Science.gov

Sample records for peru nutritional strategies

  1. Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document examines the current difficult situation in Peru in light of its historical past. It gives students the opportunity to relate to the problems that the majority of Peruvians are facing and to see how Peru's people are working together for solutions. The text deals with contemporary issues such as the greenhouse effect, the loss of the…

  2. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  3. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  4. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues.

  5. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues. PMID:26598880

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Strategies for High-Quality Nutrition Therapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Correia, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for improving nutrition therapy (NT) are of utmost importance in any healthcare system. The identification and treatment of malnourished patients improves clinical outcome and reduces the length of hospital length of stay and the associated costs. In particular, federal policy regulating the use of NT in Brazil and reimbursement of enteral nutrition (EN) treatment were 2 powerful mechanisms that stimulated the development of nutrition care. Basic and clinical research have also contributed to best practices in NT, thereby highlighting the need for nutrition therapy teams, quality indicators, and nutrition education for the delivery of high-quality NT. It is clear that the availability of training and continuing education programs in clinical nutrition is key to improving nutrition awareness and care, as well as patient outcome. On the basis of our experience, we recommend the Brazilian model as a strategy for improving nutrition care, with appropriate and necessary adaptations made to accommodate different settings.

  8. Nutrition and lead: Strategies for public health

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    Over the past two decades, blood lead levels among U.S. children have been reduced by approximately 80%. This decline reflects both primary interventions (removal of lead solder form food beverage cans and virtual elimination of lead additives form gasoline) and secondary prevention strategies (public health programs and nutritional intervention). Nonetheless, pediatric lead poisoning (i.e., blood lead concentrations {ge} 10 {mu}g/dl) continues to occur in 8.9% of 1- to 5-year-old children. Currently, blood lead concentrations exceed the U.S. Centers for Disease Control`s targeted value (10 {mu}g/dl), most often among minority and low-income populations. These same subpopulations are at greatest risk of marginal nutrition status (especially for iron and calcium), which increases their susceptibility to lead toxicity. Adverse child feeding practices (e.g., irregular temporal patterns of food intake) are also of concern among the subpopulations at highest risk to excessive lead from external or environmental dose to internal dose as reflected by blood lead concentration. 60 refs.

  9. Nutritional strategies of the hydrothermal ecosystem bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, Marcel; Donval, Anne; Herry, Angèle

    Studies of deep-sea hydrothermal bivalves have revealed that the species, which are strictly dependent upon the interstitial fluid emissions, derive their food indirectly via symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic bacteria present in their gill tissues. As the gill plays the main trophic role, structural and ultrastructural modifications occur in the digestive tract. Scanning and transmission electron microscope studies reveal that the digestive system of species belonging to the genera Calyptogena, Bathymodiolus and Bathypecten have anatomical differences. In Calyptogena, the reduction of several parts of the digestive tract and the stomach content which is either empty or full, according to the various species examined indicate that the digestive system is hardly if at all functional. In Bathymodiolus, the labial palps are well developed, the stomach is always full with particles and the two cellular types, digestive and secretory, are present in the digestive gland. All these characteristics indicate that the digestive system is functional. In Bathypecten, the digestive tract is well developed and it seems that it plays the main trophic role. We conclude that the nutritional strategies of the hydrothermal vents bivalves are quite varied. They range from a normal trophic process, through a mixotrophic diet, to one based purely on chemoautotrophic bacteria. The strategy of each species is adapted to and influences its distribution.

  10. Nutritional strategies for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Collins, Nancy; Dorner, Becky; Sloan, Colleen

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this continuing education article are to analyze the aging process and its effect on the nutritional status of frail older adults; determine how sarcopenia, anorexia, malnutrition, and Alzheimer disease increase the risk for pressure ulcer development and impact the healing process; and to apply evidence-based nutrition guidelines and implement practical solutions for wound healing.

  11. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  12. With the help of one's neighbors: externalities in the production of nutrition in Peru.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Hentschel, Jesko; Sabates, Ricardo

    2003-05-01

    Both public and private resources contribute to the nutritional status of children. In addition, the investments made by one household may contribute to the health of other households in the neighborhood through improvements in the sanitation environment and through increases in shared knowledge. This paper measures the externalities of investments in nutrition by indicating the impact of the education of women in Peruvian neighborhoods on the nutrition of children in other households, after controlling for the education and income of those households. We find that in rural areas this shared knowledge has a significant impact on nutrition, with the coefficient of an increase in the average education of women in the neighborhood being appreciable larger than the coefficient of education in isolation. In addition, we indicate the impact of the water and sanitation environment in the neighborhood, again controlling for the household's own access to sanitation and water. In both urban and rural areas, we observe externalities from investments in such household level infrastructure with the evidence particularly strong for sanitation made by neighboring households. PMID:12697194

  13. Nutritional Strategies Facing an Older Demographic: The Nutrition UP 65 Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The population of Portugal is aging. The lack of data on older adults’ nutritional status and the lack of nutrition knowledge amongst health professionals, caregivers, and older adults themselves, remains a challenge. Objective The Nutrition UP 65 study aims to reduce nutritional inequalities in the older Portuguese adult population and improve knowledge regarding older Portuguese adults’ nutritional status, specifically relating to undernutrition, obesity, sarcopenia, frailty, hydration, sodium, and vitamin D statuses. Methods A representative sample of older Portuguese adults was selected. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, functional, and clinical data were collected. Sodium excretion, hydration, and vitamin D statuses were assessed. Results Data collection (n=1500) took place between December, 2015 and June, 2016. Results will be disseminated in national and international scientific journals, and via Portuguese media. Conclusions Nutrition UP 65 results will provide evidence for the design and implementation of effective preventive public health strategies regarding the elderly. These insights may represent relevant health gains and costs savings. PMID:27628097

  14. Coping strategies and nutrition education needs among food pantry users.

    PubMed

    Hoisington, Anne; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Butkus, Sue

    2002-01-01

    In response to unexpectedly high rates of household food insecurity in Washington State, focus groups were conducted with food pantry users in nine locations across the state to explore access and barriers to food, strategies for coping with food insecurity, and nutrition education needs. All respondents had children and spoke English. Participants reported household food insecurity and concerns about feeding children and getting through the month. Stretching food dollars was the most requested topic for nutrition education. Nutrition educators need to be responsive to people's educational needs and the emotional demands associated with food insecurity at the program and community levels.

  15. A Field Trial of Alternative Targeted Screening Strategies for Chagas Disease in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Ancca Juárez, Jenny; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Córdova Benzaquen, Eleazar; Náquira, César; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic in the rural areas of southern Peru and a growing urban problem in the regional capital of Arequipa, population ∼860,000. It is unclear how to implement cost-effective screening programs across a large urban and periurban environment. Methods We compared four alternative screening strategies in 18 periurban communities, testing individuals in houses with 1) infected vectors; 2) high vector densities; 3) low vector densities; and 4) no vectors. Vector data were obtained from routine Ministry of Health insecticide application campaigns. We performed ring case detection (radius of 15 m) around seropositive individuals, and collected data on costs of implementation for each strategy. Results Infection was detected in 21 of 923 (2.28%) participants. Cases had lived more time on average in rural places than non-cases (7.20 years versus 3.31 years, respectively). Significant risk factors on univariate logistic regression for infection were age (OR 1.02; p = 0.041), time lived in a rural location (OR 1.04; p = 0.022), and time lived in an infested area (OR 1.04; p = 0.008). No multivariate model with these variables fit the data better than a simple model including only the time lived in an area with triatomine bugs. There was no significant difference in prevalence across the screening strategies; however a self-assessment of disease risk may have biased participation, inflating prevalence among residents of houses where no infestation was detected. Testing houses with infected-vectors was least expensive. Ring case detection yielded four secondary cases in only one community, possibly due to vector-borne transmission in this community, apparently absent in the others. Conclusions Targeted screening for urban Chagas disease is promising in areas with ongoing vector-borne transmission; however, these pockets of epidemic transmission remain difficult to detect a priori. The flexibility to adapt to the epidemiology that

  16. Strategies to vaccinate against cancer of the cervix: feasibility of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary; Bartolini, Rosario; Mosqueira, N Rocio; LaMontagne, D Scott; Mendoza, Maria Ana; Ramos, Irma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Villafana, Jose; Janmohamed, Amynah; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-07-12

    Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in Piura region. Our evaluation showed that school-based HPV vaccination is feasible without major changes in existing health systems. This was reflected in the opinions of health personnel, the lack of impact on other vaccine coverage, and the high HPV vaccine coverage documented in routine records and by an independent community-based survey.

  17. Peer-led theater as a nutrition education strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the creative process of using peer-led theater as a nutrition education strategy with Latino youth promoting healthy traditional Mexican foods. The article focuses on the theatrical principles involved and is written primarily for an audience of theater professionals. The inte...

  18. Evidence-informed strategies for undergraduate nutrition education: a review.

    PubMed

    Newton, Genevieve; Bettger, William; Buchholz, Andrea; Kulak, Verena; Racey, Megan

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on evidence-informed strategies to enhance learning in undergraduate nutrition education. Here, we describe the general shift in undergraduate education from a teacher-centered model of teaching to a student-centered model and present approaches that have been proposed to address the challenges associated with this shift. We further discuss case-based, project-based, and community-based learning, patient simulation, and virtual clinical trials as educational strategies to improve students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills; these strategies are well suited to the teaching of undergraduate nutrition. The strategies are defined, and we discuss the potential benefits to students and how they can be applied specifically to the teaching of undergraduate nutrition. Finally, we provide a critical analysis of the limitations associated with these techniques and propose several directions for future research, including research methodologies that may best evaluate teaching strategies in terms of both teaching and learning outcomes. Consideration of these evidence-informed strategies is warranted, given their ability to encourage students to develop relevant skills that will facilitate their transition beyond the university classroom.

  19. Mythbusters: Credibilising strategies in popular nutrition books by academics.

    PubMed

    Penders, Bart

    2014-11-01

    Healthy eating is a prominent concern amongst public health and diet professionals. Public understanding of healthy eating presents a topic of interest in understanding scientific credibility in the public domain. Three prominent Dutch nutrition scientists, Kok, Seidell and Katan, have produced popular science books on healthy eating, aiming to remove myths about food and nutrition from the public domain. I describe how they do so, and which strategies they have chosen to achieve this goal. In their books, they move beyond traditional academic strategies to build credibility and devise credibilising strategies resembling those of diet authors. While doing so, they move beyond the deficit model, but end up competing for dietary credibility on the diet authors' terms.

  20. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  1. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  2. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  3. Improved marathon performance by in-race nutritional strategy intervention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R

    2014-12-01

    It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups. PMID:24901444

  4. Initial Assessment of the Acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti Control Strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C.; Rios-Lopez, Esther J.; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P.; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts. PMID:21292886

  5. Initial assessment of the acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti control strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C; Rios-Lopez, Esther J; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L

    2011-02-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts.

  6. Strategies to vaccinate against cancer of the cervix: feasibility of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary; Bartolini, Rosario; Mosqueira, N Rocio; LaMontagne, D Scott; Mendoza, Maria Ana; Ramos, Irma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Villafana, Jose; Janmohamed, Amynah; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-07-12

    Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in Piura region. Our evaluation showed that school-based HPV vaccination is feasible without major changes in existing health systems. This was reflected in the opinions of health personnel, the lack of impact on other vaccine coverage, and the high HPV vaccine coverage documented in routine records and by an independent community-based survey. PMID:21609748

  7. Dimorphic tusks and adaptive strategies in a new species of walrus-like dolphin (Odobenocetopsidae) from the Pliocene of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muizon, Christian; Domning, Daryl P.; Parrish, Mary

    1999-09-01

    Three new specimens of the walrus-like dolphin Odobenocetops from the Pliocene of Peru, shed new light on the anatomy and adaptive strategies of this unique Cetacean. Odobenocetops leptodon nov. sp. is represented by a skull, which bears a 1 35-cm-long needle-like right tusk and a small 25-cm-long left tusk the apex of which was erupted. The long tusk was probably held almost parallel to the axis of the body when swimming. In contrast to O. peruvianus, O. leptodon probably had a small melon and, therefore, echolocation ability, but had reduced (or no) binocular vision. A skull of O. peruvianus with two small tusks similar in size is referred to a female.

  8. A nutritional strategy for reducing disease and obesity risks.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Petroni, Paolo; Rodio, Giuseppe; Pina, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are the most common nutritional disorders in our age and are becoming more and more common worldwide. The most harmful consequences of an incorrect diet leading to overweight or obesity are a series of cardio-vascular diseases often leading to disability and death. In recent years various studies have shown that a reduction in caloric intake is the main factor involved in reduction of pathology risk. In this article, a nutrition strategy, based on the Zone diet by US biochemist Dr. Barry Sears is proposed. It underlines the importance of choosing certain types of foods over others, their beneficial physiological effects on the human body and how they can reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.

  9. Developing a Robust Strategy for Implementing a Water Resources Master Plan in Lima, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.

  10. A communication strategy to improve nutrition in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M; Nobbe, E

    1985-01-01

    As an experimental project, the Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change Component (NCBC) of the Indonesian Nutrition Development Program (UPGK) showed how social marketing could further the national program's goal of significantly improving the nutrition of Indonesia's young children and pregnant and nursing women. The social marketing approach successfully developed nutrition communication materials that were responsive to the needs, desires, and resources of the communities, particularly of the mothers and volunteer nutrition workers. Between 1977-79 Dr. I.B. Mantra, NCBC Director, established administrative and community infrastructures modeled after UPGK in 5 culturally diverse areas in Indonesia. In mid-1979, with technical assistance from Manoff International, the project departed from the approach of the national plan and embarked upon an unprecedented course with the formative evaluation of educational messages and a communication strategy. The success of the NCBC Component was to be judged by whether education -- as the sole intervention -- could produce significant improvements in the nutritional status of children and the improved nutrient intake of pregnant and lactating women in project communities. The 1st step was to design and execute qualitative research on the health and nutritional problems of children under 3 and pregnant and nursing women, consisting of in-depth household interviews, concept testing with mothers, and focus group interviews with kaders and community opinion leaders. Surveying was based on issues identified earlier by the Ministry of Health as most severe for the population overall. The qualitative investigation identified the need for change or reinforcement in particular nutrition-related behaviors. The target audience of mothers was segmented according to their needs during designated maternal stages and by the age-related dietary needs of their children under 3 years of age. This meant that only the most useful

  11. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  12. Gene expression characterizes different nutritional strategies among three mixotrophic protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Campbell, Victoria; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophic protists, i.e. protists that can carry out both phototrophy and heterotrophy, are a group of organisms with a wide range of nutritional strategies. The ecological and biogeochemical importance of these species has recently been recognized. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression of three mixotrophic protists, Prymnesium parvum, Dinobyron sp. and Ochromonas sp. under light and dark conditions in the presence of prey using RNA-Seq. Gene expression of the obligately phototrophic P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. changed significantly between light and dark treatments, while that of primarily heterotrophic Ochromonas sp. was largely unchanged. Gene expression of P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. shared many similarities, especially in the expression patterns of genes related to reproduction. However, key genes involved in central carbon metabolism and phagotrophy had different expression patterns between these two species, suggesting differences in prey consumption and heterotrophic nutrition in the dark. Transcriptomic data also offered clues to other physiological traits of these organisms such as preference of nitrogen sources and photo-oxidative stress. These results provide potential target genes for further exploration of the mechanisms of mixotrophic physiology and demonstrate the potential usefulness of molecular approaches in characterizing the nutritional modes of mixotrophic protists.

  13. Gene expression characterizes different nutritional strategies among three mixotrophic protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Campbell, Victoria; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophic protists, i.e. protists that can carry out both phototrophy and heterotrophy, are a group of organisms with a wide range of nutritional strategies. The ecological and biogeochemical importance of these species has recently been recognized. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression of three mixotrophic protists, Prymnesium parvum, Dinobyron sp. and Ochromonas sp. under light and dark conditions in the presence of prey using RNA-Seq. Gene expression of the obligately phototrophic P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. changed significantly between light and dark treatments, while that of primarily heterotrophic Ochromonas sp. was largely unchanged. Gene expression of P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. shared many similarities, especially in the expression patterns of genes related to reproduction. However, key genes involved in central carbon metabolism and phagotrophy had different expression patterns between these two species, suggesting differences in prey consumption and heterotrophic nutrition in the dark. Transcriptomic data also offered clues to other physiological traits of these organisms such as preference of nitrogen sources and photo-oxidative stress. These results provide potential target genes for further exploration of the mechanisms of mixotrophic physiology and demonstrate the potential usefulness of molecular approaches in characterizing the nutritional modes of mixotrophic protists. PMID:27194617

  14. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  15. Nutritional strategies of physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review. Method References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Results The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight. Conclusion Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances. PMID:23706013

  16. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). PMID:26855422

  17. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger).

  18. Transgenic strategies for the nutritional enhancement of plants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Gomez-Galera, Sonia; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2007-12-01

    The nutrients in the human diet ultimately come from plants. However, all our major food crops lack certain essential vitamins and minerals. Although a varied diet provides adequate nutrition, much of the human population, particularly in developing countries, relies on staple crops, such as rice or maize, which does not provide the full complement of essential nutrients. Malnutrition is a significant public health issue in most of the developing world. One way to address this problem is through the enhancement of staple crops to increase their essential nutrient content. Here, we review the current strategies for the biofortification of crops, including mineral fertilization and conventional breeding but focusing on transgenic approaches which offer the most rapid way to develop high-nutrient commercial cultivars.

  19. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  20. Pressure ulcers. Nutrition strategies that make a difference.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Teresa

    2002-06-01

    One of the more influential factors associated with pressure ulcer prevention, development, and treatment is nutrition. Both the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS, formerly HCFA) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) specifically identify nutritional status as a significant risk factor. Three nutrition-focused steps will help you protect patients from the debilitating effects of pressure ulcers.

  1. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    . In the future, dietary modification/diversification, although long term, may be the preferred strategy because it is more sustainable, economically feasible, culturally acceptable, and equitable, and can be used to alleviate several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously, without danger of inducing antagonistic micronutrient interactions. Appropriate dietary strategies include consumption of zinc-dense foods and those known to enhance zinc absorption, reducing the phytic acid content of plant based staples via enzymic hydrolysis induced by germination/fermentation or nonenzymic hydrolysis by soaking or thermal processing. All the strategies outlined above should be integrated with ongoing national food, nutrition and health education programmes, to enhance their effectiveness and sustainability, and implemented using nutrition education and social marketing techniques. Ultimately the success of any approach for combating zinc deficiency depends on strong advocacy, top level commitment, a stable infrastructure, long term financial support and the capacity to control quality and monitor and enforce compliance at the national or regional level. To be cost effective, costs for these strategies must be shared by industry, government, donors and consumers. PMID:19087462

  2. Nutritional Strategies for Women Participating in Competitive/Recreational Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; Di Brezzo, Ro

    The preponderance of articles and research on nutrition can be confusing. The active woman over 30 can enhance performance and health with a high-quality diet. Specific nutritional concerns for women after the college years, such as nutrient content, iron, calcium, vitamin supplementation, and caffeine are discussed. Evidence that processed foods…

  3. Evolving nutritional strategies in the presence of competition: a geometric agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Charleston, Michael A; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Access to nutrients is a key factor governing development, reproduction and ultimately fitness. Within social groups, contest-competition can fundamentally affect nutrient access, potentially leading to reproductive asymmetry among individuals. Previously, agent-based models have been combined with the Geometric Framework of nutrition to provide insight into how nutrition and social interactions affect one another. Here, we expand this modelling approach by incorporating evolutionary algorithms to explore how contest-competition over nutrient acquisition might affect the evolution of animal nutritional strategies. Specifically, we model tolerance of nutrient excesses and deficits when ingesting nutritionally imbalanced foods, which we term 'nutritional latitude'; a higher degree of nutritional latitude constitutes a higher tolerance of nutritional excess and deficit. Our results indicate that a transition between two alternative strategies occurs at moderate to high levels of competition. When competition is low, individuals display a low level of nutritional latitude and regularly switch foods in search of an optimum. When food is scarce and contest-competition is intense, high nutritional latitude appears optimal, and individuals continue to consume an imbalanced food for longer periods before attempting to switch to an alternative. However, the relative balance of nutrients within available foods also strongly influences at what levels of competition, if any, transitions between these two strategies occur. Our models imply that competition combined with reproductive skew in social groups can play a role in the evolution of diet breadth. We discuss how the integration of agent-based, nutritional and evolutionary modelling may be applied in future studies to further understand the evolution of nutritional strategies across social and ecological contexts.

  4. Evolving Nutritional Strategies in the Presence of Competition: A Geometric Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Charleston, Michael A.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Access to nutrients is a key factor governing development, reproduction and ultimately fitness. Within social groups, contest-competition can fundamentally affect nutrient access, potentially leading to reproductive asymmetry among individuals. Previously, agent-based models have been combined with the Geometric Framework of nutrition to provide insight into how nutrition and social interactions affect one another. Here, we expand this modelling approach by incorporating evolutionary algorithms to explore how contest-competition over nutrient acquisition might affect the evolution of animal nutritional strategies. Specifically, we model tolerance of nutrient excesses and deficits when ingesting nutritionally imbalanced foods, which we term ‘nutritional latitude’; a higher degree of nutritional latitude constitutes a higher tolerance of nutritional excess and deficit. Our results indicate that a transition between two alternative strategies occurs at moderate to high levels of competition. When competition is low, individuals display a low level of nutritional latitude and regularly switch foods in search of an optimum. When food is scarce and contest-competition is intense, high nutritional latitude appears optimal, and individuals continue to consume an imbalanced food for longer periods before attempting to switch to an alternative. However, the relative balance of nutrients within available foods also strongly influences at what levels of competition, if any, transitions between these two strategies occur. Our models imply that competition combined with reproductive skew in social groups can play a role in the evolution of diet breadth. We discuss how the integration of agent-based, nutritional and evolutionary modelling may be applied in future studies to further understand the evolution of nutritional strategies across social and ecological contexts. PMID:25815976

  5. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  6. Nutrition Education Strategies: A Trip to the Salad Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Kotch, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Learning activities related to visiting a salad bar can help students apply basic nutrition concepts to real-life situations and make healthier choices at restaurants and in food preparation. The paper describes a class activity involving students in setting up a salad bar, making choices among ingredients and dressings, and taking home leftovers.…

  7. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    PubMed

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  8. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  9. [Demographic dynamics in the food-nutrition problem: the search for effective strategies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Teller, C H; Culagovski, M; del Canto, J; Sáenz, L; Aranda-Pastor, J

    1982-09-01

    This paper addresses the interrelationship between the food and nutrition problem and population problems in Latin America within a global focus. A basic framework is presented which defines four demographic problems highly related with the food and nutrition situation: The underutilization of the labor force; the accelerated growth of the marginal population; the poor geographic distribution and rapid urbanization; and the high rates of infant and child mortality. Findings from the recent experience of demography in food and nutrition planning in the last four years in Central America and Panama are outlined, and strategies are recommended for the development of different types of programs and projects in population-nutrition. Finally, a list of applied research, basic information and direct action projects in population-nutrition that have been detected as needed by most of the Central American countries, is presented. PMID:6820623

  10. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  11. Are health interventions implemented where they are most needed? District uptake of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy in Brazil, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Victora, C. G.; Huicho, L.; Amaral, J. J.; Armstrong-Schellenberg, J.; Manzi, F.; Mason, E.; Scherpbier, R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe geographical patterns of implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in three countries and to assess whether the strategy was implemented in areas with the most pressing child health needs. METHODS: We conducted interviews with key informants at the national and district levels in Brazil, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania, and an ecological study of factors associated with health worker training in IMCI. Explanatory factors included district population, distance from the capital, human development index, other socioeconomic indicators and baseline mortality rates in children younger than five years. FINDINGS: In line with recommendations by WHO, early implementation districts were characterized by proximity to the capital and suitable training sites, presence of motivated health managers and a functioning health system. In the expansion phase, IMCI tended to be adopted by other districts with similar characteristics. In Brazil, uptake by poor and small municipalities and those further away from the state capital was significantly lower. In Peru, there was no association with distance from Lima, and a non-significant trend for IMCI adoption by small and poor departments. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the only statistically significant finding was a lower uptake by remote districts. Implementation was not associated with baseline mortality levels in any country studied. CONCLUSION: Whereas clear and reasonable guidelines are provided for selection of early use districts, no criteria for promoting IMCI expansion had been issued, and areas of greatest need were not prioritized. Equity analyses based on the geographical deployment of new programmes and strategies can contribute to assessing whether they are reaching those who need them most. PMID:17128359

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  14. Nutritional strategy in the management of heart failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Emeriau, J P

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasing in Westernized countries, and patients with CHF experience poor quality of life (functional impairment, high hospitalization rate and high mortality). Malnutrition occurring during the course of CHF is referred to as cardiac cachexia and is associated with higher mortality independent of the severity of CHF. Cardiac cachexia involving a loss of more than 10% of lean body mass can clinically be defined as a bodyweight loss of 7.5% of previous dry bodyweight in a period longer than 6 months. The energy requirements of patients with CHF, whether cachectic or not, are not noticeably modified since the increase in resting energy expenditure is compensated by a decrease in physical activity energy expenditure. Malnutrition in CHF has been ascribed to neurohormonal alterations, i.e. anabolic/catabolic imbalance and increased cytokine release. Anorexia may occur, particularly during acute decompensation of CHF. Function is impaired in CHF, because of exertional dyspnea and changes in skeletal muscle. Decreased exercise endurance seems to be related to decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacities and atrophy of type 1 fibers, which are attributed to alteration in muscle perfusion and are partially reversible by training. Malnutrition could also impair muscle function, because of decreased muscle mass and strength associated with decreased glycolytic capacities and atrophy of type 2a and 2b fibres. With respect to the putative mechanisms of cardiac cachexia, anabolic therapy (hormones or nutrients) and anticytokine therapy have been proposed, but trials are scarce and often inconclusive. In surgical patients with CHF, perioperative (pre- and postoperative) nutritional support has been shown to be effective in reducing the mortality rate. Long term nutritional supplementation trials in patients with CHF and cachexia are thus required to establish recommendations for the nutritional management of patients with CHF.

  15. Nutritional strategies to optimise cognitive function in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Devin; Cogger, Victoria C; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Waern, Rosilene V R; Gokarn, Rahul; Pulpitel, Tamara; Cabo, Rafael de; Mattson, Mark P; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G

    2016-11-01

    Old age is the greatest risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases. During recent decades there have been major advances in understanding the biology of aging, and the development of nutritional interventions that delay aging including calorie restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), and chemicals that influence pathways linking nutrition and aging processes. CR influences brain aging in many animal models and recent findings suggest that dietary interventions can influence brain health and dementia in older humans. The role of individual macronutrients in brain aging also has been studied, with conflicting results about the effects of dietary protein and carbohydrates. A new approach known as the Geometric Framework (GF) has been used to unravel the complex interactions between macronutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrate) and total energy on outcomes such as aging. These studies have shown that low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diets are optimal for lifespan in ad libitum fed animals, while total calories have minimal effect once macronutrients are taken into account. One of the primary purposes of this review is to explore the notion that macronutrients may have a more translational potential than CR and IF in humans, and therefore there is a pressing need to use GF to study the impact of diet on brain aging. Furthermore, given the growing recognition of the role of aging biology in dementia, such studies might provide a new approach for dietary interventions for optimizing brain health and preventing dementia in older people.

  16. Strategies to optimize the impact of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Leahy, Margaret M; Milner, John A; Allison, David B; Dodd, Kevin W; Gaine, P Courtney; Matthews, Robert A J; Schneeman, Barbara O; Tucker, Katherine L; Young, S Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session "Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies" focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance and encourage the production of reliable, objective evidence for use in developing dietary guidance for the public. The speakers called for more transparency of research, raw data, consistent data-staging techniques, and improved data analysis. New approaches to collecting data are urgently needed to increase the credibility and utility of findings from nutrition epidemiological studies. Such studies are critical for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the effects of diet on health. PMID:24038252

  17. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  18. Preferred Educational Delivery Strategies among Limited Income Older Adults Enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephany; Powell, Laura; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Brown, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here explored educational delivery preference of limited income older Oklahomans. Sixty participants 60 years or older enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs observed three educational delivery strategies and participated in a group discussion. Two researchers independently coded focus group transcripts and frequency…

  19. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  20. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  1. Microfiltration of vinasse: sustainable strategy to improve its nutritive potential.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Andrade, Laura H; Neta, Luzia S F; Magalhães, Natalie C; Santos, Fábio S; Mota, Gabriel E; Carvalho, Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate and establish microfiltration (MF) operating conditions for vinasse (ethanol industries wastewater also known as stillage, slop, distillery effluent or dunder) concentration aiming to improve the use of its nutritive potential. The operating conditions influence permeate flux that has been evaluated by monitoring the flow rate profile during the operation on bench scale in different conditions (feed pH, aeration condition and recovery rate). From the results found, the process scale up was then effected. The bench scale findings showed that the vinasse microfiltration under air flow of 0.5 m(3).h(-1) between membrane fibers, with no pH adjustment, and recovery rate of 93% produced two flows, one of permeate that may be used to wash the sugarcane during the ethanol production processing, and the other of concentrate that contains a high organic compounds and nutrients concentration. This concentrate has additional potentiality of being used as organic compound supplement in contaminated soil bioremediation, and as a supplier of microbial biomass or substrate for biosurfactant production. PMID:27003086

  2. Microfiltration of vinasse: sustainable strategy to improve its nutritive potential.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Andrade, Laura H; Neta, Luzia S F; Magalhães, Natalie C; Santos, Fábio S; Mota, Gabriel E; Carvalho, Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate and establish microfiltration (MF) operating conditions for vinasse (ethanol industries wastewater also known as stillage, slop, distillery effluent or dunder) concentration aiming to improve the use of its nutritive potential. The operating conditions influence permeate flux that has been evaluated by monitoring the flow rate profile during the operation on bench scale in different conditions (feed pH, aeration condition and recovery rate). From the results found, the process scale up was then effected. The bench scale findings showed that the vinasse microfiltration under air flow of 0.5 m(3).h(-1) between membrane fibers, with no pH adjustment, and recovery rate of 93% produced two flows, one of permeate that may be used to wash the sugarcane during the ethanol production processing, and the other of concentrate that contains a high organic compounds and nutrients concentration. This concentrate has additional potentiality of being used as organic compound supplement in contaminated soil bioremediation, and as a supplier of microbial biomass or substrate for biosurfactant production.

  3. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  4. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: Identifying leverage points for obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2–5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010–2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  5. Nutritional approach to sun protection: a suggested complement to external strategies.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Niva

    2010-02-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancer despite the use of externally applied sun protection strategies, alongside research showing that nutrients reduce photo-oxidative damage, suggest nutritional approaches could play a beneficial role in skin cancer prevention. Penetrating photo-oxidative ultraviolet A radiation reduces skin and blood antioxidants and damages cell components, including DNA. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals in addition to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, and low pro-inflammatory n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have demonstrated protective properties. The presence of these elements in the traditional Greek-style Mediterranean diet may have contributed to the low rates of melanoma in the Mediterranean region despite high levels of solar radiation. This suggests a potentially relevant model for studying dietary/nutritional supplementation for lifelong internal support of sun-protection mechanisms, which could complement external strategies.

  6. Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Grummer, Ric R

    2008-04-01

    Fatty liver occurs in dairy cattle during periods of elevated blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Elevated blood NEFAs are associated with hormonal changes at parturition and negative energy balance. Approaches for preventing fatty liver include inhibition of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues and altering hepatic metabolism to enhance fatty acid oxidation or export as a constituent of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Nutritional and management strategies to implement these approaches have been examined. Increasing energy density of diet, either by increasing non-fiber carbohydrate or fat, has failed to prevent fatty liver. Two nutritional supplements, ruminally-protected choline and propylene glycol, have proven effective at preventing fatty liver. Choline probably enhances hepatic VLDL secretion. Propylene glycol most likely reduces fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue. Shortening or eliminating the dry period is a management strategy that reduces the magnitude of negative energy balance after calving and triglyceride accumulation in the liver.

  7. Peru: The Social Welfare and Rural Development Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figallo, Flavio

    1994-01-01

    In Peru, the Social Compensation Fund uses various strategies for fighting rural poverty: linking social investment to other development strategies, considering poverty indicators in determining project priorities, developing a productive infrastructure, and involving local institutions in solutions. (SK)

  8. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  9. [Framework for the strengthening of health information systems in Peru].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.

  10. Strategies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to acquire nutritional iron during host colonization

    PubMed Central

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; Angulo-Zamudio, Uriel A.; de la Garza, Mireya; Velázquez-Román, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor M.; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the growth and development of virtually all living organisms. As iron acquisition is critical for the pathogenesis, a host defense strategy during infection is to sequester iron to restrict the growth of invading pathogens. To counteract this strategy, bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus have adapted to such an environment by developing mechanisms to obtain iron from human hosts. This review focuses on the multiple strategies employed by V. parahaemolyticus to obtain nutritional iron from host sources. In these strategies are included the use of siderophores and xenosiderophores, proteases and iron-protein receptor. The host sources used by V. parahaemolyticus are the iron-containing proteins transferrin, hemoglobin, and hemin. The implications of iron acquisition systems in the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus are also discussed. PMID:26217331

  11. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  12. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  13. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  14. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  15. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  16. An Office Strategy for Nutrition-Related Patient Education and Compliance. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  17. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  18. Livelihood strategies and nutritional status of grandparent caregivers of AIDS orphans in Nyando District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2009-12-01

    Although the growing role of grandparents as primary caregivers of AIDS orphans in sub-Saharan Africa has been established by previous research, few scholars have undertaken studies to explore the experiences of older persons in this new role. In this study, I used qualitative research methods to examine livelihood strategies that influenced the nutritional status of grandparent caregivers, a population largely neglected in the literature on African livelihoods. In this article I highlight the agency of older persons by identifying responses that promote their livelihood resilience. My research was guided by the sustainable livelihoods framework and involved in-depth individual interviews with 30 grandparent caregivers selected based on their nutritional status. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted. Results indicate that the ability to mobilize new sources of labor for food production and new social networks to facilitate other forms of food entitlement are critical to nutritional status. These results are important in designing interventions targeting vulnerable grandparent caregivers.

  19. Nutrition modulation of gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer chemotherapy: from preclinical findings to clinical strategy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongyu; Sawyer, Michael B; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Baracos, Vickie E

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity is a major dose-limiting toxicity for many anticancer drugs. Gastrointestinal (GI) complications compromise the efficacy of chemotherapy, promote overall malnutrition, aggravate cancer cachexia, and may contribute to worsened prognosis. The GI tract is an attractive target for nutrition modulation, owing to its direct exposure to the diet, participation in uptake and metabolism of nutrients, high rate of cell turnover, and plasticity to nutrition stimuli. Glutamine, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate GI toxicity related to cancer treatments. Preclinical and clinical evidence are reviewed to critically define plausible benefits of these factors and their potential development into adjuncts to cancer chemotherapy. Mechanisms underlying the action of these nutrients are being unraveled in the laboratory. Optimal strategies to translate these findings into clinical care still remain to be elucidated. Key questions that remain to be answered include the following: which nutrient or combination of nutrients is selected for which patient and chemotherapy regimen? What mechanisms are responsible for modulation, and how are nutrient(s) administered in a clinically optimal manner? Research exploring interactions between different nutrients in GI protection is ongoing and demands further understanding. How nutrition preparations given to chemotherapy-treated patients are formulated in terms of component selection and dose optimization should be carefully studied and justified. PMID:21224434

  20. [The Spanish strategy for nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of obesity (NAOS Strategy)].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Arribas, Juan Manuel; Dal-Re Saavedra, Marián; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar Villalba, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, the prevalence of which is still on the rise, is related to the main chronic diseases affecting the health of the population. Therefore, in 2004, the World Health Assembly approved the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health with the aim of reducing the risk factors of nontransmittable diseases related to unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Along this same line, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs began implementing the NAOS Strategy in 2005 as a platform from which to include and promote all those initiatives contributing to achieving the necessary social change in the promotion of healthy eating and the prevention of a sedentary lifestyle by meeting certain specific challenges within different scopes of action. The NAOS Strategy extends far beyond the healthcare and educational areas, by combining actions in all those sectors of society playing a role in preventing obesity. Informative campaigns, agreements with public and private institutions, voluntary working agreements, educational programs and supporting health promotion initiatives are some of the activities being carried out as part of the NAOS Strategy. Carrying out these activities and incorporating yet others, in conjunction with the work of evaluating and monitoring all of these activities, will be what is going to make it possible to maintain a high degree of effectiveness in preventing obesity. PMID:18274349

  1. [The Spanish strategy for nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of obesity (NAOS Strategy)].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Arribas, Juan Manuel; Dal-Re Saavedra, Marián; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar Villalba, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, the prevalence of which is still on the rise, is related to the main chronic diseases affecting the health of the population. Therefore, in 2004, the World Health Assembly approved the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health with the aim of reducing the risk factors of nontransmittable diseases related to unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Along this same line, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs began implementing the NAOS Strategy in 2005 as a platform from which to include and promote all those initiatives contributing to achieving the necessary social change in the promotion of healthy eating and the prevention of a sedentary lifestyle by meeting certain specific challenges within different scopes of action. The NAOS Strategy extends far beyond the healthcare and educational areas, by combining actions in all those sectors of society playing a role in preventing obesity. Informative campaigns, agreements with public and private institutions, voluntary working agreements, educational programs and supporting health promotion initiatives are some of the activities being carried out as part of the NAOS Strategy. Carrying out these activities and incorporating yet others, in conjunction with the work of evaluating and monitoring all of these activities, will be what is going to make it possible to maintain a high degree of effectiveness in preventing obesity.

  2. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  3. Glycemic control and nutritional strategies in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit--2010: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Scurlock, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Patients in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit are generally critically ill and undergoing a systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, ischemia/reperfusion, and hypothermia. This presents several metabolic challenges: hyperglycemia in need of intensive insulin therapy, catabolism, and uncertain gastrointestinal tract function in need of nutritional strategies. Currently, there are controversies surrounding the standard use of intensive insulin therapy and appropriate glycemic targets as well as the use of early enteral nutrition ± parenteral nutrition. In this review, an approach for intensive metabolic support in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit is presented incorporating the most recent clinical evidence. This approach advocates an IIT blood glucose target of 80-110 mg/dL if, it can be implemented safely, with early nutrition support (using parenteral nutrition as needed) to prevent a critical energy debt. PMID:21167457

  4. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  5. [Food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy in five Brazilian cities].

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Viviane Rangel de Muros; de Sousa, Maria Fátima; Hamann, Edgar Merchán; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado

    2014-01-01

    This work is part of a national study seeking to understand the difficulties and the potential for overcoming the challenges faced in the quest to improve food and nutrition campaigns developed under the aegis of the Family Health Strategy. It is examined from the standpoint of professional teams of the Family Health Strategy and Family Health Support Centers of five major Brazilian cities. A qualitative approach was used to design a multiple case approach and the technique of focus groups was conducted to collect data. The instrument used was a semi-structured pre-tested and validated script with two leading questions. The Collective Subject Discourse technique was used for data analysis, based on which the synthesized discourses were created using the Qualiquantisoft program. Sixty health professionals from various training areas were interviewed, including dietitians, nurses and physicians. The results showed that the difficulties encountered for the provision of food and nutrition campaigns and the lack of professionals in this area have hampered compliance with the principles of comprehensiveness, universality and resolubility of health care.

  6. Nutritional strategies to counteract muscle atrophy caused by disuse and to improve recovery.

    PubMed

    Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Periods of immobilisation are often associated with pathologies and/or ageing. These periods of muscle disuse induce muscle atrophy which could worsen the pathology or elderly frailty. If muscle mass loss has positive effects in the short term, a sustained/uncontrolled muscle mass loss is deleterious for health. Muscle mass recovery following immobilisation-induced atrophy could be critical, particularly when it is uncompleted as observed during ageing. Exercise, the best way to recover muscle mass, is not always applicable. So, other approaches such as nutritional strategies are needed to limit muscle wasting and to improve muscle mass recovery in such situations. The present review discusses mechanisms involved in muscle atrophy following disuse and during recovery and emphasises the effect of age in these mechanisms. In addition, the efficiency of nutritional strategies proposed to limit muscle mass loss during disuse and to improve protein gain during recovery (leucine supplementation, whey proteins, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, energy intake) is also discussed. PMID:23930668

  7. Nutritional strategy of early amino acid administration in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative to a fetus of the same gestational age, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are more likely to be underfed and to undergo growth restriction during their early hospital stay. The current trend towards "early and aggressive" nutritional strategies in VLBW infants aims to overcome the early nutritional deficiency and thereby boost postnatal catch-up growth, simultaneously improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although the minimum starting amino acid (AA) dose to prevent negative nitrogen balance is well established, the upper limit and the rate of increase of early AA doses are controversial. Most randomized controlled trials show that early and high-dose (target, 3.5 to 4.9 g/kg/day) AA regimens, with or without high nonprotein calories, do not improve long-term growth and neurodevelopment. High-dose AA supplementation may lead to early metabolic disturbances and excessive or disproportionate plasma AA levels, particularly in infants of very low gestational age. Further large studies are needed to clarify the optimal strategy for early administration of parenteral AA doses in VLBW infants. PMID:25861329

  8. Foodomics: MS-based strategies in modern food science and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods for compound profiling, authenticity, and/or biomarker-detection related to food quality or safety; the development of new transgenic foods, food contaminants, and whole toxicity studies; new investigations on food bioactivity, food effects on human health, etc. This review work does not intend to provide an exhaustive revision of the many works published so far on food analysis using MS techniques. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the different MS-based strategies that have been (or can be) applied in the new field of Foodomics, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Besides, some ideas about the foreseen development and applications of MS-techniques in this new discipline are also provided.

  9. Nutritional strategies to counteract muscle atrophy caused by disuse and to improve recovery.

    PubMed

    Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Periods of immobilisation are often associated with pathologies and/or ageing. These periods of muscle disuse induce muscle atrophy which could worsen the pathology or elderly frailty. If muscle mass loss has positive effects in the short term, a sustained/uncontrolled muscle mass loss is deleterious for health. Muscle mass recovery following immobilisation-induced atrophy could be critical, particularly when it is uncompleted as observed during ageing. Exercise, the best way to recover muscle mass, is not always applicable. So, other approaches such as nutritional strategies are needed to limit muscle wasting and to improve muscle mass recovery in such situations. The present review discusses mechanisms involved in muscle atrophy following disuse and during recovery and emphasises the effect of age in these mechanisms. In addition, the efficiency of nutritional strategies proposed to limit muscle mass loss during disuse and to improve protein gain during recovery (leucine supplementation, whey proteins, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, energy intake) is also discussed.

  10. Integrating maternal, infant, and young child nutrition: report on the ten year strategy Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Working Group October 2008 workshop.

    PubMed

    Zehner, Elizabeth R

    2009-06-01

    Members of the Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Working Group of the Ten Year Strategy for the Reduction of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies and several guests and speakers participated in a workshop in Geneva on 10 October 2008. The workshop had two broad objectives. The first objective was to review the evidence base for maternal and IYCN actions and explore how to integrate action throughout the window of opportunity from the prenatal period through the first 2 years of life. The second objective was to discuss the development of the Maternal, Infant, and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) Network in relation to the IYCN Working Group's role and structure. The speakers identified a spectrum of efforts needed to improve maternal, infant, and young child nutrition. The group decided to continue discussion on initiating a structure for an MIYCN Network to enhance collaboration.

  11. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    PubMed

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  12. Are bedtime nutritional strategies effective in preventing nocturnal hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-07-01

    Hypoglycaemia remains the major limiting factor for adequate diabetes control for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially during the night-time. Although nutritional strategies for nocturnal hypoglycaemia (NH) prevention are regularly suggested in clinical practice, there is no evidence-based recommendation for the usefulness and optimal composition of a bedtime snack. The aim of this narrative review was to analyse the current state of knowledge on nutritional strategies to prevent NH in individuals with T1D. A literature search was conducted, using PubMed and Medline (1946 to 2013); 16 studies were retrieved. Overall, the level of evidence was low. Results indicated that a calibrated bedtime snack based on bedtime blood glucose (BG) level could be effective to reduce NH occurrence for patients treated with human or animal insulin (short-acting combined with lente, ultralente and/or intermediate-acting insulin), but there is no evidence for patients treated with insulin analogues as part of multiple daily injections or insulin pump regimen. Some evidence suggests that including uncooked cornstarch or alanine in the bedtime snack composition could provide some benefits for the prevention of NH. Individualized recommendations of a bedtime snack intake for patients or situations at high risk for NH (long standing diabetes, hypoglycaemia unawareness, prior physical activity, alcohol consumption, bedtime BG close to hypoglycaemia threshold) appear as a prudent recommendation. On the basis of the available evidence, a bedtime snack cannot be recommended systematically but it might be useful if prescribed in an individualized fashion; further research is needed to evaluate these strategies.

  13. Are bedtime nutritional strategies effective in preventing nocturnal hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-07-01

    Hypoglycaemia remains the major limiting factor for adequate diabetes control for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially during the night-time. Although nutritional strategies for nocturnal hypoglycaemia (NH) prevention are regularly suggested in clinical practice, there is no evidence-based recommendation for the usefulness and optimal composition of a bedtime snack. The aim of this narrative review was to analyse the current state of knowledge on nutritional strategies to prevent NH in individuals with T1D. A literature search was conducted, using PubMed and Medline (1946 to 2013); 16 studies were retrieved. Overall, the level of evidence was low. Results indicated that a calibrated bedtime snack based on bedtime blood glucose (BG) level could be effective to reduce NH occurrence for patients treated with human or animal insulin (short-acting combined with lente, ultralente and/or intermediate-acting insulin), but there is no evidence for patients treated with insulin analogues as part of multiple daily injections or insulin pump regimen. Some evidence suggests that including uncooked cornstarch or alanine in the bedtime snack composition could provide some benefits for the prevention of NH. Individualized recommendations of a bedtime snack intake for patients or situations at high risk for NH (long standing diabetes, hypoglycaemia unawareness, prior physical activity, alcohol consumption, bedtime BG close to hypoglycaemia threshold) appear as a prudent recommendation. On the basis of the available evidence, a bedtime snack cannot be recommended systematically but it might be useful if prescribed in an individualized fashion; further research is needed to evaluate these strategies. PMID:24320159

  14. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  15. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  16. Precompetition taper and nutritional strategies: special reference to training during Ramadan intermittent fast.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2010-06-01

    A marked reduction in the training load in the lead-up to major competitions allows athletes to reduce the fatigue induced by intense training and improve competition performance. This tapered training phase is based on the reduction in training volume while maintaining pretaper training intensity and frequency. In parallel to training load reductions, nutritional strategies characterised by lowered energy intakes need to be implemented to match lowered energy expenditure. The Ramadan intermittent fast imposes constrained nutritional practices on Muslim athletes, inducing a shift to a greater reliance on fat oxidation to meet energy needs and a possible increase in protein breakdown. The training load is often reduced during Ramadan to match the absence of energy and fluid intake during daylight, which implies a risk of losing training induced adaptations. Should coaches and athletes decide to reduce the training load during Ramadan, the key role of training intensity in retaining training induced adaptations should be kept in mind. However, experienced elite Muslim athletes are able to maintain their usual training load during this month of intermittent fasting without decrements in measures of fitness and with only minor adverse effects.

  17. Precision pork production: predicting the impact of nutritional strategies on carcass quality.

    PubMed

    van Milgen, J; Noblet, J; Dourmad, J Y; Labussière, E; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L

    2012-11-01

    Variation is inherent to living systems. Because feeding strategies are applied to groups of pigs, it contributes to the inefficient use of natural resources and may even amplify the variation among pigs at slaughter. Precision pork production and precision feeding, through management of the variation among individuals, may contribute to improving the efficiency of animal production systems. This approach relies on the prediction of the response of the animal to the nutrient supply, the continuous monitoring of the response, and a system to control nutrient supply. Most nutritional models of pig growth are based on the partitioning of nutrients between energy expenditure, and protein and lipid deposition. However, the link between chemical body composition and tissue growth, tissue composition and thus carcass quality remains a challenge in modeling. The potential of precision pork production also depends on the (real-time) information that can be obtained to control growth and carcass quality.

  18. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-11-01

    Intramuscular acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Many nutritional strategies aiming to increase intra- and extracellular buffering capacity have been investigated. Among these, supplementation of beta-alanine (~3-6.4 g/day for 4 weeks or longer), the rate-limiting factor to the intramuscular synthesis of carnosine (i.e. an intracellular buffer), has been shown to result in positive effects on exercise performance in which acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and sodium/calcium lactate supplementation have been employed in an attempt to increase the extracellular buffering capacity. Although all attempts have increased blood bicarbonate concentrations, evidence indicates that sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg body mass) is the most effective in improving high-intensity exercise performance. The evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of sodium citrate and lactate remain weak. These nutritional strategies are not without side effects, as gastrointestinal distress is often associated with the effective doses of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and calcium lactate. Similarly, paresthesia (i.e. tingling sensation of the skin) is currently the only known side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation, and it is caused by the acute elevation in plasma beta-alanine concentration after a single dose of beta-alanine. Finally, the co-supplementation of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may result in additive ergogenic gains during high-intensity exercise, although studies are required to investigate this combination in a wide range of sports.

  19. Terrorism in Peru.

    PubMed

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  20. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  1. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary

    PubMed Central

    Beto, Judith A; Schury, Katherine A; Bansal, Vinod K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires extensive changes to food and lifestyle. Poor adherence to diet, medications, and treatments has been estimated to vary between 20% and 70%, which in turn can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity. Delivering effective nutritional advice in patients with CKD coordinates multiple diet components including calories, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and fluid. Dietary intake studies have shown difficulty in adhering to the scope and complexity of the CKD diet parameters. No single educational or clinical strategy has been shown to be consistently effective across CKD populations. Highest adherence has been observed when both diet and education efforts are individualized to each patient and adapted over time to changing lifestyle and CKD variables. This narrative review and commentary summarizes nutrition education literature and published strategies for providing nutritional advice in CKD. A cohort of practical and effective strategies for increasing dietary adherence to nutritional advice are provided that include communicating with “talking control” principles, integrating patient-owned technology, acknowledging the typical food pattern may be snacking rather than formal meals, focusing on a single goal rather than multiple goals, creating active learning and coping strategies (frozen sandwiches, visual hands-on activities, planting herb gardens), and involving the total patient food environment. PMID:26893578

  2. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  3. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  4. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Fontes-Villalba, Maélan; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  5. Infanticide as a male reproductive strategy has a nutritive risk effect in brown bears.

    PubMed

    Steyaert, S M J G; Reusch, C; Brunberg, S; Swenson, J E; Hackländer, K; Zedrosser, A

    2013-10-23

    Behavioural strategies to reduce predation risk can incur costs, which are often referred to as risk effects. A common strategy to avoid predation is spatio-temporal avoidance of predators, in which prey typically trade optimal resources for safety. Analogous with predator-prey theory, risk effects should also arise in species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), in which females with dependent offspring avoid infanticidal males. SSI can be common in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and explains spatio-temporal segregation among reproductive classes. Here, we show that in a population with SSI, females with cubs-of-the-year had lower quality diets than conspecifics during the SSI high-risk period, the mating season. After the mating season, their diets were of similar quality to diets of their conspecifics. Our results suggest a nutritive risk effect of SSI, in which females with cubs-of-the-year alter their resource selection and trade optimal resources for offspring safety. Such risk effects can add to female costs of reproduction and may be widespread among species with SSI.

  6. Clinical management strategies and implications for parenteral nutrition drug shortages in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hassig, Tanna B; McKinzie, Brian P; Fortier, Christopher R; Taber, David

    2014-01-01

    Drug shortages affect every aspect of patient care, including and especially, nutrition therapy. The purpose of this review is to discuss current parenteral nutrition-related drug shortages, including causes and duration of the disruptions, and provide recommendations for managing specific nutritional shortages that minimize negative patient care outcomes. A general framework for the management of current and future shortages is presented.

  7. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health

    PubMed Central

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5–11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health—Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of ‘Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  8. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    PubMed

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  9. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  10. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical Group "SPACE-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (SPACE) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays” which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.

  11. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  13. My Classroom: Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  14. Peru's Gentle Revolutionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Thomas W.; Toledo, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Alejandro Toledo, the first Native person to be elected president of Peru, talks about his Quechua roots; his proposed constitutional amendment to ensure equal rights for indigenous peoples; financial support for Native cultural preservation efforts; and his number one priority--to fight poverty through education, focusing on basic education,…

  15. Spotlight on Peru.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Lima's population grew from 1 million to 7 million during 1969-89, almost entirely due to rural-urban immigration. Other urban areas such as Iquitos experienced similar growth over the period. National, regional, and municipal governments have been working to restore civil order in the country and to bring basic health, sanitation, and education programs to the population. However, language, attitudinal, and cultural differences impede progress in this diverse and changing country. Peru's young population of median age 21 years presents a challenge to the development and implementation of effective reproductive health care programs for the country. Pathfinder's work in Peru is helped by current President Alberto Fujimori's strong and active support for family planning. In the face of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church, President Fujimori has held onto his conviction and commitment to reduce levels of maternal morbidity and mortality in Peru by increasing the accessibility of family planning programs. Pathfinder's work in Peru with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) includes the 5-year program Project 2000 designed to improve maternal and child health in 12 priority regions of the country. Pathfinder is also working with USAID to link family planning to postpartum services in 30 public hospitals throughout the country. New programs will be launched with contributions from individuals and foundations. PMID:12179686

  16. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  17. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  18. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  19. [Can the hemodialysis strategy influence the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients?].

    PubMed

    Chazot, Charles

    2009-07-01

    Malnutrition is frequent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The HEMO study has shown a progressive decline of nutritional markers, such as body weight, albuminemia and protein intake, in prevalent hemodialysis patients during a 3-year follow-up. In incident dialysis patients, nutritional status usually improves during the first year of HD treatment. Opposite to the HEMO findings, we have shown that nutritional stability was achieved during a 5 year follow-up with sequential long hour dialysis (3 x 6-8 hours/week). Energy and protein intakes are related to the dialysis dose. Moreover, several studies show the nutritional consequences of changing the dialysis prescriptions. The switch from conventional HD to short daily dialysis improves significantly protein and energy intake and albuminemia. Also, increasing treatment time increases significantly the body weight after several months. One of the hypothesis for this effect is that uremia-related middle molecules compromise the patient appetite. Increasing dialysis time or frequency may decrease the level or the time of exposition to these molecules. However, the beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on HD patients' nutritional status is not spectacular. Another hypothesis is the role of extra-cellular fluid excess and its relationship with inflammation that is deleterious for nutrition. In conclusion, dialysis adequacy is a mandatory prerequisite when facing a malnourished HD patient. Increasing time or frequency must be part of the therapeutic thought in such situation.

  20. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  1. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  2. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  3. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.

  4. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  5. The Educational System of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Peru is presented. Despite various achievements in education, Peruvian authorities in recent years generally have not considered educational progress sufficient to meet the social and economic needs of their society. As a result, two educational structures are presently operating in Peru. The…

  6. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  7. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of "junk foods" is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs. PMID:26321951

  8. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of "junk foods" is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.

  9. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of “junk foods” is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs. PMID:26321951

  10. Strategies to Improve the Dietary Quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Beneficiaries: An Assessment of Stakeholder Opinions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Leung, Cindy W.; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H.; Foerster, Susan B.; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Nestle, Marion; Willet, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Design Participants answered a 38-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and program policy changes. Setting U.S.A. Subjects Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) conducted in October through December 2011. Results The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: 1) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; 2) the high cost of healthy foods; and 3) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70%) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons, or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78%) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55%) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58%) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83%) believed that the USDA should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity. PMID:24476898

  11. A scientific nutrition strategy improves time trial performance by ≈6% when compared with a self-chosen nutrition strategy in trained cyclists: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Hass, Erik; Kraus, Manon; Neumann, Georg; Steiner, Martin; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-08-01

    We investigated whether an athlete's self-chosen nutrition strategy (A), compared with a scientifically determined one (S), led to an improved endurance performance in a laboratory time trial after an endurance exercise. S consisted of about 1000 mL·h(-1) fluid, in portions of 250 mL every 15 min, 0.5 g sodium·L(-1), 60 g glucose·h(-1), 30 g fructose·h(-1), and 5 mg caffeine·kg body mass(-1). Eighteen endurance-trained cyclists (16 male; 2 female) were tested using a randomized crossover-design at intervals of 2 weeks, following either A or S. After a warm-up, a maximal oxygen uptake test was performed. Following a 30-min break, a 2.5-h endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer was carried out at 70% maximal oxygen uptake. After 5 min of rest, a time trial of 64.37 km (40 miles) was completed. The ingested nutrition was recorded every 15 min. In S, the athletes completed the time trial faster (128 vs. 136 min; p ≤ 0.001) and with a significantly higher power output (212 vs. 184 W; p ≤ 0.001). The intake of fluid, energy (carbohydrate-, mono-, and disaccharide), and sodium was significantly higher in S compared with A (p ≤ 0.001) during the endurance exercise. In the time trial, only sodium intake was significantly higher in S (p ≤ 0.001). We concluded that a time trial performance after a 2.5-h endurance exercise in a laboratory setting was significantly improved following a scientific nutrition strategy.

  12. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  13. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  14. Enteral nutrition administration in a surgical intensive care unit: Achieving goals with better strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sara; Madisi, Nagendra Y; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Manasia, Anthony; Oropello, John; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of an enteral feeding protocol on administration of nutrition to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients initiated on enteral nutrition (EN) support during their stay in a 14 bed SICU. Data collected over a seven-day period included date of tube feed initiation, rate initiated, subsequent hourly rates, volume provided daily, and the nature and length of interruptions. The six months prior to implementation of the feeding protocol (pre-intervention) and six months after implementation (post-intervention) were compared. One hundred and four patients met criteria for inclusion; 53 were pre-intervention and 51 post-intervention. RESULTS: Of the 624 patients who received nutrition support during the review period, 104 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Of the 104 patients who met criteria outlined for inclusion, 64 reached the calculated goal rate (pre = 28 and post = 36). The median time to achieve the goal rate was significantly shorter in the post-intervention phase (3 d vs 6 d; P = 0.01). The time to achieve the total recommended daily volume showed a non-significant decline in the post-intervention phase (P = 0.24) and the overall volume administered daily was higher in the post-intervention phase (61.6% vs 53.5%; P = 0.07). While the overall interruptions data did not reach statistical significance, undocumented interruptions (interruptions for unknown reasons) were lower in the post-intervention phase (pre = 23/124, post = 9/96; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: A protocol delineating the initiation and advancement of EN support coupled with ongoing education can improve administration of nutrition to SICU patients. PMID:27652209

  15. Enteral nutrition administration in a surgical intensive care unit: Achieving goals with better strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sara; Madisi, Nagendra Y; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Manasia, Anthony; Oropello, John; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of an enteral feeding protocol on administration of nutrition to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients initiated on enteral nutrition (EN) support during their stay in a 14 bed SICU. Data collected over a seven-day period included date of tube feed initiation, rate initiated, subsequent hourly rates, volume provided daily, and the nature and length of interruptions. The six months prior to implementation of the feeding protocol (pre-intervention) and six months after implementation (post-intervention) were compared. One hundred and four patients met criteria for inclusion; 53 were pre-intervention and 51 post-intervention. RESULTS: Of the 624 patients who received nutrition support during the review period, 104 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Of the 104 patients who met criteria outlined for inclusion, 64 reached the calculated goal rate (pre = 28 and post = 36). The median time to achieve the goal rate was significantly shorter in the post-intervention phase (3 d vs 6 d; P = 0.01). The time to achieve the total recommended daily volume showed a non-significant decline in the post-intervention phase (P = 0.24) and the overall volume administered daily was higher in the post-intervention phase (61.6% vs 53.5%; P = 0.07). While the overall interruptions data did not reach statistical significance, undocumented interruptions (interruptions for unknown reasons) were lower in the post-intervention phase (pre = 23/124, post = 9/96; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: A protocol delineating the initiation and advancement of EN support coupled with ongoing education can improve administration of nutrition to SICU patients.

  16. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    PubMed

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru.

  17. Potential Paradoxical Effects of Myth-Busting as a Nutrition Education Strategy for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansburg, Pamela I.; Heiss, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Medical myth-busting is a common health education strategy during which a health educator highlights common misconceptions about health and then presents evidence to refute those misconceptions. Whereas this strategy can be an effective way to correct faulty health beliefs held by young adults, research from the field of cognitive psychology…

  18. On Educational Reform in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, August Salazar

    1972-01-01

    The new concept of education in Peru implies a lifelong educational process, provides for communication between education institutions and programs, the family and the community, and for the involvement of everybody. (JB)

  19. Nutrition Education Research: Strategies for Theory Building. Proceedings of the Nutrition Education Research Conference (Lincolnshire, Illinois, November 11-13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, Judy K., Ed.; Rhoads, Andre F., Ed.

    The purpose of this conference was to provide a framework for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of nutrition education research. Emphasis was placed upon examining the research process from the standpoint of theory or model building. Presentations were made on: (1) "Nutrition Education Research Policy in Washington" (Luise Light);…

  20. Nutritional strategies to counter stress to the immune system in athletes, with special reference to football.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2006-07-01

    Although epidemiological data indicate that athletes are at increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during periods of heavy training and the 1 - 2 week period following endurance race events, there is very limited information on the responses to football training and match-play. For several hours after heavy exertion, components of both the innate (e.g. natural killer cell activity and neutrophil oxidative burst activity) and adaptive (e.g. T and B cell function) immune system exhibit suppressed function. Although such responses to football training and competition do not appear to be as pronounced, variations in immune cell numbers and function are reported in professional footballers over the course of a season. Attempts have been made through nutritional means (e.g. glutamine, vitamins C and E, and carbohydrate supplementation) to attenuate immune changes following intensive exercise and thus lower the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Carbohydrate supplementation during heavy exercise has emerged as a partial countermeasure and attenuates increases in blood neutrophil counts, stress hormones, and inflammatory cytokines, but has little effect on decrements in salivary IgA output or natural killer cell function. Animal research indicates that other nutritional components such as beta-glucan, quercetin, and curcumin warrant human investigations to determine if they are effective countermeasures to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:16766504

  1. What's law got to do with it Part 2: Legal strategies for healthier nutrition and obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the most important opportunities for law lie in seeking to enhance the effectiveness of a population health approach. Part 2 of this article aims to provide a systematic review of the legal strategies that are most likely to emerge, or are worth considering, as part of a suite of policies designed to prevent population weight gain and, more generally, healthier nutrition. While the impact of any one intervention may be modest, their cumulative impact could be significant and could also create the conditions for more effective public education campaigns. This article addresses the key contenders, with particular reference to Australia and the United States. PMID:18533999

  2. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  3. Alternative nutritional strategies in protists: symposium introduction and a review of freshwater protists that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    The alternative nutritional strategies in protists that were addressed during the symposium by that name at the 2010 annual meeting of the International Society of Protistologists and here in contributed papers, include a range of mechanisms that combine photosynthesis with heterotrophy in a single organism. Often called mixotrophy, these multiple trophic level combinations occur across a broad range of organisms and environments. Consequently, there is great variability in the physiological abilities and relative importance of phototrophy vs. phagotrophy and/or osmotrophy in mixotrophic protists. Recently, research papers addressing ecological questions about mixotrophy in marine systems have been more numerous than those that deal with freshwater systems, a trend that is probably partly due to a realization that many harmful algal blooms in coastal marine systems involve mixotrophic protists. After an introduction to the symposium presentations, recent studies of mixotrophy in freshwater systems are reviewed to encourage continuing research on their importance to inland waters.

  4. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  5. Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Components and Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, V.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, moderate in alcohol consumption, and lower in refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk and improve glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. Several healthful dietary patterns emphasizing the overall diet quality can be adapted to appropriate personal and cultural food preferences and calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although considerable progress has been made in developing and implementing evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted global efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  6. Modification of nutrition strategy for improvement of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah Young; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the effects of modified parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) regimens on the growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The study included VLBW infants weighing <1,500 g, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital between October 2010 and April 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. Subjects were divided according to 3 periods: period 1 (n=37); prior to the PN and EN regimen being modified, period 2 (n=50); following the PN-only regimen modification, period 3 (n=37); following both PN and EN regimen modification. The modified PN regimen provided 3 g/kg/day of protein and 1 g/kg/day of lipid on the first day of life. The modified EN regimen provided 3.5-4.5 g/kg/day of protein and 150 kcal/kg/day of energy. We investigated growth rate, anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) at 40 weeks PCA. Results Across the 3 periods, clinical characteristics, including gestational age, anthropometric measurements at birth, multiple births, sex, Apgar score, surfactant use and PDA treatment, were similar. Growth rates for weight and height, from time of full enteral feeding to 40 weeks PCA, were higher in period 3. Anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks PCA were greatest in period 3. Incidence of weight, height and head circumference EUGR at 40 weeks PCA decreased in period 3. Conclusion Beginning PN earlier, with a greater supply of protein and energy during PN and EN, is advantageous for postnatal growth in VLBW infants. PMID:27186226

  7. Strategy for Improved Nutrition of Children and Women in Developing Countries. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report proposes a strategy for reducing, and ultimately eliminating, malnutrition in developing countries. It proposes a methodology for the identification of appropriate actions in a given context through situation assessment and analysis, rather than through a predetermined set of technical…

  8. A qualitative study of diverse experts' views about barriers and strategies to improve the diets and health of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Lindsay, Ana C; Lofink, Hayley E; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Turrell, Sophie; Willett, Walter C; Blumenthal, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest federal food assistance program, currently serves 44.7 million Americans with a budget of $75 billion in 2011. This study engaged leading experts for in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore their opinions concerning the existing challenges and barriers to eating nutritiously in SNAP. Experts also proposed strategies for improving nutritional status among SNAP recipients. Twenty-seven individuals were interviewed from advocacy, government, industry, and research organizations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for thematic content. The high cost of nutrient-rich foods, inadequate SNAP benefits, limited access to purchasing healthy foods, and environmental factors associated with poverty were identified as barriers that influence nutrition among low-income households in the United States. Six themes emerged among respondents from diverse sectors about how to address these challenges, including providing SNAP participants with incentives to purchase nutrient-rich food consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, restricting the purchase of nutrient-poor foods and beverages with program benefits, modifying the frequency of SNAP benefit distribution, enhancing nutrition education, improving the SNAP retailer environment, and increasing state and federal level coordination and consistency of program implementation. Given the recent dramatic increase in SNAP enrollment, policymakers must address existing barriers as well as consider new strategies to improve nutrition policies in SNAP so that the program can continue to address food insecurity needs as well as provide a healthful diet for SNAP beneficiaries.

  9. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  10. Interaction matters: Strategies to promote engaged learning in an online introductory nutrition course

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan; Grace Lin, Meng-Fen; Stewart, Maria; Fialkowski, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    Fostering interaction in the online classroom is an important consideration in ensuring that students actively create their own knowledge and reach a high level of achievement in science courses. This study focuses on fostering interaction in an online introductory nutrition course offered in a public institution of higher education in Hawai‘i, USA. Interactive features included synchronous discussions and polls in scheduled sessions, and social media tools for sharing of information and resources. Qualitative student feedback was solicited regarding the new course features. Findings indicated that students who attended monthly synchronous sessions valued live interaction with peers and the instructor. Issues identified included technical difficulties during synchronous sessions, lack of participation on the part of fellow students in discussion and inability to attend synchronous sessions due to scheduling conflicts. In addition, few students made use of the opportunity to interact via social media. While students indicated that the interactive components of the course were valuable, several areas in which improvement may be made remain. Future studies may explore potential solutions to issues identified with new features to further promote interaction and foster learning in the course. Recommendations for instructors who are interested in offering online science courses in higher education are provided. PMID:27441032

  11. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  12. [Bioethics in Peru].

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, R L

    1990-01-01

    Bioethics has still not acquired an identity of its own in Peru. The Ethics Committee of the Peruvian Medical School and the National AIDS Commission are review committees that deal with ethical problems arising in practice. Doubts regarding quality control of the drugs being tested have been raised in research on human subjects. Questions related to reproduction are very important. There is a high incidence of adolescent pregnancies, and illegal abortions result in many deaths and hospitalizations of women in serious condition. Birth control methods, such as vasectomy, conflict with attitudes about manhood in Peruvian society. Euthanasia is prohibited by the Ethical Code of the Peruvian Medical School, and legislation penalizes assisted suicide. Organ transplantation is hindered by concerns over early declaration of death. Handicapped children are often rejected by society owing to an absurd belief in the possibility that disorders such as Down's syndrome are contagious. The Ministry of Health requires state hospitals to accept AIDS patients, but instances of rejection are still reported.

  13. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  14. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations. PMID:12341769

  15. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  16. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    PubMed

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions. PMID:23949515

  17. Body mass management of lightweight rowers: nutritional strategies and performance implications.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary; Rice, Anthony; Jenkins, David; Hahn, Allan

    2014-11-01

    The majority of lightweight rowers undertake acute weight loss prior to competition. Given the competitive advantage afforded to larger, more muscular rowers over their smaller counterparts, the use of moderate, acute weight loss may be justified, at least among larger, leaner athletes who struggle to achieve the specified body mass requirement and have limited potential for further body mass loss via reductions in body fat. The performance implications of moderate acute weight loss appear to be small on the ergometer and may be even less on water, at least when aggressive recovery strategies are adopted between weigh-in and racing. Furthermore, any performance implications of acute weight loss are not exacerbated when such weight loss is undertaken repeatedly throughout the course of a regatta, and may even be eliminated when aggressive recovery strategies are introduced before and after racing. The combination of adequate sodium, fluid and carbohydrate in line with current guidelines results in the best performances. While the performance implications of modest acute weight loss may still need to be considered in regard to competition outcome, chronic body mass strategies may not be without performance implications. This is especially the case for athletes who have very low levels of body fat and/or athletes who decrease their body mass too quickly. Further studies are needed to address the degree of weight loss that can be tolerated with minimal health and/or performance implications, and the optimal time frame over which this should occur. Possible adaptation to the physiological state that accompanies acute weight loss also warrants investigation.

  18. [Food in ancient Peru: Haku mikumusum (let's go to eat!)].

    PubMed

    Salaverry, Oswaldo

    2012-01-01

    The Andean region is one of the eight world centers where plant and animal domestication originated. Given that food is a structural factor of social reality, a description is given of the close relationship that Andean men developed with their geographic surroundings, and the plants and animals they domesticated, giving rise to a remarkable culture that united the extraordinary nutritional richness of their traditional food with a food production, conservation and distribution system that led to a civilization who never experienced hunger. Some foods of ancient Peru are briefly described in the following review.

  19. [Food in ancient Peru: Haku mikumusum (let's go to eat!)].

    PubMed

    Salaverry, Oswaldo

    2012-01-01

    The Andean region is one of the eight world centers where plant and animal domestication originated. Given that food is a structural factor of social reality, a description is given of the close relationship that Andean men developed with their geographic surroundings, and the plants and animals they domesticated, giving rise to a remarkable culture that united the extraordinary nutritional richness of their traditional food with a food production, conservation and distribution system that led to a civilization who never experienced hunger. Some foods of ancient Peru are briefly described in the following review. PMID:23085807

  20. The Enteric Two-Step: nutritional strategies of bacterial pathogens within the gut

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, Jessica A.; Ng, Katharine M.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The gut microbiota is a dense and diverse microbial community governed by dynamic microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions, the status of which influences whether enteric pathogens can cause disease. Here we review recent insights into the key roles that nutrients play in bacterial pathogen exploitation of the gut microbial ecosystem. We synthesize recent findings to support a five-stage model describing the transition between a healthy microbiota and one dominated by a pathogen and disease. Within this five-stage model, two stages are critical to the pathogen: (i) an initial expansion phase that must occur in the absence of pathogen-induced inflammation, followed by (ii) pathogen-promoting physiological changes such as inflammation and diarrhoea. We discuss how this emerging paradigm of pathogen life within the lumen of the gut is giving rise to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24720567

  1. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  2. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Insights into the Emerging Role of Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Maeve A.; Finucane, Orla M.; Connaughton, Ruth M.; McMorrow, Aoibheann M.; Roche, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and associated chronic inflammation initiate a state of insulin resistance (IR). The secretion of chemoattractants such as MCP-1 and MIF and of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, draw immune cells including dendritic cells, T cells, and macrophages into adipose tissue (AT). Dysfunctional AT lipid metabolism leads to increased circulating free fatty acids, initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in the population of infiltrating cells. A feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokines exacerbates this pathological state, driving further immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion and disrupts the insulin signaling cascade. Disruption of normal AT function is causative of defects in hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis, resulting in systemic IR and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical strategies that target the inflammatory milieu may have some potential; however there are a number of safety concerns surrounding such pharmaceutical approaches. Nutritional anti-inflammatory interventions could offer a more suitable long-term alternative; whilst they may be less potent than some pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents, this may be advantageous for long-term therapy. This review will investigate obese AT biology, initiation of the inflammatory, and insulin resistant environment; and the mechanisms through which dietary anti-inflammatory components/functional nutrients may be beneficial. PMID:23675368

  3. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Dietary Considerations from Active Disease to Disease Remission.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Limketkai, Berkeley; Medici, Valentina; Saire Mendoza, Mardeli; Palmer, Lena; Bechtold, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, lifelong, and relapsing illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which involve the gastrointestinal tract. There is no cure for these diseases, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy can induce remission and maintain clinical remission. Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies among IBD patients result in poor clinical outcomes such as growth failure, reduced response to pharmacotherapy, increased risk for sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this review is to highlight the consequences of malnutrition in the management of IBD and describe nutritional interventions to facilitate induction of remission as well as maintenance; we will also discuss alternative delivery methods to improve nutritional status preoperatively.

  4. Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

  5. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  6. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  7. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  8. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy.

  9. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  10. Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-12

    Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48 h post-infection was 0.013 h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3) HA units/50μL, 11.70±0.22 μg/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3) virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production.

  11. Physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a series of studies (n = 51) examining physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male elite basketball players. These studies included relevant information on physical and physiological variables, such as height, weight, somatotype, relative size, aerobic profile, strength, anaerobic power, agility and speed. Six main findings emerged from our review: (i) differences in physical attributes exist among playing positions and skill levels (e.g. guards tend to be lighter, shorter and more mesomorphic than centres); (ii) maximum aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) values of female and male players are 44.0-54.0 and 50-60 mLO(2)/kg/min, respectively; (iii) male and female players of higher skill levels tend to have higher vertical jump values; (iv) the more skilled female and male players are faster and more agile than the less skilled players; (v) guards tend to perform more high-intensity movements during game play compared with forwards and centres; and (vi) a water deficit of 2% of bodyweight can lead to reduced physical and mental performance during an actual game. Five limitations associated with the testing protocols used in the studies are outlined, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach, lack of tests performed under physical exertion conditions, and lack of studies using a time-motion analysis. In addition, three practical recommendations for the basketball coach and the strength and conditioning coach are presented. It is concluded that the data emerging from these studies, combined with the knowledge already obtained from the studies on physical and physiological characteristics of elite basketball players, should be applied by basketball and strength and conditioning coaches when planning training programmes for elite basketball players. PMID:19530751

  12. Physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a series of studies (n = 51) examining physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male elite basketball players. These studies included relevant information on physical and physiological variables, such as height, weight, somatotype, relative size, aerobic profile, strength, anaerobic power, agility and speed. Six main findings emerged from our review: (i) differences in physical attributes exist among playing positions and skill levels (e.g. guards tend to be lighter, shorter and more mesomorphic than centres); (ii) maximum aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) values of female and male players are 44.0-54.0 and 50-60 mLO(2)/kg/min, respectively; (iii) male and female players of higher skill levels tend to have higher vertical jump values; (iv) the more skilled female and male players are faster and more agile than the less skilled players; (v) guards tend to perform more high-intensity movements during game play compared with forwards and centres; and (vi) a water deficit of 2% of bodyweight can lead to reduced physical and mental performance during an actual game. Five limitations associated with the testing protocols used in the studies are outlined, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach, lack of tests performed under physical exertion conditions, and lack of studies using a time-motion analysis. In addition, three practical recommendations for the basketball coach and the strength and conditioning coach are presented. It is concluded that the data emerging from these studies, combined with the knowledge already obtained from the studies on physical and physiological characteristics of elite basketball players, should be applied by basketball and strength and conditioning coaches when planning training programmes for elite basketball players.

  13. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change. PMID:27431469

  14. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  15. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  16. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  17. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    PubMed

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK.

  18. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    PubMed

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK. PMID:25382081

  19. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  20. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  1. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Dietary Considerations from Active Disease to Disease Remission.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Limketkai, Berkeley; Medici, Valentina; Saire Mendoza, Mardeli; Palmer, Lena; Bechtold, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, lifelong, and relapsing illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which involve the gastrointestinal tract. There is no cure for these diseases, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy can induce remission and maintain clinical remission. Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies among IBD patients result in poor clinical outcomes such as growth failure, reduced response to pharmacotherapy, increased risk for sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this review is to highlight the consequences of malnutrition in the management of IBD and describe nutritional interventions to facilitate induction of remission as well as maintenance; we will also discuss alternative delivery methods to improve nutritional status preoperatively. PMID:27637649

  2. Khipu accounting in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Urton, Gary; Brezine, Carrie J

    2005-08-12

    Khipu are knotted-string devices that were used for bureaucratic recording and communication in the Inka Empire. We recently undertook a computer analysis of 21 khipu from the Inka administrative center of Puruchuco, on the central coast of Peru. Results indicate that this khipu archive exemplifies the way in which census and tribute data were synthesized, manipulated, and transferred between different accounting levels in the Inka administrative system.

  3. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated.

  4. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

  5. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  6. The effect on cardiovascular risk factors of migration from rural to urban areas in Peru: PERU MIGRANT Study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; García, Héctor H; Smeeth, Liam

    2009-01-01

    critical analysis of the potential for bias and confounding in migrant studies, and strategies for reducing these problems. A discussion of the potential advantages provided by the case of migration in Peru to the field of migration and health is also presented. PMID:19505331

  7. Clinical practice guidelines from the French Health High Authority: nutritional support strategy in protein-energy malnutrition in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Raynaud-Simon, Agathe; Revel-Delhom, Christine; Hébuterne, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    These guidelines were produced at the request of the General Directorate of Health within the scope of the French Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS). They concern the management of malnutrition in elderly persons living at home, in institutional care, or in hospital. They belong to a recent series of studies published by ANAES(1) or HAS. Preceding studies concerned the "Diagnostic assessment of protein-energy malnutrition in hospitalized adults" (ANAES, September 2003) and the work conducted by the Committee for the Assessment of Devices and Health Technologies (CEPP) on "Reimbursement procedures for dietary foods for special medical purposes for nutritional supplementation and home enteral nutrition" (HAS, September 2006). The objective of these guidelines is to develop a tool for identifying and managing elderly subjects who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition.

  8. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Karl E.; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hetherington, Marion M.; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and for bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on: (1) increased use of public-private partnerships; (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered; and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  9. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies.

  10. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  11. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Cranial surgery in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Rifkinson-Mann, S

    1988-10-01

    Trephination is the oldest known surgical technique. Peru has been recognized as a major source of ancient trephined skulls, many of which date back 2300 years. This presentation reviews from a neurosurgical perspective many of the archaeological studies performed on these skulls. Comparative osteology has shown that almost 70% of patients survived the procedure. The various instruments, hemostatic agents, anesthetics, surgical techniques, and cranioplasties used are reconstructed from the anthropological literature. The possible reasons for the use of trephination are discussed. Analysis of the data leads to the conclusion that, despite their rudimentary knowledge of disease, the ancient Incas must have had some knowledge of anatomy and proper surgical procedure.

  13. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  14. Using stable isotopes and C:N ratios to examine the life-history strategies and nutritional sources of larval lampreys.

    PubMed

    Evans, T M; Bauer, J E

    2016-02-01

    Natural abundance stable-isotope analysis (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and C:N ratios were used to study the ammocoete phase of two common non-parasitic lamprey species (least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera and American brook lamprey Lethenteron appendix) in two tributaries of the Ohio River (U.S.A.). The C:N ratios suggest that each species employs different lipid accumulation strategies to support its metamorphosis and recruitment into an adult animal. Ammocoete δ(13)C values generally increased with increasing C:N values. In contrast to δ(13)C, ammocoete δ(15)N values were weakly related to the total length (LT) in L. aepyptera, but positively correlated to both LT and C:N ratios in L. appendix. In L. appendix, C:N also correlated positively with LT, and presumably age. A Bayesian mixing model using δ(13)C and δ(15)N was used to estimate nutritional subsidies of different potential food resources to ammocoetes at each site. The models suggested that although nutritional subsidies to ammocoetes varied as a function of site, ammocoetes were generally reliant on large contributions (42-62% at three sites) from aquatic plants. Contributions from aquatic sediment organic matter were also important at all sites (32-63%) for ammocoetes, with terrestrially derived plant materials contributing smaller amounts (4-33%). These findings provide important insights into the feeding ecology and nutrition of two species of lampreys. They also suggest that similar and other quantitative approaches are required to (1) fully understand how the observed stable-isotopes ratios are established in ammocoetes and (2) better assess ammocoete nutritional subsidies in different natal streams.

  15. Experiences in the Search for Effective Services for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Cesar; Livia, Jose; Diaz, Maritza

    2006-01-01

    In Peru, identifying children with emotional and behavioral problems and designing appropriate intervention strategies has been progressive but slow. There has been little systematic effort toward establishing and working toward long-term goals, partially because of weak alliances among public and private institutions. In this article, the authors…

  16. Nutrition and the commoditization of food systems in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Dewey, K G

    1989-01-01

    Commoditization of food systems, defined as the use of agricultural goods for sale rather than for home consumption, affects nutrition of rural families via economic, social and ecological mechanisms in addition to direct dietary effects. Broad-scale mechanisms include alterations in land tenure, increased stratification of wealth, widespread labor migration, urban bias, food price changes, disruption of traditional reciprocal social relations, and ecological changes accompanying commercial agriculture that may limit long-term food production. At the family level, the replacement of food with cash is often problematic as regards nutrition, due to low prices to producers, increased cash needs, the 'lumpiness' of earnings during the year, reduced decision-making power of women, and often decreased dietary diversity. Three case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, from Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico, illustrate that commoditization tends to have a negative impact on nutrition in poor rural households. Although commoditization is theoretically advantageous on a national level by allowing the use of 'comparative advantage', in actuality its potential benefits are eroded by inequitable uses of foreign exchange. Commoditization is in essence a more efficient means by which to extract surplus value from small agricultural producers. While commoditization is a necessary component of economic growth, policies to safeguard health and nutrition and improve the status of women in development programs must be implemented within an overall strategy to meet basic needs of the population. PMID:2648596

  17. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to Give Get Involved Home Run Challenge Golf Programs Athletes for a Cure Movember Other Ways ... us how much more we have yet to learn about how key nutritional strategies can affect the ...

  18. [Notes for the history of pediatric gastroenterology in Peru].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article. PMID:26397286

  19. An Energy Overview of Peru

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Peru. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  20. Alzheimer's disease: the pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wollen, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunctional intracellular and extracellular biochemical processes that result in neuron death. This article summarizes hypotheses regarding cell dysfunction in AD and discusses the effectiveness of, and problems with, different therapies. Pharmaceutical therapies discussed include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antihypertensive drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, secretase inhibitors, insulin resistance drugs, etanercept, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and immunization. Nutritional and botanical therapies included are huperzine A, polyphenols, Ginkgo, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, phosphatidylserine, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, various vitamins and minerals, and melatonin. Stimulatory therapies discussed are physical exercise, cognitive training, music, and socialization. Finally, treatment strategies are discussed in light of the benefits and drawbacks of different therapeutic approaches. It is concluded that potential risks of both approved and non-approved therapies should be weighed against the potential benefits and certain consequences of disease progression. Approaches that target several dysfunctions simultaneously and that emphasize nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies may offer the most benefit at this time.

  1. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification.

  2. Construction of the food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: strategies and challenges in the promotion of intersectorality at the federal government level.

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes institutional strategies of the Brazilian federal government that aim at promoting intersectorality in the field of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS), based on bibliographic review and document analysis. It is assumed that, although formal institutionality in this government level is not enough to promote intersectorality, it is important in process induction. It follows that the combination of different institutional mechanisms favors intersectorality, such as: the existence and location of councils integrated by government sectors and civil society in the presidency; political support by the presidency and inclusion of the issue as being strategic in the governmental agenda; assembly of institutional spaces that articulate the highest government spheres and that integrate technical levels; programs that integrate food production, commercialization, and consumption. Challenges concern interrelation with economic policy and the construction of budget agreed among sectors, integrated to policy management and monitoring.

  3. Comparison of three instructional strategies in food and nutrition education: developing a diet plan for a diabetic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; `Logan'Arrington, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1) peer discussion with just-in-time information (JIT information), (2) peer discussion without JIT information), and (3) independent performers. The learners' performance in the three conditions was analyzed. The results presented here describe the role of prior knowledge and JIT information across the conditions and the interaction of the two factors as well as the instructional implications of the findings.

  4. Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  5. Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR)

    PubMed Central

    Stachowska, Ewa; Ryterska, Karina; Maciejewska, Dominika; Banaszczak, Marcin; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Izabela; Ossowski, Piotr; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Sabinicz, Anna; Napierała, Małgorzata; Wądołowska, Lidia; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients play a fundamental role as regulators of the activity of enzymes involved in liver metabolism. In the general population, the action of nutrients may be affected by gene polymorphisms. Therefore, individualization of a diet for individuals with fatty liver seems to be a fundamental step in nutritional strategies. In this study, we tested the nutrient-induced insulin output ratio (NIOR), which is used to identify the correlation between the variants of genes and insulin resistance. We enrolled 171 patients, Caucasian men (n = 104) and women (n = 67), diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). From the pool of genes sensitive to nutrient content, we selected genes characterized by a strong response to the NIOR. The polymorphisms included Adrenergic receptor (b3AR), Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), Apolipoprotein C (Apo C III). Uncoupling Protein type I (UCP-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-2) and Apolipoprotein E (APOEs). We performed three dietary interventions: a diet consistent with the results of genotyping (NIOR (+)); typical dietary recommendations for NAFLD (Cust (+)), and a diet opposite to the genotyping results (NIOR (−) and Cust (−)). We administered the diet for six months. The most beneficial changes were observed among fat-sensitive patients who were treated with the NIOR (+) diet. These changes included improvements in body mass and insulin sensitivity and normalization of blood lipids. In people sensitive to fat, the NIOR seems to be a useful tool for determining specific strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27455252

  6. Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR).

    PubMed

    Stachowska, Ewa; Ryterska, Karina; Maciejewska, Dominika; Banaszczak, Marcin; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Izabela; Ossowski, Piotr; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Sabinicz, Anna; Napierała, Małgorzata; Wądołowska, Lidia; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients play a fundamental role as regulators of the activity of enzymes involved in liver metabolism. In the general population, the action of nutrients may be affected by gene polymorphisms. Therefore, individualization of a diet for individuals with fatty liver seems to be a fundamental step in nutritional strategies. In this study, we tested the nutrient-induced insulin output ratio (NIOR), which is used to identify the correlation between the variants of genes and insulin resistance. We enrolled 171 patients, Caucasian men (n = 104) and women (n = 67), diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). From the pool of genes sensitive to nutrient content, we selected genes characterized by a strong response to the NIOR. The polymorphisms included Adrenergic receptor (b3AR), Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), Apolipoprotein C (Apo C III). Uncoupling Protein type I (UCP-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-2) and Apolipoprotein E (APOEs). We performed three dietary interventions: a diet consistent with the results of genotyping (NIOR (+)); typical dietary recommendations for NAFLD (Cust (+)), and a diet opposite to the genotyping results (NIOR (-) and Cust (-)). We administered the diet for six months. The most beneficial changes were observed among fat-sensitive patients who were treated with the NIOR (+) diet. These changes included improvements in body mass and insulin sensitivity and normalization of blood lipids. In people sensitive to fat, the NIOR seems to be a useful tool for determining specific strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27455252

  7. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition. PMID:25535705

  8. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition.

  9. IJBNPA in 2016: Strategy for advancing the science of behavior change in nutrition and physical activity, and associated editorial priorities.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA) is to be the leading diet and physical activity journal. To achieve this aim we embrace and publish a number of different research designs from small, but in depth, qualitative studies to large scale cohort studies. IJBNPA prioritises research based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses, as appropriate), and well conducted observational studies that expand knowledge and understanding of the area. IJBNPA will also consider and publish other study designs that are of sufficient quality such as strong or ground-breaking methodological papers, rigorous qualitative studies, debate papers and commentaries. However, due to the demands on the journal, we publish pilot studies only in exceptional circumstances and we do not publish protocol papers or letters to the editors. The goal of this editorial is to highlight to our readers and authors the process by which we identify which papers to review and publish along with our editorial priorities. PMID:27396235

  10. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  11. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  12. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. PMID:26709289

  13. Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Patricia V.; Greene, Ivorlyne P.; Coffey, Lark L.; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V.; Turell, Michael J.; O’Guinn, Monica L.; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B.; Watts, Douglas M.; Russell, Kevin L.; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C.; Klein, Terry A.; Dohm, David J.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin. PMID:15200823

  14. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  15. [Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Víctor C W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  16. The Relationship between Substance Use and HIV Transmission in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Alfredo A.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this article is to review literature regarding the relationship between substance use and HIV transmission in Peru. Methods Detailed search of published literature completed in PubMed and Google-Scholar and other local Peruvian publications. Mesh words: “Peru”; “substance-related-disorders”; “HIV”; “sexual-behavior” and their combinations. From 3921 articles, 150 were chosen for more careful review and only 26 were used for the review. No date limit was used in this review. Results Peruvian HIV epidemic is limited to MSM and its prevalence goes up to 33% in certain MSM-subpopulations. Transmission is mainly through sexual contact. Drug use doubled the risk for casual sex, decreased by half the chances of using condoms, increased the number of partners per year and the risk for STD’s. Peruvian HIV-positive populations have higher rates drug use and using drugs have been associated with a higher prevalence of being HIV-positive. This may be also true for other populations such as pregnant women in which there is an association between drug use and HIV. Conclusions Although the amount of Peruvian research in this area limits the review, there seems to be a relationship between using drugs, having risky-sexual-behaviors and being HIV positive in Peru. HIV-prevention strategies for Peruvians must address the link between sex and substance use. PMID:25264494

  17. Strength nutrition.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S

    2003-08-01

    Muscle strength is determined by muscle size and factors related to neural recruitment. Resistance training is a potent stimulus for increasing muscle size and strength. These increases are, to a large extent, influenced and mediated by changes in hormones that regulate important events during the recovery process following exercise. Provision of nutrients in the appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times is necessary to optimize the recovery process. This review discusses the results of research that has examined the potential for nutrition and dietary supplements to impact the acute response to resistance exercise and chronic adaptations to resistance training. To date, the most promising strategies to augment gains in muscle size and strength appear to be consumption of protein-carbohydrate calories before and after resistance exercise, and creatine supplementation.

  18. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    The low case fatality rates (1%) from the 1991 cholera epidemic in Peru was more a result of including diarrheas of a less virulent etiology than that of cholera. In fact, a study during the early phases of the cholera epidemic in Trujillo, Peru revealed that only 79% of suspected cholera cases were infected with vibrio cholera 01. Further other people contended that the government of Peru did not chlorinate many water supplies because studies by the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested that chlorine increases the cancer risk. It reacts with organic matter to make trihalomethanes. 1 study noted that this risk may explain as many as 700 cases of cancer/year in the US, yet cholera was responsible for nearly 40009 deaths in Latin America the 1st year. Besides in Trujillo, Peru the reason for not chlorinating the water supply was not due to a conscious decision to not do so on the part of the government, but because no funds had been made available to purchase chlorinators and chlorine. This is typical of many towns in developing countries. Further raw fish also played a role in transmitting cholera in Peru. Moreover the study in Trujillo indicated that water stored in containers in the home, and not the water supply, was the most important vehicle of transmission. Nevertheless chlorination of both the water supply and stored water would have prevented cholera transmission. In addition, cabbage irrigated with raw wastewater contributed to cholera transmission in Trujillo. But a concern arises if developing countries follow the advice of WHO of 1st treating wastewater in stabilization ponds. Aquatic blue green algae, other zooplankton, and phytoplankton from a microhabitat suitable for V. cholera. In fact, a study in Peru identified a seasonal pattern of the cholera epidemic with the seasonality of V. cholera non-01 from sewage lagoons in Lima. PMID:1351603

  19. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  20. Development of solar energy in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

    1981-06-01

    Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

  1. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  2. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  3. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature. PMID:12313840

  4. Vocational and Technical Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellew, Rosemary; Moock, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis of Peruvian vocational and technical education (VTE) partly substantiates previous research suggesting that VTE in developing countries fails to offer a return commensurate with its cost. The costs of academic and VTE streams in Peru are similar, and graduates' monetary returns and occupational profiles are almost…

  5. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  6. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Inma; Bedoya, Alfredo; Martín, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease. PMID:18257992

  7. Oil privatization growing: Peru poised for comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    Economic reform in Peru is transforming the oil and gas sector. Free market rationale is replacing the state monopoly mind-set. Foreign investment in oil, once discouraged by former administrations, is the response to new terms established by current government in its search for capital inflows to boost economic growth.

  8. The potential for malaria control with the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in Peru and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, A; Horstick, O; Riedl, C; Kaiser, A; Becker, N

    1995-09-01

    A study on the efficacy of Bti spraying in mosquito breeding places was undertaken in the Pacific coast of Peru and Ecuador and in the Amazon area of Peru. It was shown that Bti is a powerful larvicide for Anopheles larvae, although it sinks quickly, whereas Anopheles larvae feed at the water surface. The duration of its effect was less than 7 days with the exception of the Amazon area of Peru, where it was approximately 10 days. In two study areas, Bti was sprayed weekly over periods of 10 and 7 weeks, respectively, and the adult mosquito densities were monitored. The Anopheles adult density (bites per person per hour on human baits) was reduced by an average of 70% in one area and by up to 50% in the other. This means that Bti spraying can potentially be an important component of a modified malaria control strategy.

  9. Peru's population in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1984-12-01

    In this discussion of Peru's population in the 1980s, attention focuses on the following; population growth; population policy and family planning; internal migration; and economic and social characteristics. Peru's rate of population growth was 1.8% annually between the censuses of 1940-61, a little less than 2.9% between 1961-71, and 2.7% in the decade preceding the 1981 census. These figures demonstrate that the national population is now growing at a less rapid rate than 1 or 2 decades ago but that Peru did not experience a marked drop like that in several other countries. As with overall population growth, the decline of fertility in Peru has been slow and gradual. During the past 20 years the crude birthrate dropped from 46.27 to 36.71/1000 and the total fertility rate from 6.85 to 5.00. The reason why Peru's population growth rate never exceeded 3% is a direct result of its exceptionally high mortality and infant mortality levels. Peru has a crude mortality rate of 10.74/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 98.63/1000. These are extremely high compared with other Latin American countries. Theoretically, the momentum of progress should be carrying Peru rapidly into the demographic transition. Some modernizing factors, i.e., improved health care, urbanization, communications, and education, are slowly reducing fertility and mortality, but progress on other factors such as per capita income and social mobility is not occurring. A table projects Per's population at various projected growth rates until 2025. Differences in fertility among Peruvian women indicate that family planning and contraception are relatively common in urban areas. The adoption of contraception occurred totally without government assistance before 1980, when policy changed. Until then, Peru was the only major Latin American country with population growing at over 2.5% annually that did not have some kind of public family planning program. In 1981 a survey on contraceptive use was conducted

  10. Women's Participation in a Postconflict Community in Peru.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building. PMID:26472238

  11. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  12. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  13. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  14. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  15. Food and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide on food and nutrition is one of seven subject area guides developed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following: program and curriculum planning; teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students (student characteristics and teaching strategies);…

  16. Statistical panorama of female physics graduate students for 2000-2010 in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón Loayza, María Luisa; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a statistical study on the number of women entering the undergraduate and master's programs of physics at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru. From 2006 through 2010, 13 female students entered the master's degree program but no females graduated with the degree. Considering that Peru is a developing country, a career in physics is not considered an attractive professional choice even for male students because it is thought that there are no work centers to practice this profession. We recommend that the causes preventing female physics students from completing their studies and research work be analyzed, and that strategies be planned to help women complete their academic work. We are considering getting help from the Peruvian Physics Society (SOPERFI) in order to draw more attention for our plan.

  17. [Information system of the national network of public health laboratories in Peru (Netlab)].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Herrera, Javier; Segovia-Juarez, José; Garro Nuñez, Gladys María

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory information systems produce improvements in the quality of information, reduce service costs, and diminish wait times for results, among other things. In the construction process of this information system, the National Institute of Health (NIH) of Peru has developed and implemented a web-based application to communicate to health personnel (laboratory workers, epidemiologists, health strategy managers, physicians, etc.) the results of laboratory tests performed at the Peruvian NIH or in the laboratories of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories which is called NETLAB. This article presents the experience of implementing NETLAB, its current situation, perspectives of its use, and its contribution to the prevention and control of diseases in Peru.

  18. [Information system of the national network of public health laboratories in Peru (Netlab)].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Herrera, Javier; Segovia-Juarez, José; Garro Nuñez, Gladys María

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory information systems produce improvements in the quality of information, reduce service costs, and diminish wait times for results, among other things. In the construction process of this information system, the National Institute of Health (NIH) of Peru has developed and implemented a web-based application to communicate to health personnel (laboratory workers, epidemiologists, health strategy managers, physicians, etc.) the results of laboratory tests performed at the Peruvian NIH or in the laboratories of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories which is called NETLAB. This article presents the experience of implementing NETLAB, its current situation, perspectives of its use, and its contribution to the prevention and control of diseases in Peru. PMID:26338402

  19. [eHealth in Peru: implementation of policies to strengthen health information systems].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.

  20. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

    PubMed

    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases.

  1. The Tres Ventanas Mummies of Peru.

    PubMed

    Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido; Ojeda, Bernadino; Benfer, Robert A; Rivera, Ricardo; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S; Thompson, Randall C

    2015-06-01

    The Tres Ventanas mummies of Peru are thought to be among the oldest mummies in existence, dating to between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these mummies for use in future research on mummified remains. Although the Tres Ventanas cave and the four mummies were explored and then excavated by Frederic Engel in 1966-67, and the project is named in his honor as the "Engel Study Group", the importance of both the physical remains and the context in which they were found has only come to light in the last few years. Most important is the paleopathological examination of these remains, since these mummies are found in a high altitude area of Peru where adaptation to the limited partial pressure of oxygen is perhaps a key component in broadening our understanding of human diversity in past populations.

  2. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620

  3. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  4. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  5. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  6. Communal nutrition in ants.

    PubMed

    Dussutour, Audrey; Simpson, Stephen J

    2009-05-12

    Studies on nonsocial insects have elucidated the regulatory strategies employed to meet nutritional demands [1-3]. However, how social insects maintain the supply of an appropriate balance of nutrients at both a collective and an individual level remains unknown. Sociality complicates nutritional regulatory strategies [4-6]. First, the food entering a colony is collected by a small number of workers, which need to adjust their harvesting strategy to the demands for nutrients among individuals within the colony [4-7]. Second, because carbohydrates are used by the workers and proteins consumed by the larvae [7-14], nutritional feedbacks emanating from both must exist and be integrated to determine food exploitation by foragers [4-6, 15, 16]. Here, we show that foraging ants can solve nutritional challenges for the colony by making intricate adjustments to their feeding behavior and nutrient processing, acting both as a collective mouth and gut. The amount and balance of nutrients collected and the precision of regulation depend on the presence of larvae in the colony. Ants improved the macronutrient balance of collected foods by extracting carbohydrates and ejecting proteins. Nevertheless, processing excess protein shortened life span--an effect that was greatly ameliorated in the presence of larvae.

  7. [Peru: reproductive health, abortion and family planning].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, D

    1994-01-01

    The average number of children per woman in Peru declined from 7 to 3.5 between 1960-65 and 1990-95, but the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey indicates that ideal family size was 2.7. Significant socioeconomic and regional fertility differentials persist. Despite the desire for smaller families, 59% of reproductive-age women use no contraceptive method. The most widely used method in Peru is rhythm. Around 34% of women 15-44 years old, some 2 million women, can be considered insufficiently protected against risks of unwanted pregnancy. The 1991 survey found that 1/3 of women using contraceptive methods had experienced failure of their method, with proportions ranging from 32% for rhythm to 1.2% for IUD. Abortion is illegal in Peru, as in most of Latin America, but is known to be widespread. The recurring public debates about abortion are hampered by lack of reliable data. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) estimate for Peru was based on data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey, official hospital discharge statistics, and a survey of 197 professionals and nonprofessionals. The AGI study reveals that a wide variety of techniques are used to induce abortion. There are the safe, modern methods, such as vacuum aspiration or dilatation and curettage, but the most common methods include inserting a probe or catheter, sometimes pouring toxic fluids into the uterus. Women also insert metal objects into the uterus or herbal suppositories into the vagina. They jump, fall, exercise violently, and take injections. 84% of rural women and 64% of poor urban women attempt to induce the abortion themselves or seek the aid of untrained midwives. 95% of wealthier urban women are attended by health professionals. An estimated 1 in 5 illegal abortions in Peru result in hospitalization. Applying this ratio to the estimated 54,230 hospitalizations for induced abortion in 1989 results in an estimate of 271,150 induced abortions in that year, equivalent to 43% of live births.

  8. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  9. Engagement of Adolescents in a Health Communications Program to Prevent Noncommunicable Diseases: Multiplicadores Jóvenes, Lima, Peru, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Boeren, Yulissa; Quispe, Renato; Chiang, Mey lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, are associated with behaviors established in infancy that persist throughout adolescence and adulthood. As such, adolescents should be engaged in the design and implementation of NCD prevention strategies. Community Context In Lima, Peru’s capital, the proportion of adolescents aged 15 to 19 is 9.3% of the city’s population, and school enrollment rates are high. The prevalence of excess weight in Peruvian adolescents is 14.2%, and prevalence has not declined in recent years. Also recently, NCDs and their risk factors have gained more attention in public health and policy areas, with regulatory action focusing on healthful nutrition to address obesity and related NCDs. The Multiplicadores Jóvenes (Young Multipliers) project was conducted among adolescents aged 15 to 17 from 9 public secondary schools in peri-urban areas of Lima, Peru. Methods The project provided basic communication tools and knowledge of NCD prevention and public health research to adolescents during 16 weekly participatory sessions to enable them to design and disseminate healthful lifestyle promotion messages to their school peers. Outcome Thirty of 45 participants finished the program. Seven communications campaigns were designed and implemented in schools, reaching 1,200 students. The participants gained motivation, increased knowledge, and developed communication skills that were combined to implement healthful lifestyle promotion campaigns. Interpretation Engaging young people in public health promotion activities was feasible and advantageous for the design of tailored prevention-related content and its dissemination among peers. PMID:25742065

  10. A retrospective analysis of the change in anti-malarial treatment policy: Peru

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Holly Ann; Vincent-Mark, Arlene; Herrera, Yenni; Chang, O Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background National malaria control programmes must deal with the complex process of changing national malaria treatment guidelines, often without guidance on the process of change. Selecting a replacement drug is only one issue in this process. There is a paucity of literature describing successful malaria treatment policy changes to help guide control programs through this process. Objectives To understand the wider context in which national malaria treatment guidelines were formulated in a specific country (Peru). Methods Using qualitative methods (individual and focus group interviews, stakeholder analysis and a review of documents), a retrospective analysis of the process of change in Peru's anti-malarial treatment policy from the early 1990's to 2003 was completed. Results The decision to change Peru's policies resulted from increasing levels of anti-malarial drug resistance, as well as complaints from providers that the drugs were no longer working. The context of the change occurred in a time in which Peru was changing national governments, which created extreme challenges in moving the change process forward. Peru utilized a number of key strategies successfully to ensure that policy change would occur. This included a) having the process directed by a group who shared a common interest in malaria and who had long-established social and professional networks among themselves, b) engaging in collaborative teamwork among nationals and between nationals and international collaborators, c) respect for and inclusion of district-level staff in all phases of the process, d) reliance on high levels of technical and scientific knowledge, e) use of standardized protocols to collect data, and f) transparency. Conclusion Although not perfectly or fully implemented by 2003, the change in malaria treatment policy in Peru occurred very quickly, as compared to other countries. They identified a problem, collected the data necessary to justify the change, utilized

  11. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Control Interventions in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Sten G.; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E.; Manrique, Javier E.; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Sepulveda, Cecilia R.; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. Methods We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Results The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this

  13. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  14. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  15. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  16. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  17. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  18. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  19. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  20. Three new species of Licania (Chrysobalanaceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Prance, Ghillean T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent collections received for identification contain three conspicuous new species for the mid altitude forests of Amazonian Peru. Licania palcazuensis, Licania apiknae and Licania monteagudensis are described as new and their relationship to other species is discussed. A key is provided for all the species of Licania subgenus Licania section Licania known to occur in Peru. PMID:25383007

  1. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  2. Historical Perspectives on Spanish-Quechua Language Contact in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)

  3. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  4. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  5. [Peru: differential fertility by geographic regions and departments, 1975].

    PubMed

    1979-10-01

    Reproductive behavior in Peru is measured according to geographic region and department by means of general and age-specific fertility rates. The accuracy and completeness of data from the 1974-1976 National Demographic Survey and the 1972 census are compared. The impact on fertility of urbanization and of various other socioeconomic factors in the different departments of Peru is considered.

  6. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru... chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS) effected by...

  7. Peru 2021: A Business Plan for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravedo, Baltazar

    1998-01-01

    Describes Peru 2021, an organization of business-related individuals with a vision for Peruvian society. Outlines aspects of their vision in the areas of leadership, education, economy, environment, government, business, technology, and society. Discusses Peru 2021's efforts to develop a strategic plan for implementing the vision, to involve…

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  13. Promoting multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) in Peru: acceptance by caregivers and role of health personnel

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario; Abad, Melissa; Arevalo, Varinia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iron deficiency causes anaemia and other adverse effects on the nutritional status and development of millions of children. Multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) have been shown to reduce anaemia in young children. In Peru, 50% of children 6–36 months are anaemic. Since 2009, the government has started distributing MNP. This qualitative study explored the acceptability of MNP by caregivers and the role of health personnel (HP) in three regions (Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cajamarca), piloting the MNP programme between 2009 and 2011. Data collection consisted of interviews (35) and observations (13) with caregivers and HP (11). In Cajamarca, 16 families were visited three times in their homes to understand caregivers' use and difficulties. Results showed the critical role HP has in influencing caregiver understanding and use of the MNP, as well as the need for training to avoid confusing messages and provide counselling techniques that consider cultural sensitivity to optimize HP interactions with caregivers and adapt the recommendations for MNP use to local family feeding routines. There was greater acceptance of MNP by caregivers giving semi‐solid foods (e.g. purees) to their children than those who served dilute preparations (e.g. soups). Acceptance was similar across regions, but there were some differences between urban and rural settings. Home visits were shown to be a key in improving the use of MNP by caregivers as misunderstandings on preparation, required consistency and optimum practices were common. These findings can contribute to strategies to enhance acceptability and use. Key messages Acceptance and use of multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) by caregivers greatly depend upon how it is presented, promoted and counselled by health personnel.Counselling for MNP use needs to consider and adapt to the local cultural context and incorporate family and child feeding routines.MNP are presented as part of appropriate feeding practices, encouraging

  14. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru... Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru (Committee) is hereby established to oversee...

  15. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  16. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  17. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  18. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E.; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  19. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  20. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  1. Balsam of Peru: past and future.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Rakowski, Ella-Marie; Chou, Vincent; Chhatriwala, Anam; Ross, Jeremy; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Balsam of Peru (BOP) is a well-known contact allergen that is one of the most prevalent in the United States. For some patients allergic to BOP, external avoidance of fragrance is not enough to eliminate their dermatitis. A BOP avoidance diet has been shown to help many of these patients. This article reviews BOP allergens found in food. A special patch test series of allergens found in BOP along with data regarding which foods contain specific BOP constituents makes it possible to design potential targeted, refined, and simplified diets for BOP systemic contact dermatitis.

  2. Lake Titicaca, Peru and Bolivia, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Titicaca, high in the Andean Altiplano of South America, is on the border between Peru and Bolivia (15.5S, 70.0W). At an altitude of 12,500 ft, an area of 3,206 sq. mi. and a depth of about 900 ft., it is the world's highest navigable fresh water lake. La Paz, the capital city of Bolivia, may be seen near the center left of the image on the eastern downslope side of the mountains. 3,206 sq mi (8,303 sqkm), 12,

  3. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  4. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  5. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  6. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  8. Effects of Three Sets of Instructional Strategies and Three Demographic Variables on the Food and Nutrition Test Performance of Some Jamaican Tenth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Dennis; Soyibo, Kola

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to find out if students taught food and nutrition concepts using the lecture method and practical work would perform significantly better than their counterparts taught with the lecture and teacher demonstrations and the lecture method only. The sample comprised 114 Jamaican 10th-graders (56 boys, 58 girls) selected from…

  9. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition.

  10. Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Obesity: Cross-Sectional Analysis in Peru and Patterns in Four Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to describe the patterns of nutritional status and sleep duration in children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam; to assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, and if this was similar among boys and girls in Peru. Methods and Findings Analysis of the Young Lives Study, younger cohort, third round. In Ethiopia there were 1,999 observations, 2,011, 2,052 and 2,000 in India, Peru and Vietnam, respectively. Analyses included participants with complete data for sleep duration, BMI, sex and age; missing data: 5.9% (Ethiopia), 4.1% (India), 6.0% (Peru) and 4.5% (Vietnam). Exposure was sleep duration per day: short (<10 hours) versus regular (10–11 hours). Outcome was overweight and obesity. Multivariable analyses were conducted using a hierarchical approach to assess the effect of variables at different levels. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 0.5%/0.2% (Ethiopia), 1.3%/0.3% (India), 6.1%/2.8% (Vietnam), and 15.8%/5.4% (Peru). Only Peruvian data was considered to explore the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, with 1,929 children, aged 7.9±0.3 years, 50.3% boys. Short and regular sleep duration was 41.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Multivariable models showed that obesity was 64% more prevalent among children with short sleep duration, an estimate that lost significance after controlling for individual- and family-related variables (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 0.81–1.64). Gender was an effect modifier of the association between short sleep duration and overweight (p = 0.030) but not obesity (p = 0.533): the prevalence ratio was greater than one across all the models for boys, yet it was less than one for girls. Conclusions Childhood overweight and obesity have different profiles across developing settings. In a sample of children living in resource-limited settings in Peru there is no association between short sleep duration and obesity; the crude association was slightly

  11. New Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru. PMID:27394360

  12. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  13. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  14. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-12-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas. PMID:18198688

  15. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  16. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  17. [Dengue in Peru: a quarter century after its reemergence].

    PubMed

    Cabezas, César; Fiestas, Victor; García-Mendoza, María; Palomino, Miriam; Mamani, Enrique; Donaires, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A health problem each time more frequent and dispersed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including Peru where it entered in 1990, is dengue. It is produced by the dengue virus with four serotypes and transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a vector that coexists with humans and whose presence is favored by deficient sanitary, social and economic conditions. Manifestations of severe forms of the disease such as shock and bleeding, are related to the frequent co-circulation of the four serotypes and the emergence of new genotypes such as American/Asian serotype 2. The new classification of the disease by WHO as dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, is contributing to more timely diagnosis and treatment, enabling reductions in mortality. Of note is the need to highlight the surveillance of acute febrile illness and Aedes indices that contribute to a timely diagnosis and guide vector control measures through sanitary education and environmental management with community and intersectoral participation, in a creative manner according to ecological niches. An alternative for complementary prevention would be vaccination using tetravalent vaccines whose safety and efficacy must be guaranteed before its use in the population under the framework of comprehensive strategies. PMID:26102118

  18. Comprehensive Performance Nutrition for Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Karen A; Logan, Christi M; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) training, combat, and contingency operations are unique and demanding. Performance nutrition within the Department of Defense has emphasized that nutrition is relative to factors related to the desired outcome, which includes successful performance of mentally and physically demanding operations and missions of tactical and strategic importance, as well as nonoperational assignments. Discussed are operational, nonoperational, and patient categories that require different nutrition strategies to facilitate category-specific performance outcomes. Also presented are 10 major guidelines for a SOF comprehensive performance nutrition program, practical nutrition recommendations for Special Operators and medical providers, as well as resources for dietary supplement evaluation. Foundational health concepts, medical treatment, and task-specific performance factors should be considered when developing and systematically implementing a comprehensive SOF performance nutrition program. When tailored to organizational requirements, SOF unit- and culture-specific nutrition education and services can optimize individual Special Operator performance, overall unit readiness, and ultimately, mission success.

  19. Comprehensive Performance Nutrition for Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Karen A; Logan, Christi M; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) training, combat, and contingency operations are unique and demanding. Performance nutrition within the Department of Defense has emphasized that nutrition is relative to factors related to the desired outcome, which includes successful performance of mentally and physically demanding operations and missions of tactical and strategic importance, as well as nonoperational assignments. Discussed are operational, nonoperational, and patient categories that require different nutrition strategies to facilitate category-specific performance outcomes. Also presented are 10 major guidelines for a SOF comprehensive performance nutrition program, practical nutrition recommendations for Special Operators and medical providers, as well as resources for dietary supplement evaluation. Foundational health concepts, medical treatment, and task-specific performance factors should be considered when developing and systematically implementing a comprehensive SOF performance nutrition program. When tailored to organizational requirements, SOF unit- and culture-specific nutrition education and services can optimize individual Special Operator performance, overall unit readiness, and ultimately, mission success. PMID:26630094

  20. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  1. Contemporary phosphorites on the continental margin of peru.

    PubMed

    Veeh, H H; Burnett, W C; Soutar, A

    1973-08-31

    Phosphorite nodules occurring along the biologically productive continental margin of Peru have been dated by uranium-series methods. The radiometric ages range from late Pleistocene to Recent, indicating that phosphorities are currently forming in this area.

  2. Numbers and Codes in Ancient Peru: The Quipu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepp, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Quipu, a mathematical device invented by the Incas of Peru that used the base-10 number system to store information. Suggests ways of incorporating material on the quipu into the arithmetic class. (MDH)

  3. A Nutrition Knowledge Test for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development of a criterion-referenced instrument for assessing nutrition knowledge of potential nutrition educators. Discusses results which demonstrate that the instrument discriminates between groups of professionals who are trained in nutrition and those who are not. (CS)

  4. [Application of nutrigenomics in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-zhen; Cui, Xiao-yu; Dong, Liang-guang

    2006-12-01

    In the past decade, the focus of nutritional study shifted from epidemiology and physiology to molecular biology. Advanced research strategies and technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and system biology have been gradually applied in clinical nutrition. This article reviews the effects of nutrients on gene expressions, application of modern molecular biology in clinical nutrition, as well as the advances and challenges in recent years..

  5. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments.

  6. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  7. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  8. [From Aboriginal psychological medicine to modern psychiatry in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Torres, C

    1995-10-01

    It is traced a succinct development of the Peruvian Psychiatry beginning in the Ancient Peru (aborigen psychological medicine) with the pre-Inca and Inca periods. The most important sources of that epoch are the spanish chronicles and also the archeological and ethnological evidences. Then, it is presented the psychiatry evolution during the colonial and post-colonial time, and finally modern psychiatry in Peru.

  9. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  10. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2004-01-01

    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  11. Food and Nutrition 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide for food and nutrition is part of the senior high home economics curriculum for the province of Manitoba. An overview presents a rationale for the curriculum, program goals and objectives, and implementation strategies. The topic of food and nutrition is divided into eight major concepts or topics: significance of food,…

  12. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  13. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  14. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  15. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  16. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  17. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  18. Nutritional considerations in the patient with gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Carol Rees

    2015-03-01

    Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, has many origins and can wax and wane depending on the underlying cause. Not only do the symptoms significantly alter quality of life, but the clinical consequences can also be life threatening. Once a patient develops protracted nausea and vomiting, providing adequate nutrition, hydration, and access to therapeutics such as prokinetics and antiemetics can present an exceptional challenge to clinicians. This article reviews the limited evidence available for oral nutrition, as well as enteral and parenteral nutritional support therapies. Practical strategies are provided to improve the nutritional depletion that often accompanies this debilitating condition.

  19. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  20. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  1. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  2. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  3. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed.

  4. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  5. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, −0.21; India, −0.32; Peru, −0.14; and Vietnam, −0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8–30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with

  6. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental... United States Trade Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend...

  7. 19 CFR 10.909 - Certification for goods exported to Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Peru. 10.909...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.909 Certification for goods exported to Peru....

  8. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Peru. 10.934 Section 10.934 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  9. 19 CFR 10.909 - Certification for goods exported to Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Peru. 10.909...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.909 Certification for goods exported to Peru....

  10. 19 CFR 10.909 - Certification for goods exported to Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Peru. 10.909...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.909 Certification for goods exported to Peru....

  11. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Peru. 10.934 Section 10.934 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  12. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Peru. 10.934 Section 10.934 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  13. Crafting regulations in emerging geothermal countries: The Peru example

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that no prudent investor or lender will ante up a penny of investment money in a geothermal project unless and until there is a geothermal resources law in place. Since every law depends on a regulatory regime to make the law work in actual practice, implemented regulations are equally important conditions precedent for geothermal development. In recognition of the importance of assisting geothermal regulatory development in the emerging geothermal countries of Latin America, during the 1995 to 1996 timeframe, the Geothermal Energy Association has acted in an advisory capacity to the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru, in the drafting of geothermal regulations for Peru. These regulations are designed to promote developmental investment in the geothermal resources of Peru, while simultaneously establishing reasonable standards for the protection of the people and the environment of the country. While these regulations are specific to Peru, they may well serve as a model for other countries of Latin America. Thus, the lessons learned in crafting the Peru regulatory regime may have applicability in other countries in which the geothermal industry is now working or may work in the future.

  14. Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

  15. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  16. Review of the Huaytapallana project in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Adam; Welsch, Walter

    1986-11-01

    In 1969, two consecutive earthquakes activated a reverse fault at an elevation of 4600 m in the Huaytapallana mountain range near Huancayo in central Peru. In 1975, a small geodetic network was established and measured across the fault covering an area of about 1.5 km 2. The network has been remeasured in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1982, using standard geodetic instruments, as a joint effort by two Canadian and one German universities in cooperation with the Peruvian Institute of Geophysics. In 1978, the network was expanded to cover 6 km 2. High-altitude sickness, logistic problems with old vehicles, civil unrest and riots plagued the survey expeditions. The results show a cyclic rigid body motion of the southwest side versus the northeast side of the fault in a general east-west direction of about ± 3 mm/year. The direction of the motion agrees with the direction of compressive forces expected in this subduction region. The next survey campaign is planned for 1987.

  17. Smoothing the way to opportunity in Peru.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, B

    1999-11-01

    Since 1990, poor women in Peru have suffered from the impact of structural adjustment policies, which have lead to low wages, poor working conditions, and a general deterioration in the status of women workers. To address these problems, the Asociacion Aurora Vivar began its Alternative Technical Training Program for Women in July 1992, with the aim of increasing the entrepreneurial skills of women. The project aimed to support women who have problems at work, those who are unemployed and those with low income. Moreover, the project sought to increase women's participation in nontraditional areas of work. Training focused on increasing women's technical skills, including the repair of home appliances, and on personal development, such as leadership skills, confidence building, and business management. The project attracted a diverse group of women who took part in the training for a variety of reasons. The women's new capacities and skills create a positive image for them within the household. Aurora Vivar acknowledges the importance of vocational education to increase women's opportunities to earn a living. The association is proposing reforms in the educational system to introduce courses on business management, credit, and other technical skills as part of the formal education system.

  18. [Characteristics of Norplant users in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Balarezo, G

    1994-01-01

    The 832 women who accepted Norplant implants at three hospitals in Peru between December 1988 and February 1991 participated in a study of Norplant method acceptability and user characteristics. The women were seen 1, 3, and 6 months after insertion and every 6 months thereafter. They ranged in age from 18 to 40 years and averaged 28. Nearly 78% had completed secondary school or had higher education. The average number of children was 2.1, and 87% had 3 or fewer children. 30.1% of the women had had 1 abortion, 13.0% had had 2, 2.2% had had 3, and 1.1% had had 4 or more. 47.3% of the women had previously used oral contraceptives or IUDs, 13.1% had used rhythm, 11.2% had used condoms or vaginal methods, 4.9% had used injectables, 1.6% had used other methods, and 21.9% had used no method. 47.9% stated they wanted no future pregnancies, 37.4% wanted to wait at least 3 years, and 6.3% were uncertain. Menstrual problems were the major side effect reported. 22 of the 71 removals were motivated by headaches, 18 by menstrual problems and 13 by medical problems. The continuation rate at 12 months was 88.75%. No pregnancies occurred.

  19. [Stem cells: limitations and opportunities in Peru].

    PubMed

    Amiel-Pérez, José; Casado, Fanny

    2015-10-01

    Stem cells are defined as rare cells that are characterized by asymmetric division, a process known as self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into more than one type of terminally differentiated cell. There is a diversity of stem cells including embryonic stem cells, which exist only during the first stages of human development, and many adult stem cells depending on the specific tissues from where they derive or the ones derived from mesenchymal or stromal tissues. On the other hand, there are induced pluripotent stem cells generated by genetic engineering with similar properties to embryonic stem cells that are derived from adult tissues without the ethical and legal limitations. In all cases, there are many questions that are being addressed by research in basic sciences to better inform clinical practice. In Peru, there is much to do refining techniques and improving methodologies, which requires experience, proper facilities and highly specialized human resources. However, there are interesting efforts to place Peruvian stem cell research in the international scientific arena.

  20. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    PubMed

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content.

  1. A new species of Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southwestern Peru.

    PubMed

    Medina, César E; Gregorin, Renato; Zeballos, Horacio; Zamora, Hugo T; Moras, Ligiane M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species. PMID:25544431

  2. A new species of Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southwestern Peru.

    PubMed

    Medina, César E; Gregorin, Renato; Zeballos, Horacio; Zamora, Hugo T; Moras, Ligiane M

    2014-10-22

    The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species.

  3. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  4. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A

    2007-03-01

    The benefit of early enteral nutrition (EN) for the disease process and for patient outcome in severe acute pancreatitis is dramatic. A narrow window of opportunity exists during which there is potential for EN to decrease disease severity and reduce overall complications. Most patients with severe pancreatitis tolerate enteral feeds. Any signs of symptom exacerbation or increasing inflammation in response to EN may be ameliorated by subtle adjustments in the feeding strategy. In this manner, provision of EN represents primary therapy in the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis and is emerging as the gold standard of therapy in nutrition support for this disease process.

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18–26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60–0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:22581946

  6. Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations. PMID:20595317

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2012-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18-26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:22581946

  8. Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations. PMID:20595317

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  11. An ectopic case of Tunga spp. infection in Peru.

    PubMed

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  12. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  13. Coca and cocaine in Peru: an international policy assessment.

    PubMed

    Morales, E

    Using part of a set of ethnographic data gathered over a 5-year period on the political economy of cocaine in Peru, the study examines the impact of coca and cocaine on the social and economic policies of Peru. Before assessing the Peruvian government's role in international drug policy, the article briefly surveys the traditional use of coca and production, trafficking, and abuse of cocaine within the context of a much larger national problem. The paper concludes with a critical evaluation of the limited investment in crop substitution and eradication programs supported by the American government. PMID:2289840

  14. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:26354673

  15. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis.

  16. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  17. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  18. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  19. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    according to 744 different uses (Tyrol: 552, Australia: 200, Brazil: 180, Peru: 357) belonging to 22 different categories of use. Use values are significantly different between Tyrol and Australia (p < 0.001) but not between Tyrol and Brazil (p = 0.127) and Tyrol and Peru (p = 0.853). The average informant agreement ratio (IAR) in Tyrol is significantly higher than in Australia (p = 0.089) and Brazil (p = 0.238), but not Peru (p = 0.019). Conclusions Changing ecological and social conditions have transformed and shaped traditional knowledge of medicinal plants through adaptation processes to match the new circumstances in the country of arrival. Continuation, substitution and replacement are strategies that have taken place at different rates depending on local circumstances in the research areas. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants acquired in the home country is continuously diminishing, with its composition influenced by urbanisation and ongoing globalisation processes and challenged by shifts from traditional healing practices to modern healthcare facilities. PMID:23157876

  20. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  1. An Historical Account of the Bilingual Education Policy in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bienvenu, Elena; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of bilingual education programs in Peru. The first part of the paper consists of a general discussion of Peruvian history and the problem of native language suppression under Spanish colonialism and, later, a Spanish dominant independent government. Educational policies and the…

  2. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province. PMID:11500764

  3. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  4. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  5. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the contextual…

  6. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  7. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  8. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  9. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  10. Short report: serologic evidence of human ehrlichiosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Moro, Pedro L; Shah, Jyotsna; Li, Olga; Gilman, Robert H; Harris, Nick; Moro, Manuel H

    2009-02-01

    A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Regions included an urban community in a shantytown in Lima (Pampas) and three rural communities located on the northern coast of Peru (Cura Mori), in the southern Peruvian Andes (Cochapata), and in the Peruvian jungle region (Santo Tomas). An overall E. chaffeensis seroprevalence of 13% (21 of 160) was found by IFA. Seroprevalences in females and males was 15% (16 of 106) and 9% (5 of 53), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori, Cochapata, Pampas, and Santo Tomas were 25% (10 of 40), 23% (9 of 40), 3% (1 of 40), and 3% (1 of 40), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori and Cochapata were significantly higher than in Santo Tomas or Pampas (P < 0.01). No sera were reactive to A. phagocytophilum. These findings suggest that human infection with E. chaffeensis occurs in Peru. Further studies are needed to characterize Ehrlichia species in Peru, their vectors and their clinical significance.

  11. A New Course for Physics Teachers in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Carlos; Rushby, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Describes the conduct of a new course in Peru designed for physics teachers at the university level with emphases upon learning of up-to-date teaching and laboratory techniques. Included is a description of local degree programs and basic philosophy underlying teacher education. (CC)

  12. Linguistic Purism in Cuzco, Peru: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino-Murcia, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    Notes that a group of mestizo intellectuals in Peru claims that "Qhpaj'simi" is the Quechua used by the ancient Inca nobility and is the purest form of Quechua. Explains that a social hierarchy has arisen with the use of this "imperial language" demarcating its users from the common people and that these purist attitudes play a role in the…

  13. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  14. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    PubMed Central

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined. Methods In an urban community randomized trial of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention in Peru, 6712 randomly selected women between the ages of 18 and 29 from 20 cities were interviewed regarding having had cervical Pap smears. Results Among women sampled, only 30.9% had had a Pap smear. By multivariate analysis, the main predictors of having a Pap smear were having had sex, having had children, completion of secondary education and increasing age. Regional variations were also found: women from the highlands and rainforest were less likely to have had Pap smears than women from the coast. Conclusion A norm of seeking and receiving Pap smears has not been established among sexually active young Peruvian women. To improve Pap smear coverage in Peru, promotion efforts should target underserved women and regions with less coverage. PMID:18653515

  15. Education in Peru. Bulletin, 1964, No. 33. OE-14104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburger, Adela R.; Hauch, Charles C.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin describes the past, present and future educational development in Peru. Part I, Background, describes; (1) General Characteristics of Country and People; (2) Educational Development; and (3) Administration and Finance. Part II, Educational Levels, explores: (1) Preprimary Education; (2) Elementary Education; (3) Secondary Education;…

  16. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

    1982-01-01

    Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

  17. When science and politics listen to each other: good prospects from a new school breakfast program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, E R; Cueto, S; Pollitt, E

    1998-04-01

    This article provides an overview of a school breakfast program implemented in 1993 in the Peruvian Andes. The program, designed by the Instituto de Investigación Nutricional in Lima and supported by the government of Peru, constitutes a clear departure from previous school feeding programs, which were heavily politicized and poorly documented. From the program's inception, nutritionists, managers, and social scientists have collaborated to produce a sound nutritional design, efficient distribution mechanisms, and effective evaluation methods. During the program's first year, controlled evaluations conducted in several Andean regions documented improved dietary intake and a significant decline in the prevalence of anemia. An educational evaluation also found improved verbal skills, higher school attendance, and lower dropout rates among recipients of the school breakfast. The results have prompted the Peruvian government to continue supporting the program, thus setting a new standard for the effective management of social expenditure in the context of economic adjustment. PMID:9537631

  18. Reservoir storage and irrigation in Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Swiech, Theoclea; Machicao Pererya, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    In countries such as Peru, irrigated agriculture is not only vital for the subsistence of many but can also be a factor of economic development and by extent social improvement. To answer the local demand and respond to the water scarcity in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, near city of Arequipa, the government decided the construction of a dam for irrigation. The irrigation systems are affected by the lack of water during the dry season for lack of storage and of water distribution between downstream and upstream sectors, among other issues. Water scarcity is the main issue in the basin, leading to poor yields and the inability of growing crops with a high commercial value. Rainfall is available only from November to April, the rest of the year being very dry. Furthermore, the lowest areas of Yarabamba, Sogay and Quequeña are disadvantaged compared to the highest area of Polobaya. By creating a large storage area to regulate the variations of water availability through the year, the dam would allow to at least palliate the lack of water in existing lands, and at best to extend agricultural lands. Farmers would then be able to shift toward higher value crops more easily than without this extra storage. The main focus of the research was the dam which was supposed to improve the water distribution and availability in the sub-basin. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that other factors, related to the irrigation system itself, are involved in the efficiency of the new structure. The farmers, the main stakeholders, believe that more could be done to improve the system and their standard of living. Most of all, the main issue that should be resolved is the fair distribution of water. However, this is not possible without a strong cooperation between sectors, and a potential change in diversion structures. The competition between the districts should be reduced, otherwise the benefits of the dam would not give the expected results. This example shows that

  19. Nutritional recommendations for water polo.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gregory R; Mujika, Iñigo; van den Hoogenband, Cees Rein

    2014-08-01

    Water polo is an aquatic team sport that requires endurance, strength, power, swimming speed, agility, tactical awareness, and specific technical skills, including ball control. Unlike other team sports, few researchers have examined the nutritional habits of water polo athletes or potential dietary strategies that improve performance in water polo match play. Water polo players are typically well muscled, taller athletes; female players display higher levels of adiposity compared with their male counterparts. Positional differences exist: Center players are heavier and have higher body fat levels compared with perimeter players. Knowledge of the physical differences that exist among water polo players offers the advantage of player identification as well as individualizing nutrition strategies to optimize desired physique goals. Individual dietary counseling is warranted to ensure dietary adequacy, and in cases of physique manipulation. Performance in games and during quality workouts is likely to improve by adopting strategies that promote high carbohydrate availability, although research specific to water polo is lacking. A planned approach incorporating strategies to facilitate muscle glycogen refueling and muscle protein synthesis should be implemented following intensified training sessions and matches, particularly when short recovery times are scheduled. Although sweat losses of water polo players are less than what is reported for land-based athletes, specific knowledge allows for appropriate planning of carbohydrate intake strategies for match play and training. Postgame strategies to manage alcohol intake should be developed with input from the senior player group to minimize the negative consequences on recovery and player welfare.

  20. Parenteral nutrition: risks, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Patricia H; Gilbert, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving modality, but one that also carries risks for potentially life-threatening complications. Comprehensive management of patients receiving parenteral nutrition includes careful selection of candidates, individualizing formulas to meet patients' unique needs, monitoring response to therapy, and implementing strategies designed to avoid complications. Measures to mitigate the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections are particularly important. As with all complex therapies, a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach promotes optimal outcomes. PMID:22222292

  1. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice.

    PubMed

    Contento, Isobel R

    2008-01-01

    The increase in obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease worldwide reflects the complex interactions of biology, personal behaviour and environment. Consequently there has been a greater recognition of the importance of nutrition education. An analysis of the evidence from 300+ studies shows that nutrition education is more likely to be effective when it focuses on behaviour/ action (rather than knowledge only) and systematically links theory, research and practice. There are three essential components to nutrition education: 1. A motivational component, where the goal is to increase awareness and enhance motivation by addressing beliefs, attitudes through effective communication strategies. 2. An action component, where the goal is to facilitate people's ability to take action through goal setting and cognitive self-regulation skills. 3. An environmental component, where nutrition educators work with policymakers and others to promote environmental supports for action. Each component needs to be based on appropriate theory and research. The procedure for program design can use the logic model: Inputs are the resources needed as well as the needs analysis process. The outputs are the activities within the three components of nutrition education described above. Here the behavioural focus is selected and theory and research are used to design appropriate educational strategies to achieve the targeted behaviours. The outcomes are the short, medium or long-term impacts of the nutrition program. These are evaluated through the use of appropriate designs and instruments. Nutrition education programs that link research, theory, and practice are more likely to be effective.

  2. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance.

  3. Nutrition for cyclists.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, A C; Ruud, J S

    1994-01-01

    Good nutrition is important at every stage of training and competition. Both the serious competitive cyclist as well as the recreational cyclist should eat a balanced diet that provides calories adequate to meet energy demands. Athletes consuming less than 2000 calories a day may have difficulty meeting nutrient needs, particularly for iron and calcium. Weight loss, glycogen depletion, and dehydration also are possible results of an inadequate diet. Dietary strategies to enhance or maintain the body's carbohydrate stores are necessary for performance, especially for cyclists with high training miles or participating in road racing and other endurance events. Additionally, cyclists should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, especially when in a hot environment. It appears that protein requirements of endurance athletes increase as the duration and intensity of exercise increases. However, factors such as total calorie intake and protein quality should be considered when determining protein needs. Many athletes are concerned about vitamin and mineral intake and often use nutritional supplements both for "insurance" as well as performance reasons. The supplements taken most often include vitamin C, the B-complex, and iron. Vitamins and minerals in excess of the RDA do not improve performance and can be toxic when consumed in large amounts. On the other hand, vegetarians and cyclists with low-calorie intakes may benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement.

  4. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  5. Call to Action: Better Nutrition for Mothers, Children, and Families National Workshop Proceedings (Washington, D.C., December 6-8, 1990). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharbaugh, Carolyn S., Ed.

    This report summarizes proceedings and recommendations of a workshop on trends, needs, and issues in maternal and child nutrition services and presents 28 major recommendations and associated action strategies which address general areas, women's nutrition for optimal reproductive health, infant nutrition, child nutrition, adolescent nutrition,…

  6. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  7. Assessment of nutrition knowledge and related aspects among first-year Kuwait University students.

    PubMed

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E

    2011-01-01

    Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.

  8. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  9. Preterm nutrition and the brain.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time

  10. Crustal Seismicity and Recent Faults in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.; Comte, D.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Herail, G.

    2004-12-01

    Most seismological studies in southern Peru have been focused on the downgoing slab seismicity in order to constrain the Wadati-Benioff zone. This study deals with the intra-continental seismicity of the southern Peru forearc (17,3° S - 18,5° S) in a post-seismic context (Arequipa thrust earthquake, Mw=8.4, 23 June, 2001). It is difficult to identify historical crustal earthquake from available catalogues, however some crustal events teleseismically recorded can be found since 1976; they exhibit normal focal mechanism solutions in the southern Peru volcanic arc and inverse focal mechanism solutions in the Central Depression. Following a notable increase of shallow crustal seismicity located close to the Western Cordillera after the 23 June 2001, a temporary seismic network was deployed between January and March 2003 in order to study the Wadati-Benioff zone and monitoring the crustal seismicity in southern Peru. From the about 1700 events locally recorded by the local network, 300 crustal earthquakes were identified in the Peruvian forearc between Tacna and Moquegua. This crustal seismicity is distributed along a lineament located at depths between 0 and 60 km, dipping at about 45° from the Western Cordillera towards the coast, almost perpendicular to the subducting slab; this behaviour was previously observed in northern Chile and in southern Peru, north of the study zone (16° S). In the Central Depression, seismic activity is not superficial occurring between 25-60 km depth and it is mostly characterized by inverse focal mechanism solutions. Superficial faults situated in the Central Depression and in the Coastal Cordillera can not be associated with the seismic activity observed in this area. However, in the Pre-Cordillera, crustal seismicity occurs at depths between 0-15 km and can be correlated with shallow fault systems recognized by satellite images and on the field. For examples, the Incapuquio fault system which was a transpressive system in Cretaceous

  11. Perfume dermatitis in children sensitized to balsam of Peru in topical agents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1990-01-01

    Hjorth in his classic monogram "Eczematous Allergy to Balsams" emphasized that sensitization to balsam of Peru is most important since secondary allergens such as "fragrances" are ubiquitous. The application of a topical medication containing balsam of Peru to the skin of an infant, particularly in the occluded diaper area, seems a great way to sensitize the infant not only to balsam of Peru but also to our fragrant environment.

  12. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely

  13. Determinants of unequal HIV care access among people living with HIV in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in access to health care among people living with HIV (PLHA) has not been extensively studied in Peru despite the fact there is significant social diversity within this group. We aimed to assess the extent to which health care provision to PLHA, including ARVT, was equitable and, if appropriate, identify factors associated with lower access. Methods We conducted a survey among adult PLHA in four cities in Peru, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, social network size, household welfare, economic activity, use of HIV-related services including ARV treatment, and health-related out-of-pocket expenses. Results Between September 2008 and January 2009, 863 individuals from PLHA organizations in four cities of Peru were enrolled. Median age was 35 (IQR = 29–41), and mostly male (62%). Overall, 25% reported to be gay, 11% bisexual and 3% transgender. Most PLHA (96%) reported access to some kind of HIV-related health service, and 84% were receiving those services at a public facility. Approximately 85% of those reporting access to care were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ARV), and 17% of those not in treatment already had indication to start treatment. Among those currently on ARV, 36% percent reported out-of-pocket expenses within the last month. Transgender identity and age younger than 35 years old, were associated with lower access to health care. Conclusions Our findings contribute to a better social and demographic characterization of the situation of PLHAs, their access to HIV care and their source of care, and provide an assessment of equity in access. In the long term, it is expected that HIV care access, as well as its social determinants, will impact on the morbidity and mortality rates among those affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV care providers and program managers should further characterize the barriers to healthcare access and develop strategies to

  14. First record and a new species of Metopiasoides Comellini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Angélico

    2016-01-01

    Metopiasoides jefersoni Asenjo, a new species, of the Neotropical pselaphine tribe Metopiasini, is described from Urubamba Valley in southeastern Peru (Cusco state). Major diagnostic features are illustrated.

  15. The 15 August 2007 Peru tsunami runup observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Borrero, Jose C.; Broncano, Pablo; Ortega, Erick

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts to ensure successful self-evacuation.

  16. Constrained choices: adolescents speak on sexuality in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Angela M; Tsui, Amy O; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-10-01

    While numerous studies have explored young people's sexual behaviour in Peru, to date few have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programmes. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12-17-year-old young women and men from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analysed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in respondents' lives. However, interviewees viewed the full expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Particular constraints derive from the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in young people's lives. The results of this study can inform policies and programmes to support young people as they make sexuality-related decisions.

  17. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women’s health behaviors during women’s visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. PMID:21464205

  18. Morphostructural provinces and neotectonics in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, J. F.; Deza, E.; Garcia, F.

    The Amazonian lowlands of Peru are composed of the Subandean Zone (foreland), the Marañón Basin (foredeep) and the Iquitos Geanticline (Brazilian Craton). The Subandean Zone includes the Subandean Thrust and Fold Belt (STFB) to the west, which crops out mostly in the foothills, and the Subandean Tilted Block Zone (STBZ) to the east, which is principally exposed in the Amazonian lowlands of central Peru. The main trends of river belts are related to structural style. Main rivers in the STFB are antecedent, and secondary drainage is subsequent. In the STBZ, river basins are channelized, parallel to structural grain. The special asymmetric pattern of the Subandean drainage network depends on these two juxtaposed structural regions. As a result, fluvial migration in Peruvian lowlands is more controlled and limited by neotectonics than previously supposed.

  19. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru. PMID:24001096

  20. Patients' associations and the control of leishmaniasis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Calmet, J; Rosales, E; Cruz, M; Chang, J; Dedet, J P

    1997-01-01

    American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem in Peru, particularly in the mountainous Cuzco Region, where 25% of all new cases reported in 1989 were located. Cases have increased considerably since the beginning of the 1980s, when large-scale seasonal migration to endemic zones occurred, particularly the forest area of Madre de Dios, following the discovery of new gold deposits there, and the deterioration in the economic situation in Peru. Following the lack of official response from the Peruvian government, hundreds of people suffering from leishmaniasis in the Cuzco area formed self-help associations with the objective of obtaining the drugs needed to treat their disease. The major achievement of this spontaneous movement, which was supported by several public and private institutions, was to encourage sick people, particularly patients with mucosal lesions, to emerge from isolation. As a result, the prevalence and incidence of the disease have now considerably decreased in the region. PMID:9141749

  1. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  2. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  3. [Nutrition sciences in the treatment of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Haas, Verena; Boschmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence for the existence of a hypermetabolic state of biological origin in recently weight recovered patients with anorexia nervosa. It remains unclear if current nutritional rehabilitation strategies are consistent with the resulting high energy requirements. Further insight into specific pathophysiological characteristics of energetic efficiency in patients with anorexia nervosa will help us to provide evidence based nutritional guidance. Basic nutritional research in this field is urgently required.

  4. The Arequipa (Peru) earthquake of June 23, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavera, H.; Buforn, E.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Vilacapoma, L.

    The Arequipa earthquake of 23 June 2001 hasbeen the largest earthquake (Mw = 8.3)occurredin the last century in southern Peru with amaximum intensity of VIII (MM scale). Focalmechanisms of main shock and three largeraftershocks have been studied, showingthrusting solutions for main shock and twoaftershocks and normal motion for the eventof July, 5. The rupture area has beenobtained from distribution of aftershocks.The occurrence of the Arequipa earthquakeis related with the convergence processbetween the Nazca and South Americaplates.

  5. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  6. MODIS Detects a Devastating Algal Bloom in Paracas Bay, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Mitchell, B. Greg; Diaz, Anibal; Miura, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    The medium-resolution bands on NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were successfully used to detect and map the distribution of a harmful phytoplankton bloom in the Paracas Bay, Peru, that caused economic losses worth millions of dollars. Routine application of MODIS data can be a valuable and cost-effective way to monitor harmful blooms and other turbid water plumes that cause disruption to the fishery and aquaculture operations of many coastal areas.

  7. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  8. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru.

    PubMed

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided.

  9. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (< 5 vs. ≥ 5 servings/day) was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i.e. age, gender, education level, etc.), and self-reported intention to change eating- and exercise-related habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%), mean age 43.7 (± 14.5) years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%-11.2%) customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. < 7 years), and 64% less common for migrants relative to non-migrants. In terms of intentions to change habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥ 5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population. PMID:27617194

  10. Drought Monitoring in Peru as a Climate Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Waldo; Felipe, Oscar; Caycho, Tania; Sosa, Jesus; Fernandez, Carlos; Endara, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    Given the need to reduce socio- economic and environmental drought in Peru as well as the vulnerability and increasing responsiveness and recovery to these events, the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru (SENAMHI ) in conjunction with the Peru's Environment Ministry has developed a plan Drought Monitoring nationwide, which consists of two components: 1) Monitoring System and 2 ) Dissemination System . The first component consists of calculating drought indicators at national level; and for that purpose we have selected the following indexes: Normal Precipitation Index (NPI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) , Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) , Vegetation Condition Index (VCI ) , Temperature Condition Index ( TCI) , Healthy Vegetation Index (VHI ) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). In order to estimate these index observed climatological and hydrological data of SENAMHI network is used as well as remote sensing data of precipitation, temperature and vegetation (TRMM, CHIRPS and MODIS). The second component is the spread of these indicators and a compilation thereof to a summary document that integrates all indicators (Monthly Bulletin). This will be done through newsletters and a website (www.senamhi.gob.pe/serviciosclimaticos); in the case of exceptional drought events special notes will be made. A date has launched the first newsletter in September 2014. This drought monitoring system will be used as an instrument of climate service and we intend to make it a useful tool for decision makers and the general population .

  11. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome. PMID:15614302

  12. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  13. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section for us ... the schedule given to you by your doctor. Recipes from the NPF Chronic Pancreatitis Cookbook The NPF ...

  14. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events Guidelines & ... Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What ...

  15. Optimal Nutrition in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ikizler, T. Alp

    2012-01-01

    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is highly prevalent in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Importantly, there is a robust association between the extent of PEW and the risk of hospitalization and death in these patients, regardless of the nutritional marker used. The multiple etiologies of PEW in advanced kidney disease are still being elucidated. Apart from the multiple mechanisms that might lead to PEW, it appears that the common pathway for all the derangements is related to exaggerated protein degradation along with decreased protein synthesis. The hemodialysis procedure per se is an important contributor to this process. Metabolic and hormonal derangements such as acidosis, inflammation and resistance to anabolic properties of insulin resistance and growth hormone are all implicated for the development of PEW in MHD patients. Appropriate management of MHD patients at risk for PEW requires a comprehensive combination of strategies to diminish protein and energy depletion, and to institute therapies that will avoid further losses. The mainstay of nutritional treatment in MHD patients is provision of an adequate amount of protein and energy, using oral supplementation as needed. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition should be attempted in patients who cannot use the gastrointestinal tract efficiently. Other anabolic strategies such as exercise, anabolic hormones, anti-inflammatory therapies and appetite stimulants can be considered as complementary therapies in suitable patients. PMID:23439378

  16. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  17. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  18. Nutritional aspects of gluten-free products.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, gluten-free (GF) goods have become popular, fuelling a growing market, as they not only cater to individuals with medical needs but also to consumers who seek a GF diet. In their development, it is pivotal to pay attention to nutritional quality. This review aims to provide some insights on the nutritional quality of GF products, focusing on major concerns and the strategies to overcome them. In order to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten, a large number of flours and starches and other ingredients have been used. Therefore the different mixtures of these ingredients bring a wide difference in the nutritional composition of GF foods with respect to gluten-containing counterparts. Several GF foodstuffs contain more fat, including saturated, and salt but fewer minerals and vitamins than their equivalents with gluten. The increased fibre content and improved technological processes have positively affected the glycaemic responses from these goods. However, in order to improve their nutritional quality, wholemeal GF cereals and pseudocereals with high nutritive value should replace the low-nutritional GF flours and consequently the technological processes would be optimized. The improvement of the nutritional quality of GF products, and in turn that of the GF diet, should also be aimed at lowering the risk of later chronic degenerative disorders, especially for infants and young children.

  19. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  20. Activating the community for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Rajammal P

    2002-06-01

    This presentation provides information on community-oriented action research conducted under the leadership of Dr. Rajammal P. Devadas, the recipient of the IUNS International Nutrition Award for 2001. Educating, activating, and energizing the community with empowerment have been the focus of the action-oriented research. In the four decades of work presented, massive efforts have been made in the areas of infant and preschool child nutrition; nutritious noon meal programs for children; integration of nutrition, health, and sanitation concepts in the primary school curriculum; use of local foods to eradicate malnutrition; introduction of novel and underexploited foods; food-based approaches to overcome micronutrient malnutrition; equipping women for food and nutrition security; and nutrition education. These efforts have been activated through development of relevant food and educational materials, their introduction to the community, impact evaluation, follow-up, and implementation of the concepts in relevant national programs with massive training efforts. Many of the efforts outlined have formed the basis for regional and nationwide nutrition intervention strategies. The experiences gained and training efforts developed have gone beyond the country-level exposure to training and equipping nutrition workers in other countries.

  1. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  2. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  3. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  4. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  5. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  6. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  7. Comparative Genomics Provide Insights into Evolution of Trichoderma Nutrition Style

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase–polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma. PMID:24482532

  8. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  9. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  10. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Steckler, Allan; Black, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Process evaluation was used to examine the implementation of a randomized, controlled trial of an education intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered the multi-component intervention as part of usual care in the government health centers. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine process indicators, which included the extent of delivery (dose), fidelity to intervention protocol, barriers to implementation and context. Results demonstrated that most intervention components were delivered at a level of 50-90% of expectations. Fidelity to intervention protocol, where measured, was lower (28-70% of expectations). However, when compared with existing nutrition education, as represented by the control centers, significant improvements were demonstrated. This included both improved delivery of existing educational activities as well as delivery of new intervention components to strengthen overall nutrition education. Barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation were explored with health personnel and helped to explain results. This study demonstrates the importance of examining actual versus planned implementation in order to improve our understanding of how interventions succeed. The information gained from this study will inform future evaluation designs, and lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs for child health.

  11. [Nutrition management for COPD].

    PubMed

    Miki, Keisuke; Maekura, Ryoji

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the lung and of the whole body, and pulmonary cachexia often occurs during the advanced stage. The effects of nutritional support upon the management of under-nutrition in COPD remain controversial. However, a study of the effects of nutritional supplement therapy upon such patients with COPD has recently been published. The present report comprises a review of recent articles about the nutritional support of patients with COPD, especially those with cachexia, and a discussion about the roles of nutritional supplement therapy, focusing on exercise and treatment with ghrelin and vitamin D in the management of COPD. PMID:27254950

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  13. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  14. Human rabies and rabies in vampire and nonvampire bat species, Southeastern Peru, 2007.

    PubMed

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles; Montgomery, Joel M

    2009-08-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru.

  15. Women's Work, Education, and Family Welfare in Peru. World Bank Discussion Papers 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Barbara K., Ed.; Khandker, Shahidur R., Ed.

    This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. The research finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. They carry the main responsibility for child care and heavily influence family decisions on children's education and family size. Improving…

  16. The Effects of Peru's Push To Improve Education. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.; Bellew, Rosemary T.

    From the mid-1950s to the 1960s, the government of Peru undertook a major expansion of public education, increasing the number of schools, requiring primary schools that offered an incomplete cycle to add grades, and increasing school inputs (principally teachers and textbooks). The effects of Peru's educational policies, and the effect of family…

  17. Annotated checklist of the mosquito species encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pecor, J E; Jones, J; Turell, M J; Fernandez, R; Carbajal, F; O'Guinn, M; Sardalis, M; Watts, D; Zyzak, M; Calampa, C; Klein, T A

    2000-09-01

    A checklist of the mosquito fauna encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru, is presented. A total of 16 genera, 30 subgenera, and 96 species were identified, including 24 species reported from Peru for the 1st time. Notations on the taxonomy and biology for 28 species are also provided.

  18. Human rabies and rabies in vampire and nonvampire bat species, Southeastern Peru, 2007.

    PubMed

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles; Montgomery, Joel M

    2009-08-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  19. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles

    2009-01-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  20. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  1. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  2. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  3. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  4. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of liquid or aerosol contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of...

  5. Nutrition in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Beglinger, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The pancreas plays a major role in nutrient digestion. Therefore, in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop, impairing digestive and absorptive processes. These changes can lead to malnutrition over time. In parallel to these changes, decreased caloric intake and increased metabolic activity are often present. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. In severe acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition with a naso-jejunal feeding tube and a low molecular diet displays clear advantages compared to parenteral nutrition. Infectious complications, length of hospital stay and the need for surgery are reduced. Furthermore, enteral nutrition is less costly than parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who do not tolerate enteral nutrition. Abstinence from alcohol, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation is sufficient in over 80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. In addition, oral supplements are helpful. Enteral nutrition can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Family-Oriented Nutrition Education and Preschool Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venters, Maurine; Mullis, Rebecca

    1984-01-01

    Explores implications of interdisciplinary findings in an attempt to: (1) identify family practices and behaviors that contribute to preschool obesity; and (2) suggest effective obesity control strategies that can guide family-oriented nutrition education and counseling efforts. (JN)

  7. Nutrition support in pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Caitlin S; Kudsk, Kenneth A

    2007-12-01

    Nutrition support is especially important in patients who have pancreatitis, as these patients have high metabolic needs and are usually unable to ingest sufficient calories from an oral diet because of pain or intestinal dysfunction. Clinicians must assess severity of the disease carefully, as initiation and timing of nutrition support are crucial. Depending on the severity, early nutrition support may be unnecessary, while late support ultimately may lead to worse outcomes. Route of nutrition support also plays an important role in treatment. The clinician has many alternatives from which to choose, including enteral nutrition given nasogastrically or nasojejunally, or parenteral nutrition given through a central line. This article explores the role of nutrition support in the outcome of pancreatitis and provides guidelines to aid the clinician in caring for patients who have acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  8. [Nutrition yesterday and today].

    PubMed

    Jaffé, W G; Bengoa, J M

    1988-09-01

    The history of human nutrition from primitive times to actuality is briefly outlined. Many of the modern nutritional problems can be traced back to changes caused by the introduction of agriculture and, more recently, food technology. These developments have changed the composition of the diet to which the primitive hunter-gatherers had adapted themselves during millions of years. Changes in food habits and the beginning of the science of nutrition are discussed, and a brief review of nutritional recommendations is provided. The terms of nutritional goals and rules, so much used today, are of recent introduction. Nevertheless, norms, normal allowances and other similar expressions have since long ago been in use. Nutritional goals should be based on the vital habits of the population for which they are intended, and should be adapted to the ever emerging new findings in nutritional sciences. PMID:3153124

  9. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  10. Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2 – 18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7- 28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4 – 6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6 - 24.7%) among participants < 15 years, suggesting recent transmission. Increasing age, positive triatomines in a participant's house, and ownership of a T. cruzi positive guinea pig were independent correlates of T. cruzi infection. Only one species of triatomine was found, Panstrongylus lignarius, formerly P. herreri. Approximately forty percent (39.9%, 95% CI: 33.2 - 46.9%) of surveyed households were infested with this vector and 14.9% (95% CI: 10.4 - 20.5%) had at least one triatomine positive for T. cruzi. The cardiac abnormality of right bundle branch block was rare, but only identified in seropositive individuals. Conclusions Our research documents a substantial prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Cutervo and highlights a need for greater attention and vector

  11. Targeting pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in the United States and Peru: partnership types, contact rates, and sexual role

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Nicole Bohme; Goodreau, Steven M.; Liu, Albert; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background We aim to identify optimal strategies for deploying pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in the US and Peru to maximize population-level effectiveness in an efficient manner. We use epidemic models to simulate the impact of targeting strategies. Most studies have focused on targeting either the general population or high-risk MSM. Alternative strategies, including serodiscordant couples, may better balance effectiveness and efficiency. Methods We use dynamic, stochastic sexual network models based in exponential-family random graph modeling, parameterized from behavioral surveys of MSM in the US and Peru. These models represent main partnerships and casual contacts separately, permitting modeling of interventions targeting men whose risk derives from combinations of relational types. We also model varying rates of uptake and adherence to PrEP. We assess sensitivity of results to risk compensation via increases in condomless casual contacts and condomless sex in main partnerships. Results Targeting all men who are not exclusively insertive has the largest impact on HIV incidence, but targeting only those with high levels of casual activity yields comparable results using fewer person-years on PrEP. The effect is robust to risk compensation in the US, but less so in Peru. Targeting serodiscordant main partnerships does not significantly impact incidence, but requires fewer person-years on PrEP per infection averted than other strategies. Conclusions PrEP could be effective in reducing new infections at the population level in both settings. Serodiscordant partnerships are an attractive component of a targeting program, but targeting should include other high-risk men. PMID:25942463

  12. Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru: Acceptability of Medication-Assisted Therapy for Treating Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shan-Estelle; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Konda, Kelika A.; Clark, Jesse L.; Lama, Javier R.; Gonzales, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Duerr, Ann C.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    In Peru, the HIV epidemic is concentrated in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Multiple studies correlate alcohol use disorders (AUDs) with risky sexual behaviors among Peruvian MSM. Qualitative research was used to inform a clinical trial on the acceptability of medication-assisted therapies (MAT) to assist management of AUDs and improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among MSM/TGW in Peru. Three focus groups involving HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected MSM/TGW (n=26) with AUDs (AUDIT≥ 8) were transcribed, translated from Spanish into English, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Despite having an AUD, participants considered themselves as “social” drinkers, minimized their drinking behaviors, and differed about whether or not alcohol problems could be treated. Participants expressed skepticism about medication for treating AUDs. Three concepts emerged as necessary components of a treatment program for alcohol problems: cost, family support, and the potential to drink less alcohol without attaining total abstinence. This study reveals important areas of education to increase potential acceptability of a medication for treating AUDs among MSM/TGW. Given the social conditions and knowledge base of the participants, MAT using naltrexone may be a beneficial strategy for MSM with AUDs. PMID:25787988

  13. Systematic review of peri-operative nutritional support for patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among peri-operative patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery and is an important prognostic factor. Both hepatobiliary disease and surgical trauma significantly affects body’s metabolism and environment. Therefore, it is very important for patients with liver diseases undergoing hepatobiliary surgery to receive essential nutritional support during peri-operative period. Methods We summarized our clinical experience and reviewed of related literature to find the way for implementing the appropriate nutritional strategy. Results We found after comprehensively evaluating nutrition status, function of liver and gastrointestinal tract, nutritional strategy would be selected correctly. In severe malnutrition, initiation of enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) with essential or special formulae is often recommended. Especially nasojejunal feeding is indicated that early application can improve nutritional status and liver function, reduce complications and prolong survival. Conclusions The reasonable peri-operative nutritional support therapy can improve the effect of surgical treatment and promote the patients’ recovery. PMID:26605277

  14. [Nutritional ecology: chances of public health services to shape procedures].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Hauber-Schwenk, G

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition ecology is the science that studies the impacts of human nutrition on the environment, on human health and on social systems. Environmental impacts are usually the result of intensive food production, food transport and food packaging; they include soil contamination and erosion, energy consumption, air contamination and waste disposal. Health impacts of contemporary western eating behavior concern nutrition-related diseases (diabetes, hypertension, gout, overweight etc) and their psychological and social consequences; nutrition ecology aims at a balanced diet and suitable eating behavior to reduce the risks of chronic disease. The social impacts of nutrition concern the effects of feed trade on poor working conditions and poverty, especially in developing countries. The strategies of nutrition ecology agree in many points with those of the agenda 21 and of Consumer Protection. As nutrition-related diseases are increasing further, the public health services in Germany discover nutrition as an important topic in health promotion and prevention. They will contribute remarkably to a sustainable development if they include the strategies of nutrition ecology in their projects.

  15. Optimising nutrition in residential aged care: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ekta; Marshall, Skye; Miller, Michelle; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    In developed countries the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition increases with age and multi-morbidities increase nutritional risk in aged care residents in particular. This paper presents a narrative review of the current literature on the identification, prevalence, associated risk factors, consequences, and management of malnutrition in the residential aged care (RAC) setting. We performed searches of English-language publications on Medline, PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1990 to November 25, 2015. We found that, on average, half of all residents in aged care are malnourished as a result of factors affecting appetite, dietary intake and nutrient absorption. Malnutrition is associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes, including increased risk of infections, falls, pressure ulcers and hospital admissions, all of which can lead to increased health care costs and poorer quality of life. A number of food and nutrition strategies have demonstrated positive nutritional and clinical outcomes in the RAC setting. These strategies extend beyond simply enhancing the nutritional value of foods and hence necessitate the involvement of a range of committed stakeholders. Implementing a nutritional protocol in RAC facilities that comprises routine nutrition screening, assessment, appropriate nutrition intervention, including attention to food service systems, and monitoring by a multidisciplinary team can help prevent decline in residents' nutritional status. Food and nutritional issues should be identified early and managed on admission and regularly in the RAC setting. PMID:27621242

  16. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  17. HIV-1 infection may be on the rise in Peru.

    PubMed

    The results of a national survey have indicated that "... HIV-1 infection is epidemic in Peru among groups at high risk of sexually and parenterally transmitted diseases," a multicenter group reported (AIDS 1996; 10: 1141-1145). Although the risk of infection appears to be very low in the general population, it may possibly be increasing, according to Dr. Michael C. McCarthy, US National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. McCarthy's group evaluated over 140,000 serum samples for antibodies to HIV-1 between January 1986 and December 1990 in Peru. HIV-1 antibody was detected in 26% of samples from homosexual men, 10% of samples from male sexually transmitted disease patients, and 13% of samples from drug users. 10% of the samples from hemophiliacs and unlicensed female prostitutes were positive for antibodies to HIV-1. In general, he concluded that the patterns of the HIV-1 epidemic in Peru are similar to those seen in Brazil and "... are also similar to initial transmission patterns of HIV-1 infection of North America." However, McCarthy also noted a substantial increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection between the beginning and the end of the survey period. Although there was a low prevalence of HIV-1 infection among military personnel and among women seen at prenatal clinics, a "low but rising prevalence of HIV-1 antibody" among military personnel points to a potential increase in the general population. "The fact that many HIV-1 antibody-positive men were married and reported bisexual behavior (28%) highlights the potential of this group to transmit HIV-1 to female partners," he added.

  18. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  19. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  20. Community variations in infant and child mortality in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Edmonston, B; Andes, N

    1983-01-01

    Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average female education, medical facilities, and altitude on community mortality. Finally, this study concludes that large-scale sample surveys, which include maternal birth history, add useful data for epidemiological studies of childhood mortality. PMID:6886581

  1. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  2. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition. PMID:24667305

  3. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

  4. [Management of clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martín Folgueras, Tomás

    2015-05-07

    Proper management of Clinical Nutrition requires careful planning of the resources required to delineate the activities to be performed by each of the participants and consider the need for continued evaluation of the results to improve. Units of Nutrition and Nutritional Support Teams must have a multidisciplinary composition, incorporating professionals with training and experience in Clinical Nutrition. Whenever conditions permit and activity of each center indicates, the staff's dedication to nutrition must be complete. The organization of processes and use of clinical practice protocols facilitates the monitoring of the activities carried out by teams of Nutrition. Each stage of a process has quality criteria based on scientific knowledge, and some key objectives whose degree of achievement can be measured by monitoring quality indicators and their comparison with standards. Successive cycles of measurement indicators, evaluation and corrective interventions lead to continuous process improvement.

  5. Nutrition agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation: lessons from the Mainstreaming Nutrition Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L; Frongillo, Edward A; Gervais, Suzanne; Hoey, Lesli; Menon, Purnima; Ngo, Tien; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease and can be addressed through a number of highly efficacious interventions. Undernutrition generally has not received commensurate attention in policy agendas at global and national levels, however, and implementing these efficacious interventions at a national scale has proven difficult. This paper reports on the findings from studies in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru and Vietnam which sought to identify the challenges in the policy process and ways to overcome them, notably with respect to commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. Data were collected through participant observation, documents and interviews. Data collection, analysis and synthesis were guided by published conceptual frameworks for understanding malnutrition, commitment, agenda setting and implementation capacities. The experiences in these countries provide several insights for future efforts: (a) high-level political attention to nutrition can be generated in a number of ways, but the generation of political commitment and system commitment requires sustained efforts from policy entrepreneurs and champions; (b) mid-level actors from ministries and external partners had great difficulty translating political windows of opportunity for nutrition into concrete operational plans, due to capacity constraints, differing professional views of undernutrition and disagreements over interventions, ownership, roles and responsibilities; and (c) the pace and quality of implementation was severely constrained in most cases by weaknesses in human and organizational capacities from national to frontline levels. These findings deepen our understanding of the factors that can influence commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. They also confirm and extend upon the growing recognition that the heavy investment to identify efficacious nutrition interventions is unlikely to reduce

  6. [Nutrition recommendations (1990)].

    PubMed

    Julien, M G

    1991-05-01

    As of last year, new Canadian dietary recommendations and nutritional requirements have been established. The combination of these two documents evolved as a result of a better understanding of nutrition, as well as, an awareness that the problems related to nutritional deficiencies have resulted in numerous chronic diseases. This article, after an initial review of the origin of these documents, highlights the main changes that have occurred and reviews how this information is used and interpreted by various health care professionals.

  7. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  8. [Home enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C

    1999-04-01

    Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.

  9. Nutrition for Older Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  10. Nutrition and pain.

    PubMed

    Tick, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Research is providing compelling evidence for Hippocrates' oft quoted "Let food be thy medicine." Despite this, most graduating physicians receive only a few hours of instruction about nutrition and coaching to help patients change their eating habits. Appropriate nutritional interventions may be one of the most useful tools doctors have to improve overall health outcomes in their patients and specifically reduce inflammation. Whether doctors choose to do this themselves or collaborate with other professionals trained in nutritional coaching, the benefits of attending to nutritional status can enhance outcomes of other therapies. PMID:25952067

  11. Managing glacier related risks in the Chucchún Catchment, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Randy; Gonzáles, César; Price, Karen; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Cochachin, Alejo; García, Javier; Mesa, Luis

    2015-04-01

    On April 11 2010, the city of Carhuaz and settlements in the Chucchún Catchment (Ancash region, Peru) suffered the impact of a glacier lake outburst flood. An avalanche of rock and ice from the Mount Hualcán hit the glacier lake 513, triggering a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) of 1 million m3 which destroyed farmland and several infrastructures. Although there was no loss of human life, the event caused panic in the population. In consequence, the Municipality of Carhuaz prioritized GLOF-related risk management. The Glacier Project, funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and executed by CARE Peru and the University of Zurich, fosters the coordination among public institutions (Glaciological Unit of the National Water Authority, the Ministry of Environment and Municipality) and the population for risk management. In this contribution we present all components of the risk management strategy as well as the lessons learned during the implementation. Risk management involves managing both glacier hazard as well as the vulnerability of the population. In this framework a glaciological and geomorphological characterization of Mount Hualcán and lake 513 was perfomed in order to model past and potential future outburst floods and to assess the slope stability conditions. Based on three potential GLOF scenarios of different magnitudes, a hazard map was produced for the entire catchment, which served as the basis for the vulnerability and risk assessment as well as for the design and the implementation of an Early Warning System (EWS), including evacuation planning. The EWS consists of 4 components: 1) knowledge of risk, through hazard and vulnerability characterization; 2) monitoring and alert, through the installation of monitoring stations on lake 513 for detecting avalanches with geophones and cameras; 3) broadcasting and communications, through the implementation of communication protocols between the Municipality of Carhuaz and emergency

  12. Experiences with the Norwegian nutrition policy.

    PubMed

    Kaernes, Unni

    2003-12-01

    Norwegian nutrition policy has received considerable attention. The distinguishing feature is its 'structural' orientation, i.e. towards production and market regulation, as opposed to individual, information-based strategies. This was possible first of all because of distinctive Norwegian political traditions, with a heavily regulated agricultural sector, combined with a welfare policy tradition emphasising influence on other sectors. While the institutionalisation of the Norwegian nutrition policy has been important for its political legitimacy and visibility, the paper discusses how this has also represented a challenge when problems and policy goals are to be altered. PMID:14637323

  13. Nutrition for children with epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Lesley

    2010-04-01

    Optimization of resistance to infection, growth, sexual maturation, wound healing, and provision of the best possible overall quality of life are important management goals in children with epidermolysis bullosa. However, all these goals rely on the maintenance of optimal nutritional status, and achieving this is extremely challenging in the severe types of the disease. Strategies to improve nutritional status have the best chance of success when the dietitian or nutritionist works as an integral member of the multidisciplinary team and is well informed of patients' situations, family dynamics, and prognoses. Even the best-coordinated dietetic interventions may exert only limited impact. PMID:20447494

  14. [Development of new drugs: opportunities and benefits for Peru].

    PubMed

    Bayona, Andrés; Fajardo, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. This improves people's quality of life and makes it more productive. Therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. Clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. Research and development (R&D) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. Compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. According to ClinicalTrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in Latin America, and Peru is in the fifth position. On the other hand, according to the Global Competitiveness Report issued by the World Economic Forum, Peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in R&D and technological capacity. The complexity of drug R&D results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. Clinical Research is a humanized industry due to its ethical platform, stated in the guidelines of good clinical practices. This industry demands our country to develop a differentiating value that contributes to the development of knowledge and its competitiveness. PMID:23338639

  15. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-07-01

    The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru.

  17. Astronomy Against Terrorism: an Educational Astronomical Observatory Project in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, M.; Montes, H.; Kuroda, T.; Morimoto, M.; Ishitsuka, J.

    2003-05-01

    The Cosmos Coronagraphic Observatory was completely destroyed by terrorists in 1988. In 1995, in coordination with the Minister of Education of Peru, a project to construct a new Educational Astronomical Observatory has been executed. The main purpose of the observatory is to promote an interest in basic space sciences in young students from school to university levels, through basic astronomical studies and observations. The planned observatory will be able to lodge 25 visitors; furthermore an auditorium, a library and a computer room will be constructed to improve the interest of people in astronomy. Two 15-cm refractor telescopes, equipped with a CCD camera and a photometer, will be available for observations. Also a 6-m dome will house a 60-cm class reflector telescope, which will be donated soon, thanks to a fund collected and organized by the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory in Japan. In addition a new modern planetarium donated by the Government of Japan will be installed in Lima, the capital of Peru. These installations will be widely open to serve the requirements of people interested in science.

  18. Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

  19. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Outreach Farms and Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research About the ICHNR Links Reports Research Tools ...

  20. Database and Map of Quaternary Faults and Folds in Peru and its Offshore Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machare, Jose; Fenton, Clark H.; Machette, Michael N.; Lavenu, Alain; Costa, Carlos; Dart, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    This publication consists of a main map of Quaternary faults and fiolds of Peru, a table of Quaternary fault data, a region inset map showing relative plate motion, and a second inset map of an enlarged area of interest in southern Peru. These maps and data compilation show evidence for activity of Quaternary faults and folds in Peru and its offshore regions of the Pacific Ocean. The maps show the locations, ages, and activity rates of major earthquake-related features such as faults and fault-related folds. These data are accompanied by text databases that describe these features and document current information on their activity in the Quaternary.

  1. Tectonic implications of the microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Cunningham, P.; Molnar, P.; Roecker, S. W.; Suarez, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ocola, L.

    1984-01-01

    Because the contortion in the seismic zone in southern Peru is aligned approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion, rather than perpendicular to the coast of Peru, the position of the contortion need not migrate with respect to the overriding South American plate as the Nazca plate subducts beneath it, and the flow in the surrounding asthenosphere could be in a steady state. In addition, the position of the contortion defines the northern boundary of the volcanic arc in southern Peru. The inference that a wedge of asthenospheric material must overlie the downgoing slab for subduction-related volcanism to occur is thereby strengthened.

  2. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  3. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  4. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-11-10

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies.

  5. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-01-01

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies. PMID:26624662

  6. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru. PMID:26324726

  7. 'They don't just come for Machu Picchu': locals' views of tourist-local sexual relationships in Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-08-01

    Sexual and romantic relationships between local people and tourists have long taken place. Such encounters are not a modern phenomenon, but the potential of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, warrants greater research into the issue. This paper analyses local people's views of local-tourist relationships in Cuzco/Peru. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant and non-participant observation and informal discussions. Attraction based on physical difference was reportedly the main trigger for such relationships. Emerging themes discussed include issues of self-esteem, strategies of approach, tourists' motives, emotional involvement and expectations from such encounters. Levels of unprotected sexual behaviour and lack of STI awareness are of sufficient concern to recommend urgent action. Suggestions for sexual health education are made with particular emphasis on targeting local people involved in the tourism and hospitality industries. PMID:18649199

  8. Control of cervical cancer in Peru: Current barriers and challenges for the future

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Pinto, Joseph A.; Araujo, Jhajaira; Fajardo, Williams; Bravo, Leny; Pinillos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading malignant neoplasm in Peruvian women. This malignancy is a public health problem and several efforts were previously performed to develop cancer control plans. Geographical, cultural, structural, infrastructural and procedural barriers can limit the implementation of such strategies. Several previous studies have characterized human papilloma virus (HPV) epidemiology, where prevalence of high-risk HPV in adult females is ~12% and the prevalence in cervical cancer is 90–95%. The predominant barriers for the control of cervical cancer are lack of specialists in remote villages, education/cultural issues, loss of patients in follow-up, lack of access to HPV testing and lack of compliance for HPV vaccination. A good strategy for the prevention and early detection of high-risk HPV, pre-malignant neoplasms and cervical cancer, identified by interventional studies, is the self-sampling test, which assists with overcoming the cultural and geographic barriers. The current cancer control plan, termed ‘Plan Esperanza’, is performed with massive training of health professionals and social sensitization campaigns leading to filling the gaps regarding education and, in addition, it provides cancer care coverage for poorer individuals. In our experience at Oncosalud-AUNA, with a cohort of ~750,000 affiliates using a pre-paid system with annual screenings for cervical cancer for women, offered free-of-charge, a lower incidence of this malignancy (5.8/100,000) is now observed compared with the national incidence (32.7/100,000). As in other countries, the HPV vaccination can be a cost-utility strategy to reduce the high burdens of cervical cancer in Peru, a rapid and cheap HPV molecular sub-typification is rapidly required. PMID:27446557

  9. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  10. Parents and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher

    Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

  11. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  12. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors.

  13. [Nutrition and andrological problems].

    PubMed

    Calcamuggi, G; Marcarino, C; Emanuelli, G

    1991-12-01

    Andrologic problems were considered as nutrition is concerned: vitamin and oligo-element deficiencies, metabolic alterations, and toxic intake. Ethanol role was examined and discussed for its relevance in psychological and organic impairment due to both chronic abuse and acute intake, mainly for its role on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rational nutrition is a clue in sexual disturbance prevention, correction and integrated care.

  14. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  15. Nutrition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ω-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  16. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  17. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  18. Nutrition Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This study guide is an attempt to relate the serving of adequate and nutritious meals to the total education process and to teach the importance of and the necessity for establishing lifetime nutrition practices. Designed for school food service personnel, it outlines an approach to nutrition education at various levels from preschool through…

  19. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  20. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…