent mental health are discussed. The potential of personal development programmes could be utilized to this end, with targeted educational and group initiatives and evaluation of outcomes.

  19. Adolescent resilience: the potential impact of personal development in schools.

    PubMed

    Raphael, B

    1993-01-01

    The challenges and stresses faced by adolescents include entry into secondary school, the development of adolescent sexuality, family conflicts, parental mental illness, socio-cultural factors, substance use and abuse, work and career abuse, social and antisocial behaviour, and the carry-over of problems from childhood. The ways in which programmes through schools can address these issues, enhance resilience and promote adolescent mental health are discussed. The potential of personal development programmes could be utilized to this end, with targeted educational and group initiatives and evaluation of outcomes. PMID:8268020

  20. Development and Initial Validation of the Multicultural Personality Inventory (MPI).

    PubMed

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fietzer, Alexander W; Fingerhut, Esther C; Woerner, Scott; Stack, Lauren; Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Rust, Jonathan; Nakao, Gen; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Black, Natasha; Alba, Renaldo; Desai, Miraj; Frazier, Chantel; LaRue, Alyse; Liao, Pei-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Two studies summarize the development and initial validation of the Multicultural Personality Inventory (MPI). In Study 1, the 115-item prototype MPI was administered to 415 university students where exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 70-item, 7-factor model. In Study 2, the 70-item MPI and theoretically related companion instruments were administered to a multisite sample of 576 university students. Confirmatory factory analysis found the 7-factor structure to be a relatively good fit to the data (Comparative Fit Index =.954; root mean square error of approximation =.057), and MPI factors predicted variance in criterion variables above and beyond the variance accounted for by broad personality traits (i.e., Big Five). Study limitations and directions for further validation research are specified.

  1. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  2. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    PubMed Central

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies. PMID:26309416

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health & safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure.

  4. The development of human genetics in Germany; a personal view.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F

    2005-07-01

    A personal account is given of the reconstruction and development of human genetics in Germany during the years following World War 2. An important stimulus was funding, as a result of the recognition of the genetic hazards of atomic radiation. Starting from 1960, human genetics institutes were progressively established throughout West Germany; comparable development was later in East Germany because of political factors. The first genetic counselling units were formed in 1972, but molecular biology only became an integral part of human genetics institutes at a relatively late stage. Close international links have characterised post-war human genetics in Germany from the outset and a tradition of close links with developing countries has also been established.

  5. A Personal Journey of Discovery: Developing Technology and Changing Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lee

    2008-07-01

    This autobiographical article describes my experiences in developing chemically based, biological technologies for deciphering biological information: DNA, RNA, proteins, interactions, and networks. The instruments developed include protein and DNA sequencers and synthesizers, as well as ink-jet technology for synthesizing DNA chips. Diverse new strategies for doing biology also arose from novel applications of these instruments. The functioning of these instruments can be integrated to generate powerful new approaches to cloning and characterizing genes from a small amount of protein sequence or to using gene sequences to synthesize peptide fragments so as to characterize various properties of the proteins. I also discuss the five paradigm changes in which I have participated: the development and integration of biological instrumentation; the human genome project; cross-disciplinary biology; systems biology; and predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory (P4) medicine. Finally, I discuss the origins, the philosophy, some accomplishments, and the future trajectories of the Institute for Systems Biology.

  6. Development of active environmental and personal neutron dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Nunomiya, T; Sasaki, M

    2004-01-01

    For neutron dosimetry in the radiation environment surrounding nuclear facilities, two types of environmental neutron dosemeters, the high-sensitivity rem counter and the high-sensitivity multi-moderator, the so-called Bonner ball, have been developed and the former is commercially available from Fuji Electric Co. By using these detectors, the cosmic ray neutrons at sea level have been sequentially measured for about 3 y to investigate the time variation of neutron spectrum and ambient dose equivalent influenced by cosmic and terrestrial effects. Our Bonner ball has also been selected as the neutron detector in the International Space Station and has already been used to measure neutrons in the US experimental module. The real time wide-range personal neutron dosemeter which uses two silicon semiconductor detectors has been developed for personal dosimetry and is commercially available from Fuji Electric Co. This dosemeter has good characteristics, fitted to the fluence-to-dose conversion factor in the energy range from thermal energies to several tens of mega-electron-volts and is now widely used in various nuclear facilities.

  7. Soluble biomarkers development in osteoarthritis: from discovery to personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle; Cornet, Anne; Van de Put, Joachim; Douette, Pierre; Gharbi, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Specific soluble biomarkers could be a precious tool for diagnosis, prognosis and personalized management of osteoarthritic (OA) patients. Objective: To describe the path of soluble biomarker development from discovery to clinical qualification and regulatory adoption toward OA-related biomarker qualification. Methods and results: This review summarizes current guidance on the use of biomarkers in OA in clinical trials and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase 1 to phase 4 trials. It also presents all the available regulatory requirements. Conclusions: The path through the adoption of a specific soluble biomarker for OA is steep but is worth the challenge due to the benefit that it can provide. PMID:26954785

  8. Development and evaluation of personal respirable particulate sampler (PRPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Joo; Demokritou, Philip; Koutrakis, Petros; Delgado-Saborit, Juana M.

    This paper presents the development, laboratory evaluation, and field tests of a personal respirable particulate sampler (PRPS). The PRPS is designed as a personal sampling system to collect particulate matter (PM 0.5, PM 1.0, PM 2.5, PM 4.5, and PM 10) and gaseous pollutants, including O 3, SO 2, and NO 2. It operates at a flow rate of 5.0 LPM and consists of five selectable impaction stages (with cutpoints of 10, 4.5, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 μm), a backup filter, and two diffusion passive samplers. In each impaction stage, particles are collected onto a polyurethane foam (PUF) substrate. This substrate, using no adhesive, was shown to have minimum particle bounce and re-entrainment. A backup 37 mm Teflon membrane filter is used downstream to collect particles smaller than the cutoff diameter of the final impaction stage. The impaction stage cutpoints were characterized in the laboratory using artificially generated polydisperse aerosols. Particle losses for each stage were found to be acceptably low. The performance of the PRPS was also compared with that of a collocated micro-orifice cascade impactor (MOI) and real-time particle sizing instruments (SMPS/APS) in laboratory experiments using artificially generated particles. The size distributions measured by the PRPS were found to be much closer to those measured by the real-time particle sizing instruments than to those measured by the MOI. A field PM intercomparison study was also conducted using the PRPS and three reference samplers, the Harvard Impactor (HI), the USEPA PM 2.5 Well Impactor Ninety Six (WINS), and the Harvard Personal Environmental Monitor (Harvard PEM) sampler. The PM 10, PM 2.5, and sulfate concentrations measured by PRPS were in a very good agreement with those obtained from the reference samplers.

  9. Pathways to Personal Growth. Developing a Sense of Worth and Competence: A Holistic Education Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, J. Melvin

    This book is intended to motivate persons working in the human and social service occupations toward fuller personal development as well as to improve professional competence. The first part discusses the process of becoming a more fully functioning person. Human potential, barriers to personal growth, self-fulfillment, and seeking pathways to…

  10. Genetic Influences on the Organization and Development of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Robert H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal twin study of personality were analyzed for genetic influences utilizing scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the California Psychological Inventory. (Author/JMB)

  11. Developing a Personal Financial Planning Program: More than Just Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Personal financial planning is considered one of the major growth professions of the coming decade. Besides providing an opportunity for employment, a major in personal financial planning can open the door to a rewarding and challenging career. Career opportunities in the personal financial planning field include opening a private practice or…

  12. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    PubMed Central

    Suchitra, S. P.; Jagan, Arati; Nagendra, H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution) have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). Materials and Methods: A 135-item Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI) scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A), pittaja (B), and kaphaja prakriti (C) characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists). Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years. CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84) with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ. PMID:25624693

  13. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  14. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  15. Lived Observations: Linking the Researcher's Personal Experiences to Knowledge Development.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-11-01

    As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice.

  16. Personality disorders as an expression of the dimensional polarity in personality development in late adulthood women.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between Axis II personality disorders and Sidney Blatt constructs of dependency and self-criticism were explored in a late adulthood women sample. The sample consisted of 102 women (M = 72.07 years of age, SD = 7.04) who were administered two measures, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. The histrionic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales are shown to be significant predictors of dependency, and the narcissistic, borderline, and avoidant scales are significant predictors of self-criticism. The application of a dimensional interpersonal approach to psychopathology is discussed.

  17. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  18. Nanodiamonds: The intersection of nanotechnology, drug development, and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dean; Wang, Chung-Huei Katherine; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of nanomedicine in cellular, preclinical, and clinical studies has led to exciting advances ranging from fundamental to translational, particularly in the field of cancer. Many of the current barriers in cancer treatment are being successfully addressed using nanotechnology-modified compounds. These barriers include drug resistance leading to suboptimal intratumoral retention, poor circulation times resulting in decreased efficacy, and off-target toxicity, among others. The first clinical nanomedicine advances to overcome these issues were based on monotherapy, where small-molecule and nucleic acid delivery demonstrated substantial improvements over unmodified drug administration. Recent preclinical studies have shown that combination nanotherapies, composed of either multiple classes of nanomaterials or a single nanoplatform functionalized with several therapeutic agents, can image and treat tumors with improved efficacy over single-compound delivery. Among the many promising nanomaterials that are being developed, nanodiamonds have received increasing attention because of the unique chemical-mechanical properties on their faceted surfaces. More recently, nanodiamond-based drug delivery has been included in the rational and systematic design of optimal therapeutic combinations using an implicitly de-risked drug development platform technology, termed Phenotypic Personalized Medicine–Drug Development (PPM-DD). The application of PPM-DD to rapidly identify globally optimized drug combinations successfully addressed a pervasive challenge confronting all aspects of drug development, both nano and non-nano. This review will examine various nanomaterials and the use of PPM-DD to optimize the efficacy and safety of current and future cancer treatment. How this platform can accelerate combinatorial nanomedicine and the broader pharmaceutical industry toward unprecedented clinical impact will also be discussed. PMID:26601235

  19. Development and Validation of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire: Test Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    Data are presented evaluating the validity and reliability of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ), a self-report questionnaire designed to elicit respondents' perceptions of themselves with respect to seven personality and behavioral dispositions: hostility and aggression, dependence, self-esteem, self-adequacy, emotional…

  20. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  1. The Personal Development Plan Practice Questionnaire: The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess the Employee's Perception of Personal Development Plan Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Confronted with the speed of technological advancements and increasing global competition, organizations have come to realize that their employees' continuous learning drives business success. A popular tool to support and enhance continuous learning is the personal development plan (PDP). Despite its popularity, empirical evidence of the…

  2. Supporting Leadership Development: An Examination of High School Principals' Efforts to Develop Leaders' Personal Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Klar, Hans W.; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an exploratory, qualitative study in which we used a constructivist lens to examine how two high school principals endeavored to develop the personal capacities of teachers and other leaders in their schools. We collected data from semistructured interviews with the principals and three other leaders from…

  3. Development of a Method to Investigate Medical Students' Perceptions of Their Personal and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Nick; Davies, Ioan; Cordingley, Lis; Bundy, Chris; Braidman, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Personal and Professional Development (PPD) is now key to the undergraduate medical curriculum and requires provision of appropriate learning experiences. In order to achieve this, it is essential that we ascertain students' perceptions of what is important in their PPD. We required a methodological approach suitable for a large medical school,…

  4. Effect of Using a Personal Development Plan on Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien; Fouarge, Didier; Gijselaers, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the effects of using a personal development plan (PDP) on the undertaking of learning activities and the employee's job competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Data from Dutch pharmacy assistants was collected (n=2,271). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) as well as regression analyses were conducted on this…

  5. Developing AAC technologies: a personal story and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Newell, A F; Alm, N

    1994-01-01

    Research into and development of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies is an exciting but complex field. The development of a technologically based system which will be an alternative to, or will augment, the speech modality for the interpersonal communication needs of people with communication dysfunction is not an easy task. This is only a young field and thus much of the research methodology is not yet well defined. It is also a growing field, and one to which we would wish to attract new practitioners, and provide appropriate guidance to them. In any technological development project, it is important to define clearly a number of parameters of the project. These are: the client group; the knowledge base needed to solve the problems; the potential technologies that will help and their characteristics; and the time scales envisaged for completion of the research. The authors have been part of a research team working in this field for many years, and, in this paper, they will examine three research strategies which they have found particularly beneficial, illustrating the concepts discussed mainly by reference to personal experiences. The paper concentrates on a relatively narrow definition of technology-that which is often referred to as 'high technology' or information technology. This is not to deny, in any way, the importance to the AAC field of solutions based on other technology, and the authors would hope that some of the comments in the paper are also appropriate to researchers who are working with systems and techniques which do not depend on these technologies.

  6. Personal strategic plan development: getting ready for changes in our professional and personal lives.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Daily challenges for occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants are changing work environments and the desire to address the needs of their clients. This article highlights the need for occupational therapy practitioners to create personal strategic plans to prepare for their rapidly changing futures. Although AOTA's Centennial Vision responds to the profession's future, practitioners must focus on their personal and professional roles and responsibilities. They also must engage in individual strategic planning. Sound individual strategic planning provides a means for practitioners to merge their fantasized views of occupational therapy with the reality of today's practice.

  7. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. PMID:26826637

  8. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  9. Validation of the Development Work Personality Scale for Use with Persons with Disabilities and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre Elizabeth Mary

    2009-01-01

    The current demands of the global economy has led to an increased focus on personality and behaviors as they relate to employment outcomes for the rising number of people living with disabilities and chronic illness. There are a number of well-established and validated theories, models, and instruments that have been implemented to improve work…

  10. Economic Systems, Child Rearing Practices and Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship of a society's economic system to other aspects of the social structure, including socialization practices. Concludes that the relationship between personal values and the economic institution becomes reciprocal as society becomes more complex. (JG)

  11. Development of Students' Personal Professional Theories in Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaap, H.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; de Bruijn, E.

    2011-01-01

    Students in competence-based senior secondary vocational education are expected to actively construct personal knowledge during school-based learning and workplace learning. This study introduces the construct "personal professional theory" (PPT) to monitor and analyse students' personal knowledge development. It aims to investigate the…

  12. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide.

  13. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide. PMID:24166685

  14. Development of personal identity among refugee adolescents: Facilitating elements and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Ndengeyingoma, Assumpta; de Montigny, Francine; Miron, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    This qualitative study examines what contributes to the development of personal identity among refugee adolescents of African origin who have immigrated to Québec. For this purpose, 12 adolescents participated in individual interviews and in self-recorded interviews. The research findings show that the development of young people's personal identity is directly and indirectly influenced by personal characteristics, the environmental, and the interpersonal relationships. We identify both elements that facilitate the development of personal identity and obstacles to such development so as to provide better support for health education among refugee adolescents.

  15. Getting Personal with Teacher Burnout: A Longitudinal Study on the Development of Burnout Using a Person-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultell, Daniel; Melin, Bo; Gustavsson, J. Petter

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that teachers' burnout levels are stable over time. This might be because longitudinal studies on burnout have mainly used a variable-based approach. The purpose of this study was to determine if a person-based approach could provide a more multifaceted perspective to the development of teacher burnout. 816 beginning…

  16. Developing a Technology of Personality-Oriented Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakimanskaia, I. S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interesting example of Russian pedagogical thought. Personality-oriented instruction generally refers to cognitive style. Attempts a broad classification of objectives and procedures for this type of instruction. Includes many references and terminology from Russian pedagogy (for example, psychodidactics, social-pedagogical model,…

  17. Person and Profession: Career Development in the Ministry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Charles William

    Written by a professor of pastoral theology, the book deals with today's crisis in the ministry, the personal dimension as well as the systemic breakdown of role definition and laity-clergy relationships, and recognizes the need for various support systems throughout a career in the ministry. The author states, "You are first a full human being,…

  18. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. PMID:26259042

  19. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  20. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood.

  1. Education, Support and the Development of the Whole Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the journal brings together six educationalists with distinctive concerns about the range and quality of support needed and given to children and young people who experience difficulties in managing school or college. Their foci are very different: the "impact of fathers" (present or absent) on the young person's attitude and…

  2. Developing a tool to assess person-centred continence care.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jayne

    2006-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the first phase of a study to determine the contextual indicators that enable or hinder evidence-based continence care and management. The main focus of the article is to provide an insight into the value of understanding practice 'context' and its impact on the provision of person-centred continence care.

  3. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  4. A model of personality change after traumatic brain injury and the development of the Brain Injury Personality Scales

    PubMed Central

    Obonsawin, M C; Jefferis, S; Lowe, R; Crawford, J R; Fernandes, J; Holland, L; Woldt, K; Worthington, E; Bowie, G

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to develop models of personality change after traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on information provided by the TBI survivor and a significant other (SO), and to compare the models generated from the two different sources of information. Methods Individuals with and without TBI and an SO were interviewed separately about their current personality. The SOs were also interviewed about the personality of the TBI survivor before the injury. A subset of TBI survivors and their SOs were interviewed twice to assess test–retest reliability. Items which were not associated with personality change after TBI, which could not be measured reliably or which did not contribute to the model, were excluded. Results Of the 123 original items, 29 items from the interview with the survivor and 31 items from the interview with the SO were retained to form the Brain Injury Personality Scales. Separate factor analyses of ratings from each interview (survivor and SO) resulted in seven first order factors. The second order factor analyses for each interview resulted in four factors. Concordance between the information obtained from the two interviews was low. Conclusions The information obtained from the interviews with the TBI survivors and the SOs produced two models with a similar structure: three superordinate factors of personality items (affective regulation, behavioural regulation and engagement) and one superordinate factor of items relevant to mental state (restlessness and range of thought). Despite the similarity in structure, the content of the information obtained from the two interviews was different. PMID:17259352

  5. Family of personal LISP machines speeds AI program development

    SciTech Connect

    Sheil, B.

    1983-11-03

    Three computers designed to run interLISP-D implementation provide personal programming work stations for artificial intelligence. The Xerox 1100 family of programming work stations is designed to enhance the productivity of programmers working on these difficult problems. These machines are well-suited to the specialized demands of program writing in application areas such as expert systems, knowledge-based systems, and interactive graphics interfaces between operator and machine.

  6. Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition in Normal and Disrupted Personality Development: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2013-01-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span--the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of…

  7. Coaches' Perspectives on Their Roles in Facilitating the Personal Development of Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banwell, Jenessa; Kerr, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches' perspectives on the personal development student-athletes experience through interuniversity sport. Additionally, it explored the ways in which coaches understand, enable, and facilitate the personal development of student-athletes. Eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  8. Personality and Demographic Variables Related to Career Development and Career Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Joan; And Others

    Following a literature search of the theories of personal maturation and career development, a study was conducted to identify personality and demographic variables related to career development and career concerns. Specifically investigated was the relationship between two sets of variables with self-concept, locus of control, and age in one set…

  9. Teacher Self-Assessment Data: Bases for Designing a Personal Long-Range Professional Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.

    A program of self-evaluation was developed for teachers to use in creating a personal profile which could become the basis for designing a long-range professional development program. Seven areas for self-assessment were philosophical belief system, personality traits, interpersonal awareness traits, self-concept, learning style, teaching style,…

  10. The Effects of Classroom Teaching on Students' Self-Efficacy for Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Lai, Edith

    2013-01-01

    The personal development of students is an essential component of school guidance and counselling programmes, but no published research on guidance and counselling has investigated the effects of regular classroom teaching on students' self-efficacy for personal development. In this study, questionnaire items were constructed to measure classroom…

  11. Our Purposes: Personal Reflections on Character Development and Social Responsibility in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of outcomes related to moral and ethical development, other dimensions of personal development, and civic engagement is a result of decades of educational reform. But have colleges and universities succeeded in helping students achieve these outcomes? In this article, the author shares his personal reflections on…

  12. Designing and Evaluating a Personal Skills Development Program for Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Elvy; Hung, Humphry

    2012-01-01

    Success in preparing business students for professional careers requires these students to develop a set of well-defined personal skills. The present study examined 145 business students to assess the effectiveness of a personal skills development (PSD) program by measuring the impact of the training on the students' attitudes in skill development…

  13. Role of Teacher Educational Institutions in Developing Personality of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Srinivasan; Xavier S. J., S. Amaladoss

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Education is an integral part of any educational system. It should provide a platform in developing the holistic personality of a student teacher. This paper reports on personality of student teachers and the role of Teacher Educational institutions in developing it. The sample consists of 1,080 student teachers of Madurai revenue…

  14. Role of Teacher Educational Institutions in Developing Personality of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, S.; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Education is an integral part of any educational system. It should provide a platform in developing the holistic personality of a student teacher. This paper reports on personality of student teachers and the role of Teacher Educational institutions in developing it. The sample consists of 1080 student teachers of Madurai revenue district.…

  15. [Inbred disgust propensity in the aspect of the development of pathological personality].

    PubMed

    Belova, N A

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between inborn (constituional) disgust propensity, dynamics of personality disorders and development of contamination fear in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were studied in 54 patients with milder forms of mysophobia. Three types of contamination fear characterized by different combinations of disgust propensity and personality traits were singled out. Clinical features of OCD were shown to correspond to premorbid personality while denotative characteristics of OCD were correlated with constituional phenomenon of disgust propensity. The results suggest that disgust propensity is a stable personality dimension contributing to the development of contamination fear. PMID:23096030

  16. Interdisciplinary and Interorganizational Concerns in the Development of Technology for Physically Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalinsky, William

    1989-01-01

    The paper defines "interdisciplinary" and "interorganizational," identifies concerns in interdisciplinary and interorganizational work, develops an interdisciplinary/interorganizational framework, and analyzes problems and solutions in development of technology for physically disabled persons. (Author/DB)

  17. A personal revolution in the development of clubfoot correction.

    PubMed

    Brand, P W

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the author's experience of having worked in London, England, under Denis Browne, whose method of treating equinovarus in the newborn involved manipulation of the baby feet until full correction had been achieved at the very first visit. The feet were then strapped to the sole plates of the Denis Browne splint, which ensured that the baby's normal kicking action maintained mobility at the subtalar joints and also a basic plantigrade posture. When he transferred to India, the author found a large population of children who had been born with talipes equinovarus, but who had never had treatment. He worked at obtaining correction without strong manipulation, using serial plaster casting followed by Denis Browne's splints. His personal reactions to the problems and the merits of the two methods forms the subject of this article.

  18. Developing Personal Learning Environments Based on Calm Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiaidhi, Jinan

    Educational technology is constantly evolving and growing, and it is inevitable that this progression will continually offer new and interesting advances in our world. The instigation of calm technologies for the delivery of education is another new approach now emerging. Calm technology aims to reduce the "excitement" of information overload by letting the learner select what information is at the center of their attention and what information need to be at the peripheral. In this paper we report on the adaptation of calm technologies in an educational setting with emphasis on the needs to cater the preferences of the individual learner to respond to the challenge of providing truly learner-centered, accessible, personalized and flexible learning. Central to calm computing vision is the notion of representing learning objects as widgets, harvesting widgets from the periphery based on semantic wikis as well as widgets garbage collection from the virtual/central learning memory.

  19. Personal health records: mobile biosensors and smartphones for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sternly K; Seldon, H Lee

    2012-01-01

    A target of telehealth is to maintain or improve the health of people outside the normal healthcare infrastructure. A modern paradigm in healthcare, and one which fits perfectly with telehealth, is "person self-monitoring", and this fits with the concept of "personal health record" (PHR). One factor in maintaining health is to monitor physiological parameters; this is of course especially important in people with chronic maladies such as diabetes or heart disease. Parameters to be monitored include blood pressure, pulse rate, temperature, weight, blood glucose, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. So one task within telehealth would be to help monitor an individual's physiological parameters outside of healthcare institutions and store the results in a PHR in a way which is available, comprehensible and beneficial to the individual concerned and to healthcare providers. To date many approaches to this problem have been fragmented - emphasizing only part of the problem - or proprietary and not freely verifiable. We describe a framework to approach this task; it emphasizes the implementation of standards for data acquisition, storage and transmission in order to maximize the compatibility among disparate components, e.g. various PHR systems. Data from mobile biosensors is collected on a smartphone using the IEEE 11073 standard where possible; the data can be stored in a PHR on the phone (using standard formats) or can be converted in real-time into more useful information in the PHR, which is based on the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC2e). The phone PHR data or information can be uploaded to a central online PHR using either the Wi-Fi or GSM transmission protocol together with the Continuity of Care Record message format (CCR, ASTM E2369).

  20. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): Development, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helene; Berghout, Caspar C.; Dolan, Conor; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; van der Kroft, Petra J. A.; Bateman, Anthony W.; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets constituted homogeneous item clusters (i.e.,…

  1. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  2. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  3. Enhancing the Mental Health Promotion Component of a Health and Personal Development Programme in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Carol; Conlon, Andrea; Cleary, Deirdre; Power, Mike; King, Frances; Guerin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to examine the impact of a health and personal development programme (the Social, Personal and Health Education Programme) which had been "enhanced" by the addition of a mental health promotion component. Students aged 12-16 years attending 17 secondary schools were randomly allocated as clusters to participate in…

  4. Initial Development of a Measure of Emotional Dysregulation for Individuals with Cluster B Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhill, Christina E.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders are at particular risk of violence toward self or others. Emotional dysregulation is likely to be a factor in such incidents and is a central issue addressed in therapies with personality-disordered individuals. This article reports findings from a study that developed an original 18-item…

  5. Seeing Yourself as Others See You: Developing Personal Attributes in the Group Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An important part of the process that enables us to improve ourselves as musicians in group music making involves developing an awareness of our personal attributes as they are displayed in the rehearsal. In order to help students become more aware of themselves and of their band members' personal attributes as they rehearse, a peer assessment…

  6. Personal, Professional Coaching: Transforming Professional Development for Teacher and Administrative Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Janet; Holzer, Allison A.; Stern, Robin; Brackett, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for a different approach to the professional development of teachers and school leaders called personal, professional coaching (PPC). Personal, professional coaching is grounded in reflective practices that cultivate self-awareness, emotion management, social awareness, and relationship management. Findings from two…

  7. Temperament and Personality as Potential Factors in the Development and Treatment of Conduct Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David; Kemp, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the development of conduct disorder (CD) in children and adolescents using Hans Eysenck's biosocial theory of personality. Eysenck's antisocial behavior hypothesis is discussed and intervention suggestions based on this theory are presented. The interactions of temperament-based personality profiles with interventions for CD…

  8. Promoting Multicultural Personality Development: A Strengths-Based, Positive Psychology Worldview for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mendelowitz, David E.; Collabolletta, Ernest A.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends the relevance of multicultural development to the Strengths-Based School Counseling (SBSC; Galassi & Akos, 2007) perspective. A relatively new construct for school counselors, the "multicultural personality" (MP), is introduced and defined. The MP is conceptualized as a cluster of narrow personality traits that can be subsumed…

  9. Relationships matter in personality development: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Neyer, Franz J; Lehnart, Judith

    2007-06-01

    Personality-relationship transactions were investigated in a general population sample of young German adults with three assessments over 8 years. Four general findings were obtained. First, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences in change. Second, bivariate latent growth models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with change in peer and family relationships. Third, forming a partner relationship for the first time moderated the maturation of personality. This finding was replicated over two subsequent time intervals with independent subgroups. Fourth, higher neuroticism and higher sociability predicted which of the singles began a partner relationship during the next 8 years. The results confirm that individual differences in personality development predict and result from life transitions and relationship experiences.

  10. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  11. Integrating Person- and Function-Centered Approaches in Career Development Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Porfeli, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compares life-span approaches (function and variable centered) and life-course approaches (person centered and holistic) in the study of career development. Advocates their integration in developmental theory and research. (Contains 69 references.) (SK)

  12. The use of significant event analysis and personal development plans in developing CPD: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wright, P D; Franklin, C D

    2007-07-14

    This paper describes the work undertaken by the Postgraduate Primary Care Trust (PCT) Dental Tutor for South Yorkshire and East Midlands Regional Postgraduate Dental Education Office during the first year of a two-year pilot. The tutor has special responsibility for facilitating the writing of Personal Development Plans (PDPs) and the introduction of Significant Event Analysis to the 202 general dental practitioners in the four Sheffield PCTs. Data were collected on significant events and the educational needs highlighted as a result. A hands-on workshop format was used in small practice groups and 45% of Sheffield general dental practitioners now have written PDPs compared with a 16% national average. A library of significant events has also been collated from the data collected. PMID:17632491

  13. Development of personalized annuloplasty rings: combination of CT images and CAD-CAM tools.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Valle-Fernández, Raquel Del; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Muñoz-García, Julio; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Otero, Javier Echávarri

    2010-02-01

    Although the use of personalized annuloplasty rings manufactured for each patient according to the size and morphology of their valve complex could be beneficial for the treatment of mitral insufficiency, this possibility has been limited for reasons of time-lines and costs as well as for design and manufacturing difficulties, as has been the case with other personalized implant and prosthetic developments. However, the present quality of medical image capture equipment together with the benefits to be had from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) and the capabilities furnished by rapid prototyping technologies, present new opportunities for a personalized response to the development of implants and prostheses, the social impact of which could turn out to be highly positive. This paper sets out a personalized development of an annuloplasty ring based on the combined use of information from medical imaging, from CAD-CAM design programs and prototype manufacture using rapid prototyping technologies.

  14. Development of personalized annuloplasty rings: combination of CT images and CAD-CAM tools.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Valle-Fernández, Raquel Del; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Muñoz-García, Julio; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Otero, Javier Echávarri

    2010-02-01

    Although the use of personalized annuloplasty rings manufactured for each patient according to the size and morphology of their valve complex could be beneficial for the treatment of mitral insufficiency, this possibility has been limited for reasons of time-lines and costs as well as for design and manufacturing difficulties, as has been the case with other personalized implant and prosthetic developments. However, the present quality of medical image capture equipment together with the benefits to be had from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) and the capabilities furnished by rapid prototyping technologies, present new opportunities for a personalized response to the development of implants and prostheses, the social impact of which could turn out to be highly positive. This paper sets out a personalized development of an annuloplasty ring based on the combined use of information from medical imaging, from CAD-CAM design programs and prototype manufacture using rapid prototyping technologies. PMID:19826955

  15. Professional and Personal Development in Contemporary Gerontology Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Rowles, Graham D.; Watkins, John F.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the Gerontology Doctoral Student Assessment Model (GDSAM), a comprehensive web-based system premised on developing an evaluation mechanism attuned to the special requirements of advanced graduate education at the doctoral level. The system focuses on longitudinal tracking of selected dimensions of intellectual,…

  16. Developing a Holistic Approach for Educating Persons with Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen

    This paper reports on three studies within a 6-year longitudinal study which explored the use of Piagetian sensori-motor substages as a curriculum base for individuals with profound mental retardation (MR). In the first study, a simple observational inventory, the Cognitive Marker Natural Observational Tool (CM-NOT), was developed and evaluated…

  17. Continuous Creation: Developing a Scientific and Humane Personal Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styers, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    Human beings must develop both a rational acceptance of unfolding scientific knowledge and an attitude of caring and tolerance for all lives. Supernatural conceptions are almost always exclusive concerning some aspects of reality and have often been the basis for inhumane conduct. Everyday we create our lives. (CS)

  18. Study Abroad Program Design, Personal Development and Intercultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenhoeft, Margaret Davis

    2011-01-01

    Research on study abroad focuses on the development of learning outcomes and assessment (Bolen, 2007) or program design, such as level of integration with local student population, housing situation, and level of interaction with host culture (Brecht & Robinson, 1993; Engle & Engle, 2004; Georgetown Consortium Research Project, n.d.; Paige, Cohen,…

  19. The Development of Commercial ESCA Instrumentation: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    A study of the development of commercial electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) instrumentation over a span of three decades is presented. The field has also been extended significantly by use of synchrotron radiation as a bright X-ray source, which has opened new areas of research in solid-state physics, molecular biology, and many…

  20. Development of Communication Assistive Technology for Persons with Deaf-Blindness and Physical Limitation.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takuro; Watanabe, Takashi; Takahashi, Kiriko; Doi, Kouki; Fukuda, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system that will provide communication assistance to persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation, so that they will be able to communicate with others without the help of an interpreter. With this communication system, a person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation uses a control switch to perform input operations based on the duration of the operating time and combination of long and short pulses. When the input is correctly performed, the user receives a feedback from the tablet computer as vibratory stimuli. Similarly, the message that other person's input with a Bluetooth keyboard is transmitted to the user as vibration stimuli. Following the development, we conducted a one-year assessment of the developed communication system in an actual environment with the cooperation of one person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation. . We confirmed that our developed system was useful for such a person, and understood that we must improve upon several aspects. We shall pursue further study, and will aim at providing a better communication environment for persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation in future. PMID:26294595

  1. [Historical background to the development of the concept of the borderline personality].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-11-01

    The history of the development of the concept of borderline personality disorder dates back to the late nineteenth century when in 1884 described the first cases of patients with a clinical picture similar to today's concept of borderline personality disorder, using the first time the concept of borderline. On the current understanding of the borderline personality disorder had a significant impact available and valid diagnostic criteria included in the classifications ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR and psychological theories such as psychoanalytic theory of "object relations" and cognitive behavioral approaches.

  2. The development of risk analysis: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This article reflects on my experiences observing and participating in the development of risk analysis for environmental and health hazards since the 1970s with emphasis on its critical role in informing decisions with potentially high consequences, even for very low probability events once ignored or simply viewed as "acts of God." I discuss how modern society wants to protect itself from hazards with limited or no immediate historical precedent such that prediction and protective actions must depend on models that offer varying degrees of reliability. I believe that we must invest in understanding risks and risk models to ensure health in the future and protect ourselves from large challenges, including climate change, whether anthropogenic or otherwise, terrorism, and perhaps even cosmic change. PMID:22563748

  3. Development of Meal Assistance Orthosis and Its Controller for Challenged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Disable persons, motor functional disorder, can not take meal by their arms. Meal assistance orthosis, which assists to take meal, is developed for them. Meal assistance orthosis is actuated by use of human will which is analized based on EOG˜(Electroocurogram) signal. Besides, control theory for meal assistance orthosis is designed with safety policy. Effectiveness of the proposed meal assistace orthosis is assured by simulation and experimental work on normal person.

  4. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  5. Development of a personal integrated environmental monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-11-20

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments.

  6. Development of a personal integrated environmental monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  7. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  8. Catch a Glimpse of Me: The development of staff videos to promote person-centered care.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tracey L; King Seymour, Lindsay; Welleford, E Ayn

    2016-09-01

    Catch a Glimpse of Me is an ongoing project that uses video to help staff deliver more person-centered care for people with dementia living in long-term care. Focus groups consisting of residents, family and staff members were conducted to develop a template for the development of the videos. The five themes they identified as being important to include are: family; interests and hobbies; memories and moments; life space and getting personal. The article describes the process of developing the videos and discusses the ongoing potential of the Catch a Glimpse of Me project.

  9. Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in normal and disrupted personality development: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2013-04-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span-the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of extant research concerning these models, discusses their implications for psychology and psychiatry, and addresses future research perspectives deriving from these models. We first consider the implications of findings in this area for clinical research and practice. This is followed by a discussion of emerging research findings concerning the role of developmental, cross-cultural, evolutionary, and neurobiological factors influencing the development of these two fundamental personality dimensions. Taken together, this body of research suggests that theoretical formulations that focus on interpersonal relatedness and self-definition as central coordinates in personality development and psychopathology provide a comprehensive conceptual paradigm for future research in psychology and psychiatry exploring the interactions among neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in adaptive and disrupted personality development across the life span.

  10. The Development of Gendered Interests and Personality Qualities from Middle Childhood through Adolescence: A Biosocial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities and activity interests from age 7 to age 19 in 364 first- and second-born siblings from 185 White, middle/working-class families, assessed links between time in gendered social contexts (with mother, father, female peers, and male peers) and gender development, and tested whether…

  11. An Implementation of a Twitter-Supported Personal Learning Network to Individualize Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyamport, W. H., III.

    2013-01-01

    In this action research study, eight teachers at an elementary school were trained in the use of Twitter to support the development of a personal learning network as a strategy to address non-differentiated professional development at the school. The main research question for this study was: In what ways, if any, can the use of a…

  12. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Aysegül; Balbag, Mustafa Zafer

    2016-01-01

    This study has developed "Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Science and Technology Teachers Regarding Their Fields". Exploratory factor analysis of the scale has been conducted based on the data collected from 200 science and technology teachers across Turkey. The scale has been observed through varimax rotation method,…

  13. Fostering Humane Care of Dying Persons in Long-Term Care. Guidebook for Staff Development Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Daley, Barbara

    This guide is intended for staff development instructors responsible for inservice education on the topic of fostering humane care for dying persons in long-term care. The introduction discusses the guide's development based on input from administrators, staff, and families of residents in long-term care facilities and focus group interviews in…

  14. Academic Developers and International Collaborations: The Importance of Personal Abilities and Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Ian; Strivens, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Academic developers are increasingly involved in international collaborations in learning and teaching. Many factors contribute to successful collaborations; we argue that the personal abilities and aptitudes of academic developers are one key element. Building trust and relationships are central to creating the networks at individual, group, and…

  15. Considering Transversal Competences, Personality and Reputation in the Context of the Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepic, Renata; Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Loncaric, Darko; Andic, Dunja; Mihic, Sanja Skocic

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines for reflection and improvement of transversal competences of teachers in the field of self-regulation, education for sustainable development and inclusion in the context of their continuing professional development. Also, the moderatory effect of personality based on literature analysis and insight…

  16. The Course of Life: Psychoanalytic Contributions Toward Understanding Personality Development. Vol. II: Latency, Adolescence and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; Pollock, George H., Ed.

    This volume is the second in "The Course of Life" series which contains original contributions from an international group of scientists and clinicians who have produced much of current knowledge about the phases of human personality development. These contributions cover the continuum of human development from the prenatal phase through childhood…

  17. The role of Parenting and Goal Selection in Positive Youth Development: A Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Christopher M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Depping, Miriam; von Eye, Alexander; Chase, Paul; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2011-01-01

    Using a person-centered approach, we examined the relations between goal selection, various indicators of parenting, and positive development among 510 Grades 9 to 11 participants (68% female) in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents. Goal selection was operationalized by the "Selection"…

  18. The Course of Life: Psychoanalytic Contributions Toward Understanding Personality Development. Vol. I: Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; Pollock, George H., Ed.

    This volume is the first in "The Course of Life" series which contains original contributions from an international group of scientists and clinicians who have produced much of the current knowledge about the phases of human personality development. These contributions cover the continuum of human development from the prenatal phase through…

  19. Vocational Interests and Career Goals: Development and Relations to Personality in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional research implies a close relation of vocation interests, goals, and traits, yet little is known about their reciprocal development over time. This longitudinal study examined development of Things/People (T/P) and Data/Ideas (D/I) vocational interests and career goals in relation to Big Five personality traits among 292 Swiss…

  20. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  1. Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries: The Personal Computer and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wai-Man

    2005-01-01

    With the blooming of information in digital format, dissemination of information is becoming a big challenge for developing countries. It is not only due to the limited provision of personal computers--in addition, the technological infrastructure and the ability to access information are also becoming major concerns in developing countries. This…

  2. Minority Woman's Survival Kit: Personal and Professional Development for Minority Women. Facilitator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stanlie M., Ed.

    This facilitator's manual consists of guidelines and materials for use in conducting a workshop dealing with the professionl and personal development of minority women. Included in the first half of the manual are the following pieces of information pertaining to implementation of the workshop: background on the need for and development of the…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Personal Practical Theories and Autonomy: Development during Professional Internship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Doohyun L.

    2013-01-01

    Professional internship experiences play a critical role in the development of pre-service teachers. This research investigates pre-service teachers' personal practical theories (PPTs) and autonomy and how they are developed during professional internship experiences. This study also explores relationships that exist for PPTs and autonomy and…

  4. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  5. What is the reward? Medical students’ learning and personal development during a research project course

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Riitta; Shoshan, Maria; Heikkilä, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Background Until recently, the outcome of medical students’ research projects has mainly been assessed in terms of scientific publications, whereas other results important for students’ development have been less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate medical students’ experiences of learning as an outcome of the research project course. Method Written reflections of 50 students were analyzed by manifest inductive content analysis. Results Three categories emerged: ‘thinking as a scientist’, ‘working as a scientist’, and ‘personal development’. Students became more aware about the nature of knowledge, how to generate new knowledge, and developed skills in scientific thinking and critical appraisal. Unexpectedly, effects on personal characteristics, such as self-confidence, self-discipline, independence, and time management skills were also acknowledged. Conclusions We conclude that individual research projects enhance research-specific skills and competencies needed in evidence-based clinical work and are beneficial for personal and professional development. PMID:26344390

  6. Person-centred web-based support - development through a Swedish multi-case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Departing from the widespread use of the internet in modern society and the emerging use of web applications in healthcare this project captures persons’ needs and expectations in order to develop highly usable web recourses. The purpose of this paper is to outline a multi-case research project focused on the development and evaluation of person-centred web-based support for people with long-term illness. To support the underlying idea to move beyond the illness, we approach the development of web support from the perspective of the emergent area of person-centred care. The project aims to contribute to the ongoing development of web-based supports in health care and to the emerging field of person-centred care. Methods/Design The research design uses a meta-analytical approach through its focus on synthesizing experiences from four Swedish regional and national cases of design and use of web-based support in long-term illness. The cases include children (bladder dysfunction and urogenital malformation), young adults (living close to persons with mental illness), and two different cases of adults (women with breast cancer and childbearing women with type 1 diabetes). All of the cases are ongoing, though in different stages of design, implementation, and analysis. This, we argue, will lead to a synthesis of results on a meta-level not yet described. Discussion To allow valid comparisons between the four cases we explore and problematize them in relation to four main aspects: 1) The use of people’s experiences and needs; 2) The role of use of theories in the design of person-centred web-based supports; 3) The evaluation of the effects of health outcomes for the informants involved and 4) The development of a generic person-centred model for learning and social support for people with long-term illness and their significant others. Person-centred web-based support is a new area and few studies focus on how web-based interventions can contribute to the

  7. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration.

  8. Predictors of early person reference development: maternal language input, attachment and neurodevelopmental markers.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Joraschky, Peter; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2013-12-01

    In a longitudinal natural language development study in Germany, the acquisition of verbal symbols for present persons, absent persons, inanimate things and the mother-toddler dyad was investigated. Following the notion that verbal referent use is more developed in ostensive contexts, symbolic play situations were coded for verbal person reference by means of noun and pronoun use. Depending on attachment classifications at twelve months of age, effects of attachment classification and maternal language input were studied up to 36 months in four time points. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, except for mother absence, maternal verbal referent input rates at 17 and 36 months were stronger predictors for all referent types than any of the attachment organizations, or any other social or biological predictor variable. Attachment effects accounted for up to 9.8% of unique variance proportions in the person reference variables. Perinatal and familial measures predicted person references dependent on reference type. The results of this investigation indicate that mother-reference, self-reference and thing-reference develop in similar quantities measured from the 17-month time point, but are dependent of attachment quality.

  9. Personality, Motivation, and College Readiness: A Prospectus for Assessment and Development. Research Report. ETS RR-14-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns how noncognitive constructs--personality and motivation--can be assessed and developed to increase students' readiness for college. We propose a general framework to account for personality and motivational differences between students. We review numerous studies showing that personality and motivational factors are related…

  10. Leveraging the Potential of Personal Learning Networks for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    In times of exponential change, high quality, cost-effective teacher professional development is an urgent need that personal learning networks (PLNs) promise to address. The purpose of the qualitative case study was to (a) explore, understand, and describe how PreK-12 educators, who are members of The Educator's PLN and Classroom 2.0 communities,…

  11. Personal Development Planning under the Scope of Self-Brand Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigopoulou, Irini; Kehagias, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the empirical body of knowledge regarding the role of universities today. In addition, it aims to investigate the topic of personal development planning (PDP) programs, under a different perspective borrowed from marketing theory, namely, the "self-brand orientation" approach.…

  12. Problem Based Learning in Cooperative Situation (PBLCS) and Its Impact on Development of Personal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ahmad; Bini Kailani, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was focused on the observation on the practice of PBLCS learning model, and its impact on the development of personal intelligence (interpersonal and intrapersonal) students. This study used a quasi-experimental design with one factor measurement. The study population was students of class XI, IPA (Natural Science) SMAN…

  13. Personal Development Planning in Initial Teacher Training: A Case Study from Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ron; Hallwood, Linda; Clements, Christine; Rivron, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of personal development planning (PDP) within an initial teacher training course for the post-compulsory sector, delivered through a large consortium in the north of England. The paper reviews conceptual and empirical studies of PDP in higher education and reports on the practice and perceptions of students and…

  14. Support Structures for Facilitators of Student Personal Development Planning: Lessons from Two Departmental Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Claire; Lisewski, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, following guidelines set out by the Quality Assurance Agency, personal development planning (PDP) is now operational across all higher education (HE) awards. Like many policy initiatives, PDP requires change, and vital to its implementation are those who facilitate PDP at the grassroots level. Staff given the task of implementing PDP…

  15. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  16. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  17. "Anything Other than Silence": Using a Personal Learning System for Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesney, Sarah; Benson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of a personal learning system (PLS) for continuing professional development (CPD) of academic staff. It examines which, if any, activities, habits or strategies triggered the use of the PLS when there was no immediate or external pressure to engage. It also investigates whether participants felt that using the PLS…

  18. Opportunities to Personalize Teacher Learning: Innovative Approaches to Bridge Evaluation and Professional Development for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to consider ways to integrating teacher evaluation and professional development--specifically, to explore innovative ways to harness feedback from teacher evaluations for the creation of personalized professional learning for teachers. This study was commissioned by the planning council members of the Metropolitan…

  19. The Role of Personality in Relationship Closeness, Developer Assistance, and Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chuan; Foo, Maw-Der; Turban, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the role of relationship closeness, which is adapted from social network theory, in developmental relationships using a sample of 278 full-time working individuals. We theorize that personality, operationalized with the Five Factor Model, is associated with relationship closeness which is positively related to developer assistance…

  20. The Influence of Professional Development on Teachers' Implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Choi, Euichang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers' implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data…

  1. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  2. Raising Kids with Character: Developing Trust and Personal Integrity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This book shows parents, clinicians, and policy-makers how the love relationship between parents and children is the workshop of the child's maturing personality, connecting everyday moments in family life to the growth of the child's sense of values and meaning. The book explains how children develop into fine, morally strong adults through their…

  3. Increasing Student Motivation through the Development of a Personal Mission Statement. Action Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Jeanette G.

    The instructor of a course focusing on basic academic and job readiness skills for welfare recipients at the Goodwill Employment Help Center in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, conducted an action research project to determine whether developing personal mission statements would increase students' motivation in her course. As new students were accepted…

  4. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-01-01

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice. PMID:18694014

  5. Early development influences ontogeny of personality types in young laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Heiko G; Meyer, Susann

    2011-09-01

    Features of an individual's early development are frequently reported to alter the postnatal ontogeny in litter-bearing mammals with respect to various physiological parameters. We hypothesized that such effects might also apply to the ontogeny of personality types. On the one hand, litter size effects by means of more contacts with littermates, might lead to the development of more offensive types. On the other hand, smaller and less developed young from larger litters might be less offensive due to their lower physical capabilities to deal with challenging situations. We studied these contrasting hypotheses in young rats, which we tested in a battery of emotionality tests. There were clear indications for the existence of distinct behavioral types by means of consistencies in behavioral responses within and across contexts. Based on these responses, we calculated three new variables by PCA, which we interpreted to mainly reflect boldness, exploration, and anxiety. Overall, our results strongly suggest that the early development alters the ontogeny of personality types, with heavier individuals being bolder and more explorative. Furthermore, body mass and litter size influenced the changes in the behavioral responses in successive tests, further supporting the importance of the litter size-dependent body mass for the ontogeny of personalities. Anxiety also depended on litter size, however, in a nonlinear way. Animals born to litters of small or large sizes had higher scores, whereas individuals from medium-sized litters were less anxious. This optimum curve indicates that opposing effects of litter size are involved in shaping personalities in young rats.

  6. What It Takes To Be a Teacher: The Role of Personal and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freppon, Penny A.

    This collection of papers focuses on teachers' personal and professional development, showing what teachers' learning, hopes, desires, struggles, and instruction look and feel like from inside the lives of effective teachers and in their classrooms. Topics include the types of resources and experiences effective teachers use, how these resources…

  7. The Institute for Faculty Excellence: A Study of the Personal and Professional Development of Judges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Carrie Allison

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the role that participation in IFEJE played in the personal and professional development of six judges who participated in the Institute since 2001. Three perspectives of education, including the history of adult learning, continuing professional education, and judicial branch education are discussed. The…

  8. The Potential for Personal Development and Transformational Outcomes in Women Earning Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Gail; Egan, Toby

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the personal development and transformation of women earning an online degree and to what extent their goals were met through earning the degree. Eighteen adult women who earned a fully online master's degree at least one year ago from a university affiliated with the Southern Regional Education Board were…

  9. How a Personal Development Program Enhances Social Connection and Mobilises Women in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spry, Nandila; Marchant, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Gender equity and the empowerment of women is a significant international issue. Successful adult education programs are vital to enhance women's situation. Lessons learned from a personal development program provided for thousands of women are analysed. The program is conducted by community service providers in Australia and internationally,…

  10. Career Development for Persons with Learning Disabilities. Postsecondary Intervention Model for Learning Disabilities. Study Manual #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egly, Nancy J.; And Others

    The manual presents an overview of the career development process for college students with language learning disabilities (LD). A systematic problem solving process is advocated beginning with job selection and preparation and continuing through retirement. Such a process can help the LD adult to identify personal strengths and weaknesses,…

  11. Personal-Interpersonal Competence Assessment: A Self-Report Instrument for Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Craig R.; Miguel, Krystal; Alzamil, Abdulaziz; Naumann, Stefanie E.; Royce-Davis, Joanna; Drost, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the internal consistency of a revised instrument, the Personal-Interpersonal Competence Assessment (PICA); derived from the earlier Social Emotional Development Instrument (SED-I). There were three primary rationales for the revision. First, and most importantly, to better align the operational factors with…

  12. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  13. Involving Institutional Staff in the Development and Maintenance of Sign Language Skills with Profoundly Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Gerald D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A program to involve institutional staff in developing manual sign language skills with six profoundly retarded persons was evaluated. Results indicated that all participating residents learned to communicate with signing during structured interactions on their living unit and the skills maintained during follow-up assessments ranging from 39 to…

  14. Cultural Encounters of the Stimulating Kind: Personal Development through Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinmann, Sigrid

    Culture shock is discussed as it affects Americans who travel extensively abroad. Culture shock can lead to total withdrawal from the new culture or to increased awareness, personal growth, and the development of new cross cultural skills. Communication problems contribute to culture shock in the form of language barriers, nonverbal…

  15. Doing What We Teach: Promoting Digital Literacies for Professional Development through Personal Learning Environments and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of social media, few learners make effective use of digital technology to support their learning or graduate with the skills necessary for developing and communicating their expertise in the knowledge-driven networked society of the digital age. This article makes use of the concept of Personal Learning Environments (PLE)…

  16. The Mental Hygiene Movement, the Development of Personality and the School: The Medicalization of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sol

    1983-01-01

    Few intellectual and social movements of this century have had so pervasive an influence on the theory and practice of American education as the mental hygiene movement. This movement substantially altered ways of thinking about education, in particular, the school's responsibility for children's personality development. The movement's history is…

  17. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-10-11

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice.

  18. Perceived Personal and Social Competence: Development of Valid and Reliable Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.; Rhodes, Darson L.; Hey, David W.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 20 years, youth programming has shifted from risk reduction to youth development. While numerous instruments exist to measure selected individual characteristics/competencies among youth, a comprehensive instrument to measure four constructs of personal and social skills could not be identified. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  20. Moral Development as the Personal Education of Feeling and Reason: From James to Piaget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel; Okamoto, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the connection between William James's writings in "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and Jean Piaget's work on moral development through Piaget's early work on religious experience. James characterises religious experience as unlocking deep personal power that can sustain a "strenuous mood". These ideas impacted the early…

  1. Some Dynamics of Personality Development in Boys Suffering from Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearig, Judith S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are personality aspects of Duchenne or pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy, a progressive wasting of muscular tissue, which afflicts only boys, and usually has its noticeable onset before the age of 6 years; and described is the development of three male dystrophic siblings. (DB)

  2. Roots of Traditional Personality Development Among the Zaramo in Coastal Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssen, Anja

    The manner in which the traditional way of life and the traditional rituals of the Zaramo of Tanzania affect the personality development of Zaramo children and individuals in general was the focus of this preliminary study for an envisioned longitudinal program of research. Data was gathered during 1970 and 1974 in a typical traditional rural…

  3. Non-technical Issues in Design and Development of Personal Portable Devices.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Lenka; Cheshire, Paul; Pharow, Peter; Macku, David

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are constantly evolving and with the development of Internet of Things we can expect continuous increase of various applications. Mobile technologies have undeniable opportunities to play an important role in health services. Concerning purely technical aspects, almost every problem can be solved. However, there are still many unsolved and unclear issues related with ethics and governance mechanisms for mobile phone applications. These issues are even more critical in medical and health care applications of mobile technologies. This paper tries to analyse ethical, and privacy-related challenges that may occur when introducing Personal Portable Devices (PPD) to collect and record personal health data in health care and welfare environment.

  4. Non-technical Issues in Design and Development of Personal Portable Devices.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Lenka; Cheshire, Paul; Pharow, Peter; Macku, David

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are constantly evolving and with the development of Internet of Things we can expect continuous increase of various applications. Mobile technologies have undeniable opportunities to play an important role in health services. Concerning purely technical aspects, almost every problem can be solved. However, there are still many unsolved and unclear issues related with ethics and governance mechanisms for mobile phone applications. These issues are even more critical in medical and health care applications of mobile technologies. This paper tries to analyse ethical, and privacy-related challenges that may occur when introducing Personal Portable Devices (PPD) to collect and record personal health data in health care and welfare environment. PMID:27071874

  5. [Marxist-Leninist philosophical personality theory and the development of the theory and practice of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Thom, A

    1978-06-01

    This is a concise presentation of the essential positions of the Marxist-Leninist philosophical theory of personality. Its consequences to modern psychiatry are discussed. Particular emphasis has been placed on establishing practical relations with mental patients and creating optimum conditions for promoting the distinctive qualities or characteristics of persons within the framework of therapy. Also discussed by the author in his present paper are questions associated with pathogenesis. Integration of clinical and sociopsychological research into the development of psychoses is considered necessary. PMID:715077

  6. Development of an adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale: Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Winters, K C

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale is summarized. The Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) is intended to meet the need for a quick, psychometrically adequate adolescent screening tool to measure the need for a comprehensive assessment. The development of the questionnaire's problem severity scale and evidence related to its reliability (internal consistency) and validity are described. PMID:1332434

  7. Development and validation of Big Four personality scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2).

    PubMed

    Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-09-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)--such as the Big Three, Big Four, and Big Five trait models--have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five, as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural validity and external validity were supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing big-trait models.

  8. Asthma pharmacogenetics and the development of genetic profiles for personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Victor E; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2015-01-01

    Human genetics research will be critical to the development of genetic profiles for personalized or precision medicine in asthma. Genetic profiles will consist of gene variants that predict individual disease susceptibility and risk for progression, predict which pharmacologic therapies will result in a maximal therapeutic benefit, and predict whether a therapy will result in an adverse response and should be avoided in a given individual. Pharmacogenetic studies of the glucocorticoid, leukotriene, and β2-adrenergic receptor pathways have focused on candidate genes within these pathways and, in addition to a small number of genome-wide association studies, have identified genetic loci associated with therapeutic responsiveness. This review summarizes these pharmacogenetic discoveries and the future of genetic profiles for personalized medicine in asthma. The benefit of a personalized, tailored approach to health care delivery is needed in the development of expensive biologic drugs directed at a specific biologic pathway. Prior pharmacogenetic discoveries, in combination with additional variants identified in future studies, will form the basis for future genetic profiles for personalized tailored approaches to maximize therapeutic benefit for an individual asthmatic while minimizing the risk for adverse events. PMID:25691813

  9. Development of the Multi-Trait Personality Inventory (MTPI): comparison among four Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Cheung, P C; Conger, A J; Hau, K T; Lew, W J; Lau, S

    1992-12-01

    Anemic approach was adopted to develop a culture-specific instrument for the assessment of Chinese personality. The Multi-Trial Personality Inventory (MTPI) was administered to 1,673 men and 944 women in four major Chinese populations. It was found that Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States possess some common traits deeply rooted in the Chinese culture characterized by Confucian thoughts (e.g., self-discipline and moderation) and some additional traits nurtured by their respective environments. Consequently, findings of this study lent support to the hypothesis that, in spite of superficial discontinuities, there are basic continuities in the personality traits of mainland and overseas Chinese. The cross-cultural differences in personality were examined from a political-social perspective and also explained with a cultural-ecological model. In the development of the MTPI, a new methodology that relies on forming factor-consistent clusters was employed to deal successfully with the problem of complex factor space.

  10. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  11. New developments in personal computer software for accelerator simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Orthel, John L.

    1993-09-01

    The increasing power of personal computers is offering accelerator designers new options for meeting their computational requirements. Standalone and highly portable machines provide accelerator scientists with different approaches to solving problems traditionally relegated to centralized mainframe, mini-computer or networked workstation environments. Advances in user interfaces, which have provided enhanced productivity for many business and technical applications, are now being implemented for accelerator design and analysis codes. We have developed new software packages for the Macintosh personal computer platform in this vein and discuss two of them here. For use with existing FORTRAN design and analysis codes, a unique graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The second package is the Numerical Electrodynamics Laboratory (NEDlab), a new two-dimensional (cylindrical or Cartesian) particle and field simulation program.

  12. Preventing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: implications for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J E; Hu, D J; Holmes, K K; Jaffe, H W; Masur, H; De Cock, K M

    1996-07-01

    More than 18 million persons in the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs) The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world. Tuberculosis is the most common serious OI in sub-Saharan Africa and is also more common in Latin America and in Asia than in the United States. Bacterial and parasitic infections are prevalent in Africa; protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and isosporiasis are also common in Latin America. Fungal infections, including cryptococcosis and Penicillium marneffei infection, appear to be prevalent in Southeast Asia. Despite limited health resources in these regions, some measures that are recommended to prevent OIs in the United States may be useful for prolonging and improving the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections; isoniazid to prevent tuberculosis; and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to prevent disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research is needed to determine the spectrum of OIs and the efficacy of various prevention measures in resource-poor nations, and health officials need to determine a minimum standard of care for HIV-infected persons. An increasing problem in the developing world, HIV/AIDS should receive attention comparable to other tropical diseases.

  13. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-11-14

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students.

  14. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.

  15. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context. PMID:22047471

  16. A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A

    2009-04-01

    The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors.

  17. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  18. The Mediator Effect of Career Development between Personality Traits and Organizational Commitment: The Example of Sport Communication Technology Talents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Tung-Hsing, Lin; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among career development, personality trait, and organizational commitment and examines whether career development mediates the relationship between personality trait and organizational commitment. The sample was 275 sport communication technology talents in Taiwan. The instrument included the Personality…

  19. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  20. Genetic and environmental continuity in personality development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2014-09-01

    The longitudinal stability of personality is low in childhood but increases substantially into adulthood. Theoretical explanations for this trend differ in the emphasis placed on intrinsic maturation and socializing influences. To what extent does the increasing stability of personality result from the continuity and crystallization of genetically influenced individual differences, and to what extent does the increasing stability of life experiences explain increases in personality trait stability? Behavioral genetic studies, which decompose longitudinal stability into sources associated with genetic and environmental variation, can help to address this question. We aggregated effect sizes from 24 longitudinal behavioral genetic studies containing information on a total of 21,057 sibling pairs from 6 types that varied in terms of genetic relatedness and ranged in age from infancy to old age. A combination of linear and nonlinear meta-analytic regression models were used to evaluate age trends in levels of heritability and environmentality, stabilities of genetic and environmental effects, and the contributions of genetic and environmental effects to overall phenotypic stability. Both the genetic and environmental influences on personality increase in stability with age. The contribution of genetic effects to phenotypic stability is moderate in magnitude and relatively constant with age, in part because of small-to-moderate decreases in the heritability of personality over child development that offset increases in genetic stability. In contrast, the contribution of environmental effects to phenotypic stability increases from near zero in early childhood to moderate in adulthood. The life-span trend of increasing phenotypic stability, therefore, predominantly results from environmental mechanisms.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Continuity in Personality Development: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of personality is low in childhood, but increases substantially into adulthood. Theoretical explanations for this trend differ in the emphasis placed on intrinsic maturation and socializing influences. To what extent does the increasing stability of personality result from the continuity and crystallization of genetically influenced individual differences, and to what extent does the increasing stability of life experiences explain increases in personality trait stability? Behavioral genetic studies, which decompose longitudinal stability into sources associated with genetic and environmental variation, can help to address this question. We aggregated effect sizes from 24 longitudinal behavioral genetic studies containing information on a total of 21,057 sibling pairs from six types that varied in terms of genetic relatedness and ranged in age from infancy to old age. A combination of linear and nonlinear meta-analytic regression models were used to evaluate age-trends in levels of heritability and environmentality, stabilities of genetic and environmental effects, and the contributions of genetic and environmental effects to overall phenotypic stability. Both the genetic and environmental influences on personality increase in stability with age. The contribution of genetic effects to phenotypic stability is moderate in magnitude and relatively constant with age, in part because of small-to-moderate decreases in the heritability of personality over child development that offset increases in genetic stability. In contrast, the contribution of environmental effects to phenotypic stability increases from near-zero in early childhood to moderate in adulthood. The lifespan trend of increasing phenotypic stability, therefore, predominantly results from environmental mechanisms. PMID:24956122

  2. Involving a young person in the development of a digital resource in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Gaynor

    2014-01-01

    Health policies across western societies have embedded the need for service user and carer perspectives in service design and delivery of educational programmes. There is a growing recognition of the need to include the perspectives of children and young people as service users in the design and delivery of child focused educational programmes. Digital storytelling provides a strategy for student nurses to gain insight into the lived experiences of children and young people. Engaging with these stories enables students to develop an understanding of a young persons' experience of healthcare. This paper outlines a project that developed a digital learning object based upon a young person's experience of cancer and student evaluations of the digital learning object as a teaching and learning strategy. Over 80% of students rated the digital learning object as interesting and were motivated to explore its content. In addition, the evaluation highlighted that listening to the young person's experiences of her treatment regimes was informative and assisted understanding of a patients' perspective of care delivery.

  3. [Development and psychometric evaluation of a Japanese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II].

    PubMed

    Tokuyoshi, Yoga; Iwasaki, Syoichi

    2014-06-01

    We conducted two studies to develop a Japanese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II), and examined its reliability and validity. PGIS-II was developed as a multidimensional measure of the multiple processes of the Personal Growth Initiative (PGI). The PGI describes an active, intentional engagement in the process of personal growth for self-improvement of life experiences. Study 1 (N = 204) reports the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Japanese version of the PGIS-II. The CFA confirmed that 4-factor model showed acceptable fit indices, with reliability coefficients ranging from .67 to .84. Concurrent validity of the PGIS-II was indicated by the correlation with happiness, the positive score for automatic thoughts. Study 2 (N = 101) reports the concurrent validity of the PGIS-II using scales for locus of control, self-esteem and coping. Results suggested significant correlations between scores on the PGIS-II and locus of control, self-esteem and some coping subscales. The overall results suggest that the Japanese version of the PGIS-II has satisfactory statistical reliability and validity. PMID:25016838

  4. The development of loneliness from mid- to late adolescence: trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-12-01

    Although loneliness is a common problem across late adolescence, its developmental course has not been investigated in depth in this period of life. The present study aims to fill this gap by means of a five-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study spanning ages 15 to 20 (N = 389). Both variable-centered (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) and person-centered (i.e., latent class growth analysis) approaches were used. Variable-centered analyses showed that loneliness generally decreased over time. Person-centered analyses pointed to considerable inter-individual differences in the development of loneliness, and identified five trajectory classes (i.e., stable low, low increasing, moderate decreasing, high increasing, and chronically high). These five trajectory classes were differentially related to personality traits at age 15 (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and psychosocial functioning at age 20 (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anxiety, and perceived stress). These findings underscore the additional value of studying subgroups regarding the development of loneliness.

  5. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  6. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on

  7. A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1986-01-01

    non-reward, individuals with high reward dependence are susceptible to compensatory noradrenergic hyperactivity and hence acute or recurrent states of agitated dysphoria associated with reward-seeking behaviors such as overeating and increased sexual activity. Specific predictions are made about normal personality development as well as the development and familial aggregation of anxiety, somatoform, depressive and personality disorders. These predictions are compared with available information, and recommendations are made for future research.

  8. The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts.

    PubMed

    Beer, J M; Horn, J M

    2000-08-01

    There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here we report data from two adoption cohorts in which subjects were biological first-borns reared in various ordinal positions. Data were analyzed with reference to Sulloway's (1996) evolutionarily based sibling rivalry theory of birth order effects. Between- and within-family analyses indicated that rearing order's influence on personality was very weak. The only clear difference was for conscientiousness, on which first-reared siblings scored higher. We draw possible implications for Sulloway's theory and speculate upon an alternative, prenatal biological process that may produce birth order differences.

  9. Development and Validation of Triarchic Psychopathy Scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Drislane, Laura E.; Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is conceptualized by the triarchic model as encompassing three distinct phenotypic constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. In the current study, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), a normal-range personality measure, was evaluated for representation of these three constructs. Consensus ratings were used to identify MPQ items most related to each triarchic (Tri) construct. Scale measures were developed from items indicative of each construct, and scores for these scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in community (N = 176) and incarcerated samples (N = 240). A cross the two samples, MPQ-Tri scale scores demonstrated good internal consistencies and relationships with criterion measures of various types consistent with predictions based on the triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for further investigation of the triarchic model constructs in preexisting datasets that include the MPQ, in particular longitudinal and genetically informative datasets. PMID:25642934

  10. Development and preliminary validation of a simplified-wording form of the multidimensional personality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Kramer, Mark D; Tellegen, Auke; Verona, Edelyn; Kaemmer, Beverly A

    2013-08-01

    The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) assesses a range of personality characteristics pertaining to affective and interpersonal style, behavioral restraint versus disinhibition, and capacity for sensory and imaginal engagement. Its 11 lower order trait scales map onto 3 higher order factors that reflect temperament dimensions. Its content and measurement properties have made the MPQ useful for elucidating constructs relevant to normal and abnormal behavior and investigating their neurobiological underpinnings. However, a barrier to its use in certain populations is the reading difficulty of some MPQ items. We describe efforts to develop a simplified-wording form, the MPQ-SF, composed of items readable at or below the seventh grade level (with most below sixth grade). Simplified-wording items demonstrated high convergence with original-wording items, and resulting trait scales showed adequate internal consistencies and appropriate higher order structure. The availability of a simplified version expands the potential utility of the MPQ to a wider range of samples. PMID:23180862

  11. Using personal and fictional documents to assess psychosocial development: a case study of Vera Brittain's generativity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, B E; Stewart, A J

    1990-09-01

    Adult diaries and novels written by the British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain (1893-1970) were content analyzed for Eriksonian themes of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Brittain's concerns with identity and intimacy decreased over time, while her generative concerns increased, suggesting that she expressed the issue of generativity vs. stagnation in her mid-life diaries and fiction. The large number of identity themes relative to both intimacy and generativity provokes speculations about Brittain's personality, the characteristics of writers, the influence of gender, the impact of society, and the possibility that the crisis of identity vs. role confusion involves the last major structural change in personality development. This archival case study is consistent with Erikson's notion of a sequence of concerns with psychosocial issues, although directions for theoretical revision and elaboration are discussed.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATED WORKPLACE FIELDS AT KRISS FOR PERFORMANCE TEST OF NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungho; Park, Hyeonseo; Kim, Yunho

    2016-09-01

    Simulated workplace neutron fields have been developed at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). An (241)Am-Be neutron source and a cylindrical moderator composed of stainless steel and heavy water were installed in a 10-cm-thick concrete block with dimensions of 150 × 120 × 120 cm(3) The neutron energy spectrum at a distance of 66.5 cm was measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer and was found to agree with the spectrum obtained from the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended simulation to within 5 %. The neutron fluence-to-personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients were (20.8-43.6) pSv·cm(2) and were thus in good agreement with those of reactor fields. The results showed that the KRISS-simulated workplace neutron fields can be used for performance tests and the calibration service of neutron personal dosemeters. PMID:26541186

  13. Going MAD: development of a "matrix academic division" to facilitate translating research to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    Personalized medicine integrates an individual's genetic and other information for the prevention or treatment of complex disorders, and translational research seeks to identify those data most important to disease processes based on observations at the bench and the bedside. To understand complex disorders such as chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, and other idiopathic chronic inflammatory diseases, physician-scientists must systematically collect data on relevant risks, clinical status, biomarkers, and outcomes. The author describes a "matrix academic division" (MAD), a highly effective academic program created at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center using translational research to rapidly develop personalized medicine for digestive diseases. MAD is designed to capture patient-specific data and biologic samples for analysis of steps in a complex process (reverse engineering), reconstructing the system conceptually and mathematically (disease modeling), and deciphering disease mechanism in individual patients to predict the effects of interventions (personalized medicine). MAD draws on the expertise of the medical school's and medical center's physician-scientists to translate essential disease information between the bed and the bench and to communicate with researchers from multiple domains, including epidemiology, genetics, cell biology, immunology, regenerative medicine, neuroscience, and oncology. The author illustrates this approach by describing its successful application to the reverse engineering of chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Development and Validation of Triarchic Construct Scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason R.; Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and non-offender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. PMID:24447280

  15. Turning points and lessons learned: stressful life events and personality trait development across middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Costa, Paul T; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

    2010-09-01

    The present research examined stressful life events and personality development across middle adulthood. Participants (N = 533) related the most stressful event they had experienced within the last 10 years, indicated whether they considered the event to be a turning point and/or lesson learned, and twice completed a comprehensive measure of traits defined by the five-factor model of personality; the stressful event occurred between these two assessments. Descriptions were coded to classify events into broad content domains based on the nature of the event. Prospectively, individuals high in Neuroticism perceived the event as a turning point; extraverts learned a lesson from it. Longitudinally, perceiving the event as a negative turning point was associated with increases in Neuroticism, whereas learning a lesson from the event was associated with increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Characteristics of the events themselves were primarily unrelated to trait change. Across middle adulthood, personality trait change may be more strongly related to how individuals understand the stressful events in their lives rather than simply the occurrence of such events.

  16. The effect of siblings on early development: a potential contributor to personality differences in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Montor, Jorge Morales; Rödel, Heiko G

    2011-09-01

    Although most mammals grow up in the company of same or different age sibs (or half sibs), surprisingly little attention has been given to how relations among them might influence the development of individual differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we review evidence from our work on domestic and wild European rabbits, and more recently on laboratory rats, mice, and domestic cats, supporting the proposition that in mammals early sibling relations contribute to the development of individual differences in these three domains and thereby to long-term behavioral differences of the kind we might consider part of an animal's behavioral style or personality. First we report a consistent and marked negative relation between litter size and individuals' body mass at birth and weaning, as well as marked within-litter differences in prenatal body mass and placental efficiency. We then report individual differences in preweaning behaviors associated with these morphological variables such as position occupied in the litter huddle and development of motor ability, as well as physiological differences in thermoregulation, immune parameters, and endocrine indicators of stress. Finally, we report first evidence from wild rabbits that early relations among littermates may have long-term consequences for individual differences in behavioral style. We conclude that in mammals, individual differences in early growth, physiology and behavior potentially important for the development of animal personality, are shaped to an appreciable extent by early sibling relations and that this little-researched field deserves closer attention.

  17. Developing a personal computer-based data visualization system using public domain software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1999-03-01

    The current research will investigate the possibility of developing a computing-visualization system using a public domain software system built on a personal computer. Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is available on UNIX and PC platforms. VTK uses C++ to build an executable. It has abundant programming classes/objects that are contained in the system library. Users can also develop their own classes/objects in addition to those existing in the class library. Users can develop applications with any of the C++, Tcl/Tk, and JAVA environments. The present research will show how a data visualization system can be developed with VTK running on a personal computer. The topics will include: execution efficiency; visual object quality; availability of the user interface design; and exploring the feasibility of the VTK-based World Wide Web data visualization system. The present research will feature a case study showing how to use VTK to visualize meteorological data with techniques including, iso-surface, volume rendering, vector display, and composite analysis. The study also shows how the VTK outline, axes, and two-dimensional annotation text and title are enhancing the data presentation. The present research will also demonstrate how VTK works in an internet environment while accessing an executable with a JAVA application programing in a webpage.

  18. Communication for Development: A Personal Experience with Implications for Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agunga, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication for Development (C4D) is a new academic discipline and profession for addressing human dimension concerns in development, such as local participation, integration and capacity building, which are the main issues limiting aid effectiveness. However, my experience in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Africa and where a…

  19. The development of gendered interests and personality qualities from middle childhood through adolescence: a biosocial analysis.

    PubMed

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Dotterer, Aryn M; Crouter, Ann C; Booth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities and activity interests from age 7 to age 19 in 364 first- and secondborn siblings from 185 White, middle/working-class families, assessed links between time in gendered social contexts (with mother, father, female peers, and male peers) and gender development, and tested whether changes in testosterone moderated links between time use and gender development. Multilevel models documented that patterns of change varied across dimensions of gender and by sex and birth order and that time in gendered social contexts was generally linked to development of more stereotypical qualities. Associations between time with mother and expressivity and time with father and instrumentality were stronger for youth with slower increases in testosterone.

  20. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  1. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  2. School-Based Extracurricular Activities, Personality, Self-Concept, and College Career Development Skills in Chinese Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Huang, Ying; Chang, Frances; Chang, Chuan-Feng; Yeh, Lun-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined in Chinese society the association of school-based extracurricular activities (SBEAs) in both high school and college with students' career development skills in college, as well as with various personality characteristics and self-concept. Each of 281 college students administered the Lai Personality Inventory,…

  3. Model Development and Validation of Personal Exposure to Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Aquilina, Noel J.; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Harrison, Roy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Direct measurement of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via personal monitoring is the most accurate exposure assessment method available. However, its wide-scale application to evaluating exposures at the population level is prohibitive in terms of both cost and time. Consequently, indirect measurements via a combination of microenvironment concentrations and personal activity diaries represent a potentially useful alternative. Objective The aim of this study was to optimize a model of personal exposures (PEs) based on microenvironment concentrations and time/activity diaries and to compare modeled with measured exposures in an independent data set. Materials VOC PEs and a range of microenvironment concentrations were collected with active samplers and sorbent tubes. Data were supplemented with information collected through questionnaires. Seven models were tested to predict PE to VOCs in 75% (n = 370) of the measured PE data set, whereas the other 25% (n = 120) was used for validation purposes. Results The best model able to predict PE with independence of measurements was based upon stratified microenvironment concentrations, lifestyle factors, and individual-level activities. The proposed model accounts for 40–85% of the variance for individual VOCs and was validated for almost all VOCs, showing normalized mean bias and mean fractional bias below 25% and predicting 60% of the values within a factor of 2. Conclusions The models proposed identify the most important non-weather-related variables for VOC exposures; highlight the effect of personal activities, use of solvents, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on PE levels; and may assist in the development of specific models for other locations. PMID:20019908

  4. [PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmacotherapy is increasing in the health care budget. The pharmaceutical industry is facing the exhaustion of medications that are largely prescribed and have a high profitability (blockbusters). Because of patient heterogeneity, there is a great interindividual variability of the responses to drug therapy. Thus, it is essential to better detect potential to avoid waste of resources resulting from the prescription of expensive drugs to poor responders. The development of personalized medicine, or precision medicine, certainly offers opportunities to the pharmaceutical industry, but also exposes it to new big challenges.

  5. PET/Computed Tomography in Breast Cancer: Can It Aid in Developing a Personalized Treatment Design?

    PubMed

    Suresh Malapure, Sumeet; Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has significantly improved the management of breast cancer. FDG, however, is not tumor-specific and various image interpretation pitfalls may occur due to false-positive and false-negative causes of FDG uptake. PET/CT imaging with more specific radiopharmaceuticals may provide useful information about the pathophysiology in such cases. In the present article, we reviewed the use of whole-body FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-16α-17β-Fluoroestradiol PET/CT imaging to determine if these can be used to develop personalized treatment design for the better management of breast cancer. PMID:27321033

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior. PMID:27289554

  7. Negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Jones, Neil P; Whalen, Diana J; Hipwell, Alison E

    2016-02-01

    Negative emotionality is a distinguishing feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, this person-level characteristic has not been examined as a marker of vulnerability in the development of this disorder. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to examine the interplay between negative emotional reactivity and cumulative exposure to family adversity on the development of BPD symptoms across 3 years (ages 16-18) in a diverse, at-risk sample of adolescent girls (N = 113). A latent variable of negative emotional reactivity was created from multiple assessments at age 16: self-report, emotion ratings to stressors from ecological assessments across 1 week, and observer-rated negative affectivity during a mother-daughter conflict discussion task. Exposure to family adversity was measured cumulatively between ages 5 and 16 from annual assessments of family poverty, single parent household, and difficult life circumstances. The results from latent growth curve models demonstrated a significant interaction between negative emotional reactivity and family adversity, such that exposure to adversity strengthened the association between negative emotional reactivity and BPD symptoms. In addition, family adversity predicted increasing BPD symptoms during late adolescence. These findings highlight negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability that ultimately increases risk for the development of BPD symptoms. PMID:25925083

  8. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  9. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  10. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    PubMed

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  11. Impact of Combined modular assessment on deep learning and personal development of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shabana; Khan, Humaira Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of transition of summative assessment from frequent modular to combined block assessment and its role on learning of medical students. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out at Islamic International Medical College. A questionnaire comprizing of 8 questions with Likert scale (1-5) was designed for 3rd year students. The questions were grouped in three categories which included learning acquired, personal development and efficacy of assessment tools used in combined block assessment and frequent modular exam separately. Results of end of year exams were analyzed for difference in performance of students in two exams. The received data was analyzed by using SPPS 21. Results: About 60% students agreed that they need to study regularly in frequent modular exams. Combined block assessment promoted more indepth studies and multiple revisions 51% and 55% students respectively. About 42% students, in comparison with 33%, agreed that CBA helped in their personal development while 42% students agreed to assessment tools used in CBA while only 28% students to those used in frequent modular exam. About 47% students agreed that assessment tools in CBA were useful for deep learning and 47% students agreed that time given in CBA was enough in exam preparation. Comparison of all results (x 2 tests) was statistically significant. The comparison of end of year performance showed improvement in the mean of total marks obtained and decrease in the number of failed students in combined block assessment. Conclusion: Transition from frequent to combined block assessment with regular formative assessment has positive effect on learning, personal grooming and performance in summative assessment. PMID:27022373

  12. Do the opportunities for learning and personal development lead to happiness? It depends on work-family conciliation.

    PubMed

    Rego, Arménio; Pina E Cunha, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    The study shows how the perceptions of opportunities for learning and personal development predict five dimensions of affective well-being (AWB: pleasure, comfort, placidity, enthusiasm, and vigor), and how this relationship is moderated by the perceptions of work-family conciliation. A sample comprising 404 individuals was collected. The findings show the following: (1) both the perceptions of opportunities for learning and personal development and perceptions of work-family conciliation predict AWB, the happier individuals being those who have high perceptions on both variables; (2) both variables interact in predicting AWB, in such a way that perceptions of high opportunities for learning and personal development may not lead to higher AWB if work-family conciliation is low. Post hoc analysis also suggests that the relationship between the perceptions of opportunities for learning and personal development and AWB tends to be nonlinear for individuals with perceptions of low work-family conciliation.

  13. Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomes - including cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identity - strongly exemplify many facets of these theories, particularly, student-centered and situated learning as part of cognitive apprenticeship in a community of practice.

  14. Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kramer, Joel H.; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. PMID:25206335

  15. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD)

    PubMed Central

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    While large epidemiological datasets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these datasets. In this study we developed and validated a self-report measure of BPD from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Items for the new instrument—the Minnesota BPD scale (MBPD)—were identified and refined using three large samples: undergraduates, community adolescent twins, and urban substance users. We determined the construct validity of the MBPD by examining its association with (1) diagnosed BPD, (2) questionnaire reported BPD symptoms, and (3) clinical variables associated with BPD: suicidality, trauma, disinhibition, internalizing distress, and substance use. We also tested the MBPD in two prison inmate samples. Across samples, the MBPD correlated with BPD indices and external criteria, and showed incremental validity above measures of negative affect, thus supporting its construct validity as a measure of BPD. PMID:21467094

  16. C-PHIS: a concept map-based knowledge base framework to develop personal health information systems.

    PubMed

    Karla, Pramukh R; Gurupur, Varadraj P

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a Personal Health Information System using a knowledge base developed using concept maps. Here we describe a solution for providing the critical need to develop an information capturing system that helps domain experts in developing a graphical representation of the aforementioned knowledge base which can then be converted to a machine-actable form of information. A prototype application has been developed using this information capturing system that clearly demonstrates the use of the knowledge base framework using concept maps to develop Personal Health Information System for lung cancer patients.

  17. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youth: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youth involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. This study used a stratified random sample of 1112 detained youth to examine the development of APD at a three-year follow-up interview. Nearly one fifth of male juvenile detainees later developed APD; approximately one quarter of male juvenile detainees with CD at baseline later developed APD. Significantly more males than females developed APD; no differences were found by race/ethnicity. Having five or more symptoms of CD, dysthymia, alcohol use disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with developing modified APD (M-APD; APD without the CD requirement). Some disorders were strong predictors of APD; however, none were adequate screeners for identifying which detainees would later develop M-APD. The findings of this study have implications for interventions and further research in developmental psychopathology. PMID:17469880

  18. Developing Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Hedges and Personal Pronouns in Inquiry-Based Science Classroom Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of introducing elementary teachers to the scholarly literature on personal pronouns and hedges in classroom discourse, a professional development strategy adopted during a summer institute to enhance teachers’ social understanding (i.e., their understanding of the social functions of language in science discussions). Teachers became aware of how hedges can be employed to remain neutral toward students’ oral contributions to classroom discussions, invite students to share their opinions and articulate their own ideas, and motivate students to inquire. Teachers recognized that the combined use of I and you can render their feedback authoritative, you can shift the focus from the investigation to students’ competence, and we can lead to authority loss. It is argued that explicitness, reflectivity, and contextualization are essential features of professional development programs aimed at improving teachers’ understandings of the social dimension of inquiry-based science classrooms and preparing teachers to engage in inquiry-based teacher-student interactions.

  19. Personality trait development at the end of life: Antecedents and correlates of mean-level trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jenny; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Jacqui; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Empirical evidence over the past 20 years has documented that key aspects of personality traits change during adulthood. However, it is essentially an open question whether and how traits change at the very end of life and what role health, cognitive performance, perceived control, and social factors play in those changes. To examine these questions, we applied growth models to 13-year longitudinal data obtained from now-deceased participants in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 463; age at baseline M = 85.9 years, SD = 8.4; 51% men). Results revealed that neuroticism, on average, increases (about 0.3 SD in the last 10 years) and that this increase becomes even steeper at the end of life. In contrast, extraversion and openness decline rather steadily at the end of life (about -0.5 SD in the last 10 years). Additionally, poor health manifested as a risk factor for declines in extraversion and openness late in life but not neuroticism. Similar to earlier phases of life, better cognitive performance related to more openness. More loneliness was associated with higher neuroticism, whereas more social activity was associated with higher levels of extraversion and openness. Intriguing additional insights indicated that more personal control was associated with higher levels of extraversion and openness, whereas the feeling that one's life is controlled by others was associated with higher neuroticism but also with higher openness closer to death. We discuss potential pathways by which health, cognitive performance, control, and social inclusion resources and risk factors affect personality development late in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479363

  20. Considerations for developing technologies for an integrated person-borne IED countermeasure architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Knudson, Christa K.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pattison, Kerrie J.; Stratton, Rex C.; Wiborg, James C.

    2010-04-01

    Developing an integrated person-borne improvised explosive device (IED) countermeasure to protect unstructured crowds at large public venues is the goal of the Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program (STIDP), sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The architecture being developed includes countermeasure technologies deployed as a layered defense and enabling technologies for operating the countermeasures as an integrated system. In the architecture, early recognition of potentially higher-risk individuals is crucial. Sensors must be able to detect, with high accuracy, explosives' threat signatures in varying environmental conditions, from a variety of approaches and with dense crowds and limited dwell time. Command-and-control technologies are needed to automate sensor operation, reduce staffing requirements, improve situational awareness, and automate/facilitate operator decisions. STIDP is developing technical and operational requirements for standoff and remotely operated sensors and is working with federal agencies and foreign governments to implement these requirements into their research and development programs. STIDP also is developing requirements for a software platform to rapidly integrate and control various sensors; acquire, analyze, and record their data; and present the data in an operationally relevant manner. Requirements also are being developed for spatial analysis, tracking and assessing threats with available screening resources, and data fusion for operator decision-making.

  1. The Realization of "Person": A Phenomenology of the "Economics" of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanage, Sherman M.

    Two very different ethical theories are involved in adult education: (1) the ethics of self-realization; and (2) the ethics of utilitarianism. The first theory presupposes that every person ought to realize and actualize the qualitatively fullest life possible for that person, whatever that person's circumstances in life. The second theory…

  2. The Development and Validation of a Personality Instrument to Increase Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita Coombs; DeVaney, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding personality profiles can be helpful in working relationships. Situations such as co-teaching frequently pair individuals in teamwork. Turf and personality conflicts between professionals can be destructive and impede goal attainment. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality measure that is based on Jung's theory of…

  3. Development of Self-Recognition, Personal Pronoun Use, and Pretend Play During the 2nd Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of visual self-recognition to personal pronoun use and pretend play. For a longitudinal sample (N66) at the ages when self-recognition was emerging (15, 18, and 21 months), self-recognition was related to personal pronoun use and pretend play such that children showing self-recognition used more personal pronouns…

  4. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  5. Development of advanced-type multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Abe, S; Aoyama, K; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    An advanced-type small, light, multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter has been developed using silicon semiconductor radiation detectors for dose management of workers at nuclear power plants and accelerator facilities. This dosemeter is 62 x 82 x 27 mm(3) in size and approximately 130 g in weight, which is capable of measuring personal gamma ray and neutron dose equivalents, Hp(10), simultaneously. The neutron dose equivalent can be obtained using two types of silicon semiconductors: a slow-neutron sensor (<1 MeV) and a fast-neutron sensor (>1 MeV). The slow neutron sensor is a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon on which a natural boron layer is deposited around an aluminium electrode. The fast neutron sensor is also a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon crystal on which an amorphous silicon hydride is deposited. The neutron energy response corresponding to the fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficient given by ICRP Publication 74 has been evaluated using a monoenergetic neutron source from 250 keV to 15 MeV at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University. As the result, the Hp(10) response to neutrons in the energy range of 250 keV and 4.4 MeV within +/-50% difference has been obtained. PMID:17704353

  6. Developing a personal health record for community-dwelling older adults and clinicians: technology and content.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Paitich, Nadine; Ekstrom, Dawn; Mehle, Susan C; Kaeding, Maggie; Abdo, Sajeda; Natarajan, Gowtham; Ruddarraju, Uday Kumar Raju

    2012-07-01

    To empower older consumers and improve health outcomes, a consumer-friendly personal health record (PHR) is needed. The purpose of this article was to evaluate PHR technology and content for older community-dwelling consumers. Specific aims were to: (a) develop a secure, web-based application for a PHR to enable interoperable exchanges of data between consumers and clinicians; (b) develop structured, evidence-based shared care plan content for the PHR using an interface terminology standard; and (c) validate the shared care plans with consumers. An interoperable web-based form was developed. The standardized PHR content was developed by expert panel consensus using the Omaha System problem list and care plans, and validated by consumer interviews. Evidence-based shared care plans for 21 problems common among community-dwelling older adults were developed and encoded with Omaha System terms for data capture in the PHR. An additional problem, Neighborhood-workplace safety, was identified by consumers and will be added to the care plans.

  7. Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Today, organizations are increasingly implementing assessment tools such as Personal Development Plans. Although the true power of the tool lies in supporting the employee's continuing professional development, organizations implement the tool for various different purposes, professional development purposes on the one hand and promotion/salary…

  8. 22 CFR 1508.615 - How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true How does the African Development Foundation... DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1508.615 How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.615 - How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How does the African Development Foundation... DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1508.615 How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.135 - May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true May the African Development Foundation exclude a... Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.135 May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.135 - May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true May the African Development Foundation exclude a... Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.135 May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not...

  12. 22 CFR 1508.135 - May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the African Development Foundation exclude....135 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.135 May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not...

  13. 22 CFR 1508.135 - May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true May the African Development Foundation exclude a... Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.135 May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not...

  14. 22 CFR 1508.615 - How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the African Development Foundation... DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1508.615 How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.135 - May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true May the African Development Foundation exclude a... Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.135 May the African Development Foundation exclude a person who is not...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.615 - How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true How does the African Development Foundation... DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1508.615 How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.615 - How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true How does the African Development Foundation... DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1508.615 How does the African Development Foundation notify a person of...

  18. Developing a personal-computer-based records retention system using Paradox{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, B.; Wray, S.

    1993-10-01

    Many records managers are confronted with large caches of records stored in corners, attics, or warehouses that seem to be ``out of sight, out of mind.`` Much of this information becomes ``lost`` because it is not properly identified and cataloged. Perhaps the records have always been stored in these places because the lack of an alternative. In these situations, the records manager must organize and catalog the records and provide solutions to the records management and storage problems. A simple personal-computer-based records management system can be developed that will provide organization, accountability, and retrievability of the records. By developing a basic database structure and implementing some basic records management principles, a records manager can gain control of even the most extreme displays of records mismanagement. This paper will discuss practical ways of establishing a records system that provides for database tracking using off-the-shelf database software packages. Database examples using Paradox software will be used to explain the basic concepts for developing records systems. The paper will also discuss developing and performing a records assessment, researching applicable requirements, writing a records management plan, implementing the records system, and testing and modifying the system.

  19. Personalized Medicine: how to Switch from the Concept to the Integration into the Clinical Development Plan to Obtain Marketing Authorization.

    PubMed

    Becquemont, Laurent; Bordet, Régis; Cellier, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of the coming years is to personalize medicine in order to provide each patient with an individualized treatment plan. The three objectives of personalized medicine are to refine diagnosis, rationalize treatment and engage patients in a preventive approach. Personalization can be characterized by various descriptors whether related to the field, biology, imaging, type of lesion of the entity to be treated, comorbidity factors, coprescriptions or the environment As part of personalized medicine focused on biological markers including genetics or genomics, the integration of the clinical development plan to obtain marketing authorization may be segmented in 3 stages with a known descriptor identified before clinical development, a known descriptor discovered during clinical development or a known descriptor known after clinical development. For each stage, it is important to clearly define the technical optimization elements, to specify the expectations and objectives, to examine the methodological aspects of each clinical development phase and finally to consider the fast changing regulatory requirements in view of the few registered therapeutics complying with the definition of personalized medicine as well as the significant technological breakthroughs according to the screened and selected biomarkers. These considerations should be integrated in view of the time required for clinical development from early phase to MA, i.e. more than 10 years. Moreover, business models related to the economic environment should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to retain a biomarker allowing the selection of target populations in a general population.

  20. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  1. Civic commitment in young activists: emergent processes in the development of personal and collective identity.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Loreto; Peñaloza, Pilar; Valenzuela, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Through a qualitative approach this study documents life experiences that youth with a history of sustained social and political participation judge as significant in the development of their civic commitment. Data is drawn from in-depth interviews to 6 Chilean youth (3 ages 16-19; 3 ages 20-24 years) of diverse socioeconomic condition, with a history of 3-7 years of active participation in prosocial and political organizations. Grounded theory was used to generate inductive knowledge of the processes that led to commitment and further sustained civic participation. Participants' trajectories of commitment illustrate both individual and contextual sources that motivate their sustained action. Participants identify with social and political causes and integrate them to their personal identities. Their sustained social action is related to identification with the goals of the organizations they belong to. Their accounts convey a collective sense of we developed through working toward shared goals with other organization members. Findings speak to the role that youth can play in advancing social and political ideologies and are discussed in light of identity theory and sociopolitical development.

  2. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  3. Interpreting Personal Development Planning (PDP): A Policy and Professional Practice Story of Higher Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsdon, John

    2012-01-01

    It is claimed that Personal Development Planning (PDP) is the only approach to learning in UK higher education that has been actively encouraged through a policy. This paper reviews the background to the development of PDP as policy, under conditions described as the "new moral economy", and the impact of these conditions on contemporary…

  4. Exploring the Effects of Personality Type on Perceived Satisfaction with Web-Based Learning in Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Nocente, Norma

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between learner personality types and perceived satisfaction when using Web-based instruction for mandatory and self-regulated continuing professional development. Two hundred and four real estate practitioners who participated in a Web-based professional development course…

  5. Enabling Six Thousand Persons. A Report and Recommendations for the Professional Development of Adult Educators in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    Representatives from two- and four-year colleges, universities, business, industry, government, and religous organizations formed an advisory committee to develop guidelines and recommendations for providing professional development opportunities for persons coordinating or conducting adult programs in Iowa. After conducting several surveys and…

  6. Personal Integrative Spirituality, Relational Christian Spirituality, and College Student Identity Development, with a Focus on Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corry, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    The question explored in this research from the literature is: Regarding college student identity development, what is known about personal integrative spirituality and relational Christian spirituality, with a particular focus on gender differences? Spirituality is included as an aspect of identity development by theorists Erikson, Marcia,…

  7. Investigation of perceived environment, perceived outcome, and person variables in relationship to voluntary development activity by employees.

    PubMed

    Maurer, T J; Tarulli, B A

    1994-02-01

    The authors examined perceived environment, perceived incentive and outcome, and person constructs for relationships with interest and participation in voluntary learning and development activity by nonmanagement employees. All 3 groups of constructs were related to development activity. In relationships with development activity, perceived outcome and environment variables interacted with workers' personal values relevant to aspects of a development setting, illustrating the potentially important role that differences in values may play in a development setting, illustrating the potentially important role that differences in values may play in a development context. Additionally, small relationships were observed between several demographic variables and values within a development setting. Results provide implications for the design and implementation of successful development programs and highlight the need to carefully consider individual differences in this context when targeting many different types of employees for participation. PMID:8200872

  8. Developing a Web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Joanne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L'abbé, Mary R; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-03-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet.

  9. A personal review of 25 years of fiber grating sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Early efforts developing smart structures started with strain sensors based on interferometeric techniques. It immediately became apparent that structural engineers were used to dealing with conventional electrical strain gages and thermocouples with much shorter gage lengths. The fiber grating offered a competitive solution for the measurement of strain and temperature with the advantages of electrical isolation and improved ruggedness. The principal draw back was cost. So early applications involved high value projects where the unique capabilities of the technology offered superior performance. One area of particular interest involved the usage of fiber gratings to sensor more than one parameter simultaneously. Multi-dimensional strain and the measurement of pressure and temperature were two key examples of multi-parameter sensing. In parallel efforts were conducted to operate at high speed. Early examples in aerospace and civil structures were at speeds in the range of 10 kHz. Ballistic work later dictated increasing speeds to 5 MHz. Much more recent work with burn, deflagration and detonation has involved measurements from more than 100 MHz to multiple GHz. This paper provides a personal history of some of these developments and how fiber grating sensor technology is moving into the future.

  10. Indigenous youth-developed self-assessment: The Personal Balance Tool.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Rachelle; Bartgis, Jami

    2016-01-01

    The Fresno American Indian Health Project (FAIHP) Youth Council developed and pilot tested a strength-based, holistic, and youth-friendly self-assessment tool grounded in the Medicine Wheel, a framework and theoretical orientation for teaching wellness in many tribal communities. This paper summarizes the development of the Youth Personal Balance Tool and the methods used for tool revisions through two separate pilot studies and ongoing process evaluations across 3 years. Using a community-based participatory evaluation model, FAIHP leveraged community resources to implement an annual youth Gathering of Native Americans to support youth in healing from historical and intergenerational trauma and restoring communities to balance by making them a part of the solution. This tool is one of many outcomes of their work. The Youth Council is offering the tool as a gift (in line with the cultural value of generosity) to other Indigenous communities that are searching for culturally competent self-assessment tools for youth. The authors believe this tool has the potential to progress the field in strength-based, holistic, youth-friendly assessment as a culturally competent method for Indigenous evaluation and research. PMID:27383084

  11. Evaluation of the personal development portfolio in higher education: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Head, Kevin S; Johnston, Jacqueline H

    2012-11-01

    Personal Development Profiles (PDPs) have been an important and necessary feature of United Kingdom (UK) Higher Education for more than a decade. There is significant agreement as to their core purpose and their key features are of relevance to higher education institutions internationally, irrespective of whether an equivalent formal system or process is in place. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the use of PDPs within a Child Health Nursing Programme in a UK University, looking at the experiences of both teaching staff and of students coming to the end of their three year programme of study. A convenience sample of final year pre-registration Child Health Nursing students and their lecturers was used for the purposes of this study with mixed methods of collection used to generate the required data. A survey was conducted with questionnaires. Following the analysis of the questionnaires, a discussion group was undertaken with the students. A series of questions was developed to guide this discussion. The structure offered by the system of PDPs evaluated here was seen to offer much in the way of potential value. Staff saw it as offering direction, a tool for discussion and a clear time and reason for meeting their students. Students similarly appreciated the structure it provided, but did describe it as somewhat repetitive. These findings were clearly of use in terms of evaluating this ongoing work, but also offer the potential to inform the work of other educational institutions. PMID:22093880

  12. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  13. An Image of the Educated Person of the Future. Contribution of Education to Cultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Paul D.; Amenta, Salvatore A.

    Education is both an idealistic and a practical endeavor. It is essential to have an image of the educated person to which to direct individual efforts and institutional policies. The present view of the educated person is that of a materialist, specialist, individualist, nationalist, secularist, and opportunist. Looking backward, Plato's image of…

  14. Portfolio Development, Reflection, Personal Instructional Theory and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minott, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this anecdotal essay is to encourage college lecturers and classroom teachers to examine and articulate their personal instructional theory. This is important for two reasons. One, doing so brings an awareness of personal instructional practices, and two, it is an important facet of the scholarship of teaching and learning. To achieve…

  15. Supervision of School Counseling Students: A Focus on Personal Growth, Wellness, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Adina; Koltz, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Results of a grounded theory study exploring the experiences and processes of school counseling students' professional and personal growth are provided. The researchers used focus groups over a two-year period to better comprehend students their experiences of growth. Several themes emerged: defining personal growth, wellness, and clinical…

  16. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  17. Developing an Interpretation of Item Parameters for Personality Items: Content Correlates of Parameter Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Ury, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempted to relate content features of personality items to item parameter estimates from the partial credit model of E. Muraki (1990) by administering the Adjective Checklist (L. Goldberg, 1992) to 329 undergraduates. As predicted, the discrimination parameter was related to the item subtlety ratings of personality items but the level of word…

  18. Development of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little…

  19. Should We Outgrow Personal Writing? Polanyi and Perry on Reality, Truth, and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkster, Robert P.

    The notion of "Personal Writing" has come under sustained attack from several different directions and for a variety of reasons, yet it is a concept that still retains usefulness for writing instructors. One problem with personal writing is that frequently students do not like it or feel it invades their privacy, despite the traditional wisdom,…

  20. Exploring the Influence of Student Focus Groups in Their Professional and Personal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S.; Hut, R.

    2014-12-01

    A scientific career is often more than a 9-to-5 commitment, both in terms of time and passion. An important factor that fuels this passion is engaging with the community on many levels. In the history of education and professional development, there are numerous studies that emphasis the importance of surrounding groups and like-minded peers in one's professional and personal development in a less constrained environment. In our experience, in modern days where students are surrounded with too much information and yet too little clear signal, the idea of mentor and advisor can no longer limit to one or two people. We strongly feel it is imperative to have the opportunity to share expertise on scientific issues, career options, develop presenting and writing skills, participate in professional volunteer activities with alike and advanced colleagues, share future opportunities, and successfully navigating life both inside and outside of graduate school in a relaxed environment. Most of the professional scientific and engineering communities put a lot of effort to create and maintain professional groups in masters and Ph.D. levels but the dynamics within these groups prove it to be very different and it is challenging to maintain both momentum and productivity. Authors of this report would present their experience in creating, running and maintaining various student groups in the discipline of physics, astronomy, planetary science, hydrology, and optical engineering in US, Europe and Middle East. The common factors and differences based on the supportive community, location, and the educational level would be discussed. An outline of potential helpful factors within the academic institutes and professional communities would be presented based on the examination on various successful and unsuccessful experiences.

  1. Practice what you preach: developing person-centred culture in inpatient mental health settings through strengths-based, transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Paul; Field, John; Molloy, Luke; Yu, Nickolas; Holmes, Douglas; Pile, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The experience of nursing staff and consumers in inpatient mental health wards is often reported as being negative. Efforts to improve culture and practice have had limited success, with ineffective leadership, staff resistance, and unresponsive organisational culture identified as common barriers to change. Practice development has been promoted as an approach to developing person-centred culture that enables professional development through participation, learning and empowerment. For person-centred practice to flourish, organisational leadership at all levels must reflect the same principles. In preparation for the opening of a new integrated mental health service, an inpatient mental health team participated in a practice development project. An action research approach was used to facilitate a series of "away days," initially with the nursing team and then other members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). Transformational leadership principles were adopted in the facilitation of team activities underpinned by strengths and solution-focused practices. Evaluation of the project by staff members was very positive and there was a high level of participation in practice development activities. The project resulted in the creation of a development plan for the ward, which prioritised five key themes: person-centred care, personal recovery, strengths-based principles, and evidence-based and values-based care. The project outcomes highlight the importance of leadership, which parallels the ideals promoted for clinical practice. PMID:23909671

  2. Practice what you preach: developing person-centred culture in inpatient mental health settings through strengths-based, transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Paul; Field, John; Molloy, Luke; Yu, Nickolas; Holmes, Douglas; Pile, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The experience of nursing staff and consumers in inpatient mental health wards is often reported as being negative. Efforts to improve culture and practice have had limited success, with ineffective leadership, staff resistance, and unresponsive organisational culture identified as common barriers to change. Practice development has been promoted as an approach to developing person-centred culture that enables professional development through participation, learning and empowerment. For person-centred practice to flourish, organisational leadership at all levels must reflect the same principles. In preparation for the opening of a new integrated mental health service, an inpatient mental health team participated in a practice development project. An action research approach was used to facilitate a series of "away days," initially with the nursing team and then other members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). Transformational leadership principles were adopted in the facilitation of team activities underpinned by strengths and solution-focused practices. Evaluation of the project by staff members was very positive and there was a high level of participation in practice development activities. The project resulted in the creation of a development plan for the ward, which prioritised five key themes: person-centred care, personal recovery, strengths-based principles, and evidence-based and values-based care. The project outcomes highlight the importance of leadership, which parallels the ideals promoted for clinical practice.

  3. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E

    2015-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications.

  4. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine.

  5. Webinar Software: A Tool for Developing More Effective Lectures (Online or In-Person)

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga, Eduardo P.; Bekerman, Jesica G.; Palis, Ana G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of online seminars (webinars) to improve learning experience for medical residents and fostering critical thinking. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one online seminars (webinars) for residents were developed from April 2012 to February 2013. Residents attended the lectures in the same room as the presenter or from distant locations. Residents interacted with the presenter using their personal computers, tablets, or smartphones. They were able to ask questions and answer the instructor's multiple choice or open-ended questions. The lecture dynamics consisted of: (1) The presentation of a clinical case by an expert on the clinical topic; (2) the instructor asked open-ended and multiple-choice questions about the problem-resolution process; (3) participants responded questions individually; (4) participants received feedback on their answers; (5) a brief conference was given on the learning objectives and the content, also fostering interactive participation; (6) lectures were complemented with work documents. Results: This method allowed for exploration of learning of scientific knowledge and the acquisition of other medical competences (such as patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, and professionalism). The question-and-answer activity and immediate feedback gave attendees the chance to participate actively in the conference, reflect on the topic, correct conceptual errors, and exercise critical thinking. All these factors are necessary for learning. Conclusions: This modality, which facilitates interaction, active participation, and immediate feedback, could allow learners to acquire knowledge more effectively. PMID:24791102

  6. Pharmacogenetics and the Development of Personalized Approaches for Combination Therapy in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stacey M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common, chronic disease of the airways that is treated with a combination of different therapies. The combination of LABA and ICS therapy results in a synergistic interaction that is efficacious in improving asthma symptom control; however, genetic variation has the potential to alter therapeutic efficacy. Both agents mediate complex molecular pathways consisting of gene variation that has been investigated with the analysis of candidate genes in the β2-adrenergic receptor and glucocorticoid pathway. These pharmacogenetic studies have been limited to retrospective analyses of clinical trial cohorts and a small number of prospective, genotype-stratified trials. More recently, genome-wide association studies in combination with replication in additional cohorts and in vitro cell-based models have been used to identify novel pathway-related pharmacogenetic variations. This review of the pharmacogenetics of the β2-adrenergic receptor and glucocorticoid pathways highlights the genotypic effects of variation in multiple genes from interacting pathways which may contribute to differential responses to inhaled beta agonists and glucocorticoids. As our understanding of these genetic mechanisms improves, panels of biomarkers may be developed to determine which combination therapies are the most effective with the least risk to an individual asthma patient. Before we can usher in an era of personalized medicine for asthma, it is first important to improve our ability to analyze large volumes of genetic data in large clinical trial cohorts using a combination of study designs, analytical methods, and in vitro functional studies. PMID:23912588

  7. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine. PMID:14674798

  8. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm². PMID:27338392

  9. Development and Testing of a Vaccination Message Targeted to Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    LaVela, Sherri L; Cameron, Kenzie A; Priebe, Michael; Weaver, Frances M

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Individuals with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI&D) are at high-risk of complications and death after influenza and pneumonia. Respiratory vaccinations are effective in reducing infection and complications. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a multimedia educational message developed using a strong theoretical basis and targeted consumer input to modify negative perceptions, increase knowledge, and positively influence intentions and beliefs regarding respiratory vaccinations. Methods: Veterans with SCI&D (n = 36) completed a pretest questionnaire, viewed the message, and, after a clinic visit, completed a posttest questionnaire. Mean differences were examined using paired t tests. Providers (n = 25) were surveyed about the content, comprehension, and reception of the message; response frequencies were examined. Results: Respondents showed positive changes in beliefs from pre- to posttest on multiple items related to knowledge, severity, and self efficacy and response efficacy. There were no changes in perception of personal susceptibility to these diseases. Most providers were in favor of using the message in this population. Conclusions: A brief theory-based multimedia intervention is a feasible way to improve knowledge and attitudes about respiratory vaccinations in high-risk populations. PMID:18533411

  10. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India

    PubMed Central

    Komattil, Ramnarayan; Hande, Shyamala Handattu; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali; Subramaniam, Barathi

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD) module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80%) of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future. PMID:26838576

  11. Personal and task-related moderators of leader-member exchange among software developers.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Muammer

    2008-09-01

    Although earlier studies have shown significant positive relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and its outcomes, they have also noted that the effect sizes of these relationships have been modest and heterogeneous. Addressing numerous calls for future studies that examine potential moderators of the LMX-job performance and LMX-job satisfaction relationships and utilizing a multidomain perspective, this study tests the moderating roles of personal (i.e., locus of control) and task-related (i.e., task autonomy) factors on these relationships. The results of an empirical study with a sample of 287 software developers and 164 supervisors participating at a large international information technology exhibition indicated that the LMX-job performance relationship was stronger when employees' locus of control was internal as opposed to when it was external. In addition, it was stronger when task autonomy was high as opposed to when it was low. Moreover, the results suggested that the LMX-job satisfaction relationship was stronger when task autonomy was high as opposed to when it was low. Finally, contrary to theoretical expectations, employees' locus of control did not moderate the LMX-job satisfaction relationship.

  12. Development and characterization of real-time personal neutron dosemeter with two silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Ueda, O.; Suzuki, T.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter containing two neutron sensors, a fast and a slow neutron sensor. The former sensor is a p-type silicon semiconductor detector. The slow neutron sensor is also a p-type silicon semiconductor detector and natural boron is doped on the aluminum electrode to produce 10B(n,α) reactions. A thin polyethylene radiator is contacted on the front surface of each sensor to produce recoil protons. The neutron detection efficiencies of these sensors were measured in a thermal neutron field and monoenergetic neutron fields from 8 keV to 22 MeV. By taking the weighted sum of counts given by the two sensors, the detection efficiency could be made to approach to the fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factor given by ICRP 51. Field tests of the performance of this neutron dosemeter were performed in the radiation environments around several nuclear facilities, including reactor, accelerator, radioisotope and nuclear fuel handling facilities. Based on the results of these field tests, we conclude that our dosemeter is able to provide a reading of the neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy.

  13. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm².

  14. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India.

    PubMed

    Komattil, Ramnarayan; Hande, Shyamala Handattu; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali; Subramaniam, Barathi

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD) module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80%) of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.

  15. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2. PMID:27338392

  16. Personal and task-related moderators of leader-member exchange among software developers.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Muammer

    2008-09-01

    Although earlier studies have shown significant positive relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and its outcomes, they have also noted that the effect sizes of these relationships have been modest and heterogeneous. Addressing numerous calls for future studies that examine potential moderators of the LMX-job performance and LMX-job satisfaction relationships and utilizing a multidomain perspective, this study tests the moderating roles of personal (i.e., locus of control) and task-related (i.e., task autonomy) factors on these relationships. The results of an empirical study with a sample of 287 software developers and 164 supervisors participating at a large international information technology exhibition indicated that the LMX-job performance relationship was stronger when employees' locus of control was internal as opposed to when it was external. In addition, it was stronger when task autonomy was high as opposed to when it was low. Moreover, the results suggested that the LMX-job satisfaction relationship was stronger when task autonomy was high as opposed to when it was low. Finally, contrary to theoretical expectations, employees' locus of control did not moderate the LMX-job satisfaction relationship. PMID:18808235

  17. Development of self-recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play during the 2nd year.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of visual self-recognition to personal pronoun use and pretend play. For a longitudinal sample (N=66) at the ages when self-recognition was emerging (15, 18, and 21 months), self-recognition was related to personal pronoun use and pretend play such that children showing self-recognition used more personal pronouns and demonstrated more advanced pretend play than did children not showing self-recognition. The finding of a relation among these measures provides additional evidence that in the middle of the 2nd year of life a metarepresentation of self emerges in the human child.

  18. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002) residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002) residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains) in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  19. Promoting Darfuri women's psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person.

    PubMed

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Eltayeb, Shahla; Van den Borne, Hw

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women's experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  20. Beyond Despair and Disengagement: A Transactional Model of Personality Development In Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Whitbourne, Susan K.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that ego analytic, disengagement, and symbolic interaction theories of personality share an insufficient consideration of the dynamics of the interaction between developmental and social forces transpiring during the aging period. An alternative, transactional model is proposed. (Author)

  1. Valuing Human Significance: Connecting Leadership Development to Personal Competence, Social Competence, and Caring.

    PubMed

    Haber-Curran, Paige; Allen, Scott J; Shankman, Marcy Levy

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines humanistic ways of understanding learning; connects leadership learning to the concepts of personal competence, social competence, and caring; and introduces the model of emotionally intelligent leadership.

  2. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  3. The Impact of Childhood Obesity upon Academic, Personal/Social, and Career Development: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter D.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood obesity upon the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. The four components of the American School Counselor Association's (ASCA) delivery model, (classroom guidance, consultation, responsive services, and system support), are utilized to offer suggestions to the professional…

  4. Development and Validation of the Self-Acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness: The SAS-EB

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research. PMID:25268633

  5. Exploring the Pedagogical Possibilities of Indigenous Sport-for-Development Programmes Using a Socio-Personal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the pedagogical properties and subsequent impact of sport-for-development programs across a variety of sites in Australia. Moreover, this research adopts a socio-personal account of learning in an attempt to examine the contributions of the social and physical worlds related to surfing programs as well as the individuals' role…

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Staff Training Program on Palliative Care for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Joan E.; Cadogan, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) face barriers and disparities at end of life. Among these barriers are limited educational opportunities and a paucity of targeted training materials on palliative care for staff who provide their day-to-day care. This paper reports on a three-phase project undertaken to develop,…

  7. Building Your Personal Learning Network (PLN): 21st-Century School Librarians Seek Self-Regulated Professional Development Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi

    2016-01-01

    For school librarians, being part of a "connected" community provides support for getting specific needs met, solving personally relevant and meaningful problems, and developing professional expertise. AASL provides many avenues for members of the profession to learn with and from one another. These include AASL and subgroup electronic…

  8. Lichnost' i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste: psihologiceskoe issledovanie (Personality and Its Development in Childhood: A Psychological Investigation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozovic, L. I.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a three-part volume on the psychology of child personality development. In part one, the author shows that psychology is one of the most important scientific disciplines on which education is based, particularly because of its contribution to the scientific planning of…

  9. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  10. The Development of an Indoor Mobility Course for the Evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a suitable mobility course for the assessment of mobility performance as part of a user evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids (EMA) aimed at obstacle detection and orientation. Method: A review of the literature led to a list of critical factors for the assessment of mobility performance of persons who are visually impaired.…

  11. The Power of Music: Its Impact on the Intellectual, Social and Personal Development of Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence relating to the effects of active engagement with music on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. It draws on research using the most advanced technologies to study the brain, in addition to quantitative and qualitative psychological and educational studies. It…

  12. Measuring the Unmeasurable: Upholding Rigor in Quantitative Studies of Personal and Social Development in Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrutton, Roger; Beames, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) has a long history of being credited with the personal and social development (PSD) of its participants. PSD is notoriously difficult to measure quantitatively, yet stakeholders demand statistical evidence that given approaches to eliciting PSD are effective in their methods. Rightly or wrongly, many stakeholders…

  13. The Course of Life: Psychoanalytic Contributions Toward Understanding Personality Development. Vol. III: Adulthood and the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; Pollock, George H., Ed.

    The volumes that make up "The Course of Life" series represent original contributions from international scientists and clinicians who have produced much current knowledge about the phases of human personality development. The chapters in Volume III discuss adulthood from various perspectives. Contributions cover the continuum of human development…

  14. Development in a Windows environment of a radiation treatment planning system for personal computers.

    PubMed

    Cotrutz, C; Kappas, C; Theodorakos, Y; Makris, C; Mohan, R

    1998-06-01

    A new personal computer (PC) radiotherapy treatment planning system (RTPS) is presented. The PC-based RTPS is designed to run in the Microsoft Windows 3.11 environment (and later versions), for computers equipped with 486 or Pentium processors. The algorithm used by the new PC-based program for dose calculation belongs to the 'radiological pathlength' category and it was previously implemented on VAX 711 computers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York, NY, within EXTREP-III RTPS. The EXTREP-III program is a two-dimensional RTPS (with restricted three-dimensional capabilities), developed and used in clinical practice at MSKCC during the 1980s. The PC-based program is implemented in the Visual Basic (version 3.0) language and supports features commonly available in most photon-mode RTPSs: dose calculation for fixed, isocentric and rotational irradiation techniques, dose corrections for both internal inhomogeneities and external inhomogeneities (boluses and compensators), association of machine-specific beams with various wedges and blocks, etc. The graphic interface of the PC-based RTPS is completely new and is designed to meet the requirements of fast and accurate planning. The user interface consists of an event-oriented button-based console which allows users to perform planning and to have isodose charts overlaid on patient computed tomography images initially loaded in the program. The PC-based RTPS tests, performed in order to assess its accuracy and speed of computation, show good results. The acceptable computation times obtained, the good accuracy in dose computation and the user-friendly interface of the program are sufficient reasons to consider the PC-based RTPS a good quality-price ratio tool for radiation treatment planning in cancer therapy.

  15. The Person-Based Approach to Intervention Development: Application to Digital Health-Related Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the “person-based” approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify “guiding principles” that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in

  16. The person-based approach to intervention development: application to digital health-related behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the "person-based" approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify "guiding principles" that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in trials

  17. Coverage With Evidence Development and Managed Entry in the Funding of Personalized Medicine: Practical and Ethical Challenges for Oncology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jan R R; Kerridge, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Personalized medicines hold promise for many diseases. However, demonstrating the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of these medicines can be difficult. It is essential that decision-making processes for funding new medicines, including personalized medicines, are both robust and fit for purpose. We will argue that randomized trials of personalized medicines should be routinely supplemented with other research methods, such as observational research and single-arm studies, and that managed-entry funding programs, such as coverage with evidence development, may offer a means of providing early access to technologies where there is uncertainty about efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness. These programs, however, raise a number of practical and ethical challenges that need to be worked through and resolved.

  18. Development of a cell phone-based video streaming system for persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Mark P; Nugent, Chris D; Craig, David; Passmore, Peter; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    The current paper presents details regarding the early developments of a memory prompt solution for persons with early dementia. Using everyday technology, in the form of a cell-phone, video reminders are delivered to assist with daily activities. The proposed CPVS system will permit carers to record and schedule video reminders remotely using a standard personal computer and web cam. It is the aim of the three year project that through the frequent delivery of helpful video reminders that a 'virtual carer' will be present with the person with dementia at all times. The first prototype of the system has been fully implemented with the first field trial scheduled to take place in May 2008. Initially, only three patient carer dyads will be involved, however, the second field trial aims to involve 30 dyads in the study. Details of the first prototype and the methods of evaluation are presented herein. PMID:19163921

  19. Developing Interest in Art Scale and Determining the Relation between Personality Type of Teacher Candidates and Their Interest in Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskesen, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a scale that measures individuals' interest in art and to test if there is a relation between this scale and personality types. For this aim, in the first stage of the study, a scale that can measure university students' interest in art is developed. Draft scale, which is made of 25 items, is…

  20. Impact of institutional experience on the behavior and development of retarded persons.

    PubMed

    Zigler, E; Balla, D A

    1977-07-01

    A program of research on the effects of institutional experience on retarded persons was described. The importance of such research for theory construction, use by clinicians, and construction of social policy was discussed, as was the value of both longitudinal and cross-institutional studies. We stressed that any comprehensive understanding of the effects of institutional experience requires a consideration of: (a) the characteristics of the retarded person, (b) his preinstitutional life experience, (c) the nature of the institution, and (d) a range of criterion behavior on the part of the resident.

  1. Multifinality in the Development of Personality Disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment Interaction Model of Antisocial and Borderline Traits

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying personality disorders in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD. PMID:19583882

  2. From Rights to Realities: Confronting the Challenge of Educating Persons with Disabilities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Paula J.; Abera, Nicole; Sabella, Thomas; Podzimek, Kimberly; Joseph, Lenisa

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has been the catalyst for countless national policies around the world which focus on increased participation of individuals with disabilities in educational and community settings. Despite these national and international policies, most children with disabilities in developing…

  3. Holistic Growth of College Peer Study Group Participants: Prompting Academic and Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hane, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on observed and perceived changes in academic and personal attitudes and behaviors by student participants in the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota (UMN). The PAL model employs best practices from national peer learning models including Supplemental Instruction, Peer-led Team…

  4. Assigning Integration: A Framework for Intellectual, Personal, and Professional Development in Seminary Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanarek, Jane; Lehman, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores assignments as a core teaching practice essential to integrating the cognitive, personal, and professional identities of seminary students. These core practices emerge in seminary curricula where there is a strong focus on the teaching of canonical texts and a goal of achieving textual mastery. We propose that carefully…

  5. The Development and Evolution of Person-Centered Expressive Art Therapy: A Conversation with Natalie Rogers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers-Flanagan, John

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors are unaware that Natalie Rogers, daughter of Carl Rogers, has extended her father's work into the creative and expressive arts. This article includes a verbatim conversation with Natalie Rogers as she reflects on her childhood and her professional work. Person-centered expressive art therapy is an alternative to traditional verbal…

  6. Befriending the Two-Headed Monster: Personal, Social and Emotional Development in Schools in Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    Schools in the UK and beyond continue to experience the damaging effects of "top down," "one size fits all" "outcome-based" educational reforms. Educators struggle to meet the dual demands of a punishing performativity- and accountability-driven regime alongside the personal, social, emotional and learning needs of their pupils, especially those…

  7. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance…

  8. Educational Researchers' Personal Explicit Theories on Creativity and Its Development: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksic, Slavica; Pavlovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate implicit theories of educational researchers on creativity and the potential to support creativity in schools. We used qualitative thematic analysis of material produced by 27 educational experts from Serbia. Personal explicit theories about manifestations of creativity are mainly based on qualities and…

  9. Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions in Persons with an Intellectual Disability--Development of a Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Brownell, Marni; Colantonio, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that the primary care provided for persons with an intellectual disability living in the community has been inadequate. Hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions are considered an indicator for access to, and quality of, primary care. The objective of this research was to identify ACS…

  10. The Role of Reinforcement Sensitivity in the Development of Childhood Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…

  11. Developing an Education Intervention for Staff Supporting Persons with an Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; McCarron, Mary; Connaire, Kevin; McCallion, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Generally, staff working in settings that provide care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not received specific education with respect to extended care for terminal illnesses or late-stage dementia. Equally, staff working in specialist palliative care often are not familiar with the unique issues of supporting persons with…

  12. Education and Adaptation: A Personal Account of African-American Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Anthony Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Adaptation is used to examine processes of education historically at the personal/subjective level of human experience. A look at three generations of the author's family illustrates differing adaptive responses facilitated by education, which allowed the author's father and grandfather to cope with racial injustice and adapt to societal changes.…

  13. Career Counseling Is Personal Counseling: A Constructivist Approach to Nurturing the Development of Gifted Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Millie

    2007-01-01

    Gifted individuals face many concerns when contemplating their futures. Often hindered by career indecision; perfectionism; and multiple personal, familial, and societal pressures, some gifted young people flounder when they have the ability to flourish. Many counselors and educators trust that a wealth of talents will propel these adolescents to…

  14. Netflixing Human Capital Development: Personalized Learning Technology and the Corporatization of K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Mahoney, Heather; Means, Alexander J.; Garrison, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced by powerful venture philanthropies, educational technology companies, and the US Department of Education, a growing movement to apply "big data" through "learning analytics" to create "personalized learning" is currently underway in K-12 education in the United States. While scholars have offered various…

  15. Personal Lineages and the Development of Community Psychology: 1965 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine and document the role of personal influence in the history of community psychology, and (b) to measure the field's inclusion of traditionally marginalized populations. In addition to presenting visually the genealogy of community psychology, results suggest that people have mattered in the…

  16. Development and Validation of the Personal Strengths Inventory Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Chow, Daryl; Tan, Teck Kiang; Senf, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the scores on a brief strengths-based assessment, the 22-item Personal Strengths Inventory (PSI). In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis of 410 adolescents provided evidence for a five-factor solution--social competence (four items), emotional awareness (five…

  17. Historical Development of the Concept of the Multicultural Personality: A Mixed Ethnic Heritage Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Manuel, III

    The Mestizo (mixed ethnic heritage) Civil Rights Movement in the United States can be divided into five phases: Pre-Civil Rights, Civil Rights, Bilingual-Multicultural Education, Political Conservatism, and the current period, an Assault on Civil Rights. The paper describes how a personal research career has been influenced by the different stages…

  18. Person-Centered Care and the Workforce Crisis: A Statewide Professional Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogle, Constance L.; Head, Colleen A.; Parham, Iris A.; Zeman, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    The care of individuals with dementia requires knowledge and competencies across a wide range of physical and psychosocial aspects of the disease. Yet the quality of care for persons with dementia suffers from staff shortages and inadequate training about the treatment and optimal care strategies for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Attention…

  19. Assessment of exposure to composite nanomaterials and development of a personal respiratory deposition sampler for nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cena, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    The overall goals of this doctoral dissertation are to provide knowledge of workers' exposure to nanomaterials and to assist in the development of standard methods to measure personal exposure to nanomaterials in workplace environments. To achieve the first goal, a field study investigated airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. This study also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood and biosafety cabinet) for control of exposure to particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured with direct-read instruments, and particle morphology was determined by electron microscopy. Sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites released respirable size airborne particles with protruding CNTs very different in morphology from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in clusters (>1mum). Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were significantly greater when sanding took place in the custom hood (p <0.0001) compared to the other LEV conditions. This study found that workers' exposure was to particles containing protruding CNTs rather than to bulk CNT particles. Particular attention should be placed in the design and selection of hoods to minimize exposure. Two laboratory studies were conducted to realize the second goal. Collection efficiency of submicrometer particles was evaluated for nylon mesh screens with three pore sizes (60, 100 and 180 mum) at three flow rates (2.5, 4, and 6 Lpm). Single-fiber efficiency of nylon mesh screens was then calculated and compared to a theoretical estimation expression. The effects of particle morphology on collection efficiency were also experimentally measured. The collection efficiency of the screens was found to vary by less than 4% regardless of particle morphology. Single

  20. Personalized ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880

  1. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)--such as the Big Three, Big Four, and Big Five trait models--have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality…

  2. The role of personal practice theories in the professional development of a beginning high school chemistry teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E.; Bula, Oleh A.; Cornett, Jeffrey W.

    2001-04-01

    The notion of deliberated teacher reflection as a means of improving professional teaching practice has become one of the most pervasive concepts to influence science teacher education during the past decade. In this case study, we use the notion of teacher reflection and Lytle and Cochran-Smith's ([1990]) typology of teacher research to examine the relationships between a beginning high school chemistry teacher's articulated personal practice theories and his actions as demonstrated by his curricular decisions and instructional practices. In so doing, we describe the ways in which the formal articulations of this teacher's personal practice theories lent themselves to his development as a teacher/researcher and propose this development as a useful model of science teacher practitioner professionalism.

  3. Primary care for persons with spinal cord injury - not a novel idea but still under-developed.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chester H

    2016-09-01

    Primary care for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has long been recognized as an important issue. Over the last two decades, there has not been any consensus on its contents, pathway or delivery model. Despite the lack of attention on this issue, various health care organizations and settings have successfully developed their own version of primary care for persons with SCI. On the other hand, persons with SCI have also found different ways to obtain primary care through Family Physicians and specialists, often depending on the health care structure of their country. This has blurred the line between what is traditionally seen as primary vs. specialist care. The "medical home" model may be ideal for SCI primary care, and it may be establishsed in different care settings. In order to create this model, health care funding structure, appropriate access to physical facility and SCI knowledge, interdisciplinary provider availability and collaboration, as well as active engagement with persons with SCI are necessary. The SCI community should endorse SCI primary care with effective advocacy and implementation. PMID:27463240

  4. Development and testing of a whole-air sampler for measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, D A; Fortmann, R C; Lindstrom, A B

    1995-01-01

    A small and relatively lightweight (3.35 kg) whole-air (canister) sampler that can be worn to monitor personal exposures to volatile organic compounds was developed and evaluated. The prototype personal whole-air sampler (PWAS) consists of a 1-l canister, a mass flow controller, two 1.3 amp hour batteries, a DC/DC converter, and an electronics module with a digital display for the sampling set point, actual flow rate, and battery voltage. The sampler (25.5 x 22.5 x 7.5 cm) fits into a laptop computer carrying case and is able to collect a 900 ml sample at a linear flow rate over 12-16 hours. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the sample flow rate was not affected by temperature or the activity of the person wearing the sampler. Recoveries of methylene chloride, chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, n-octane, o-xylene, n-decane, and p-dichlorobenzene averaged 89% or better for three final prototype samplers. Recoveries were slightly lower for vinyl chloride (74%) and n-dodecane (82%). The precision for the three prototypes was excellent during laboratory tests with the coefficient of variation (CV) < 10% for all the test compounds. Although the unit was designed for use as a personal whole-air sampling system, it can also be used as an extremely compact microenvironmental whole-air sampler.

  5. Primary care for persons with spinal cord injury - not a novel idea but still under-developed.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chester H

    2016-09-01

    Primary care for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has long been recognized as an important issue. Over the last two decades, there has not been any consensus on its contents, pathway or delivery model. Despite the lack of attention on this issue, various health care organizations and settings have successfully developed their own version of primary care for persons with SCI. On the other hand, persons with SCI have also found different ways to obtain primary care through Family Physicians and specialists, often depending on the health care structure of their country. This has blurred the line between what is traditionally seen as primary vs. specialist care. The "medical home" model may be ideal for SCI primary care, and it may be establishsed in different care settings. In order to create this model, health care funding structure, appropriate access to physical facility and SCI knowledge, interdisciplinary provider availability and collaboration, as well as active engagement with persons with SCI are necessary. The SCI community should endorse SCI primary care with effective advocacy and implementation.

  6. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  7. Performance of student software development teams: the influence of personality and identifying as team members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms should substantially influence the team's performance. This paper explores the influence of both these perspectives in university software engineering project teams. Eighty students worked to complete a piece of software in small project teams during 2007 or 2008. To reduce limitations in statistical analysis, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to extrapolate from the results of the original sample to a larger simulated sample (2043 cases, within 319 teams). The results emphasise the importance of taking into account personality (particularly conscientiousness), and both team identification and the team's norm of performance, in order to cultivate higher levels of performance in student software engineering project teams.

  8. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we explore the role of "Omics" in advancing our ability to: (1) more thoroughly describe the biological response of humans in space; (2) describe molecular attributes of individual astronauts that alter the risk profile prior to entering the space environment; (3) deploy Omics techniques in the development of personalized countermeasures; and (4) develop a comprehensive Omics-based assessment and countermeasure platform that will guide human space flight in the future. In this review, we advance the concept of personalized medicine in human space flight, with the goal of enhancing astronaut safety and performance. Because the field is vast, we explore selected examples where biochemical individuality might significantly impact countermeasure development. These include gene and small molecule variants associated with: (1) metabolism of therapeutic drugs used in space; (2) one carbon metabolism and DNA stability; (3) iron metabolism, oxidative stress and damage, and DNA stability; and (4) essential input (Mg and Zn) effects on DNA repair. From these examples, we advance the case that widespread Omics profiling should serve as the foundation for aerospace medicine and research, explore methodological considerations to advance the field, and suggest why personalized medicine may become the standard of care for humans in space.

  9. Chiropractic care of the older person: developing an evidence-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Geriatric care has assumed a more dominant position in the health care delivery system. This article discusses the results of a literature search on geriatric chiropractic care with the ultimate goal of promoting a“best practice” approach. Fifty nine articles were found that discussed geriatric chiropractic education (N = 3), demographic and epidemiological studies (N = 9), case studies (N = 25), clinical trials (N = 4) and clinical guidelines (N = 18). The literature revealed that chiropractic pedagogy has recognized the importance of geriatric education, and epidemiological studies reported an increase in utilization rates of chiropractic care by older persons, along with greater acceptance within the medical community. Most older persons sought out chiropractic care for neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions, with several studies reporting the successful resolution of these conditions with spinal manipulative therapy as well as an eclectic group of other treatment interventions. Many older persons enter a maintenance care program, which they believe to be important to their health. Although the results of this article are encouraging, it underscores the need for continued research, especially in the areas of chiropractic maintenance care and the management of non-NMS conditions.

  10. Personal persistence, identity development, and suicide: a study of Native and Non-native North American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Michael J; Lalonde, Christopher E; Sokol, Bryan W; Hallett, Darcy

    2003-01-01

    The cross-cultural program of research presented here is about matters of temporal persistence--personal persistence and cultural persistence--and about solution strategies for solving the paradox of "sameness-in-change." The crux of this paradox resides in the fact that, on threat of otherwise ceasing to be recognizable as a self, all of us must satisfy at least two constitutive conditions. The first of these is that selves are obliged to keep moving or die, and, so, must continually change. The second is that selves must also somehow remain the same, lest all notions of moral responsibility and any commitment to an as yet unrealized future become nonsensical. Although long understood as a problem demanding the attention of philosophers, we argue that this same paradox arises in the ordinary course of identity development and dictates the different developmental routes taken by culturally mainstream and Aboriginal youth in coming to the identity-preserving conclusion that they and others are somehow continuous through time. Findings from a set of five studies are presented. The first and second studies document the development and refinement of a method for parsing and coding what young people say on the topic of personal persistence or self-continuity. Both studies demonstrate that it is not only possible to seriously engage children as young as age 9 or 10 years in detailed and codable discussions about personal persistence, but that their reasoning concerning such matters typically proceeds in an orderly and increasingly sophisticated manner over the course of their early identity development. Our third study underscores the high personal costs of failing to sustain a workable sense of personal persistence by showing that failures to warrant self-continuity are strongly associated with increased suicide risk in adolescence. Study four documents this same relation between continuity and suicide, this time at the macrolevel of whole cultures, and shows that

  11. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  12. Falls prevention in persons with intellectual disabilities: development, implementation, and process evaluation of a tailored multifactorial fall risk assessment and intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Ellen; Enkelaar, Lotte; Schoon, Yvonne; Geurts, Alexander C; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2013-09-01

    In the general elderly population, multifactorial screening of fall risks has been shown to be effective. Although persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) fall more often, there appears to be no targeted screening for them. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a falls clinic for persons with ID. Based on guidelines, literature, and expert meetings, a falls clinic for persons with ID was developed. In total, 26 persons with ID and a fall history participated in the study. Process evaluation was conducted with evaluation forms and focus groups. Fifty interventions (0-8 per person) were prescribed. The (para)medical experts, clients, and caregivers described the falls clinic as useful. Advice for improvement included minor changes to clinic content. Logistics were the largest challenge for the falls clinic, for example organizing meetings, completing questionnaires prior to meetings, and ensuring that a personal caregiver accompanied the person with ID. Furthermore, the need for a screening tool to determine whether a person would benefit from the falls clinic was reported. In conclusion, the falls clinic for persons with ID was considered feasible and useful. Some minor content changes are necessary and there is a need for a screening tool. However, logistics concerning the falls clinic need improvement. More attention and time for multifactorial and multidisciplinary treatment of persons with ID is necessary. Implementation on a larger scale would also make it possible to investigate the effectiveness of the falls clinic with regard to the prevention of falls in this population.

  13. Co-Development of Psychopathic Features and Alcohol Use during Emerging Adulthood: Disaggregating Between- and Within-Person Change

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Samuel W.; Crane, Cory A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether there is a bidirectional association between changes in alcohol use and psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. The nature of this association was investigated among a large sample of serious male adolescent offenders (N = 1,170) across 7 annual assessments (ages ~17–23), with a focus on disaggregating between- and within-person change. Findings indicated that there was significant variability between participants in their rate of change of psychopathic features and alcohol use throughout this period of development. Both, between- and within-person increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. In addition, evidence indicated that during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features at the subsequent assessment. The relevance of these findings for public policy and their potential to inform treatments and interventions are discussed. PMID:26375828

  14. Considerations for development of sensing and monitoring tools to facilitate treatment and care of persons with lower limb loss

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, BJ; Sanders, JE

    2015-01-01

    Sensing and monitoring technologies offer enormous potential to enhance the quality of healthcare provided to persons with lower limb loss. Incorporation of these technologies into the rehabilitation process creates opportunities for a multidimensional exchange of timely, relevant, and meaningful health information between patients, their prostheses, and health care providers. Here, the authors envision a conceptual model for enhancing prosthetic rehabilitation through use of integrated physical and/or biological sensors and remote monitoring methods. Several specific applications that target treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis of health issues faced by persons with limb loss are proposed in an effort to demonstrate how collecting and using objective data can facilitate clinical decision making. Contemporary integrated sensors that may be used in these applications are reviewed and their limitations discussed. It is hoped that the considerations proposed here may serve to stimulate development of clinically useful monitoring and sensing technologies and promote their integration into routine amputation rehabilitation. PMID:24805889

  15. Development of a multimodal reminder system for older persons in their residential home.

    PubMed

    Boll, Susanne; Heuten, Wilko; Meyer, Eike Michael; Meis, Markus

    2010-01-01

    To live a self-determined life at home is uncontroversally a desire of many ageing people. Decreases in motor and mental capabilities, however, frequently make daily activities more difficult for them. Older people often forget tasks and appointments, and decreased mobility can limit their social interaction. In this study, we investigate the way in which technological support can assist in the organisation, structuring and remembering of daily activities. Aiming at assistance seamlessly integrated into a person's household, we carried out an initial user study to investigate the technology and the kind of desired assistance of such a personal household assistant system should offer. We designed a reminder system for appointments and activities that uses different sounds, light colours or vibration patterns to represent different categories of calendar events such as upcoming tasks and appointments. The evaluation results show a preference for solely acoustic presentations or an acoustic presentation in combination with visual and tactile output. In our future work, we will refine the ambient and interactive presentation and implement and evaluate this technology in residential homes.

  16. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  17. A work-based educational intervention to support the development of personal resilience in nurses and midwives.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Glenda; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley; Vickers, Margaret H

    2012-05-01

    A work-based educational programme was the intervention used in a collective case study aiming to develop, strengthen and maintain personal resilience amongst fourteen nurses and midwives. The participants attended six, monthly workshops and formed a participatory learning group. Post-intervention, participants reported positive personal and professional outcomes, including enhanced self-confidence, self-awareness, communication and conflict resolution skills. They strengthened relationships with their colleagues, enabling them to build helpful support networks in the workplace. The intervention used new and innovative ways of engaging nurses and midwives exhibiting the effects of workplace adversity - fatigue, pressure, stress and emotional labour. Participants were removed from their usual workplace environment and brought together to engage in critical reflection, experiential learning and creativity whilst also learning about the key characteristics and strategies of personal resilience. Participants' experiences and skills were valued and respected; honest airing of the differences within the group regarding common workplace issues and concerns was encouraged. The new contribution of this intervention for nursing and midwifery education was supporting the learning experience with complementary therapies to improve participants' wellbeing and reduce stress. PMID:21724307

  18. Development and validation of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality Brief Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BSRF).

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Clark, Lee Anna; Vernon, Philip A; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-02-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality full-length (SNAP) and short versions (SNAP-SRF and SNAP-ORF) were developed as measures of normal-range and more pathological personality traits. This study investigated the validity of the SNAP Brief Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BSRF), an alternative version of the SNAP Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-SRF) revised for further brevity. The scales of the SNAP-BSRF showed good convergence with the SNAP-SRF and the SNAP Other-Description Rating Form (SNAP-ORF) scales. A three-factor structure consistent with extant literature was found for the SNAP-BSRF using an exploratory structural equation modeling approach. Scales from the SNAP-BSRF showed meaningful associations with self-reported internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that this new version is a reasonable substitute for the SNAP-SRF and will be useful when a very brief measure of adaptive and maladaptive personality is needed.

  19. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. PMID:21436671

  20. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions.

  1. 22 CFR 208.630 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development impute conduct of one person to another? 208.630 Section 208.630 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... impute conduct of one person to another? For purposes of actions taken under this rule, we may impute..., or other improper conduct of any organization to an individual, or from one individual to...

  2. 22 CFR 208.630 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Development impute conduct of one person to another? 208.630 Section 208.630 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... impute conduct of one person to another? For purposes of actions taken under this rule, we may impute..., or other improper conduct of any organization to an individual, or from one individual to...

  3. Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Susan L.; Brockett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-directedness in learning among college students based on an operationalization of the personal responsibility orientation (PRO) model of self-direction in learning. The resultant 25-item Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-Direction in Learning Scale…

  4. Academic Development as Institutional Leadership: An Interplay of Person, Role, Strategy, and Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynn K.

    2005-01-01

    Academic development is emerging as a complex and challenging leadership role. Academic developers in Australia were interviewed to determine how they: (1) conceptualized leadership; (2) saw themselves in leadership roles; and (3) effected leadership and change through academic development work. The results revealed that, in an academic…

  5. The Tidal Model: developing an empowering, person-centred approach to recovery within psychiatric and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Barker, P

    2001-06-01

    Nursing theories and nursing models have a low profile within psychiatric and mental health nursing in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the philosophical and theoretical background of the Tidal Model, which emerged from a 5-year study of the 'need for psychiatric nursing'. The Tidal Model extends and develops some of the traditional assumptions concerning the centrality of interpersonal relations within nursing practice. The model also integrates discrete processes for re-empowering the person who is disempowered by mental distress or psychiatric services or both. The paper reports briefly on the ongoing evaluation of the model in practice.

  6. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  7. Person Perception and Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Studies of person perception (people's impressions and beliefs about others) have developed important concepts and methods that can be used to help improve the assessment of personality disorders. They may also inspire advances in our knowledge of the nature and origins of these conditions. Information collected from peers and other types of informants is reliable and provides a perspective that often differs substantially from that obtained using questionnaires and interviews. For some purposes, this information is quite useful. Much remains to be learned about the incremental validity (and potential biases) associated with data from various kinds of informants. PMID:20539833

  8. The Development of Children's Orientations toward Moral, Social, and Personal Orders: More than a Sequence in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg first published details of his research on the development of moral judgments in "Vita Humana" (later titled "Human Development"). Along with a series of other articles and essays, he greatly influenced research on moral development. He was instrumental in moving the field out of the narrow confines of analyses of psychological…

  9. Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: Genes and environment

    PubMed Central

    TUVBLAD, CATHERINE; WANG, PAN; BEZDJIAN, SERENA; RAINE, ADRIAN; BAKER, LAURA A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences was examined in initial level and change in psychopathic personality from ages 9 to 18 years. A piecewise growth curve model, in which the first change score (G1) influenced all ages (9–10, 11–13, 14–15, and 16–18 years) and the second change score (G2) only influenced ages 14–15 and 16–18 years, fit the data better did than the standard single slope model, suggesting a turning point from childhood to adolescence. The results indicated that variations in levels and both change scores were mainly due to genetic (A) and nonshared environmental (E) influences (i.e., AE structure for G0, G1, and G2). No sex differences were found except on the mean values of level and change scores. Based on caregiver ratings, about 81% of variance in G0, 89% of variance in G1, and 94% of variance in G2 were explained by genetic factors, whereas for youth self-reports, these three proportions were 94%, 71%, and 66%, respectively. The larger contribution of genetic variance and covariance in caregiver ratings than in youth self-reports may suggest that caregivers considered the changes in their children to be more similar as compared to how the children viewed themselves. PMID:25990131

  10. Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: Genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences was examined in initial level and change in psychopathic personality from ages 9 to 18 years. A piecewise growth curve model, in which the first change score (G1) influenced all ages (9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years) and the second change score (G2) only influenced ages 14-15 and 16-18 years, fit the data better did than the standard single slope model, suggesting a turning point from childhood to adolescence. The results indicated that variations in levels and both change scores were mainly due to genetic (A) and nonshared environmental (E) influences (i.e., AE structure for G0, G1, and G2). No sex differences were found except on the mean values of level and change scores. Based on caregiver ratings, about 81% of variance in G0, 89% of variance in G1, and 94% of variance in G2 were explained by genetic factors, whereas for youth self-reports, these three proportions were 94%, 71%, and 66%, respectively. The larger contribution of genetic variance and covariance in caregiver ratings than in youth self-reports may suggest that caregivers considered the changes in their children to be more similar as compared to how the children viewed themselves.

  11. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report markers of vulnerability and risk. Such a comparison may have important implications for treatment, prevention, and developmental models of self injury and borderline personality disorder. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to examine how adolescent SII differs from adolescent depression. Self-injuring, depressed, and typical adolescent females (n = 25 per group) and their mothers completed measures of psychopathology and emotion regulation, among others. In addition, we assessed electrodermal responding (EDR), a peripheral biomarker of trait impulsivity. Participants in the SII group (a) scored higher than depressed adolescents on measures of both externalizing psychopathology and emotion dysregulation, and (b) exhibited attenuated EDR, similar to patterns observed among impulsive, externalizing males. Self-injuring adolescents also scored higher on measures of borderline pathology. These findings reveal a coherent pattern of differences between self-injuring and depressed adolescent girls, consistent with theories that SII differs from depression in etiology and developmental course. PMID:22016199

  12. Measuring satisfaction with health care in young persons with inflammatory bowel disease -an instrument development and validation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction is a relevant prognostic factor in young persons with chronic disease and may be both age and disease specific. To assess health care quality from the patient’s view in young persons with inflammatory bowel disease, an easy to use, valid, reliable and informative specific instrument was needed. Methods All parts of the study were directed at persons with inflammatory bowel disease aged 15 to 24 (“youth”). A qualitative internet patient survey was used to generate items, complemented by a physician survey and literature search. A 2nd internet survey served to reduce items based on perceived importance and representativeness. Following pilot testing to assess ease of use and face validity, 150 respondents to a postal survey in patients from a paediatric clinical registry were included for validation analyses. Construct validity was assessed by relating summary scores to results from global questions on satisfaction with care using ANOVA. To assess test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), a subset of patients were assessed twice within 3 months. Results 302 persons with IBD and 55 physicians participated in the item generating internet survey, resulting in 3,954 statements. After discarding redundancies 256 statements were presented in the 2nd internet survey. Of these, 32 items were retained. The resulting instrument assesses both the perceived relevance (importance) of an item as well as the performance of the care giver for each item for calculation of a summary satisfaction score (range 0 to 1). Sensibility testing showed good acceptance for most items. Construct validity was good, with mean scores of 0.63 (0.50 to 0.76), 0.71 (0.69 to 0.74) and 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) for no, some and good global satisfaction (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC 0.6 to 0.7). Conclusions We developed an easy to use, patient oriented, valid instrument to assess satisfaction with care

  13. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page You are here Home » Personality Disorder Personality Disorder What is “Personality?” Personality refers to a distinctive set of traits, ... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder ...

  14. Personal Professional Trajectories of Novice and Experienced Teacher Educators in a Professional Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, David L.; Hadar, Linor L.

    2015-01-01

    Experience in the workforce influences teacher educators' responses to professional development efforts for adapting new practices. This study examines trajectories of novices and experienced teacher educators in a three-year longitudinal professional development community focused on infusing thinking into college teaching. A four-stage trajectory…

  15. The Development of the Stages of Recovery Scale for Persons with Persistent Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Li-Yu; Hsu, Su-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale which could be used as a valid way to show the evidence of recovery-oriented services. A 51-item scale was developed to assess both the component processes and outcomes of recovery. A sample of 471 participants administered the questionnaire. The factor analysis yielded a 45-item scale with six subscales,…

  16. Goals and Personal Resources that Contribute to the Development and Agency Attachment of Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…

  17. Applying GIS to Develop a Web-Based Spatial-Person-Temporal History Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chang, Chuen-Jung; Tu, Hsiao-Han; Yeh, Shiou-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Developing interactive history learning materials to facilitate historical thinking is one of the challenges in history teaching and learning. This study developed a web-based history educational system, which has used the acronym HES-SPATO (history educational system based on SPATO), to increase the understandability of history learning…

  18. Assessing Students' Development in Learning Approaches According to Initial Learning Profiles: A Person-Oriented Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanthournout, Gert; Coertjens, Liesje; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the development of students' learning approaches have at times reported unexpected or lack of expected changes. The current study explores the idea of differential developments in learning approaches according to students' initial learning profiles as a possible explanation for these outcomes. A learning profile is conceived as…

  19. Fathering: The Effect of Father-Absence and Inadequate Fathering on Children's Personality Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonrod, Debbie

    Information about the influence fathers have on their children's development is provided in this booklet. Chapter One reviews research focused on father-absence and inadequate fathering. Societal expectations for fathers, paternal deprivation, children's emotional, cognitive and social development as well as sex-role adjustment are briefly…

  20. Personalized and Inquiry-Oriented Teacher Education: An Analysis of Two Approaches to the Development of Curriculum for Field-Based Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Two curriculum development strategies for preservice teachers' field-based experiences are analyzed. It is argued that a "personalized" approach to field-based experiences is misguided, and an "inquiry-oriented" approach is presented as more justifiable. (CJ)

  1. Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: a Biology x Sex x Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Klein, Daniel N; Crowell, Sheila E; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline PD (BPD) is more common among females, some authors have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying PDs in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD.

  2. Career Development of Blind and Visually Impaired Persons. Proceedings of the Macfarland Seminar, Annual Meeting of the American Association of Workers for the Blind (Phoenix, Arizona, July 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.; And Others

    These seven presentations cover various aspects of career development and employment of the visually impaired. "Career Development Theory Applied to the Delivery of Services to Blind and Visually Impaired Persons" (William H. Graves) describes the Career Development Intervention Strategy model developed by the Rehabilitation Research and Training…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  4. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    2016-01-01

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism.

  5. Tutor perceptions of the use of a reflective portfolio within a pastoral tutor system to facilitate undergraduate personal development planning.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J S; Hobson, R S; Waterhouse, P J; Meechan, J G; Hogg, S D; Whitworth, J M; Thomason, J M

    2006-11-01

    All Higher Education Institutions in the UK are now required to provide transcripts of student activity and outcomes of summative assessments. In addition, the student should be able to reflect on their learning and plan their own development. This article reports on the staff evaluation of the use of a reflective portfolio facilitating the production of highly individualised personal development plans within an existing tutor system. A number of significant issues are highlighted; tutor systems adopting this approach must maintain flexibility for managing student crises when they arise, the difference between appraisal and assessment needs clear definition for both students and tutors, training in basic mentoring skills should be provided for all tutors, tutors should be aware of the difficulties many students experience with reflection and also be alert to the over reflective learner. PMID:17038014

  6. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    2016-01-01

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. PMID:27474422

  7. Early milestones in the development of ion-exchange chromatography: a personal account.

    PubMed

    Fritz, James S

    2004-06-11

    Ion chromatography as we know it today was built on a foundation of knowledge accumulated over a period of many years. Here, we review some of the outstanding earlier achievements in ion-exchange chromatography. Beginning about 1947. Spedding and Powell at Iowa State published a series of papers describing practical methods for preparative separation of the rare earths by displacement ion-exchange chromatography. The same group then demonstrated the ion-exchange separation of 14N and 15N isotopes in ammonia. Beginning in the 1950s. Kraus and Nelson at Oak Ridge published numerous analytical methods for metal ions based on separation of their chloride, fluoride, nitrate or sulfate complexes by anion chromatography. In the period from about 1960 to 1980 many clever chromatographic methods for metal ion separations were reported by researchers throughout the world and automatic in-line detection was gradually introduced. A truly innovative method by Small, Stevens and Bauman at Dow Chemical Co. marked the birth of modern ion chromatography. Anions, as well as cations, could now be separated quickly and conveniently by a system of suppressed conductivity detection. A method for anion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection was published by Gjerde et al. in 1979. This was followed by a similar method for cation chromatography in 1980. Ion chromatography as we know it today did not just happen. It was built on a solid foundation of knowledge that has accumulated over a period of many years. Revisiting the older ion-exchange chromatography serves not only to pay tribute to some remarkable accomplishments, but it can also be a learning experience. Trends and ideas in science tend to run in repeating cycles. Thus, an awareness of older work may provide inspiration for new research using improved contemporary technology. Selection of milestones is a rather personal matter. I chose to write about subjects of which I came to have a firsthand knowledge during

  8. Recognizing the same face in different contexts: Testing within-person face recognition in typical development and in autism

    PubMed Central

    Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Karaminis, Themelis; Jenkins, Rob; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unfamiliar face recognition follows a particularly protracted developmental trajectory and is more likely to be atypical in children with autism than those without autism. There is a paucity of research, however, examining the ability to recognize the same face across multiple naturally varying images. Here, we investigated within-person face recognition in children with and without autism. In Experiment 1, typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds, 8- and 9-year-olds, 10- and 11-year-olds, 12- to 14-year-olds, and adults were given 40 grayscale photographs of two distinct male identities (20 of each face taken at different ages, from different angles, and in different lighting conditions) and were asked to sort them by identity. Children mistook images of the same person as images of different people, subdividing each individual into many perceived identities. Younger children divided images into more perceived identities than adults and also made more misidentification errors (placing two different identities together in the same group) than older children and adults. In Experiment 2, we used the same procedure with 32 cognitively able children with autism. Autistic children reported a similar number of identities and made similar numbers of misidentification errors to a group of typical children of similar age and ability. Fine-grained analysis using matrices revealed marginal group differences in overall performance. We suggest that the immature performance in typical and autistic children could arise from problems extracting the perceptual commonalities from different images of the same person and building stable representations of facial identity. PMID:26615971

  9. Transition to Adult Care in Persons With Disorders of Sexual Development: The Role of the Gynecologist

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Anne-Marie Amies; Muscarella, Miriam; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a spectrum of conditions diagnosed in infancy due to atypical development of the external genitalia, in adolescence due to atypical pubertal development, or in adulthood due to infertility. Obstetricians may be the first providers to identify a DSD in the fetus or newborn, and should be part of the interdisciplinary team assembled to best care for these patients. Gynecologists must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of these conditions in late adolescence and adulthood. The creation of DSD “centers of excellence” may provide optimal care for individuals with these conditions but many will live too far from such centers and need to be followed by local gynecologists. The purpose of this commentary is to emphasize important medical and psychological issues so gynecologists can provide optimal care for their patients with DSD conditions. PMID:26348185

  10. Goals and personal resources that contribute to the development and agency attachment of older adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alayna A; Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Maitland, Scott B

    2011-03-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older adults who had multiple goals for volunteering, and (2) older adults who pursued these goals by making greater use of their social resources relative to their physical and cognitive resources. Both hypotheses were supported. Older adults who have numerous motives for volunteering, and who maximize the use of their social skills and prosocial attitudes, are more strongly attached to their host agency and experience higher levels of volunteer role development. Implications for the field of volunteerism are discussed.

  11. Professional development in person: identity and the construction of teaching within a high school science department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development focused on inquiry science teaching. I use a social practice theory lens to analyze my own stories as well as Marie's. I make the case that science teaching is best understood as mediated by socially-constructed identities rather than as the end-product of knowledge and beliefs. The cognitive paradigm for understanding teachers' professional learning fails to consistently produce transformations of teaching practice. In order to design professional development with science teachers that is generative of new knowledge, and is self-sustaining, we must understand how to build knowledge of how to problematize identities and consciously use social practice theory.

  12. Three decades of Wnts: a personal perspective on how a scientific field developed

    PubMed Central

    Nusse, Roel; Varmus, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Wnt genes and components of Wnt signalling pathways have been implicated in a wide spectrum of important biological phenomena, ranging from early organismal development to cell behaviours to several diseases, especially cancers. Emergence of the field of Wnt signalling can be largely traced back to the discovery of the first mammalian Wnt gene in 1982. In this essay, we mark the thirtieth anniversary of that discovery by describing some of the critical scientific developments that led to the flowering of this field of research. PMID:22617420

  13. Developing registries of volunteers: key principles to manage issues regarding personal information protection.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Emmanuelle; Leclerc, Dominic; Puymirat, Jack; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2010-11-01

    Much biomedical research cannot be performed without recruiting human subjects. Increasingly, volunteer registries are being developed to assist researchers with this challenging task. Yet, volunteer registries raise confidentiality issues. Having recently developed a registry of volunteers, the authors searched for normative guidance on how to implement the principle of confidentiality. The authors found that the protection of confidentiality in registries are based on the 10 key elements which are elaborated in detail in the Canadian Standards Association Model Code. This paper describes how these 10 detailed key principles can be used during the developmental stages of volunteer registries.

  14. A Personal Journey: TGfU Teacher Development in Australia and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Butler, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines teacher development of TGfU in teacher education programmes in Australia and the USA by taking a cross-sectional snapshot across a sequence covering the final two years of a teacher education programme in which TGfU is emphasised, and the first two years of teaching after graduating from the same programmes. It explores the…

  15. Student Writing in a Talent Development Program: Sanctuary and Academic Site of the "Personally Humane"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Karen Surman

    2008-01-01

    The author had the pleasure of being in an academic setting where students of color were in the majority. That was the summer of 2004 as she observed African-American Literature 1900-Present, a writing intensive class in the Special Program in Talent Development (SPTD) at the University of Rhode Island (URI). The author wants to tell the story of…

  16. Personalized Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Study on Digital Badging within a Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamrat, Christopher; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Dudek, Jaclyn; Peck, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    To provide customized workplace learning opportunities, a digital badge system was designed by a university, governmental agency and national professional association to support teachers' implementation of professional development (PD). Teacher Learning Journeys (TLJ) is an approach that allows for teachers to customize their PD experience to…

  17. Voice to Voice: Developing In-Service Teachers' Personal, Collaborative, and Public Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Frances; Zimmerman, Enid

    1997-01-01

    Describes a model for inservice education that begins with an interchange of teachers' voices with those of the students in an interactive dialog. The exchange allows them to develop their private voices through self-reflection and validation of their own experiences. (JOW)

  18. The Severely Handicapped Person: Approaches to Career Development. Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhead, E. Jane; And Others

    Current research is cited in this exploration of the impact of environmental, attitudinal, and social-psychological factors on the career development potential of individuals with handicaps severely limiting to daily functioning. First, the words "disability" and "handicap" are defined, demonstrating that an individual may be handicapped by…

  19. Demographic and Familial Predictors of Early Executive Function Development: Contribution of a Person-Centered Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Blair, Clancy

    2011-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills are integral components of young children's growing competence, but little is known about the role of early family context and experiences in their development. We examined how demographic and familial risks during infancy predicted EF competence at 36 months of age in a large, predominantly low-income sample of…

  20. Development of a Personalized Educational Computer Game Based on Students' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have been engaged in the development of educational computer games; however, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models that take individual students' learning needs or difficulties into consideration, students might only show temporary interest during the learning process, and their learning…

  1. The Development of an Instrument for Assessing the Personal Values of Educational Administrators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Douglas; And Others

    An instrument for measuring the value orientation of educational administrators was constructed following the model developed by England for measuring the value orientation of managers. The instrument was administered, via mail, to a stratified sample of 210 administrators from five States in the Plains and Rocky Mountain areas. Respondents rated…

  2. Creating a Personal Competitive Advantage by Developing a Professional Online Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The recent global economic crisis has created a hypercompetitive job market in which students have struggled to attain positions in fields related to their disciplines. In an effort to provide students with tools to achieve career success, this paper outlines the elements for "Developing POP! A Professional Online Presence." This…

  3. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  4. Professional Development in Person: Identity and the Construction of Teaching within a High School Science Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development…

  5. Personnel Development for Persons Having an Impact on Vocational Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffet, Eileen

    A project was conducted at Manor Junior College, Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, to design and implement a development conference for all faculty and staff who have a direct impact on vocational students. Emphasis was placed upon improving the quality of instruction, updating teacher competence, and introducing learning mechanisms for improving program…

  6. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

  7. Dual Language Teachers' Use of Conventional, Environmental, and Personal Resources to Support Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…

  8. The Person in the Profession: Renewing Teacher Vitality through Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intrator, Sam M.; Kunzman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A teacher's vocational vitality, or capacity to be vital, present, and deeply connected to his or her students, is not a fixed, indelible condition, but a state that ebbs and flows with the context and challenges of the teaching life. In light of this, an emerging form of professional development programming explicitly devoted to nourishing the…

  9. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  10. Minority Language Development and Literacy among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Refugees, and Wartime Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Joan Bomberger

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how minority language development and literacy activities were facilitated in a wartime context for Southern Sudanese language groups, particularly through the use of workshops. It also presents the voices of the language speakers themselves as they reflect on this process. A background discussion considers the importance of…

  11. Policy, Personalities and Pedagogy: The Use of Simulation Games to Teach and Learn about Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Gerard; Overton, John

    2011-01-01

    Simulation games have a long history in education and are well suited to learning about negotiation, power, relationships and uncertain outcomes. This paper reflects on the experience of using a semester-long simulation game to introduce postgraduate students to development policy. It focuses on three issues identified in the literature--realism,…

  12. Decolonizing Methodologies and Indigenous Knowledge: The Role of Culture, Place and Personal Experience in Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports findings from a 10-day professional development institute on curricular trends involving 19 secondary mathematics and science teachers and administrators from Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Philippines, the United States, and People's Republic of China. Participants explored the roles of culture, place, and…

  13. ISSOE Student Guidance and Development of Personalized Occupational Education Programs. Findings and Recommendations, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuke, Vernon; Frank, Robert

    The Instructional Support System for Occupational Education (ISSOE) project focused on (1) review of individualized education systems, (2) selection of appropriate occupational clusters, and (3) development and field testing of a system and materials. Exemplary and innovative approaches to individualized education were reviewed by site visits and…

  14. Student Growth within the School Garden: Addressing Personal/Social, Academic, and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Swank, David E.

    2013-01-01

    School counselors have the challenging task of implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program to serve a large number of students. We present the creative use of a garden program to promote the development of students through the integration of the natural environment. Additionally, we describe activities and metaphors…

  15. Civic Commitment in Young Activists: Emergent Processes in the Development of Personal and Collective Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, M. Loreto; Penaloza, Pilar; Valenzuela, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative approach this study documents life experiences that youth with a history of sustained social and political participation judge as significant in the development of their civic commitment. Data is drawn from in-depth interviews to 6 Chilean youth (3 ages 16-19; 3 ages 20-24 years) of diverse socioeconomic condition, with a…

  16. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  17. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  18. Caregiver Person-Centeredness and Behavioral Symptoms during Mealtime Interactions: Development and Feasibility of a Coding Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavioral symptoms are distressing and frequently interrupt eating for the individual experiencing them and others in the environment. In order to enable identification of potential antecedents to mealtime behavioral symptoms, a computer-assisted coding scheme was developed to measure caregiver person-centeredness and behavioral symptoms for nursing home residents with dementia during mealtime interactions. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for video-capturing naturally-occurring mealtime interactions between caregivers and residents with dementia, to assess the feasibility, ease of use, and inter-observer reliability of the coding scheme, and to explore the clinical utility of the coding scheme. Trained observers coded 22 observations. Data collection procedures were feasible and acceptable to caregivers, residents and their legally authorized representatives. Overall, the coding scheme proved to be feasible, easy to execute and yielded good to very good inter-observer agreement following observer re-training. The coding scheme captured clinically relevant, modifiable antecedents to mealtime behavioral symptoms, but would be enhanced by the inclusion of measures for resident engagement and consolidation of items for measuring caregiver person-centeredness that co-occurred and were difficult for observers to distinguish. PMID:25784080

  19. Development of a Guide-Dog Robot: Leading and Recognizing a Visually-Handicapped Person using a LRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saegusa, Shozo; Yasuda, Yuya; Uratani, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Eiichirou; Makino, Toshiaki; Chang, Jen-Yuan (James

    A conceptual Guide-Dog Robot prototype to lead and to recognize a visually-handicapped person is developed and discussed in this paper. Key design features of the robot include a movable platform, human-machine interface, and capability of avoiding obstacles. A novel algorithm enabling the robot to recognize its follower's locomotion as well to detect the center of corridor is proposed and implemented in the robot's human-machine interface. It is demonstrated that using the proposed novel leading and detecting algorithm along with a rapid scanning laser range finder (LRF) sensor, the robot is able to successfully and effectively lead a human walking in corridor without running into obstacles such as trash boxes or adjacent walking persons. Position and trajectory of the robot leading a human maneuvering in common corridor environment are measured by an independent LRF observer. The measured data suggest that the proposed algorithms are effective to enable the robot to detect center of the corridor and position of its follower correctly.

  20. The development, evolution, and status of Holland's theory of vocational personalities: Reflections and future directions for counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By constructing measures for operationalizing the theory's constructs, Holland and his colleagues helped ensure that the theory could be implemented in practice on a widespread basis. Empirical data offer considerable support for the existence of Holland's RIASEC types and their ordering among persons and environments. Although Holland's congruence hypotheses have received empirical support, congruence appears to have modest predictive power. Mixed support exists for Holland's hypotheses involving the secondary constructs of differentiation, consistency, and vocational identity. Evidence of the continued impact of Holland's theory on the field of counseling psychology, particularly in the area of interest assessment, can be seen from its frequent implementation in practice and its use by scholars. Ideas for future research and practice using Holland's theory are suggested.

  1. From empiricism to rational design: a personal perspective of the evolution of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination, which is the most effective medical intervention that has ever been introduced, originated from the observation that individuals who survived a plague or smallpox would not get the disease twice. To mimic the protective effects of natural infection, Jenner - and later Pasteur - inoculated individuals with attenuated or killed disease-causing agents. This empirical approach inspired a century of vaccine development and the effective prophylaxis of many infectious diseases. From the 1980s, several waves of new technologies have enabled the development of novel vaccines that would not have been possible using the empirical approach. The technological revolution in the field of vaccination is now continuing, and it is delivering novel and safer vaccines. In this Timeline article, we provide our views on the transition from empiricism to rational vaccine design.

  2. Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Louie, Alan S.; Marenchic, Ingrid G.; Forni, Ronald J.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as the nerve gases Sarin or Soman. The sensitivity level of the alarm is set to be at initial physiological response at the meiosis level, orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations. The AChE enzyme used is specific for nerve-type toxins. A color development reaction is used to demonstrate continued activity of the enzyme over its twelve-hour operational cycle.

  3. From empiricism to rational design: a personal perspective of the evolution of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination, which is the most effective medical intervention that has ever been introduced, originated from the observation that individuals who survived a plague or smallpox would not get the disease twice. To mimic the protective effects of natural infection, Jenner - and later Pasteur - inoculated individuals with attenuated or killed disease-causing agents. This empirical approach inspired a century of vaccine development and the effective prophylaxis of many infectious diseases. From the 1980s, several waves of new technologies have enabled the development of novel vaccines that would not have been possible using the empirical approach. The technological revolution in the field of vaccination is now continuing, and it is delivering novel and safer vaccines. In this Timeline article, we provide our views on the transition from empiricism to rational vaccine design. PMID:24925139

  4. A Personal View of the Early Development of Computational Neuroscience in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In the half-century since the seminal Hodgkin–Huxley papers were published, computational neuroscience has become an established discipline, evolving from computer modeling of neurons to attempts to understand the computational functions of the brain. Here, I narrate my experience of the early steps and sense of excitement in this field, with its promise of rapid development, paralleling that of computers. PMID:20725511

  5. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  6. [Impacts of computer- and media usage on the personality development of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Süss, D

    2007-02-01

    The psychosocial development of children and the youth today is embedded in a media society. Socialization is understood as an interaction between the individual and its environment. Media are used to accomplish developmental tasks and media literacy has become a developmental task in itself. The presence of media in all social subsystems of every day life alters the general socialization processes, like the integration into peergroups or the detaching from the parents. Media can play the role of resources or the role of risk factors for the development. Empirical research shows that children's access to media is more and more enhanced and an increasing amount of time is spent with screen media. Media socialization of the young people takes on the mode of self education, but children are dependent on adults to prevent negative media effects such as Internet addiction. If media usage is part of an environment which is adequat for children's wellbeeing, the psychosocial development will not be affected negatively by the media. PMID:17245677

  7. Interfacing Essential Competencies and Learner Outcomes with Developmental Reading: Program for Improving Reading Achievement; Recreational Reading and Personal Development: Inservice Mini-Package for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Carolyn P.; And Others

    Developed in West Virginia as part of a statewide effort to improve reading achievement through a competency based staff development program, this inservice instructional packet on recreational reading and personal development is one of five devised to present classroom teachers with the essential competencies and learner outcomes involved in…

  8. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  9. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: A Foundation for Ethical Disability and Health Research in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Brolan, Claire E.; Mukandi, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has foregrounded disability as a human rights and equity issue, elevating it to a priority global research area. Academics from Western universities are likely to play an increasing role in disability health research in developing countries. In such contexts, there is a need to bridge the gap between procedural ethics and the realities of disability research in cross-cultural contexts. We provide guidance on engaging in ethical disability health research that intersects with and upholds the CRPD. We highlight challenges and tensions in doing so, underscoring the need to be sensitive to the sociocultural and political context of disability that determines how ethical research should proceed. We conclude with 5 recommendations. PMID:25211760

  10. Event-driven, pattern-based methodology for cost-effective development of standardized personal health devices.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Trigo, Jesús D; Led, Santiago; Barrón-González, H Gilberto; Redondo, Javier; Baquero, Alfonso; Serrano, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Experiences applying standards in personal health devices (PHDs) show an inherent trade-off between interoperability and costs (in terms of processing load and development time). Therefore, reducing hardware and software costs as well as time-to-market is crucial for standards adoption. The ISO/IEEE11073 PHD family of standards (also referred to as X73PHD) provides interoperable communication between PHDs and aggregators. Nevertheless, the responsibility of achieving inexpensive implementations of X73PHD in limited resource microcontrollers falls directly on the developer. Hence, the authors previously presented a methodology based on patterns to implement X73-compliant PHDs into devices with low-voltage low-power constraints. That version was based on multitasking, which required additional features and resources. This paper therefore presents an event-driven evolution of the patterns-based methodology for cost-effective development of standardized PHDs. The results of comparing between the two versions showed that the mean values of decrease in memory consumption and cycles of latency are 11.59% and 45.95%, respectively. In addition, several enhancements in terms of cost-effectiveness and development time can be derived from the new version of the methodology. Therefore, the new approach could help in producing cost-effective X73-compliant PHDs, which in turn could foster the adoption of standards.

  11. Parental food provisioning is related to nestling stress response in wild great tit nestlings: implications for the development of personality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on arthropods, for instance, the specific prey types, e.g. spiders and caterpillars, matter as they have different levels of taurine which may have an effect on personality development. Here we investigated how naturally occurring variation in the amounts of spiders and caterpillars, provisioned to nestlings at day 4 and 8 after hatching, is related to the response to handling stress in a wild passerine, the great tit (Parus major). Broods were cross-fostered in a split-brood design allowing us to separate maternal and genetic effects from early rearing effects. Adult provisioning behaviour was monitored on day four and day eight after hatching using video recordings. Individual nestlings were subjected to a handling stress test at an age of 14 days, which is a validated proxy for exploratory behaviour as an adult. Results Variation in handling stress was mainly determined by the rearing environment. We show that, contrary to our predictions, not the amount of spider biomass, but the amount of caterpillar biomass delivered per nestling significantly affected individual performance in the stress test. Chicks provisioned with lower amounts of caterpillars exhibited a stronger stress response, reflecting faster exploratory behaviour later on in life, than individuals who received larger amounts of caterpillars. Conclusions These results suggest that natural variation in parental behaviour in wild birds modulates the developmental trajectories of their offspring's personality via food provisioning. Since parental provisioning behaviour might also reflect the local environmental conditions, provisioning behaviour may influence how nestlings respond to these local environmental conditions. PMID:26913051

  12. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  13. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  14. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  15. Development and demonstration of a personal monitoring system for exposure to hydrogen fluoride. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.S.; Monat, J.P.

    1993-09-01

    A good, functional Hydrogen Fluoride Gasbadge dosimeter has been developed for sampling of airborne HF vapor. The device is small (7.7 cm {times} 5.4 cm {times} 1.9 cm) and can easily and conveniently be worn on one`s lapel. It consists of polyethylene and polypropylene parts and a triethanolamine-impregnated polyproylene collection element. It is completely self contained, requiring no pumps, impingers, or sampling tubes. Subsequent to sampling, the collection element is analyzed quickly and easily with a fluoride selective-ion electrode. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine precision, linearity, interference effects, influences of temperature and humidity, and collection element stability over time. Results of the tests indicate that the Abcor Gasbadge HF dosimeter is an excellent passive HF monitor for work spaces, and that results obtained with it are accurate within {plus_minus}25%. These results have been corroborated in a field study.

  16. Regulating developments in embryonic stem cell research in Africa: a third person's perspective.

    PubMed

    Amechi, Emeka Polycarp

    2008-02-01

    Among the many advances in modern biotechnology, embryonic stem (ES) cell research has raised perhaps the most intense debate over the ethical, legal and policy issues involved. This debate has centred inter alia on the lives and well-being of the donors or participants in clinical trials, the presumed lives of embryos, the possibility of reproductive cloning, and government funding, among others. These ethical, legal and policy issues tend to overlap and cut across all strata of society, with opponents of the research calling for prohibition and proponents calling for promotion. One important question is whether African countries should regulate to limit or promote developments in ES cell research. This article argues that, in view of the dynamism of modern biotechnology, African countries should regulate in such a way as to maximise the benefits while minimising the disadvantages associated with the research. PMID:18365523

  17. Personal Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  18. Pilot study to develop telehealth tinnitus management for persons with and without traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schmidt, Caroline J; Griest, Susan; Legro, Marcia W; Kaelin, Christine; Thielman, Emily J; Storzbach, Daniel M; McMillan, Garnett P; Carlson, Kathleen F

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, or "ringing in the ears," affects 10%-15% of adults; cases can be problematic and require lifelong management. Many people who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI) also experience tinnitus. We developed Progressive Tinnitus Management (PTM), which uses education and counseling to help patients learn how to self-manage their reactions to tinnitus. We adapted PTM by delivering the intervention via telephone and by adding cognitive-behavioral therapy. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of this approach for individuals with and without TBI. Participants with clinically significant tinnitus were recruited into three groups: probable symptomatic mild TBI (n = 15), moderate to severe TBI (n = 9), and no symptomatic TBI (n = 12). Participants received telephone counseling (six sessions over 6 months) by an audiologist and a psychologist. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. All groups showed trends reflecting improvement in self-perceived functional limitations due to tinnitus. A follow-up randomized clinical study is underway. PMID:23341277

  19. Development of tools to study personal weight control strategies: OxFAB taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Paul; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of the Oxford Food and Activity Behaviors (OxFAB) taxonomy and questionnaire to explore the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during weight management attempts. Methods The taxonomy was constructed through a qualitative analysis of existing resources and a review of existing behavior change taxonomies and theories. The taxonomy was translated into a questionnaire to identify strategies used by individuals. Think‐aloud interviews were conducted to test the face/concept validity of the questionnaire, and test–retest reliability was assessed in a sample of 138 participants. Results The OxFAB taxonomy consists of 117 strategies grouped into 23 domains. Compared to taxonomies used to describe interventions, around half of the domains and strategies identified are unique to the OxFAB taxonomy. The OxFAB questionnaire consists of 117 questions, one for each strategy from the taxonomy. Test–retest resulted in a mean PABAK score of 0.61 (SD 0.15). Questions were revised where appropriate. Conclusions The OxFAB taxonomy and questionnaire provide a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during attempts at weight control. PMID:26748902

  20. Preliminary studies to develop a personal dosemeter for use by aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Stokes, R P; Talbot, L

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes preliminary work to develop a cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. The dosemeter is based on a combination of CR-39 etched-track detectors and TLD-700 thermoluminescent detectors. It is intended that the CR-39 be used to assess the neutron dose, while the TLD-700 is used to assess the photon and charged particle dose. The sensitivity of CR-39 to the neutron component of cosmic radiation was estimated by irradiating samples of the plastic at the CERN-CEC High Energy Reference Field Facility. This facility produced a radiation field with a neutron spectrum resembling that of the neutron component of cosmic radiation at typical airflight altitudes. The response of the CR-39 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.2-6.0 mSv) and there was no significant fading in the 6-month period after irradiation. The TLD-700 component of the dosemeter was calibrated using 137Cs gamma rays. The response of the TLD-700 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.01-5.0 mSv) with no significant fading in the 6-month period after irradiation. It was concluded that a combination of CR-39 and TLD-700 detectors would provide an effective cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. PMID:11281525

  1. A Personal Perspective on the Impact of Professional Development Workshops within the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soule, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    In June of 2014 I attended the Cutting Edge workshop "Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences," designed to mentor graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and others who are interested in pursuing academic careers in the geosciences. Faculty members and administrators provided guidance and information that helped me become a stronger candidate for academic positions. Session topics focused on becoming both a successful teacher and researcher. In addition to the opportunity to network extensively with peers and academic leaders in the geosciences, I was helped to develop a plan for how to best use my final graduate school to optimize the transition to my next career stage. I will present both qualitative descriptions and quantitative measures of the effect this experience has had on my activities both pre- and post-participation. I will discuss how the workshop has impacted my perceptions on the job search process and my teaching beliefs. I will support my qualitative perceptions with the results of my pre- and post-workshop questionnaire "Beliefs About Reformed Science Teaching and Learning" (BARSTL). I will discuss the ways in which this experience has given me take home ideas that will improve my teaching immediately, supports my successful transition from school to career, and provides some of the tools needed to succeed in academic jobs.

  2. The relative importance of heads, bodies, and movement to person recognition across development.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rachel A; Coltheart, Max

    2015-10-01

    Children have been shown to be worse at face recognition than adults even into their early teens. However, there is debate about whether this is due to face-specific mechanisms or general perceptual and memory development. Here, we considered a slightly different option--that children use different cues to recognition. To test this, we showed 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults whole body, head only, and body only stimuli that were either moving or static. These were shown in two tasks, a match-to-sample task with unfamiliar people and a learning task, to test recognition of experimentally familiar people. On the match-to-sample task, children were worse overall, but the pattern of results was the same for each age group. Matching was best with all cues or head available, and there was no effect of movement. However, matching was generally slower with moving stimuli, and 8-year-olds, but not 10-year-olds, were slower than adults. In general, more cues were faster than heads or bodies alone, but 8-year-olds were surprisingly slow when still bodies were shown alone. On the learning task, again all age groups showed similar patterns, with better performance for all cues. Both 8- and 10-year-olds were more likely to say that they knew someone unfamiliar. Again, movement did not provide a clear advantage. Overall, this study suggests that any differences in face recognition between adults and children are not due to differences in cue use and that instead these results are consistent with general improvements in memory.

  3. The relative importance of heads, bodies, and movement to person recognition across development.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rachel A; Coltheart, Max

    2015-10-01

    Children have been shown to be worse at face recognition than adults even into their early teens. However, there is debate about whether this is due to face-specific mechanisms or general perceptual and memory development. Here, we considered a slightly different option--that children use different cues to recognition. To test this, we showed 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults whole body, head only, and body only stimuli that were either moving or static. These were shown in two tasks, a match-to-sample task with unfamiliar people and a learning task, to test recognition of experimentally familiar people. On the match-to-sample task, children were worse overall, but the pattern of results was the same for each age group. Matching was best with all cues or head available, and there was no effect of movement. However, matching was generally slower with moving stimuli, and 8-year-olds, but not 10-year-olds, were slower than adults. In general, more cues were faster than heads or bodies alone, but 8-year-olds were surprisingly slow when still bodies were shown alone. On the learning task, again all age groups showed similar patterns, with better performance for all cues. Both 8- and 10-year-olds were more likely to say that they knew someone unfamiliar. Again, movement did not provide a clear advantage. Overall, this study suggests that any differences in face recognition between adults and children are not due to differences in cue use and that instead these results are consistent with general improvements in memory. PMID:26002490

  4. Development of a Composite Pain Measure for Persons with Advanced Dementia: Exploratory Analyses in Self-Reporting Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Polissar, Nayak; Neradilek, Moni Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Context Experts agree that pain assessment in non-communicative persons requires data from sources that do not rely on self-report, including proxy reports, health history, and observation of pain behaviors. However, there is little empirical evidence to guide clinicians in weighting or combining these sources to best approximate the person’s experience. Objectives The aim of this exploratory study was to identify a combination of observer-dependent pain indicators that would be significantly more predictive of self-reported pain intensity than any single indicator. Because self-reported pain is usually viewed as the criterion measure for pain, self-reported usual and worst pain were the dependent variables. Methods The sample consisted of 326 residents (mean age: 83.2 years; 69% female) living in one of 24 nursing homes. Independent variables did not rely on self-report: surrogate reports from certified nursing assistants (CNA IPT), Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS), number of painful diagnoses, and Minimum Data Set (MDS) pain variables. Results In univariate analyses, the CNA IPT scores were correlated most highly with self-reported pain. The final multivariate model for self-reported usual pain included CNA IPT, CSDD, PAS and education; this model accounted for only 14% of the variance. The more extensive of the two final models for worst pain included MDS pain frequency, CSDD, CNA IPT, CNPI and age (R2 = 0.14). Conclusion Additional research is needed to develop a predictive pain model for nonverbal persons. PMID:21094018

  5. Teachers' personal didactical models and obstacles to professional development: Case-studies with secondary experimental science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamba Aguado, Ana Maria

    The aim of this thesis has been to elaborate criteria which characterise how teachers teach, as a curriculum component of their professional knowledge and to infer the obstacles which hinder their desired professional development, in such a way that they are considered in the design of proposals for teacher training in secondary education. In addition to this, a further objective was to elaborate and validate data analysis instruments. Case studies were carried out on three natural science secondary teachers with more than ten years' experience, enabling the characterisation of the teachers' science and science teaching conceptions as well as the description of classroom practice. Finally, with the help of these data together with the material used by the teachers, the inference of the teachers' personal didactical models and the obstacles to their professional development were made possible. Instruments for data collection used a questionnaire to facilitate the realisation of a semi-structured interview, video recordings of the classroom intervention of each teacher which correspond to a teaching unit taught over a two-week period and all the written material produced for the unit was collected. For the data analysis a taxonomy of classroom intervention patterns and a progression hypothesis towards desirable professional knowledge were elaborated, from the perspective of a research in the classroom model and according to a system of categories and subcategories which refer to their concepts about scientific knowledge, school knowledge, how to teach and evaluation. With the interview and the questionnaire a profile of exposed conceptions was obtained. The intervention profile was obtained using the classroom recordings; according to the patterns identified and their sequencing, both of which determine the characteristic structures and routines of these teachers. An outcome of these results was the validation of the previously mentioned taxonomy as an instrument of

  6. The Role of Chance Events in the School-to-Work Transition: The Influence of Demographic, Personality and Career Development Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Chance events are considered important in career development, yet little empirical research is available on their predictors and consequences. The present study investigated socio-demographic (gender, nationality, school-type), personality (openness, locus of control) and career development variables (career decidedness, career planning) in…

  7. The Road to Employability through Personal Development: A Critical Analysis of the Silences and Ambiguities of the British Columbia (Canada) Life Skills Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna; Benjamin, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of a life skills career education curriculum for schools in British Columbia, Canada. This curriculum calls for the development of a set of life skills that are positioned as central to students' employability. At the heart of the curriculum is a focus on personal development, in particular, the need…

  8. Daily Living, Personal-Social, and Occupational Skills Development for Educable Retarded Students. Project Price Working Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Sara; And Others

    Presented as a part of Project PRICE (Programming Retarded in Career Education) for primary through secondary age educable retarded persons, are behavioral objectives for 22 competencies in the areas of daily living skills, personal social skills, and occupational guidance and preparation. It is explained that the competencies should comprise the…

  9. Developing personal attributes of professionalism during clinical rotations: views of final year bachelor of clinical medical practice students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is unique in its offering as it requires a teaching approach that meets the needs of an integrated curriculum, providing for an accelerated transition from the classroom to the patient’s bedside. Methods Following five week attachments in designated District Education Campuses, 25 final year BCMP students were required to reflect individually on the covenant that exists between society and the practice of medicine based on their daily interactions with health care workers and patients for three of the five rotations in a one page document. A retrospective, descriptive case study employed qualitative methods to group emerging themes from 71 portfolios. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of the Witwatersrand. Results As an outcome of an ethical analysis, the majority of BCMP students reflected on the determinants of accountable and responsible practice (N=54). The commitment to the Oath became significant with a personalised reference to patients ‘as my patients’. Students acknowledged professional health care workers (HCWs) who demonstrated commitment to core values of good practice as they recognised the value of constantly reflecting as a skill (n=51). As the students reflected on feeling like ‘guinea pigs’ (n=25) migrating through periods of uncertainity to become ‘teachable learners’, they made ethical judgements that demonstrated the development of their moral integrity. A few students felt vulnerable in

  10. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  11. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  12. Role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the development of the inward/outward personality organization: a genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Bernardo; Marini, Alessandra; Turchi, Chiara; Arimatea, Emidio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity with primary caregivers affects subjects' adaptive abilities toward the construction of the most useful personal meaning organization (PMO) with respect to their developmental environment. Within cognitive theory the post-rationalist approach has outlined two basic categories of identity construction and of regulation of cognitive and emotional processes: the Outward and the Inward PMO. The presence of different, consistent clinical patterns in Inward and Outward subjects is paralleled by differences in cerebral activation during emotional tasks on fMRI and by different expression of some polymorphisms in serotonin pathways. Since several lines of evidence support a role for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in mediating individual susceptibility to environmental emotional stimuli, this study was conducted to investigate its influence in the development of the Inward/Outward PMO. PMO was assessed and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism investigated in 124 healthy subjects who were subdivided into an Inward (n = 52) and an Outward (n = 72) group. Case-control comparisons of short allele (S) frequencies showed significant differences between Inwards and Outwards (p = 0.036, χ2 test; p = 0.026, exact test). Genotype frequencies were not significantly different although values slightly exceeded p ≤ 0.05 (p = 0.056, χ2 test; p = 0.059, exact test). Analysis of the 5-HTTLPR genotypes according to the recessive inheritance model showed that the S/S genotype increased the likelihood of developing an Outward PMO (p = 0.0178, χ2 test; p = 0.0143, exact test; OR = 3.43, CI (95%) = 1.188-9.925). A logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between short allele and S/S genotypes with the Outward PMO also when gender and age were considered. However none of the differences remained significant after correction for multiple testing, even though using the recessive model they approach significance. Overall our data seem to suggest a putative genetic basis for

  13. Role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the development of the inward/outward personality organization: a genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Bernardo; Marini, Alessandra; Turchi, Chiara; Arimatea, Emidio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity with primary caregivers affects subjects' adaptive abilities toward the construction of the most useful personal meaning organization (PMO) with respect to their developmental environment. Within cognitive theory the post-rationalist approach has outlined two basic categories of identity construction and of regulation of cognitive and emotional processes: the Outward and the Inward PMO. The presence of different, consistent clinical patterns in Inward and Outward subjects is paralleled by differences in cerebral activation during emotional tasks on fMRI and by different expression of some polymorphisms in serotonin pathways. Since several lines of evidence support a role for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in mediating individual susceptibility to environmental emotional stimuli, this study was conducted to investigate its influence in the development of the Inward/Outward PMO. PMO was assessed and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism investigated in 124 healthy subjects who were subdivided into an Inward (n = 52) and an Outward (n = 72) group. Case-control comparisons of short allele (S) frequencies showed significant differences between Inwards and Outwards (p = 0.036, χ2 test; p = 0.026, exact test). Genotype frequencies were not significantly different although values slightly exceeded p ≤ 0.05 (p = 0.056, χ2 test; p = 0.059, exact test). Analysis of the 5-HTTLPR genotypes according to the recessive inheritance model showed that the S/S genotype increased the likelihood of developing an Outward PMO (p = 0.0178, χ2 test; p = 0.0143, exact test; OR = 3.43, CI (95%) = 1.188-9.925). A logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between short allele and S/S genotypes with the Outward PMO also when gender and age were considered. However none of the differences remained significant after correction for multiple testing, even though using the recessive model they approach significance. Overall our data seem to suggest a putative genetic basis for

  14. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    potentially improving the therapeutic activity of novel, target-specific therapies that may otherwise have off-target toxicities or less efficacy in cells exhibiting certain pathways. Here, we discuss the use of co-developing diagnostic-targeting vectors to identify patients whose malignant tissue can specifically uptake a targeted anti-cancer drug vector prior to treatment. Using this system, a patient can be predetermined in real-time as to whether or not their tumor(s) can specifically uptake a drug-linked diagnostic vector, thus inferring the uptake of a similar vector linked to an anti-cancer agent. If tumor-specific uptake is observed, then the patient may be suitable for drug-linked vector therapy and have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit while patients with no tumor uptake should consider other therapeutic options. This approach offers complementary opportunities to rapidly develop broad tumor-specific agents for use in personalized medicine. PMID:24982846

  15. Determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in surface and treated waters: method development and survey.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Bolzan, Cátia Marian; Guilherme, Juliana Rocha; Silveira, Maria Angelis Kisner; Escarrone, Ana Laura Venquiaruti; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Water is fundamental to the existence of life since it is essential to a series of activities, such as agriculture, power generation, and public and industrial supplies. The residual water generated by these activities is released into the environment, reaches the water systems, and becomes a potential risk to nontarget organisms. This paper reports the development and validation of a quantitative method, based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous analysis of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 33 pesticides in surface and drinking waters. The accuracy of the method was determined by calculating the recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120 % for most pesticides and PPCPs, whereas limits of quantification ranged from 0.8 to 40 ng/L. After the validation step, the method was applied to drinking and surface waters. Pesticides and PPCPs were found in concentrations lower than 135.5 ng/L. The evaluation of different water sources with regard to contamination by pesticides and PPCPs has been quite poor in southern Brazil.

  16. Infant Temperament and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Infants have definite personality characteristics from birth onward. Despite wide variation in infant temperament styles, ranging from easy to difficult, responsive parents and non-parental caregivers can ensure positive emotional-social development. This paper, which reviews various theories and research on personality development in infants and…

  17. Development of a prototype of the tele-localisation system in radiotherapy using personal digital assistant via wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent Wing-Cheung; Tang, Fuk-hay; Cheung, Wai-kwan; Chan, Kit-chi

    2013-02-01

    In localisation of radiotherapy treatment field, the oncologist is present at the simulator to approve treatment details produced by the therapist. Problems may arise if the oncologist is not available and the patient requires urgent treatment. The development of a tele-localisation system is a potential solution, where the oncologist uses a personal digital assistant (PDA) to localise the treatment field on the image sent from the simulator through wireless communication and returns the information to the therapist after his or her approval. Our team developed the first tele-localisation prototype, which consisted of a server workstation (simulator) for the administration of digital imaging and communication in medicine localisation images including viewing and communication with the PDA via a Wi-Fi network; a PDA (oncologist's site) installed with the custom-built programme that synchronises with the server workstation and performs treatment field editing. Trial tests on accuracy and speed of the prototype system were conducted on 30 subjects with the treatment regions covering the neck, skull, chest and pelvis. The average time required in performing the localisation using the PDA was less than 1.5 min, with the blocked field longer than the open field. The transmission speed of the four treatment regions was similar. The average physical distortion of the images was within 4.4% and the accuracy of field size indication was within 5.3%. Compared with the manual method, the tele-localisation system presented with an average deviation of 5.5%. The prototype system fulfilled the planned objectives of tele-localisation procedure with reasonable speed and accuracy.

  18. Promoting Darfuri women’s psychosocial health: developing a war trauma counsellor training programme tailored to the person

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women are considered special groups who are uniquely vulnerable in the context of war exposures. To effectively target the resources aimed at mitigating mental health consequences and optimising and maximising the use of mental health provisions, culturally relevant war trauma counsellor training is required. The objectives of this study are to promote a new philosophy in the Sudanese mental health care by introducing an integrative approach for targeted prevention and tailored treatments to the Darfuri person in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the study provides evidence- and theory-based guidelines for developing a war trauma counsellor training programme in Sudan, mainly based on qualitative and quantitative studies among war-affected Darfuri female students. Cultural conceptualisations such as gender roles and religious expectations as well as theories that emphasise resilience and other psychosocial adaptation skills have been operationalised to reflect the totality of the Darfuri women’s experiences. Furthermore, the results of four interrelated studies among war-traumatised undergraduate Darfuri women who are internally displaced provide the basis that guides an outline for qualification development, capacity building and skills consolidation among Sudanese mental health care providers. Explicit war-related psychosocial needs assessment tools, specific war-related trauma counsellor training and particular counsellor characteristics, qualities and awareness that pertain to strengthening the efficacy of war trauma Sudanese counsellors are recommended. The aim is to produce expertly trained war trauma counsellors working with war-affected Darfuri women in particular and with regards to their helpfulness in responding to the psychosocial needs of war-exposed Sudanese in general. PMID:23531430

  19. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... person has a long-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and thoughts that is very different from his or her culture's expectations. These behaviors interfere with the person's ability to function in relationships, work, or other settings.

  20. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...