Science.gov

Sample records for peruvian pesticide applicators

  1. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  2. The tragedy of Tauccamarca: a human rights perspective on the pesticide poisoning deaths of 4 children in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2003-01-01

    The pesticide poisoning deaths of 24 children in an isolated Peruvian village make a compelling case that corporate accountability for pesticide poisonings in the developing south should be examined from a human rights perspective. Highly toxic pesticides cannot be used safely under prevailing socioeconomic conditions. The industry asserts that the deaths of these children were accidental, blaming misuse. Tragedies such as these poisonings are not accidents, but foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Sales of highly toxic pesticides that cause repeated and predictable poisonings violate the fundamental human rights to life, health, and security of person. The Tauccamarca tragedy is a clear example of the urgency of applying a precautionary, human rights approach to pesticide issues in the developing south.

  3. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  4. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  5. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  6. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... by the docket identification (ID) number and the file symbol for the pesticide of interest as...

  7. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  8. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  9. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency...

  10. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  11. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...

  12. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the...

  13. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  14. Pesticide formulations and application systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko; Spicer

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

  15. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  16. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  17. Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  18. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  19. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  20. 75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products... notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  1. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on this application. ] DATES: Comments must be...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs (a...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs (a...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs (a...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs (a...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs (a...

  7. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  8. Pesticide Registration Manual: Biopesticide Application Checklists Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These checklists are used by reviewers in the Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division in their review of pesticide registration applications. Applicants can use them to help ensure their packages are complete.

  9. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed.

  10. Federal Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to comply with federal law and regulations that require any person who applies or supervises the use of restricted use pesticides (RUPs) be certified as a private or commercial applicator.

  11. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  12. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  13. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in a...

  14. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in a...

  15. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in a...

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  18. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  19. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  20. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  1. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  2. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  3. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  4. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  5. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  6. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  7. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  8. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  9. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  10. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training and Certification Program. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This slide set narrative is designed to provide the necessary information for certification as a private pesticide applicator. The program reviews information necessary to safely work with pesticides and to better understand pests and pest problems. (CS)

  11. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training and Certification Program. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This slide set narrative is designed to provide the necessary information for certification as a private pesticide applicator. The program reviews information necessary to safely work with pesticides and to better understand pests and pest problems. (CS)

  12. Pesticide Electronic Application Submission Portal Updated with New Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has published an updated version of the Pesticide Submission Portal. This Web-based system for electronic submission of pesticide registration applications to EPA, with new features and functionality.

  13. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species.

  14. Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

  15. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  16. [Researches and applications on pesticides from Chinese medicine plant origin].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Mo, Xiao-lu; Wang, Yu-sheng

    2005-11-01

    The research progress on Chinese medicine plant resources with pesticide activities, the active components and their reaction mechanism as well as the application and prospect were reviewed in this paper. Some proposals on the exploitation of traditional Chinese medicine plant origin pesticide were given. It is suggested to found compounds with pesticide activities from heat clearing and toxic clearing medicinal plants.

  17. PR notice 86-4. Notice to registrants of pesticides, and applicants for pesticide registration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces a new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy regarding incomplete applications for registration of pesticides under section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 USC 136a et seq. This notice also specifies new requirements for submitting applications to the Agency in order to implement this policy.

  18. Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Andreotti, Gabriella; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Savage, Sharon; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Barker, Joseph; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Zhang, Xiao; Koutros, Stella; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures. Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL. Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided detailed information on lifetime use of 50 pesticides at enrollment (1993–1997). Buccal cells were collected from 1999 to 2006. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used linear regression modeling to evaluate the associations between specific pesticides and the logarithm of RTL, adjusting for age at buccal cell collection, state of residence, applicator license type, chewing tobacco use, and total lifetime days of all pesticide use. Results: The mean RTL for participants decreased significantly in association with increased lifetime days of pesticide use for alachlor (p = 0.002), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; p = 0.004), metolachlor (p = 0.01), trifluralin (p = 0.05), permethrin (for animal application) (p = 0.02), and toxaphene (p = 0.04). A similar pattern of RTL shortening was observed with the metric lifetime intensity-weighted days of pesticide use. For dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), we observed significant RTL shortening for lifetime intensity-weighted days (p = 0.04), but not for lifetime days of DDT use (p = 0.08). No significant RTL lengthening was observed for any pesticide. Conclusion: Seven pesticides previously associated with cancer risk in the epidemiologic literature were inversely associated with RTL in buccal cell DNA among cancer-free pesticide applicators. Replication of these findings is needed because we cannot rule out chance or fully rule out bias. PMID:23774483

  19. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...

  20. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...

  1. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

  2. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

  3. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...

  4. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  5. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with…

  6. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  7. Applicator Training Manual for: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhults, Douglas G.

    This training manual discusses both the advantages and limitations of aerial application of pesticides. Other topics included are: agricultural aircraft equipment, dispersal accessories, drift control, calibration, spray testing, granular materials testing, operations, and personal safety. Safety check lists are given for pilots, ground crew, and…

  8. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  9. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  10. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  11. Notice to Workers About Pesticide Applications and Pesticide-Treated Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about requirements for employers must notify workers about areas where pesticide applications are taking place or where restricted-entry intervals (REIs) are in effect. Notifications include oral and written information. Exceptions exist.

  12. 77 FR 72342 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide...

  13. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  14. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  15. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  16. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  17. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  18. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  19. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  20. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  1. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or supervising...

  2. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or supervising...

  3. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or supervising...

  4. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or supervising...

  5. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  6. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended... formulating agricultural pesticide formulations, plant growth, regulators, herbicides, fungicides, seed...

  7. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  8. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  9. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  10. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  11. Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study 1993 – 2003

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, M. P.; Kame, F.; Saldana, T. M.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to certain environmental toxicants may be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between lifetime exposure to specific agricultural pesticides and diabetes incidence among pesticide applicators. The study included 33,457 licensed applicators, predominantly non-Hispanic white males, enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Incident diabetes was self-reported in a 5-year follow-up interview (1999–2003), giving 1,176 diabetics and 30,611 non-diabetics for analysis. Lifetime exposure to pesticides and covariate information was reported by participants at enrollment (1993–1997). Using logistic regression, we considered two primary measures of pesticide exposure: ever use and cumulative lifetime days of use. We found seven specific pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine) for which the odds of diabetes incidence increased with both ever use and cumulative days of use. Applicators who had used the organochlorine insecticides aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor more than 100 lifetime days had 51%, 63%, and 94% increased odds of diabetes, respectively. The observed association of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes is consistent with previous human and animal studies. Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes. PMID:18343878

  12. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the...

  13. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the...

  14. 77 FR 14361 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  15. A test house study of pesticides and pesticide degradation products following an indoor application.

    PubMed

    Starr, J M; Gemma, A A; Graham, S E; Stout, D M

    2014-08-01

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates over a 5-week period in a controlled indoor setting after insecticide application. Movement of the pesticides during the study was also evaluated. In a simulated crack and crevice application, commercially available formulations of fipronil, propoxur, cis/trans-permethrin, and cypermethrin were applied to a series of wooden slats affixed to the wall in one room of an unoccupied test house. Floor surface samples were collected through 35 days post-application. Concentrations of the pesticides and the following degradates were determined: 2-iso-propoxyphenol, cis/trans 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-3-3-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, and fipronil desulfinyl. Deltamethrin, which had never been applied, and chlorpyrifos, which had been applied several years earlier, and their degradation products, cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, and, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, respectively, were also measured. Propoxur was the only insecticide with mass movement away from the application site. There was no measurable formation or movement of the degradates. However, all degradates were present at low levels in the formulated product. These results indicate longitudinal repetitive sampling of indoor degradate levels during short-term studies, is unnecessary. Exposure to preexisting pesticide degradates may inflate estimates of exposure in biomonitoring studies where these compounds are used as biomarkers. To date, there is no published information on formation of pesticide degradates following an indoor application. We found that the study pesticides have low rates of degradation and are unlikely to be a

  16. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... products for use against bacteria, protozoa, non-agricultural fungi, and viruses. AD is also responsible... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental...

  17. Fact Sheet on Training and Exam Options for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New pesticide label requirements for training protect applicators, other fumigant handlers and bystanders from soil fumigant exposures. Find criteria details and content check list for approval of training programs.

  18. DoD Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Pest Management Program,’ April 22, 1996. It replaces the ’Department of Defense Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides,’ December 8, 1985. This Plan prescribes procedures for DoD certification of pesticide applicators. This Plan applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments (including the Coast Guard when it is operating as a Military Service in the Navy), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Combatant Commands, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the

  19. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... This agency determines how pesticides are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in ... al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  20. Pesticide use and cutaneous melanoma in pesticide applicators in the agricultural heath study.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Leslie K; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2010-06-01

    Melanoma rates continue to increase; however, few risk factors other than sun sensitivity and ultraviolet radiation (including sun exposure) have been identified. Although studies of farmers have shown an excess risk of melanoma and other skin cancers, it is unclear how much of this is related to sun exposure compared with other agricultural exposures. We examined dose-response relationships for 50 agricultural pesticides and cutaneous melanoma incidence in the Agricultural Health Study cohort of licensed pesticide applicators, along with ever use of older pesticides that contain arsenic. Logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with pesticide exposure adjusted for age, sex, and other potential confounders. We found significant associations between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb (>or= 63 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; trend p = 0.006), parathion (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4; trend p = 0.003), and carbaryl (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; trend p = 0.013). Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. Most previous melanoma literature has focused on host factors and sun exposure. Our research shows an association between several pesticides and melanoma, providing support for the hypotheses that agricultural chemicals may be another important source of melanoma risk.

  1. Pesticides and myocardial infarction incidence and mortality among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2009-10-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides.

  2. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butinof, Mariana; Fernandez, Ricardo Antorio; Stimolo, María Inés; Lantieri, María Josefina; Blanco, Marcelo; Machado, Ana Lia; Franchini, Germán; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Joel R., Ed.

    This programed text on pesticide application provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. The seven chapters cover pest and pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, application equipment, use and maintenance of equipment, using pesticides safely, and the…

  4. Oxidative stress indices in Nigerian pesticide applicators and farmers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Surajudeen, Yaqub A; Sheu, Rahamon K; Ayokulehin, Kosoko M; Olatunbosun, Arinola G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op) toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op-induced oxidative stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) and 30 apparently healthy non-farmers who were nonexposed to Op (controls) were recruited into this study. Serum activity of AChE was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while serum levels of MDA, GSH, and NO and serum activities of CAT, MPO, GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined colorimetrically. Results: Serum activities of AChE and CAT were significantly lower, whereas MPO activity was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with controls. Similarly, farmers had significantly reduced serum AChE activity and significantly raised MPO activity compared with controls. However, serum activities of AChE, CAT, and MPO were significantly lower, whereas mean level of MDA was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with farmers. Conclusion: This study shows that Op applicators are more exposed to oxidative stress than farmers, thus Op applicators require increased antioxidant supplements than farmers. PMID:25298941

  5. Peripheral nervous system function and organophosphate pesticide use among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Starks, Sarah E; Hoppin, Jane A; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Gerr, Fred

    2012-04-01

    Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators.

  6. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  7. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  8. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  9. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  10. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  12. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  13. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    PubMed Central

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  14. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of this...

  19. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of this...

  20. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of this...

  1. Standards for Certification of Pesticide Applicators. 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This publication specified the requirements for certification of pesticide applicators as provided in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1972. Sections 171.1-171.6 of the Act are outlined in detail for clarification. Included in this document are: definitions of terms, categories of commercial applicators,…

  2. Standards for Certification of Pesticide Applicators. 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This publication specified the requirements for certification of pesticide applicators as provided in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1972. Sections 171.1-171.6 of the Act are outlined in detail for clarification. Included in this document are: definitions of terms, categories of commercial applicators,…

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Private Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, J. Blair; And Others

    This publication is a training manual for the private pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective private applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The primary focus of this publication is on agricultural pesticide…

  4. Exacerbation of symptoms in agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoming; London, Stephanie J.; Umbach, David M.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Exacerbation is a critical event in asthma management. We investigated whether exacerbation of symptoms is associated with farming exposures among agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma. Methods Participants were pesticide applicators with active asthma (wheezing and breathing problems in past 12 months) who completed enrollment questionnaires for the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Exacerbation of asthma was defined as having visited a hospital emergency room or doctor for an episode of wheezing or whistling in the past 12 months. Exposures of interest were using 36 specific pesticides in the past 12 months and conducting various agricultural activities. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders. Results The 926 AHS adult pesticide applicators with active asthma included 202 (22%) with exacerbation. Inverse associations with exacerbation were observed for two herbicides (glyphosate, odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3–0.8, and paraquat, OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.9) and several agricultural activities (repairing engines, grinding metal, driving diesel tractors, and performing veterinary procedures). Only asthma cases with allergies (i.e., doctor-diagnosed hay fever or eczema, 46%) had positive exacerbation-pesticide associations, with OR=2.1 (95% CI 1.1–4.1) for the herbicide pendimethalin and OR=10.2 (95% CI 1.9–55) for the insecticide aldicarb. Conclusions The inverse associations with two pesticides and specific farm activities are consistent with the possibility that asthma cases prone to exacerbation may avoid exposures that trigger symptoms. Although limited by small sample size and a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that use of specific pesticides may contribute to exacerbation of asthma among individuals with allergies. PMID:23670403

  5. Exacerbation of symptoms in agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Paul K; Liang, Xiaoming; London, Stephanie J; Umbach, David M; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2014-05-01

    Exacerbation is a critical event in asthma management. We investigated whether exacerbation of symptoms is associated with farming exposures among agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma. Participants were pesticide applicators with active asthma (wheezing and breathing problems in past 12 months) who completed enrollment questionnaires for the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Exacerbation of asthma was defined as having visited a hospital emergency room or doctor for an episode of wheezing or whistling in the past 12 months. Exposures of interest were using 36 specific pesticides in the past 12 months and conducting various agricultural activities. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders. The 926 AHS adult pesticide applicators with active asthma included 202 (22%) with exacerbation. Inverse associations with exacerbation were observed for two herbicides [glyphosate, odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3, 0.8, and paraquat, OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9] and several agricultural activities (repairing engines, grinding metal, driving diesel tractors, and performing veterinary procedures). Only asthma cases with allergies (i.e., doctor-diagnosed hay fever or eczema, 46%) had positive exacerbation-pesticide associations, with OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.1, 4.1) for the herbicide pendimethalin and OR = 10.2 (95% CI 1.9, 55) for the insecticide aldicarb. The inverse associations with two pesticides and specific farm activities are consistent with the possibility that asthma cases prone to exacerbation may avoid exposures that trigger symptoms. Although limited by small sample size and a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that use of specific pesticides may contribute to exacerbation of asthma among individuals with allergies.

  6. Mortality in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, L. E.; Bean, J. A.; Rudolph, M.; Hamilton, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although the primary hazard to humans associated with pesticide exposure is acute poisoning, there has been considerable concern surrounding the possibility of cancer and other chronic health effects in humans. Given the huge volume of pesticides now used throughout the world, as well as environmental and food residue contamination leading to chronic low level exposure, the study of possible chronic human health effects is important. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993. RESULTS: The pesticide applicators were consistently and significantly healthier than the general population of Florida. As with many occupational cohorts, the risks of cardiovascular disease and of diseases associated with alcohol and tobacco use were significantly lower, even in the subpopulations--for example, men, women, and licence subcategories. Among male applicators, prostate cancer mortality (SMR 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.83 to 3.04) was significantly increased. No cases of soft tissue sarcoma were confirmed in this cohort, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was not increased. The number of female applicators was small, as were the numbers of deaths. Mortality from cervical cancer and breast cancer was not increased. Additional subcohort and exposure analyses were performed. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, prostate cancer was increased in these pesticide applicators. Female breast cancer was not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors--such as the organochlorines. The

  7. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    PubMed

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  9. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  10. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use pesticides...

  11. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use pesticides...

  12. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use pesticides...

  13. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use pesticides...

  14. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  15. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  18. Certification Training Manual for the Structural Pesticide Applicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed for use by commercial applicators preparing for certification in the use or supervision of the use of restricted pesticides especially in, on, or around food handling establishments, human dwellings, institutions, industries and any other structures and adjacent areas, public or private; and for the protection of stored,…

  19. Certification Training Manual for the Structural Pesticide Applicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed for use by commercial applicators preparing for certification in the use or supervision of the use of restricted pesticides especially in, on, or around food handling establishments, human dwellings, institutions, industries and any other structures and adjacent areas, public or private; and for the protection of stored,…

  20. Fluorimetric analysis of pesticides: Methods, recent developments and applications.

    PubMed

    Coly, A; Aaron, J J

    1998-08-01

    The fluorimetric analysis of pesticides is reviewed with emphasis on the description of direct and indirect fluorimetric methods, including chemical derivatization, fluorogenic labelling, and photochemically-induced fluorescence. The use of fluorescence detection in TLC, HPLC and FIA as well as applications to environmental samples are discussed in detail.

  1. High pesticide exposure events and DNA methylation among pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study.

    PubMed

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bonner, Matthew R; Alexander, Melannie; Chen, Ligong; Andreotti, Gabriella; Barry, Kathryn H; Moore, Lee E; Byun, Hyang-Min; Kamel, Freya; Alavanja, Michael; Hoppin, Jane A; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide exposure has been associated with acute and chronic adverse health effects. DNA methylation (DNAm) may mediate these effects. We evaluated the association between experiencing unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) and DNAm among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective study of applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. DNA was extracted from whole blood from male AHS pesticide applicators (n = 695). Questionnaire data were used to ascertain the occurrence of HPEEs over the participant's lifetime. Pyrosequencing was used to quantify DNAm in CDH1, GSTp1, and MGMT promoters, and in the repetitive element, LINE-1. Linear and robust regression analyses evaluated adjusted associations between HPEE and DNAm. Ever having an HPEE (n = 142; 24%) was associated with elevated DNAm in the GSTp1 promoter at CpG7 (chr11:67,351,134; P < 0.01) and for the mean across the CpGs measured in the GSTp1 promoter (P < 0.01). In stratified analyses, elevated GSTP1 promoter DNAm associated with HPEE was more pronounced among applicators >59 years and those with plasma folate levels ≤16.56 ng/mL (p-interaction <0.01); HPEE was associated with reduced MGMT promoter DNAm at CpG2 (chr10:131,265,803; P = 0.03), CpG3 (chr10:131,265,810; P = 0.05), and the mean across CpGs measured in the MGMT promoter (P = 0.03) among applicators >59 years and reduced LINE-1 DNAm (P = 0.05) among applicators with ≤16.56 ng/mL plasma folate. Non-specific HPEEs may contribute to increased DNAm in GSTp1, and in some groups, reduced DNAm in MGMT and LINE-1. The impacts of these alterations on disease development are unclear, but elevated GSTp1 promoter DNAm and subsequent gene inactivation has been consistently associated with prostate cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neural tube defects and maternal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Rull, Rudolph P; Ritz, Beate; Shaw, Gary M

    2006-04-15

    Residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may be an important source of exposure to agents that have been classified as developmental toxins. Data on two case-control study populations of infants with neural tube defects (NTDs) and nonmalformed controls delivered in California between 1987 and 1991 were pooled to investigate whether maternal residential proximity to applications of specific pesticides or physicochemical groups of pesticides during early gestation increases the risk of these malformations. Maternal residential proximity within 1,000 m of pesticide applications was ascertained by linking mothers' addresses with agricultural pesticide use reports and crop maps. Odds ratios were computed by using conventional single- and multiple-pesticide and hierarchical multiple-pesticide logistic regression. In single-pesticide models, several pesticides were associated with NTDs after adjustment for study population, maternal ethnicity, educational level, cigarette smoking, and vitamin use. In a hierarchical multiple-pesticide model, effect estimates for only benomyl and methomyl suggested a possible association. Elevated risks of NTDs and anencephaly or spina bifida subtypes were also associated with exposures to chemicals classified as amide, benzimidazole, methyl carbamate, or organophosphorus pesticides and with increasing numbers of pesticides. These results suggest that ambient exposure to certain categories of agricultural pesticides may increase the risk of NTDs.

  3. Applicability of the Ricketts' posteroanterior cephalometry for sex determination using logistic regression analysis in Hispano American Peruvians.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K; Ponce, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed.

  4. Applicability of the Ricketts’ posteroanterior cephalometry for sex determination using logistic regression analysis in Hispano American Peruvians

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K.; Ponce, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. Objective: The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. Materials and Methods: The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. Results: The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. Conclusion: The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed. PMID:27555732

  5. Prospective Investigation of Pesticide Applicators' Health (PIPAH) study: a cohort study of professional pesticide users in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Fox, David; Chen, Yiqun; Pearce, Neil; Fishwick, David; Frost, Gillian

    2017-10-10

    The purpose of the study is to monitor the exposure and health of workers in Great Britain who use pesticides as a part of their job, and to gain a better understanding of the relationship between long-term exposure to pesticides and health. Study participants are professional pesticide users who are certified in the safe use of pesticides or who were born before 1965 and apply pesticides under 'grandfather rights'. Overall response rate was 20%; participants are mostly male (98%) and the average age is 54 years, ranging from 17 to over 80 years. Participants have completed a baseline general questionnaire and three follow-up questionnaires on the use of pesticides. These data will enable investigations into the relationship between occupational pesticide exposure and health outcomes taking into account non-occupational confounding factors. There is no set end date for data collection. Recruitment into the cohort will continue, and for the foreseeable future there will be annual pesticide use questionnaires and five yearly follow-up general questionnaires.The intention is to validate the pesticide use questionnaire, and to develop a crop/job exposure matrix (C/JEM) which can be updated regularly. This C/JEM will be able to look at general categories of pesticide, such as insecticides, structurally related pesticides, such as organochlorines, or individual active ingredients. Data collected on use of personal protective equipment and method of application will provide information on how potential exposure to pesticide during application may have been modified. The study will be able to estimate changes in individual pesticide use over time, and to examine the associations between pesticide use and both baseline and long-term health outcomes.The cohort members will be linked to national databases for notification of hospital episode statistics, cancer incidence and mortality for follow-up of health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  6. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying...

  7. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying effluent...

  11. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  12. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  14. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  15. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND PESTICIDE USE AMONG MALE PRIVATE PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Goldner, Whitney S.; Sandler, Dale P.; Yu, Fang; Shostrom, Valerie; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between thyroid disease and use of insecticides, herbicides, fumigants/fungicides in male applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods We examined the association between use of 50 specific pesticides and self-reported hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and ‘other’ thyroid disease among 22,246 male pesticide applicators. Results There was increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever-use of the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, alachlor, dicamba, and petroleum oil. Hypothyroidism was also associated with ever-use of eight insecticides: organochlorines chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene; organophosphates diazinon and malathion; and the carbamate carbofuran. Exposure-response analysis showed increasing odds with increasing level of exposure for the herbicides alachlor and 2,4-D, and the insecticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, lindane, and parathion. Conclusions There is an association between hypothyroidism and specific herbicides and insecticides in male applicators, similar to previous results for spouses. PMID:24064777

  16. Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence about the influence of chemical exposures on specific molecular systems and mechanisms involved in cognitive and mental function. Evidence is also emerging about the negative impact of these chemical exposures on mental health, including depression, suicide, and other risks. Despite the growing appreciation of these factors, however, little attention has been paid to the ethical and social implications of their interactions. Drawing on recent work that argues for an environmental neuroethics approach that explicitly brings together ethics, environment, and conditions of the central nervous system, this article focuses on these critical issues for pesticides specifically.

  17. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...: 87485-E. Docket number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0685. Applicant: Michael T. Novak; Keller and Heckman, LLP; 1001.... Novak; Keller and Heckman, LLP; 1001 G Street, NW.; Washington, DC 20001(on behalf of DSM Food...

  18. Application of the electrosorption technique to remove Metribuzin pesticide.

    PubMed

    Kitous, O; Cheikh, A; Lounici, H; Grib, H; Pauss, A; Mameri, N

    2009-01-30

    The present work deals with the removal of Metribuzin from aqueous solutions in a batch and continuous mode using electrosorption technique. This technique is based on the combination of two processes: the adsorption of Metribuzin into activated granular carbon (GAC) column and the application of the electrochemical potential. The effects of various experimental parameters (electrochemical potential, volumetric flow rate and initial Metribuzin concentration) on the removal efficiency were investigated. The pesticide sorption capacity at the breakthrough point of the GAC column reached 22 mg(pesticide)g(GAC)(-1). It was increased by more than 100% when the desired electrical potential (-50 mV/SCE) was applied in comparison with the conventional GAC column in similar experimental conditions without electrical potential. Evenmore, the electrosorption technique reduced considerably the drastic decrease encountered when passing from batch mode to continuous column mode.

  19. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 3 - Ornamentals and Turf for New York State. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuchorski, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  20. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 3 - Ornamentals and Turf for New York State. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuchorski, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  1. Persistence of human norovirus in reconstituted pesticides--pesticide application as a possible source of viruses in fresh produce chains.

    PubMed

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh produce is frequently associated with outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) disease. To prevent the contamination of fresh produce with hNoV, knowledge of the possible introduction sources of the viruses, such as water, is needed to be able to implement appropriate and efficient preventive measures. Contaminated water used to reconstitute pesticides could be a relevant source of infectious hNoV, determined by the initial level of virus contamination and the persistence of these viruses in reconstituted pesticides. We studied the persistence of hNoV GI.4, hNoV GII.4 and murine norovirus (MNV-1), the only culturable norovirus, in eight different pesticides after 0 and 2h. Virus concentrations were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and infectivity of MNV-1 was determined by endpoint dilutions followed by maximum likelihood estimations. MNV-1 was found to remain infectious in seven of the eight tested pesticides at the highest concentration applied in practice. In the presence of the insecticide Vertimec, MNV-1 infectivity decreased rapidly with a 1.9 log(10)-unit reduction at timepoint T(0). Also, the concentration of NoV GI.4 RNA decreased considerably with a 1.7 log(10)-unit reduction; whereas the detected PCR fragment of hNoV GII.4 remained stable. Assuming a similar persistence of infectious MNV-1 and hNoV we can conclude that water containing hNoV used to dilute pesticides may be an important source of infectious hNoV in fresh produce chains. The application of pesticides may therefore not only be a chemical hazard, but also a microbiological hazard for public health. The inclusion of antiviral substances in reconstituted pesticides may be appropriate to reduce the virological health risk posed by the application of pesticides.

  2. Potential applicability of MALDI-MS for low-molecular-weight pesticide determination.

    PubMed

    Madla, Siribhorn; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for pesticide analysis was demonstrated. Fifteen pesticides were chosen as the model pesticides and twenty-six MALDI matrices were screened for the most suitable matrix. Under the optimized conditions, the obtained limits of detections were lower than the maximum residue limit values stated with 12 pesticides out of 15 tested. The proposed methodology showed a good analytical performance in terms of rapid, good sensitivity and high throughput of the method as an alternative method for pesticide residues evaluation.

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

  5. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  6. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  7. RETINAL DEGENERATION AND OTHER EYE DISORDERS IN WIVES OF FARMER PESTICIDE APPLICATORS ENROLLED IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes an epidemiological investigation of the wives of licensed pesticide applicators who are enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a large ongoing epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their families in North Carolina and Iowa. The Agricult...

  8. RETINAL DEGENERATION AND OTHER EYE DISORDERS IN WIVES OF FARMER PESTICIDE APPLICATORS ENROLLED IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes an epidemiological investigation of the wives of licensed pesticide applicators who are enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a large ongoing epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their families in North Carolina and Iowa. The Agricult...

  9. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal…

  11. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  12. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  13. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  14. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fumigation with Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist uses of fumigant pesticides prepared for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. An introduction with the explanation of fumigation is presented. The nine sections included describe: (1) Nature and effects of fumigants; (2) Modern fumigants; (3) Precautions to follow when using fumigants;…

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  17. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  18. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF TWO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES WITHIN A RESIDENCE AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Post-application temporal and spatial distributions of two organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, were monitored after homeowner applications for indoor and outdoor insect control. Samples were taken before and up to 12 days after treatments in the family room...

  19. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF TWO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES WITHIN A RESIDENCE AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Post-application temporal and spatial distributions of two organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, were monitored after homeowner applications for indoor and outdoor insect control. Samples were taken before and up to 12 days after treatments in the family room...

  20. How to Seek EPA Approval for Pesticide Applicator Soil Fumigation Exams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Registrants of soil fumigant products offer EPA-approved training for certified pesticide applicators. Although not required, state lead agencies (SLAs) may seek EPA’s approval and provide applicators with an alternative to registrant-sponsored training.

  1. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  2. Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the child’s lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, cholorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19700145

  3. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rull, Rudolph P; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-10-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5m) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the child's lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, chlorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia.

  4. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly. A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This programed text on application of pesticides provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. Each chapter consists of pretest, posttest, and learning program, which consists of a series of items (i.e. multiple choice questions and word matching) requiring learner…

  6. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  7. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, D.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  9. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  10. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  11. Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis among Licensed Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Sandler, Dale P; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Parks, Christine G

    2017-07-14

    The occupation of farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); pesticides may account for this association, but there are few studies. We investigated associations between RA and use of pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study. The study sample was drawn from male pesticide applicators enrolled in 1993-1997 who provided questionnaire data at baseline and at least once during follow-up (over a median 18 y; interquartile range 16-19). Incident RA cases (), confirmed by physicians or by self-reported use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases () who did not report RA. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for enrollment age, state, smoking pack-years, and education. We evaluated the association of RA with the use of 46 pesticides and across 4 levels (never use and tertiles) of lifetime days of use for 16 pesticides with for ever use. Incident RA was associated with ever use of fonofos (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.37), carbaryl (OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.23), and chlorimuron ethyl (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.07) compared with never use. Statistically significant exposure-response trends in association with RA were observed for lifetime days of use of atrazine [ 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.40); ] and toxaphene [ 2.42 (95% CI: 1.03, 5.68); ]. Exposure-response was nonlinear for fonofos [ 2.27 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.57); 0.98 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.80); 2.10 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.36); ] and suggestive for carbaryl (). Our results provide novel evidence of associations between exposure to some pesticides and RA in male farmers. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1013.

  12. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  13. Frequency of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of male pesticide applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Rupa, D.S. ); Reddy, P.P. ); Sreemannarayana, K. ); Reddi, O.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In the present study 61 male pesticide applicators who worked in cotton fields and regularly sprayed pesticides such as DDT, BHC, endosulfan, malathion, methyl parathion, phosphamidon, dimethoate, monocrotophos, quinalphos fenvelrate, and cypermethrin were analyzed for sister chromatid exchanges, mitotic index, and cell cycle kinetics in peripheral lymphocytes. Subjects who handled pesticides were non-smokers and teetotalers and the data were compared with the matched control group. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges was significantly higher among the pesticide applicators at all the durations of exposure when compared to controls. Subjects exposed to pesticides also showed cell cycle delay and decrease in mitotic index when compared to the control group.

  14. Novel insights in biopurification system for dissipation of a pesticide mixture in repeated applications.

    PubMed

    Diez, Maria Cristina; Leiva, Bárbara; Gallardo, Felipe

    2017-09-15

    A biopurification system based on the adsorption and degradation capacity of a biomixture to degrade a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, iprodione; 50 mg kg(-1) each) in repeated applications (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. Tanks of 1 m(3) packed with a biomixture (ρ 0.29 g mL(-1)) with and without vegetal cover were used. The biomixture contained soil, peat, and wheat straw in a proportion 1:1:2 by volume, respectively. Pesticide concentrations, biological activities (urease, phenoloxidase, and dehydrogenase), and microbial community changes (DGGE and qPCR) were evaluated periodically. Pesticide dissipation was higher in tanks with vegetal cover (> 95%) and no variation was observed after the three applications; contrarily, pesticide dissipation decreased in the tank without vegetal cover after each application. The presence of vegetal cover decreased the half-life of pesticides by at least twice. Biological activities were in general not affected by the application and reapplication of pesticides in the same treatment; however, they exhibited some differences between tanks containing and lacking the vegetal cover. High similarity between microbial groups (actinobacteria, bacteria, and fungi) was observed, suggesting no influence ascribable to the successive pesticide applications. The number of copies of bacteria and actinobacteria remained almost constant during the assay. However, the number of copies of fungi was significantly higher in the uncontaminated tank without vegetal cover.

  15. Generalized Haber's law for exponential concentration decline, with application to riparian-aquatic pesticide ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Reiss, Richard

    2012-02-01

    A simple analytic solution to the dynamic version of Haber's law was derived, conditional on a specified toxic load exponent (n) and on exponential decline in environmental toxicant concentration. Such conditions are particularly relevant to assessing ecotoxicity risk posed (e.g., to juvenile salmonids) by agricultural organophosphate (OP) pesticides that are subject to degradation and/or dissipation. A dynamic Haber's law model was fit to previously published detailed data on lethality for two aquatic species induced by six agricultural OP pesticides, and more crude fits were obtained to less detailed data on five other OP and on two non-OP pesticides, indicating that for lethality, a range of 0.5 ≤ n ≤ 1.5 may be typical for OP pesticides. The AgDRIFT(®) stream deposition model was next used to establish that first-order or exponential loss, with dilution half-times on the order of ≤0.01 days, pertains approximately to pesticide residues in streams that arise after aerial application of agricultural pesticides 100 feet upwind. The analytic model was then applied to demonstrate that pesticide concentrations deposited in downwind streams following an aerial application are effectively diluted by about 50- to 300-fold from their initial concentration. Riparian ecotoxicity risk assessment models that ignore this effective dilution, and base pesticide-specific estimates of reduced survival on the initial concentrations, are therefore unrealistically conservative.

  16. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide use pattern, and the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4... another isolate, provided sufficient similarity is established, to support registration. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject to additional data or information requirements on a case-by...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide use pattern, and the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4... another isolate, provided sufficient similarity is established, to support registration. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject to additional data or information requirements on a case-by...

  18. Exploratory application of the Ages and Stages (ASQ) child development screening test in a low-income Peruvian shantytown population

    PubMed Central

    Kyerematen, Victoria; Hamb, Averine; Oberhelman, Richard A; Cabrera, Lilia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Berry, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban low-income community in Lima, Peru. Participants The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America. PMID:24413354

  19. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    PubMed

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  20. A review of model applications for structured soils: b) Pesticide transport.

    PubMed

    Köhne, John Maximilian; Köhne, Sigrid; Simůnek, Jirka

    2009-02-16

    The past decade has seen considerable progress in the development of models simulating pesticide transport in structured soils subject to preferential flow (PF). Most PF pesticide transport models are based on the two-region concept and usually assume one (vertical) dimensional flow and transport. Stochastic parameter sets are sometimes used to account for the effects of spatial variability at the field scale. In the past decade, PF pesticide models were also coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and groundwater flow models for application at the catchment and larger regional scales. A review of PF pesticide model applications reveals that the principal difficulty of their application is still the appropriate parameterization of PF and pesticide processes. Experimental solution strategies involve improving measurement techniques and experimental designs. Model strategies aim at enhancing process descriptions, studying parameter sensitivity, uncertainty, inverse parameter identification, model calibration, and effects of spatial variability, as well as generating model emulators and databases. Model comparison studies demonstrated that, after calibration, PF pesticide models clearly outperform chromatographic models for structured soils. Considering nonlinear and kinetic sorption reactions further enhanced the pesticide transport description. However, inverse techniques combined with typically available experimental data are often limited in their ability to simultaneously identify parameters for describing PF, sorption, degradation and other processes. On the other hand, the predictive capacity of uncalibrated PF pesticide models currently allows at best an approximate (order-of-magnitude) estimation of concentrations. Moreover, models should target the entire soil-plant-atmosphere system, including often neglected above-ground processes such as pesticide volatilization, interception, sorption to plant residues, root uptake, and losses by runoff. The

  1. Using GIS and historical records to reconstruct residential exposure to large-scale pesticide application.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Vorhees, Donna J; Melly, Steven J; Swedis, Susan R; Drivas, Peter J; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of pesticide impacts on human health depends on good measures of exposure. Historical exposure data are needed to study health outcomes, such as cancer, that involve long latency periods, and other outcomes that are a function of the timing of exposure. Environmental or biological samples collected at the time of epidemiologic study may not represent historical exposure levels. To study the relationship between residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, historical records of pesticide use were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate exposures from large-scale pesticide applications between 1948 and 1995. Information on pesticide use for gypsy moth and other tree/vegetative pest control, cranberry bog cultivation, other agriculture, mosquito control, recreational turf management, and rights-of-way maintenance is included in the database. Residents living within or near pesticide use areas may be exposed through inhalation due to drift and volatilization and through dermal contact and ingestion at the time of application or in later years from pesticides that deposit on soil, accumulate in crops, or migrate to groundwater. Procedures were developed to use the GIS to estimate the relative intensity of past exposures at each study subject's Cape Cod addresses over the past 40 years, taking into account local meteorological data, distance and direction from a residence to a pesticide use source area, size of the source area, application by ground-based or aerial methods, and persistent or nonpersistent character of the pesticide applied. The resulting individual-level estimates of relative exposure intensity can be used in conjunction with interview data to obtain more complete exposure assessment in an epidemiologic study. While the database can improve environmental epidemiological studies involving pesticides, it simultaneously illustrates important data gaps that cannot be filled. Studies

  2. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  3. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method to conduct and report results from a verification test of pesticide application technologies that can be used to evaluate these technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift.

  4. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF PESTICIDES WITHIN RESIDENCES AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study begun in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice and exterior perimeter treatments. In each participating househol...

  5. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF PESTICIDES WITHIN RESIDENCES AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study begun in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice and exterior perimeter treatments. In each participating househol...

  6. Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR AERIAL APPLICATION OF PESTICIDE FOR GYPSY MOTH CONTROL ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control Andrews Air Force Base...of gypsy moths at Andrews Air Force Base (AFB), Maryland (MD). The EA is prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of

  7. Peruvian Moche Jewelry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Berniece

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the history of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Moche art, particularly the ornamental jewelry found in Moche burial sites. Outlines a procedure for creating pins reminiscent of Moche jewelry out of paper and other inexpensive materials. Points to ways that the lesson can be combined with lessons in history and science. (DSK)

  8. Aerial pesticide application causes DNA damage in pilots from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Waliszewski, S M; Amador-Muñoz, O; Meza, E; Calderón-Segura, M E; Zenteno, E; Huichapan-Martínez, J; Caba, M; Félix-Gastélum, R; Longoria-Espinoza, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural production originates residues in the environment where they are applied. Pesticide aerial application is a frequent source of exposure to pesticides by persons dedicated to agricultural practices and those living in neighboring communities of sprayed fields. The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxic effects of pesticides in workers occupationally exposed to these chemicals during their aerial application to agricultural fields of Sinaloa, Mexico. The study involved 30 pilots of airplanes used to apply pesticides via aerial application and 30 unexposed controls. Damage was evaluated through the micronucleus assay and by other nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. The highest frequency ratios (FR) equal to 269.5 corresponded to binucleated cells followed by 54.2, corresponding to cells with pyknotic nuclei, 45.2 of cells with chromatin condensation, 3.7 of cells with broken-egg, 3.6 of cells with micronucleus, and 2.0 of karyolytic cells. Age, worked time, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not have significant influence on nuclear abnormalities in the pilots studied. Pesticide exposure was the main factor for nuclear abnormality results and DNA damage. Marked genotoxic damage was developed even in younger pilots with 2 years of short working period, caused by their daily occupational exposure to pesticides.

  9. Application of artificial neural networks to assess pesticide contamination in shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, G.B.; Ray, C.; Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed and applied to predict pesticide concentrations in groundwater monitoring wells. Pesticide concentration data are challenging to analyze because they tend to be highly censored. Input data to the neural network included the categorical indices of depth to aquifer material, pesticide leaching class, aquifer sensitivity to pesticide contamination, time (month) of sample collection, well depth, depth to water from land surface, and additional travel distance in the saturated zone (i.e., distance from land surface to midpoint of well screen). The output of the neural network was the total pesticide concentration detected in the well. The model prediction results produced good agreements with observed data in terms of correlation coefficient (R = 0.87) and pesticide detection efficiency (E = 89%), as well as good match between the observed and predicted "class" groups. The relative importance of input parameters to pesticide occurrence in groundwater was examined in terms of R, E, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), and pesticide occurrence "class" groups by eliminating some key input parameters to the model. Well depth and time of sample collection were the most sensitive input parameters for predicting the pesticide contamination potential of a well. This infers that wells tapping shallow aquifers are more vulnerable to pesticide contamination than those wells tapping deeper aquifers. Pesticide occurrences during post-application months (June through October) were found to be 2.5 to 3 times higher than pesticide occurrences during other months (November through April). The BPNN was used to rank the input parameters with highest potential to contaminate groundwater, including two original and five ancillary parameters. The two original parameters are depth to aquifer material and pesticide leaching class. When these two parameters were the only input parameters for the BPNN

  10. Pesticide Application among Farmers in the Catchment of Ashaiman Irrigation Scheme of Ghana: Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Mattah, Memuna M.; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified. PMID:26798369

  11. Joint effects of genetic variants and residential proximity to pesticide applications on hypospadias risk.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Ma, Chen; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan; English, Paul; Lammer, Edward J; Witte, John S; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-08-01

    We examined risks associated with joint exposure of gene variants and pesticides. Analyses included 189 cases and 390 male controls born from 1991 to 2003 in California's San Joaquin Valley. We used logistic regression to examine risks associated with joint exposures of gene variants and pesticides that our previous work identified as associated with hypospadias. Genetic variables were based on variants in DGKK, genes involved in sex steroid synthesis/metabolism, and genes involved in genital tubercle development. Pesticide exposure was based on residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. Odds ratios (ORs) were highest among babies with joint exposures, who had two- to fourfold increased risks; for example, the OR was 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-16.5) among subjects with the risk-associated DGKK haplotype and pesticide exposure; OR, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.7-3.1) among subjects with the haplotype and no pesticide exposure; and OR, 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.6) among subjects without the haplotype but with pesticide exposure, relative to subjects with neither. However, results did not provide statistical evidence that these risks were significantly greater than expected on an additive scale, relative to risks associated with one exposure at a time. We observed elevated risks associated with joint exposures to selected pesticides and genetic variants but no statistical evidence for interaction. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:653-658, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pesticide application among farmers in the catchment of Ashaiman irrigation scheme of Ghana: health implications.

    PubMed

    Mattah, Memuna M; Mattah, Precious A D; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified.

  13. Interpreting population estimates of birds following pesticide applications--behavior of male starlings exposed to an organophosphate pesticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.J.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    We determined activity budgets for 10 pairs of captive male Starlings between 7 May and 18 July 1980. Our objective was to quantify changes in behavior after exposure to an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and to assess the impact of changes in behavior on the interpretation of population estimates of birds following pesticide applications. We observed each pair of males for an hour at 07:30 and 09:30 for four days and classified their behavior into one of four categories: flying, perching, foraging, or singing and displaying. At 06:30 on day 2, one male received a single oral dose of 2.5 mg dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) per kg of body weight; the other male received an equivalent exposure of corn oil. Changes in the activity budgets of OP-dosed and control males were compared using t-tests. Activity of OP-dosed males was significantly (P _ 0.05) reduced within the 2-4 h following exposure. OP-dosed males spent more time perching (46.1%) than controls and less time flying (-96.6%), foraging (-28.5%), and singing and displaying (-49.5%). The frequency of perching (-75.3%), flying (-83.8%), foraging (-54.1%), and singing and displaying (- 59.2%) was significantly reduced. Activity in OP-dosed males returned to normal by 26-28 h posttreatment. Results suggest that movement and vocalization may be significantly reduced in birds exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Conventional censusing techniques and population estimating procedures may, therefore, be inadequate to assess changes in bird populations after pesticide applications because of the difficulty in separating decreases in density due to mortality or emigration from reductions in activity.

  14. Central nervous system function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes, however, little is known about the neurotoxicity of chronic exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and CNS function, neurobehavioral (NB) tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence that long-term OP pesticide use is associated with adverse CNS-associated NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null associations

  15. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be...

  18. Application of pesticide transport model for simulating diazinon runoff in California’s central valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Brian A.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Mailapalli, Damodhara R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant spray application of pesticides to almond and other stone fruit orchards is the main source of diazinon during the winter in California's central valley. Understanding the pesticide transport and the tradeoffs associated with the various management practices is greatly facilitated by the use of physically-based contaminant transport models. In this study, performance of Joyce's et al. (2008) pesticide transport model was evaluated using experimental data collected from two ground treatments such as resident vegetation and bare soil. The model simulation results obtained in calibration and validation process were analyzed for pesticide concentration and total load. The pesticide transport model accurately predicted the pesticide concentrations and total load in the runoff from bare field and was capable of simulating chemical responses to rainfall-runoff events. In case of resident vegetation, the model results exhibited a larger range of variation than was observed in the bare soil simulations due to increased model parameterization with the addition of foliage and thatch compartments. Furthermore, the model was applied to study the effect of runoff lag time, extent of crop cover, organic content of soil and post-application irrigation on the pesticide peak concentration and total load. Based on the model results, recommendations were suggested to growers prior to implementing certain management decisions to mitigate diazinon transport in the orchard's spray runoff.

  19. Emission of pesticides to the air during sprayer application: A bibliographic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Sinfort, C.

    Air pollution due to pesticides is a persistent problem in modern agriculture, and little is known on the reversibility of its effects on the environment and health. Pesticides contaminate the atmosphere through various pathways. This paper discusses techniques for measuring and modelling pesticide emission, and the factors that affect drift processes during spray application. Chemical analyses allow the concentration of polluting agents in the air to be measured, and different methods have been developed for measuring diverse pesticide groups. Several air-sampling methods, which give different results depending on the amount of air collected, are reported. The use of various tracers, such as fluorescent dyes, is widely reported. Brilliant sulphoflavine is the best fluorescent dye due to its low degradation in sunlight. Various collector devices are used, the most common being 2 mm diameter polymer lines. Although the report indicates a good level of collection efficiency, a complete understanding of the adhesion phenomenon is necessary. The use of mathematical and computational models to determine pesticide transport simplifies test and field evaluation. However, a detailed characterization of the agricultural environment, with temporal and spatial variations, is still necessary. The most common models are limited to transport and deposition of pesticides in the liquid phase to areas adjacent to treated fields. Drifting spray is a complex problem in which equipment design and application parameters, spray physical properties and formulation, and meteorological conditions interact and influence pesticide loss.

  20. Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.E.; Freed, V.H.; Enos, H.F.; Duncan, R.C.; Barquet, A.; Morgade, C.; Peters, L.J.; Danauskas, J.X.

    1982-06-01

    Systemic pesticide illness in agricultural workers may result from excessive dermal exposure to pesticides. Workers who apply and mix pesticides (applicators and mixers) are not at special risk. Both acute and chronic exposures can occur from spillage or by environmental contamination of clothing. Two exposure assessment studies were conducted of Central Florida citrus grove workers who applied ethion daily. Measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (DEP) were the techniques used to assess the protection afforded by changing daily to freshly laundered 100% cotton coveralls. Coveralls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.

  1. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  2. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  7. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  8. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  9. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  10. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Moran, Patrick W

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n=3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  11. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  12. Documentation of a spatial data-base management system for monitoring pesticide application in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schurr, K.M.; Cox, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System was created as a demonstration project and was tested with data submitted to the Washington State Department of Agriculture by pesticide applicators from a small geographic area. These data were entered into the Department's relational data-base system and uploaded into the system's ARC/INFO files. Locations for pesticide applica- tions are assigned within the Public Land Survey System grids, and ARC/INFO programs in the Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System can subdivide each survey section into sixteen idealized quarter-quarter sections for display map grids. The system provides data retrieval and geographic information system plotting capabilities from a menu of seven basic retrieval options. Additionally, ARC/INFO coverages can be created from the retrieved data when required for particular applications. The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System, or the general principles used in the system, could be adapted to other applica- tions or to other states.

  13. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  14. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  15. Ubertool: Web Application for Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate (license) pesticides before they become commercially available to ensure they will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the envi...

  16. Ubertool: Web Application for Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate (license) pesticides before they become commercially available to ensure they will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the envi...

  17. Optimum timing for integrated pest management: modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Tang, Guangyao; Cheke, Robert A

    2010-05-21

    Many factors including pest natural enemy ratios, starting densities, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies can affect the success of IPM control programmes. To address how such factors influence successful pest control, hybrid impulsive pest-natural enemy models with different frequencies of pesticide sprays and natural enemy releases were proposed and analyzed. With releasing both more or less frequent than the sprays, a stability threshold condition for a pest eradication periodic solution is provided. Moreover, the effects of times of spraying pesticides (or releasing natural enemies) and control tactics on the threshold condition were investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications. Multiple attractors from which the pest population oscillates with different amplitudes can coexist for a wide range of parameters and the switch-like transitions among these attractors showed that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and the numbers of natural enemies released are crucial. To see how the pesticide applications could be reduced, we developed a model involving periodic releases of natural enemies with chemical control applied only when the densities of the pest reached the given Economic Threshold. The results indicate that the pest outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the initial densities and the control tactics.

  18. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  20. 76 FR 3135 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Extension Application;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Extension Application; Comment Request AGENCY... application 67979- EUP-8 from Syngenta Seeds Inc. requesting to extend an experimental use permit (EUP) for... single trait hybrids with one or more of the following additional PIPs: 1) Bacillus thuringiensis...

  1. POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE POTENTIAL TO PESTICIDES IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice treatments was initiated by the U.S. EPA in 1999. In participating households, pre- and post-application samples of indoor ...

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  7. POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE POTENTIAL TO PESTICIDES IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice treatments was initiated by the U.S. EPA in 1999. In participating households, pre- and post-application samples of indoor ...

  8. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    This training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  9. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    The training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on Federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  11. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  12. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  13. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  14. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  15. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  16. Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region.

    PubMed

    Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Adu, Derick Taylor; Aziz, Ahmed Abdul; Ofori, Amoako; Denkyirah, Elijah Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application. In view of this, the study assessed the factors influencing cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application. A total of 240 cocoa farmers from six cocoa growing communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana were selected for the study using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Probit and Tobit regression models were used to estimate factors influencing farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application, respectively. Results of the study revealed that the use of pesticide is still high among farmers in the Region and that cocoa farmers do not follow the Ghana Cocoa Board recommended frequency of pesticide application. In addition, cocoa farmers in the study area were found to be using both Ghana Cocoa Board approved/recommended and unapproved pesticides for cocoa production. Gender, age, educational level, years of farming experience, access to extension service, availability of agrochemical shop and access to credit significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. Also, educational level, years of farming experience, membership of farmer based organisation, access to extension service, access to credit and cocoa income significantly influenced frequency of pesticide application. Since access to extension service is one key factor that reduces pesticide use and frequency of application among cocoa farmers, it is recommended that policies by

  17. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  18. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  19. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  20. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  1. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  2. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-06-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away.

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  4. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  5. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  6. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 10: Demonstration and Research. CS-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is directed to individuals working in demonstration and research pest control who evaluate, provide and disseminate information on pest control procedures. Guidelines for designing and conducting a research experiment in…

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  9. Evaluation of Aerosol Pesticide Application Against Old World Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  10. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  11. Partnering with Industry to Deliver Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with private industry can empower Extension educators to enhance their educational outreach efforts. Since 2011, UF/IFAS has cooperated with the Florida Turfgrass Association in conducting a 1-day statewide Polycom® event for providing continuing education to licensed pesticide applicators employed primarily in the ornamental and…

  12. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  13. Perceptions of Polycom Programming for Delivery of Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Ferrell, Jason; Vallad, Gary; Price, Jim; Cherry, Ron; Mizell, Russ; Duncan, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Polycom technology has potential for efficient use of program delivery by Extension educators. A survey of licensed pesticide applicators attending a 1-day event at one of 20 host polycom sites revealed that polycom distance learning is effective for presenting information and learning. Responses also indicated that most of this audience is…

  14. Partnering with Industry to Deliver Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with private industry can empower Extension educators to enhance their educational outreach efforts. Since 2011, UF/IFAS has cooperated with the Florida Turfgrass Association in conducting a 1-day statewide Polycom® event for providing continuing education to licensed pesticide applicators employed primarily in the ornamental and…

  15. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  16. Perceptions of Polycom Programming for Delivery of Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Ferrell, Jason; Vallad, Gary; Price, Jim; Cherry, Ron; Mizell, Russ; Duncan, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Polycom technology has potential for efficient use of program delivery by Extension educators. A survey of licensed pesticide applicators attending a 1-day event at one of 20 host polycom sites revealed that polycom distance learning is effective for presenting information and learning. Responses also indicated that most of this audience is…

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  18. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  19. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  20. 76 FR 56751 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request AGENCY: Environmental...-EUP- RNA from Dow Chemical Co. requesting an experimental use permit (EUP) for Dibromomalonamide. The... identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0670 by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal:...

  1. The Washington aerial spray drift study: Modeling pesticide spray drift deposition from an aerial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yi; Elgethun, Kai; Ramaprasad, Jaya; Yost, Michael G.; Felsot, Allan S.; Hebert, Vincent R.; Fenske, Richard A.

    A routinely scheduled aerial organophosphorus pesticide application of methamidophos in central Washington State was monitored in the summer of 2002. The sprayed potato crop surrounded a rural agricultural community where residences were within 200 meters of the sprayed fields. Modeling pesticide spray drift is critical for exposure assessment of the residential population. Herein the objective is to model spray drift deposition with regard to model selection, calibration, and prediction for a particular application event. The US Environmental Protection Agency's Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) was chosen for its flexibility in terms of both inputs and outputs. Model calibration was accomplished by varying the aerosol size distribution in comparison with collected deposition samples and locating the minimum relative bias measure. From the calibrated model, a map of total pesticide deposition within the community indicated spray drift occurring despite adherence to general precautionary pesticide application guidelines. The calibrated model also provided 15-min time-resolved deposition images over the 5-h application period. These time-resolved maps revealed that actual community deposition occurred in only 2 of the 20 time periods when the source, due to the changing wind, was oriented towards the community. Despite the limitations of FDM in modeling a liquid aerosol, the calibration of the model to samplers located in the areas of interest allows it to serve as a potential tool for conducting exposure assessment within the community.

  2. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Used among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Ag...

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  4. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Used among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Ag...

  5. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  6. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  8. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  11. Applicability of polar organic compound integrative samplers for monitoring pesticides in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Berho, Catherine; Togola, Anne; Coureau, Charlotte; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Amalric, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) for the monitoring of polar pesticides in groundwater were tested on two sites in order to evaluate their applicability by comparison with the spot-sampling approach. This preliminary study shows that, as in surface water, POCIS is a useful tool, especially for the screening of substances at low concentration levels that are not detected by laboratory analysis of spot samples. For quantitative results, a rough estimation is obtained. The challenge is now to define the required water-flow conditions for a relevant quantification of pesticides in groundwater and to establish more representative sampling rates for groundwater.

  12. Application of quantitative structure-property relationship analysis to estimate the vapor pressure of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Honarparvar, Bahareh; Ortiz, Erlinda V; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2016-06-01

    The application of molecular descriptors in describing Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) for the estimation of vapor pressure (VP) of pesticides is of ongoing interest. In this study, QSPR models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to predict the vapor pressure values of 162 pesticides. Several feature selection methods, namely the replacement method (RM), genetic algorithms (GA), stepwise regression (SR) and forward selection (FS), were used to select the most relevant molecular descriptors from a pool of variables. The optimum subset of molecular descriptors was used to build a QSPR model to estimate the vapor pressures of the selected pesticides. The Replacement Method improved the predictive ability of vapor pressures and was more reliable for the feature selection of these selected pesticides. The results provided satisfactory MLR models that had a satisfactory predictive ability, and will be important for predicting vapor pressure values for compounds with unknown values. This study may open new opportunities for designing and developing new pesticide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pesticide fate at regional scale: Development of an integrated model approach and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Hardelauf, H.; Harms, R.; Vanderborght, J.; Vereecken, H.

    As a result of agricultural practice many soils and aquifers are contaminated with pesticides. In order to quantify the side-effects of these anthropogenic impacts on groundwater quality at regional scale, a process-based, integrated model approach was developed. The Richards’ equation based numerical model TRACE calculates the three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated water flow. For the modeling of regional scale pesticide transport we linked TRACE with the plant module SUCROS and with 3DLEWASTE, a hybrid Lagrangian/Eulerian approach to solve the convection/dispersion equation. We used measurements, standard methods like pedotransfer-functions or parameters from literature to derive the model input for the process model. A first-step application of TRACE/3DLEWASTE to the 20 km 2 test area ‘Zwischenscholle’ for the period 1983-1993 reveals the behaviour of the pesticide isoproturon. The selected test area is characterised by an intense agricultural use and shallow groundwater, resulting in a high vulnerability of the groundwater to pesticide contamination. The model results stress the importance of the unsaturated zone for the occurrence of pesticides in groundwater. Remarkable isoproturon concentrations in groundwater are predicted for locations with thin layered and permeable soils. For four selected locations we used measured piezometric heads to validate predicted groundwater levels. In general, the model results are consistent and reasonable. Thus the developed integrated model approach is seen as a promising tool for the quantification of the agricultural practice impact on groundwater quality.

  14. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  15. Demonstration and Research Pest Control: A Training Program for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators, Manual No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Harry K.; And Others

    This manual is intended to provide the information necessary to meet EPA standards for demonstration and research pest control and prepare for the written examination required for certification. Emphasis is placed on the principles of safe pesticide use. Chapters are included on pesticide applicator certification in Virginia, basics of pest…

  16. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  17. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  18. Peruvian villages go solar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Students and faculty from an American University work with indigenous Peruvians to electrify their village and improve their quality of life. The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 Inca descendants have no electricity, no running water, one telephone and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, residents survive through subsistence farming. And this project might sound like a typical solar system installation--a system is donated, consultants install it, no one owns it and if something goes wrong, no one fixes it. The equipment ultimately helps no one and few learn from the experience. But two aspects of this project make it unique - the unusual level of communal sharing in the town and the design and installation of the solar system by students.

  19. [Professional risk assessment for modern pesticides during their application in the horticulture].

    PubMed

    Semenenko, V M; Korshun, M M

    2014-01-01

    The work conditions on application of modern pesticides Masai, Regalis and Bellis for apple orchards protection have been researched. We show that total risk of hazard influence of tebufenpyrad, prohexadione-calcium, pyraclostrobin and boscalid on agricultural workers under condition of complex entry in body through skin and respiratory tracts is permissible. We proved that application of studied preparations is not dangerous for workers in case of abidance of agrotechnical and hygienic regulations.

  20. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples.

  1. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  2. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  3. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  4. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  5. EPA Proposes Stronger Standards for People Applying the Pesticides with the Greatest Risk/ Improved training and minimum age requirements for certified applicators will help protect people and the environment.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Washington- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing stronger standards for pesticide applicators who apply restricted-use pesticides. These pesticides are not available for purchase by the general public, require special

  6. Cancer Incidence among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Patel, Rahulkumar; Koutros, Stella; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Landgren, Ola; Bonner, Matthew R.; Coble, Joseph; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture, in public health, and in many U.S. homes and gardens. Objective In this study we evaluated the incidence of cancer among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods A total of 49,093 pesticide applicators were included in this analysis of the AHS, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide exposure and lifestyle factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires completed in 1993–1997. Average length of follow-up since applicator enrollment in the cohort was 9.14 years. We used two permethrin exposure metrics: a) lifetime days applicators personally mixed or applied permethrin and b) intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days weighted by estimated intensity of exposure). We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for malignancies by tertiles of exposure. Results We found no associations between permethrin and all malignant neoplasms combined, or between permethrin and melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, or cancers of the colon, rectum, lung, or prostate. We found elevated and statistically significant risks for multiple myeloma in the highest tertiles of both lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.72; 95% CI, 2.76–11.87) and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.01; 95% CI, 2.41–10.42), compared with applicators reporting they never used permethrin; these results are based on only 15 exposed cases. These findings were similar across a variety of alternative exposure metrics, exposure categories, and reference groups. Conclusions This study found no association with most cancers analyzed. Although the suggested association with multiple myeloma was based on a small number of cases, it warrants further evaluation. PMID:19440497

  7. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted.

  8. Effects of pesticides on the reduction of plant and human pathogenic bacteria in application water.

    PubMed

    Mahovic, Michael; Gu, Ganyu; Rideout, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Overhead spray applications of in-field tomato treatments dissolved in aqueous solutions have specific pest targets (fungal, bacterial, insect, or other). Any organism present in the solution or on treated plant surfaces that is not a specific target of the application is unlikely inactivated and can instead be spread through the phyllosphere. In this laboratory study, commercially labeled pesticides (including Actigard 50WG, Bravo Weather Stik 6F, Cabrio 20EG, Kasumin, Kocide 3000 46WG, Oxidate 27L, Penncozeb 75DF, ProPhyt 54.5L, Stimplex 100L, Firewall, 22.4WP, and Tanos 50DF) in common use in commercial tomato production fields of the Eastern Shore of Virginia were investigated for activity against in vitro bacterial contamination of pesticide application waters. Pesticides of interest were tank mixed individually with one of the plant pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, or one of two serovars (Newport and Montevideo) of the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to assess reduction values during the average time between mixing and initial application. Observations suggested that while some treatments had a noticeable effect on population levels, only the oxidizer, peroxyacetic acid, showed significant and consistent levels of suppression against all bacteria investigated, at levels that could have practical implications.

  9. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  10. Alternative control technology document: Control of VOC emissions from the application of agricultural pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In many States, some of the ozone nonattainment areas are comprised primarily of agricultural counties where a potentially significant contribution to the ozone may result from area sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emissions. A potential source of VOC emissions in agricultural counties is the release of organic compounds from the application of agricultural pesticides. The report provides technical information that State and local agencies can consider while developing strategies for reducing VOC emissions.

  11. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching.

    PubMed

    Whelan, M J; Davenport, E J; Smith, B G

    2007-05-15

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K(OC)]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Application in the Extraction Techniques of Pesticides: A Review.

    PubMed

    Jakubus, Aleksandra; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-01-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years. In this review article, the most important feature and different applications of solid-phase extraction (SPE), including, classical SPE and dispersive SPE using CNTs for pesticides isolation from different matrices, are summarized. Because of high number of articles concerning the applicability of carbon materials to extraction of pesticides, the main aim of proposed publication is to provide updated review of the latest uses of CNTs by covering the period 2006-2015. Moreover, in this review, the recent papers and this one, which are covered in previous reviews, will be addressed and particular attention has been paid on the division of publications in terms of classes of pesticides, in order to systematize the available literature reports.

  13. Application of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating pesticide contamination of freshwater resources: state of the art and challenges for optimization.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Bers, Karolien; Vandermeeren, Pieter; Herrmann, Steffi; Sekhar, Aswini; Seuntjens, Piet; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the application of pesticide biodegradation in remediation of pesticide-contaminated matrices moved from remediating bulk soil to remediating and mitigating pesticide pollution of groundwater and surface water bodies. Specialized pesticide-degrading microbial populations are used, which can be endogenous to the ecosystem of interest or introduced by means of bioaugmentation. It involves (semi-)natural ecosystems like agricultural fields, vegetated filter strips, and riparian wetlands and man-made ecosystems like on-farm biopurification systems, groundwater treatment systems, and dedicated modules in drinking water treatment. Those ecosystems and applications impose challenges which are often different from those associated with bulk soil remediation. These include high or extreme low pesticide concentrations, mixed contamination, the presence of alternative carbon sources, specific hydraulic conditions, and spatial and temporal variation. Moreover, for various indicated ecosystems, limited knowledge exists about the microbiota present and their physiology and about the in situ degradation kinetics. This review reports on the current knowledge on applications of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating freshwater pesticide contamination. Attention is paid to the challenges involved and current knowledge gaps for improving those applications.

  14. Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

    2013-10-01

    A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ≥0.025 μg/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 μg/L in groundwater and 0.33 μg/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (<0.1 μg/L) the diversity of metabolites found in one sample can be large; between two and six metabolites were detected most frequently (maximum of 12 metabolites). Runoff from urban surfaces was investigated in this study and also here previously undetected pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model.

    PubMed

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Yang, Yu-Ching; Chu, Pei-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J

    2006-08-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  16. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respiratory protection device is required for application by the product labeling. (3) Applied otherwise... fans or other mechanical ventilating systems; or (iii) Four hours of ventilation using vents, windows...) Aerosol (3) Not in 1 or 2 above, and for which a respiratory protection device is required for...

  17. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respiratory protection device is required for application by the product labeling. (3) Applied otherwise... fans or other mechanical ventilating systems; or (iii) Four hours of ventilation using vents, windows...) Aerosol (3) Not in 1 or 2 above, and for which a respiratory protection device is required for...

  18. Noticing pesticide spray drift from agricultural pesticide application areas and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between self-reported noticing of pesticide spray drift from agricultural areas and breast cancer. A case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011. Awareness of pesticide spray drift from agricultural areas was assessed by a self-report of whether the participant had noticed spray drift. To evaluate recall bias, we stratified the analysis by participants' belief about whether pesticides increase the risk of breast cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This analysis included 1,743 controls and 1,169 cases. Sensitivity analysis for potential selection and misclassification bias was also conducted. Among women who reported 'ever noticed' pesticide spray drift from agricultural areas, an increased risk of breast cancer was also observed (OR=1.43; 95% CI 1.15, 1.78). A dose response relationship between lifetime exposure to noticing pesticide spray drift and risk of breast cancer was observed (p<0.001). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among women who noticed pesticide spray drift: initially at the age of 20 or younger (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.19, 2.16); at least 20 years before diagnosis (OR=1.51; 95% CI 1.19, 1.92); and for 10 years or more (OR=1.51; 95% CI 1.18, 1.94). These findings support the hypothesis that women who ever noticed spray drift or who first noticed spray drift at a younger age had increased risk of breast cancer.

  19. Uptake and persistence of pesticides in plants: measurements and model estimates for imidacloprid after foliar and soil application.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Castells, Francesc; Vijay, Ashwin; Muñoz, Pere; Antón, Assumpció

    2009-06-15

    The uptake and persistence behaviour of the insecticide imidacloprid in tomato plants treated by (i) foliar spray application and (ii) soil irrigation was studied using two plant uptake models. In addition to a pesticide deposition model, a dynamic root uptake and translocation model was developed, and both models predict residual concentrations of pesticides in or on fruits. The model results were experimentally validated. The fraction of imidacloprid ingested by the human population is on average 10(-2) to 10(-6), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion, the processing step, and the application method. Model and experimentally derived intake fractions deviated by less than a factor of 2 for both application techniques. Total imidacloprid residues were up to five times higher in plants treated by foliar spray application than by soil irrigation. However, peeling tomatoes treated by spray application reduces the human intake fraction by up to three orders of magnitude. Model calculations suggest that drip-irrigation in a closed hydroponic system minimizes worker and consumer exposure to pesticides and prevents runoff of pesticide by spray drift and leaching into the environment.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. PART II - USE OF THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid physiological and behavioral development. In addition, young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to engage in activities (i.e., playing, sitting on the floor) in which they may ...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. PART II - USE OF THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid physiological and behavioral development. In addition, young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to engage in activities (i.e., playing, sitting on the floor) in which they may ...

  2. The upper midwest health study: a case–control study of pesticide applicators and risk of glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case–control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using “ever-never” exposure to farm pesticides and analyzing men and women separately, found no positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma risks. The primary objective was to determine if quantitatively estimated exposure of pesticide applicators was associated with an increased risk of glioma in male and female participants. Methods The study included 798 histologically confirmed primary intracranial glioma cases (45 % with proxy respondents) and 1,175 population-based controls, all adult (age 18–80) non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The analyses used quantitatively estimated exposure from questionnaire responses evaluated by an experienced industrial hygienist with 25 years of work on farm pesticide analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression modeling were calculated adjusting for frequency-matching variables (10-year age group and sex), and for age and education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Analyses were separately conducted with or without proxy respondents. Results No significant positive associations with glioma were observed with cumulative years or estimated lifetime cumulative exposure of farm pesticide use. There was, a significant inverse association for phenoxy pesticide used on the farm (OR 0.96 per 10 g-years of cumulative exposure, CI 0.93-0.99). No significant findings were observed when proxy respondents were excluded. Non-farm occupational applicators of any pesticide had decreased glioma risk: OR 0.72, CI 0.52-0.99. Similarly, house and garden pesticide applicators had a decreased risk

  3. Improve the Dispersion of Nanoclay Using Biochar and Biosilica-Application to Decrease the Loss of Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longhai; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Guilong; Ge, Chunmei; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Dispersion of nanomaterials could influence their functions and suspending capacity in aqueous solution, which could further affect their applications. Therefore, improving the dispersion of nanomaterials was rather significant. Herein, to enhance the dispersion of attapulgite (ATP), a kind of naturally aggregated nanoclay, straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) with micro/nano porous structure was added to ATP suspension under ultrasonic processing to form ATP-BCS nanocomposites. This approach could effectively decrease the particle size of originally aggregated ATP through steric hindrance effect of BCS and cavitation effect of ultrasound, resulting in a significant improvement of the dispersion and suspension capacity of ATP. Moreover, the ATP-BCS, when added into pesticide, could effectively improve the adhesion of pesticide, so that the loss of pesticide could be decreased and the pollution risk of pesticide could be lowered.

  4. Application of land-use data and screening tests for evaluating pesticide runoff toxicity in surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.

    1993-05-01

    Survey information on pesticide usage in New Zealand during 1985-1989 is summarized by regions and principal applications. Two screening tests, one based on a simple water-balance method and the other based on a semiempirical runoff formula, have been used to identify 18 pesticides with application rates that may yield runoff concentrations that are harmful to aquatic fauna. These are predominantly associated either with intensive applications in horticulture or extensive applications to cereal crops and pasture. The purpose of the screening tests was to calculate typical edge-of-field concentrations in runoff and, by comparing them with known aquatic toxicity values, determine which compounds are applied at rates that may yield toxic runoff. While it may be possible to extend these methods to calculate typical surface water concentrations, further studies will be needed to evaluate pesticide persistence and assimilation in stream channels.

  5. The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gorham, Sasha; Pettengill, James B; Rideout, Steven; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture: acibenzolar-S-methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify the effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Results Approximately 186 441 16S rRNA gene and 39 381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3 346 677 (634 892 974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. Conclusion A significant decrease in the presence of Gammaproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper-treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere; however, owing to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time-points (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than do certain agricultural management practices. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410588

  6. Cancer risk in offspring of male pesticide applicators in agriculture in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rodvall, Y; Dich, J; Wiklund, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To explore cancer risk from date of birth until 1994 in children, born 1958 or later, of Swedish male pesticide applicators. Methods: Records of male pesticide applicators licensed 1965–76 were linked to the Multigeneration Register. The records of their offspring were then linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry and the Cause of Death Register. Results: In total 51 cases of cancer were observed, which is significantly lower than the expected 73.0 (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.92). Tumours of the nervous system was most common, amounting to 20 cases, 39% of all cancer cases (SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.56). A statistically significant reduced risk for leukaemia was found (SIR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.86). For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, three cases were observed and 4.8 expected (SIR 0.63, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.83). For Hodgkin's disease, five cases were observed versus 3.7 expected (SIR 1.36, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.17). Two cases of testicular cancer were observed and 1.7 expected (SIR 1.19, 95% CI 0.13 to 4.28). Conclusions: None of the a priori hypotheses of increased risk of tumours of the nervous system, kidney cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and testicular cancer in children of male pesticide applicators could be confirmed. PMID:14504372

  7. The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gorham, Sasha; Pettengill, James B; Rideout, Steven; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric

    2015-03-30

    Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture: acibenzolar-S-methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify the effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Approximately 186 441 16S rRNA gene and 39 381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3 346 677 (634 892 974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. A significant decrease in the presence of Gammaproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper-treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere; however, owing to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time-points (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than do certain agricultural management practices. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Environmental attitudes and drift reduction behavior among commercial pesticide applicators in a U.S. agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Adam P; Prokopy, Linda S

    2012-12-30

    Pesticide drift is a significant environmental problem in rural regions, and can result in losses to certain non-target crops and livestock, water and air pollution, and threats to human health. While state agencies seek to control the harmful effects of pesticides through licensing and certificate programs, the adoption rates of drift-reducing practices by commercial applicators remain highly variable. In order to effectively target outreach efforts to commercial applicators, managers need to better understand current use patterns and the motivations behind the adoption and non-adoption of preferred practices. Using a web and mail survey, this study explored environmental attitudes, awareness and concern for pesticide drift, and current practice adoption for drift reduction by commercial pesticide applicators in Indiana. Researchers surveyed three distinct applicator types: industrial weed management (utility right-of-way), agriculture, and aerial (which are mostly spraying in an agricultural setting). Overall, applicators exhibited positive environmental attitudes, but low concern for pesticide drift in the geographic areas where they operate. Adoption rates for several drift reduction technologies were high, particularly for equipment and spray modifications such as low-drift spray nozzles (88%) and increased spray droplet size (92%). Applicators were less familiar with specialty equipment (such as band sprayers, 13% adoption rate) and methods for identifying sensitive sites such as bee colonies and organic crops. Among the three groups, industrial weed management applicators had the lowest adoption rates. Applicators were motivated to adopt drift-reduction practices by the desire to be a good neighbor and a desire to be a good land steward. There is potential for use of more innovative, voluntary approaches to raise awareness of sites sensitive to pesticide drift in rural landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Antimicrobial Pesticides EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of ...

  10. Fluorescent tracer evaluation of chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications in central Florida citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A; Birnbaum, S G; Methner, M M; Lu, C; Nigg, H N

    2002-08-01

    Chemical protective clothing (CPC) is often recommended as a method of exposure mitigation among pesticide applicators. This study evaluated four CPC regimens (cotton work shirts and work pants, cotton/polyester coveralls, and two non-woven garments) during 33 airblast applications of the organophosphorus insecticide ethion in central Florida citrus groves. CPC performance was determined by measurement of fluorescent tracer deposition on skin surfaces beneath garments with a video imaging analysis instrument (VITAE system), and by alpha-cellulose patches placed outside and beneath the garments. Non-woven coveralls allowed significantly greater exposure than did traditional woven garments, primarily because of design factors (e.g., large sleeve and neck openings). The greatest exposure occurred on the forearms beneath the non-woven garments. Fabric penetration was detected for all test garments; 5% to 7% of the ethion measured outside the garments was found beneath the garments. The clothing materials tested were not chemically resistant under these field conditions. Exposurepathways that would probably be undetected by the patch technique were characterized effectively with fluorescent tracers and video imaging analysis. However, the patch technique was more sensitive in detecting fabric penetration. CPC garments have been improved since this study was conducted, but performance testing under field conditions is not widespread. Workers conducting airblast applications would be better protected by closed cab systems or any technology that places an effective barrier between the worker and the pesticide spray.

  11. Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Bodner, T E; Rohlman, D S

    2012-07-01

    Chronic low level exposure of agricultural workers and applicators to pesticides has been found to be associated with different degrees of decrement in cognitive and psychomotor functions. The goal of this study was to use meta-analysis to (1) identify and quantify neurobehavioral deficits among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators, and (2) analyse the potential confounders or moderators of these neurobehavioral deficits. Seventeen studies, reporting on 21 independent cohort groups, were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved 16 neuropsychological tests providing 23 different performance measures that constitute the neurobehavioral constructs. All tests and measures of the neurobehavioral functions of attention, visuomotor integration, verbal abstraction and perception constructs showed significant decrements for exposed participants. One out of three tests of memory, two of five tests of sustained attention, and four of eight tests of motor speed constructs also showed significant decrements. Nine out of these 15 effect size distributions demonstrated significant heterogeneity across cohorts. A search for cohort-level variables (eg, agricultural workers vs applicators, duration of exposure, age and percentage of male participants) to explain this heterogeneity was largely unsuccessful. However, for one test, Block Design, the duration of exposure was positively associated with performance decrements. Furthermore, it was also found that performance decrements on this test were smaller for older participants. Increasing the number of studies and using more consistent methodologies in field studies are needed.

  12. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Use among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M.; Lubin, Jay H.; Starks, Sarah; Gerr, Fred; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J; Weichenthal, Scott; Kamel, Freya; Koutros, Stella; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) using lifetime pesticide use data from 701 randomly selected male participants collected at three time periods. Of 27 OPs studied, 20 were used by >1%. Overall, 95% had ever applied at least one OP. The median number of different OPs used was 4 (maximum=13). Malathion was the most commonly used OP (74%) followed by chlorpyrifos (54%). OP use declined over time. At the first interview (1993–1997), 68% of participants had applied OPs in the past year; by the last interview (2005–2007), only 42% had. Similarly, median annual application days of OPs declined from 13.5 to 6 days. While OP use was common, the specific OPs used varied by state, time period, and individual. Much of the variability in OP use was associated with the choice of OP, rather than the frequency or duration of application. Information on farmers’ OP use enhances our ability to characterize and understand the potential health effects of multiple OP exposures. PMID:22854518

  13. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  14. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  15. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993–1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or “cumulative exposure days” (years of use × days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use × days/year × estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure–response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers. PMID:15626647

  16. Maternal Residence Near Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Autism Spectrum Disorders among Children in the California Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric M.; English, Paul B.; Grether, Judith K.; Windham, Gayle C.; Somberg, Lucia; Wolff, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of pesticides (“pesticide drift”) are detectable at residences near agricultural field sites. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications during key periods of gestation could be associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Methods We identified 465 children with ASD born during 1996–1998 using the California Department of Developmental Services electronic files, and matched them by maternal date of last menstrual period to 6,975 live-born, normal-birth-weight, term infants as controls. We determined proximity to pesticide applications using California Department of Pesticide Regulation records refined using Department of Water Resources land use polygons. A staged analytic design applying a priori criteria to the results of conditional logistic regressions was employed to exclude associations likely due to multiple testing error. Results Of 249 unique hypotheses, four that described organochlorine pesticide applications—specifically those of dicofol and endosulfan—occurring during the period immediately before and concurrent with central nervous system embryogenesis (clinical weeks 1 through 8) met a priori criteria and were unlikely to be a result of multiple testing. Multivariate a posteriori models comparing children of mothers living within 500 m of field sites with the highest nonzero quartile of organochlorine poundage to those with mothers not living near field sites suggested an odds ratio for ASD of 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.4–15.3). ASD risk increased with the poundage of organochlorine applied and decreased with distance from field sites. Conclusions The association between residential proximity to organochlorine pesticide applications during gestation and ASD among children should be further studied. PMID:17938740

  17. URINARY LEVELS OF 2,4-D AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL FOR SPOUSES AND CHILDREN OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted pesticides, 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos, was measured in conjunction with agricultural applications for a subset of appl...

  18. URINARY LEVELS OF 2,4-D AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL FOR SPOUSES AND CHILDREN OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted pesticides, 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos, was measured in conjunction with agricultural applications for a subset of appl...

  19. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml.

  20. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site.

  1. Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

  2. Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-05-08

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

  3. 78 FR 53139 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Application for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide flonicamid, pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). DATES... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid (N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3...

  4. Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders.

    PubMed

    Feola, Giuseppe; Binder, Claudia R

    2010-01-01

    The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. The integrative agent-centered (IAC) framework and a logistic regression approach were adopted. The results suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: (1) having experienced pesticide-related health problems; (2) age; (3) the share of pesticide application carried out; and (4) the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioral change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. In conclusion, five suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated: (1) diversifying targets/tools; (2) addressing structural aspects; (3) sustaining interventions in the long-term; (4) targeting farmers' learning-by-experience; and (5) targeting PPE use on a collective level.

  5. PR notice 87-9. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  6. PR notice 87-10. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  7. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  8. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers at national level.

  9. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  10. Biosensors and their applications in detection of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Shokoufeh; Momtaz, Saeideh; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Maghsoudi, Armin Salek; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the past and recent advancements of biosensors focusing on detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) due to their exceptional use during the last decades. Apart from agricultural benefits, OPs also impose adverse toxicological effects on animal and human population. Conventional approaches such as chromatographic techniques used for pesticide detection are associated with several limitations. A biosensor technology is unique due to the detection sensitivity, selectivity, remarkable performance capabilities, simplicity and on-site operation, fabrication and incorporation with nanomaterials. This study also provided specifications of the most OPs biosensors reported until today based on their transducer system. In addition, we highlighted the application of advanced complementary materials and analysis techniques in OPs detection systems. The availability of these new materials associated with new sensing techniques has led to introduction of easy-to-use analytical tools of high sensitivity and specificity in the design and construction of OPs biosensors. In this review, we elaborated the achievements in sensing systems concerning innovative nanomaterials and analytical techniques with emphasis on OPs.

  11. Natural attenuation of pesticide water contamination by using ecological adsorbents: Application for chlorinated pesticides included in European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    SummaryIn this work, a series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential use of natural organic substances (NOS) as an ecological technique to prevent pesticide contamination of ground water resources. A preliminary test has been carried out for determining the potentialities of ten NOS in the elimination of alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The best adsorbents that present higher removal efficiency were date and olives stones, and in minor measurement Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. Experimental results showed that the pH and temperature of pesticide solutions negatively affect the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 8 h were considered as the equilibrium time for realizing adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were fit with Freundlich isotherm model which describes better the adsorption process. The K f values depended mainly on the nature of each adsorbent and ranged from 4.53 for Eucalyptus gomphocephala to 13.54 for date stones.

  12. Differential Effects of Pesticide Applications on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its Parasitoids on Pea in Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guantai, M M; Ogol, C P K O; Salifu, D; Kasina, J M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    Three Liriomyza species [Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Liriomyza sativae Blanchard] have been reported as the most important leafminer pests in vegetable production systems in Africa. In Kenya, farmers rely on indiscriminate synthetic insecticides use. On-farm field investigations were set up at three different locations (Sagana, Kabaru, and Naromoru) in central Kenya to determine the effect of pesticide application on the abundance of leafminers and their parasitoids under three management practices, namely: farmer practice (FP), reduced pesticide use (RP), and a control with no use of pesticides (CO). In addition, laboratory experiments were designed to test the effect of commonly used pesticides in pea production systems in central Kenya--Dimethoate, Dynamec, Thunder, Cyclone, Bestox, Folicur, Milraz, and Bulldock--on L. huidobrensis and two of its parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon. The mean numbers of leafminer flies in control treatment were higher than in RP and FP in both first and second seasons across all sites, but RP and FP did not differ significantly. Parasitoid numbers were very low and there was no much variation between treatments at each location in both first and second seasons. No significant differences were observed between the three management practices with regards to the yield measurements. In the laboratory, the estimated LD50 values for L. huidobrensis larvae were all more than two times higher than the recommended dosages, while the LD50 of adults were below the recommended dosages. The estimated LD50 values for the parasitoids were much lower than recommended dosages for all pesticides except Thunder. This study, therefore, demonstrates that the pesticides currently used do not control the Liriomyza leafminer larvae that constitute the most destructive stage of the pest, but are rather detrimental to their parasitoids. In addition, the current low level of

  13. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  14. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops (Version 1.4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method for conducting and reporting results from verification testing of pesticide application technologies. It can be used to evaluate technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift, hence the term “drift reduction t...

  15. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  16. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops (Version 1.4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method for conducting and reporting results from verification testing of pesticide application technologies. It can be used to evaluate technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift, hence the term “drift reduction t...

  17. Factors Related to the Learning of Participants in the Ohio Pesticide Private Applicators Instructional Program. Summary of Research 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Daniel; Miller, Larry E.

    A study determined the learning (achievement) of 151 participants in the 1992-93 Ohio pesticide applicator training (PAT) program. It assessed the intended level of cognition of instruction and the actual cognition level achieved by the participants. All participants were pre- and posttested using questions adapted from Hall and Prochaska (1991),…

  18. Development and application of a catchment scale pesticide fate and transport model for use in drinking water risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pullan, S P; Whelan, M J; Rettino, J; Filby, K; Eyre, S; Holman, I P

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of IMPT (Integrated Model for Pesticide Transport), a parameter-efficient tool for predicting diffuse-source pesticide concentrations in surface waters used for drinking water supply. The model was applied to a small UK headwater catchment with high frequency (8h) pesticide monitoring data and to five larger catchments (479-1653km(2)) with sampling approximately every 14days. Model performance was good for predictions of both flow (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency generally >0.59 and PBIAS <10%) and pesticide concentrations, although low sampling frequency in the larger catchments is likely to mask the true episodic nature of exposure. The computational efficiency of the model, along with the fact that most of its parameters can be derived from existing national soil property data mean that it can be used to rapidly predict pesticide exposure in multiple surface water resources to support operational and strategic risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticide application and detection in variable agricultural intensity watersheds and their river systems in the maritime region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zisheng; Chow, Lien; Cook, Art; Benoy, Glenn; Rees, Herb; Ernst, Bill; Meng, Fanrui; Li, Sheng; Zha, Tianshan; Murphy, Clair; Batchelor, Suzanne; Hewitt, L Mark

    2012-11-01

    Applications of pesticides in areas of agricultural production have been an environmental concern for the past several decades. Varying-sized watersheds draining regions of intense agriculture in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were monitored between 2003 and 2007 to determine the major in-use pesticides and to gain an understanding of the risks posed to aquatic ecosystems. A questionnaire collected from farmers in one watershed intensively cropped with potato indicated that 43 pesticides were applied with 18 of them being detected in that watershed. Our results across the Maritime region suggested that detection frequencies ranged from 0.0 to 22 % during the study period. Chlorothalonil, linuron, metalaxyl, and metribuzin were detected in 17-22 % of samples collected during rainfall events every year. Other pesticides, such as azinphos-methyl, atrazine, cypermethrin, permethrin, fonofos, and β-endosulfan were detected in ≤17 % of the samples during some years of the study. Concentrations of several pesticides were found to exceed their Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) aquatic life water-quality guidelines in pulses after rain events. The highest proportion of detections exceeding a CCME guideline was for chlorothalonil at 12.9 %, β-endosulfan at 6.0 %, and linuron at 3.4 %. Despite indications that remedial measures offer protection to aquatic environments, spatial and temporal gaps in the data prevented a full evaluation. A dedicated long-term multiple-watershed monitoring program for this region of Canada is therefore recommended.

  20. Applications of solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

  3. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds.

  4. An efficient thermostable organophosphate hydrolase and its application in pesticide decontamination.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Immacolata; Coppolecchia, Rossella; Merone, Luigia; Porzio, Elena; Carusone, Teresa Maria; Mandrich, Luigi; Worek, Franz; Manco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In vitro evolution of enzymes represents a powerful device to evolve new or to improve weak enzymatic functions. In the present work a semi-rational engineering approach has been used to design an efficient and thermostable organophosphate hydrolase, starting from a lactonase scaffold (SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus). In particular, by in vitro evolution of the SsoPox ancillary promiscuous activity, the triple mutant C258L/I261F/W263A has been obtained which, retaining its inherent stability, showed an enhancement of its hydrolytic activity on paraoxon up to 300-fold, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiency up to 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and structural determinants of this enhanced activity were thoroughly investigated and, in order to evaluate its potential biotechnological applications, the mutant was tested in formulations of different solvents (methanol or ethanol) or detergents (SDS or a commercial soap) for the cleaning of pesticide-contaminated surfaces.

  5. Graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructures for enhanced Raman readout and their applications in pesticide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-04-01

    Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich nanostructure as a SERS substrate, the Raman signals of analytes were dramatically enhanced due to having plenty of hot spots on their surfaces and the unique structure of the graphene oxide sheets. These features make the sandwich nanostructured film an ideal SERS substrate to improve the sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of the Raman readout. The sandwich nanostructure film can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G) with an enhancement factor (EF) of ~7.0 × 107 and the pesticide thiram in commercial grape juice with a detection limit of as low as 0.1 μM (0.03 ppm), which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The GO embedded sandwich nanostructure also has the ability to selectively detect dithiocarbamate compounds over other types of agricultural chemical. Furthermore, spiked tests show that the sandwich nanostructure can be used to monitor thiram in natural lake water and commercial grape juice without further treatment. In addition, the GO enhanced Raman spectroscopic technique offers potential practical applications for the on-site monitoring and assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural products and environments.Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich

  6. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  7. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  8. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  9. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Garcerá, Cruz; Fonte, Alberto; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-06-30

    Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP) labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl) and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density), pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  10. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Garcerá, Cruz; Fonte, Alberto; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP) labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl) and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density), pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones. PMID:28665344

  11. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.

  12. The impact of land use intensity and associated pesticide applications on fitness and enzymatic activity in reptiles-A field study.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2017-03-01

    Environmental pollution and habitat loss are described as underlying causes for population declines in reptiles and especially affect species in agricultural landscapes. Studies dealing with effects of pesticide exposure on reptiles are limited, mainly addressing the orders Testudines and Crocodylia, but largely neglecting the most diverse reptile order Squamata (lizards and snakes). As a consequence, information regarding effects on their organisms, as well as exposure probability and pesticide uptake in the Reptilia has to be considered rather uncharted. We here ask how pesticide applications affect a widely distributed, synanthropic squamate species in Europe. We studied the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) with regard to enzymatic biomarkers of pesticide exposure (Glutathione-S-Transferase, Glutathione Reductase, Acetylcholinesterase) and body condition. Lizards were sampled from wild populations, along an exposure gradient (three exposed sites with differing land use intensity and one reference site). Our results suggest both dermal and oral uptake of pesticide formulations, with the former being especially relevant during the first two days after a pesticide application. Enzymatic activity slightly differed between exposure gradients, while showing overall similar patterns. Body condition of lizards decreased with increasing pesticide exposure. Furthermore, gender distribution was particularly skewed in favor to males within exposed sample sites. Although reptiles are not target organisms of pesticide applications, many species do come into contact with them, and most probably suffer from dermal and oral uptake. Thus, we believe it is indispensable for reptiles to be integrated in risk assessments in order to improve conservation practice.

  13. Organophosphate insecticide use and cancer incidence among spouses of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lerro, Catherine C; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Friesen, Melissa C; Alavanja, Michael C; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Lubin, Jay H; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most commonly used insecticides. OPs have been linked to cancer risk in some epidemiological studies, which have been largely conducted in predominantly male populations. We evaluated personal use of specific OPs and cancer incidence among female spouses of pesticide applicators in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort. At enrolment (1993-1997), spouses provided information about ever use of specific pesticides, including 10 OPs, demographic information, reproductive health history and other potential confounders. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for all cancers diagnosed through 2010 for North Carolina and through 2011 for Iowa. Among 30,003 women, 25.9% reported OP use, and 718 OP-exposed women were diagnosed with cancer during the follow-up period. Any OP use was associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer (RR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.43). Malathion, the most commonly reported OP, was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer (RR=2.04, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.63) and decreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.99). Diazinon use was associated with ovarian cancer (RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.43). We observed increased risk with OP use for several hormonally-related cancers, including breast, thyroid and ovary, suggesting potential for hormonally-mediated effects. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of OP use and cancer risk among women, and thus demonstrates a need for further evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Large-scale preparation of the phytoalexin elicitor glucohexatose and its application as a green pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jun; Kong, Fanzuo; Lin, Bangmao; Lei, Huide

    2003-02-12

    Large-scale preparation of the phytoalexin elicitor was achieved through a highly regio- and sterereoselective synthesis using 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-d-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (1), 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-d-glucofuranose (2), and 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (3) as the synthons. Coupling of 1 with 2 gave the 1-->3-linked disaccharide; subsequent selective removal of 5,6-O-isopropylidene to give 5 followed by selective 6-O-glycosylation with 1 afforded the trisaccharide 6. Hydrolysis to remove the 1,2-O-isopropylidene was accompanied by ring expansion, giving 3,6-branched pyranosyl trisaccharide. Acetylation, selective 1-O-deacetylation, and activation with trichloroacetonitrile gave the trisaccharide donor 7. The trisaccharide acceptor 9 was prepared from condensation of the disaccharide 5 with 3 and subsequent 6-O-deacetylation. Coupling of the trisaccharide donor 7 with the trisaccharide acceptor 9 and subsequent deprotection afforded the glucohexatose elicitor. The cost of the produced glucohexatose should be low enough to allow its applications in agriculture as a green pesticide. At a concentration of 5-10 mg/L, the resultant elicitor was used to treat growing orange trees and harvested oranges, giving very encouraging results, comparable with those obtained using commercial pesticides at a concentration of 1400 mg/L (Topsin-M) for growing trees and 900 mg/L (Tecto) for harvested oranges, respectively. Treatment of tomato leaves against Botrytis cinerea with the synthetic elicitor at a concentration of 10 mg/L gave 82% inhibition, comparable with the inhibition of 84% by Wanmeiling at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. Treatment of tea leaves also showed promising results.

  15. Organophosphate insecticide use and cancer incidence among spouses of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lerro, Catherine C.; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Friesen, Melissa C.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lubin, Jay H.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei; Beane Freeman, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Organophosphates (OP) are among the most commonly used insecticides. OPs have been linked to cancer risk in some epidemiologic studies, which have been largely conducted in predominantly male populations. We evaluated personal use of specific OPs and cancer incidence among female spouses of pesticide applicators in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods At enrollment (1993–1997) spouses provided information about ever use of specific pesticides, including ten OPs, demographic information, reproductive health history, and other potential confounders. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all cancers diagnosed through 2010 for North Carolina and 2011 for Iowa. Results Among 30,003 women, 25.9% reported OP use, and 718 OP-exposed women were diagnosed with cancer during the follow-up period. Any OP use was associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43). Malathion, the most commonly reported OP, was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer (RR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.63) and decreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.99). Diazinon use was associated with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.43). Conclusions We observed increased risk with OP use for several hormonally-related cancers, including breast, thyroid, and ovary, suggesting potential for hormonally-mediated effects. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of OP use and cancer risk among women, and thus a need for further evaluation. PMID:26150671

  16. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  17. Ubinas Volcano Activity in Peruvian Andes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-01

    On April 28, 2014, NASA Terra spacecraft spotted signs of activity at Ubinas volcano in the Peruvian Andes. The appearance of a new lava dome in March 2014 and frequent ash emissions are signs of increasing activity at this volcano.

  18. National standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms: application to water-quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Nowell, L H; Resek, E A

    1994-01-01

    National standards and guidelines for pesticides can be useful tools in water-quality assessment for evaluating potential human health or ecological effects of measured pesticide residues in water, bed sediment, or aquatic organisms. However, valid use of a given standard or guideline requires an understanding of its technical basis and underlying assumptions. Each type of standard or guideline is specific for one sampling medium (water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissue) and is aimed at protection of one or more beneficial uses of the hydrologic system (drinking water, fish and shellfish consumption, aquatic organisms, and wildlife). These characteristics can be used to identify which standards and guidelines are appropriate for comparison with measured pesticide concentrations in environmental samples from a given hydrologic system. A review of standards and guidelines can be restricted to the applicable sampling medium. Then, the beneficial uses of the hydrologic system need to be identified and the measured pesticide concentrations compared with standards and guidelines for all beneficial uses that apply to that system. Several key factors that must be considered when applying this general process to water-quality assessment are summarized below. Two precautions need to be considered regarding sampling media: 1. Standards and guidelines for water distinguish between finished drinking water (potable water, often treated) and ambient surface water. If standards and guidelines for drinking water (EPA primary drinking-water regulations and drinking-water health advisories) are applied to measured pesticide concentrations in ambient water samples, the effects of water treatment (such as filtration) need to be considered. 2. Standards and guidelines for fish and shellfish tissue distinguish between edible fish and shellfish tissue and whole fish tissue. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in whole fish tissue with standards or guidelines for edible fish

  19. A functionalized fluorescent dendrimer as a pesticide nanocarrier: application in pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; He, Bicheng; Xu, Zejun; Yin, Meizhen; Yang, Wantai; Zhang, Huaijiang; Cao, Jingjun; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-14

    We report the delivery of a hydrophobic pesticide, thiamethoxam, by water-soluble nanosized cationic dendrimers that contain hydrophobic dendritic polyesters and peripheral amines, demonstrated by DLS, spectral analysis and ITC. The dendrimer-based nanocarrier can efficiently deliver the pesticide into the live cells and largely increase the cytotoxicity of the drug.

  20. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and application in mineralization of pesticides using membrane support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimegalai, G.; Shanthakumar, S.; Sharma, Chandan

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides are deliberately used for controlling the pests in agriculture and public health, due to which, a part of it is present in the drinking water. Due to their widespread use, they are present in both surface and ground water. Most of the pesticides are resistant to biodegradation and are found to be carcinogenic in nature even at trace levels. Conventional methods of pesticide removal are disadvantageous due to their inherent time consumption or expensiveness. Nanoparticles alleviate both of these drawbacks and hence, they can be effectively utilized for the mineralization of pesticides. To prevent the presence of nanoparticles in the purified water after mineralization of pesticides, they need to be incorporated on a support. In earlier studies, researchers employed activated carbon and alumina as support for silver nanoparticles in pesticide mineralization. However, not many studies have been carried out on polymeric membranes as support for silver nanoparticles in the mineralization of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). With this in view, a detailed study has been carried out to estimate the mineralization potential of silver nanoparticles (synthesized using glucose) supported on cellulose acetate membrane. It is observed that the silver nanoparticles can effectively mineralize the pesticides, and the concentration of nanoparticles enhances the rate of mineralization.

  1. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a pesticide... and PSES) or Table 3 of this part (NSPS and PSNS). A plant that manufactures a pesticide...

  2. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a pesticide... and PSES) or Table 3 of this part (NSPS and PSNS). A plant that manufactures a pesticide...

  3. Summary of national standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, bed sediment, and aquatic organisms and their application to water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)

  4. Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, David F; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.

  5. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    PubMed

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change. PMID:25313074

  7. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  8. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-04

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  9. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Alessandra; Pizzeghello, Diego; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. Materials and Methods In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures) treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole), with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days). FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI) and ester-linked method (EL). Results and Discussion The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2) values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time. Conclusion Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides. PMID:26694029

  10. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  11. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  12. Spray pesticide applications in Mediterranean citrus orchards: Canopy deposition and off-target losses.

    PubMed

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared. Applications were performed with a conventional air-assisted sprayer, with a spray volume of around 3000lha(-1) in a Navel orange orchard. Brilliant Sulfoflavine (BSF) was used as a tracer. Results showed that only around 46% of the applied spray was deposited on the target trees and around 4% of the spray was deposited on adjacent trees from adjoining rows independently of the nozzle type. Applications with standard nozzles produced more potential airborne spray drift (23%) than those with the drift reducing nozzles (17%) but fewer direct losses to the ground (22% vs. 27%). Indirect losses (sedimenting spray drift) to the ground of adjacent paths were around 7-9% in both cases. The important data set of spray distribution in the different compartments around sprayed orchard (air, ground, vegetation) generated in this work is highly useful as input source of exposure to take into account for the risk assessment in Mediterranean citrus scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dermal exposure of pesticide applicators as a measure of coverall performance under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Machera, K; Tsakirakis, A; Charistou, A; Anastasiadou, P; Glass, C R

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the field performance of two coverall designs used by pesticide applicators was determined. Two coverall types were selected based on data from previously conducted comfort testing under field conditions in southern Europe. Dermal exposure was measured during 22 applications conducted with 11 operators using similar hand-held spray guns in greenhouse pepper crops in the Ierapetra region of Crete, Greece. One of the coverall designs studied was made from a cotton/polyester material treated with a water-repellent Resist Spills(R) finish, which was compared in the field study to a coverall of similar design, but using a woven, untreated cotton material. An in-house analytical method was developed and validated for determining residues of the active substance (a.s.) malathion on the dosimeters. The derived levels of dermal exposure were used as a measure of the protection provided by the two types of coveralls. In addition, by comparing the total amount of the a.s. recovered from outer and inner dosimeters (potential dermal exposure = 238.8 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the cotton coverall and 160.44 mg kg(-1) a.s. for the Resist Spills coverall), a value could be determined for the degree of coverall penetration. The mean penetration (milligrams per kilogram a.s.) of the outer coveralls, calculated as a percentage of the total contamination, was 0.4% for the water-repellent coverall and 2.3% for the cotton coverall. The mean recovery from the laboratory and field-fortified samples was >91 and 74%, respectively and used as the main criterion for quality control of the analytical data. Under the field trial conditions evaluated, both the coverall designs gave better protection than the default values used in the most relevant predictive exposure model. Therefore, they could be considered as appropriate tools of personal protection when both comfort and field performance is taken into account under the specific application scenario.

  14. Au dotted magnetic network nanostructure and its application for on-site monitoring femtomolar level pesticide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Shuyue; Yu, Jie; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2014-04-09

    A novel magnetically responsive and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) active nanocomposite is designed and prepared by direct grafting of Au nanoparticles onto the surface of magnetic network nanostructure (MNN) with the help of a nontoxic and environmentally friendly reagent of inositol hexakisphosphate shortly named as IP6. The presence of IP6 as a stabilizer and a bridging agent could weave Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) into magnetic network nanostructure, which is easily dotted with Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). It has been shown firstly that the huge Raman enhancement of Au-MNN is reached by an external magnetic collection. Au-MNN presenting the large surface and high detection sensitivity enables it to exhibit multifunctional applications involving sufficient adsorption of dissolved chemical species for enrichment, separation, as well as a Raman amplifier for the analysis of trace pesticide residues at femtomolar level by a portable Raman spectrometer. Therefore, such multifunctional nanocomposites can be developed as a smart and promising nanosystem that integrates SERS approach with an easy assay for concentration by an external magnet for the effective on-site assessments of agricultural and environmental safety.

  15. Pest and pesticide management on southern forests

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Ken L. McNabb; Brad Barber; Larry M. Bishop; Michael L. Thompson; John W. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Federal law requires certification for all commercial pesticide applicators. The law also requires private applicator certification for the purchase or application of "restricted use" pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set minimum competency standards for certification of pesticide applicators. These standards include a practical...

  16. APPLICATION OF ELECTROPHORESIS TO STUDY THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF FIVE CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN AEROBIC SOIL SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomers of five chiral pesticides of environmental interest, metalaxyl, imazaquin, fonofos (dyfonate), ruelene (cruformate) and dichlorprop, were separated analytically using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with cyclodextrin chiral selectors. CE is shown to be a simple, ef...

  17. APPLICATION OF ELECTROPHORESIS TO STUDY THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF FIVE CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN AEROBIC SOIL SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomers of five chiral pesticides of environmental interest, metalaxyl, imazaquin, fonofos (dyfonate), ruelene (cruformate) and dichlorprop, were separated analytically using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with cyclodextrin chiral selectors. CE is shown to be a simple, ef...

  18. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., including winter wheat, spring wheat, barley and triticale. Contact: Maggie Rudick, (703) 347-0257, email address: rudick.maggie@epa.gov . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest....

  19. A functionalized fluorescent dendrimer as a pesticide nanocarrier: application in pest control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; He, Bicheng; Xu, Zejun; Yin, Meizhen; Yang, Wantai; Zhang, Huaijiang; Cao, Jingjun; Shen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    We report the delivery of a hydrophobic pesticide, thiamethoxam, by water-soluble nanosized cationic dendrimers that contain hydrophobic dendritic polyesters and peripheral amines, demonstrated by DLS, spectral analysis and ITC. The dendrimer-based nanocarrier can efficiently deliver the pesticide into the live cells and largely increase the cytotoxicity of the drug.We report the delivery of a hydrophobic pesticide, thiamethoxam, by water-soluble nanosized cationic dendrimers that contain hydrophobic dendritic polyesters and peripheral amines, demonstrated by DLS, spectral analysis and ITC. The dendrimer-based nanocarrier can efficiently deliver the pesticide into the live cells and largely increase the cytotoxicity of the drug. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05733c

  20. PESTICIDE LEACHING ANALYTICAL MODEL AND GIS-BASED APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides and other organic pollutants has been detected across agricultural areas and is on the increase. Because groundwater monitoring is too costly to define the geographic extent of contamination at such large scales, indirect methods are needed...

  1. 75 FR 6027 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Agrochemicals Ltd., (62097-EUP-R). Pesticide Chemical: Prohydrojasmon (PDJ). Summary of Request: Use as a plant growth regulator on red apple varieties in the states of California, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North...

  2. PESTICIDE LEACHING ANALYTICAL MODEL AND GIS-BASED APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides and other organic pollutants has been detected across agricultural areas and is on the increase. Because groundwater monitoring is too costly to define the geographic extent of contamination at such large scales, indirect methods are needed...

  3. Micrometeorologic methods for measuring the post-application volatilization of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    A wide variety of micrometeorological measurement methods can be used to estimate the postapplication volatilization of pesticides from treated fields. All these estimation methods require that the entire study area have the same surficial characteristics, including the area surrounding the actual study site, and that the pesticide under investigation be applied as quickly and as uniformly as possible before any measurements are made. Methods such as aerodynamic profile, energy balance, eddy correlation, and relaxed eddy accumulation require a large (typically 1 or more hectare) study area so that the flux measurements can be made in a well developed atmospheric boundary- layer and that steady-state conditions exist. The area surrounding the study plot should have similar surficial characteristics as the study plot with sufficient upwind extent so the wind speed and temperature gradients are fully developed. Mass balance methods such as integrated horizontal flux and trajectory simulations do not require a large source area, but the area surrounding the study plot should have similar surficial characteristics. None of the micrometeorological techniques for estimating the postapplication volatilization fluxes of pesticides disturb the environment or the soil processes that influence the gas exchange from the surface to the atmosphere. They allow for continuous measurements and provide a temporally averaged flux value over a large area. If the behavior of volatilizing pesticides and the importance of the volatilization process in redistributing pesticides in the environment are to be fully understood, it is critical that we understand not only the processes that govern pesticide entry into the lower atmosphere, but also how much of the millions of kilograms of pesticides that are applied annually are introduced into, and redistributed by, the atmosphere. We also must be aware of the assumptions and limitations of the estimation techniques used, and adapt the field of

  4. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  6. An applicable strategy for improvement recovery in simultaneous analysis of 20 pesticides residue in tea.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Shahram; Amirahmadi, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Khosrokhavar, Roya; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi

    2013-05-01

    It is important to have a reliable method to analyze pesticides in tea, a beverage commonly consumed in Iran. A validated method was developed for the determination of 20 pesticides in tea based on QuEChERS sample preparation and capillary gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode (GC-MS/SIM) using triphenyl methane (TPM) solution as an internal standard. We used fortified, extracted, and cleaned-up tea samples instead of calibration standards for quantitation, which substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by graphite carbon black (GCB) on pesticide analysis. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration (40, 60, and 240 ng/g) ranged from 79.5% to 111.4% (n = 3). The method had acceptable repeatability with RSDr < 20%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for all pesticides were ≤20 ng/g. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with proficiency test results (FAPAS, 19116). The recoveries and repeatabilities were in accordance with the criteria set by SANCO Guideline. The validated method was suitable for the analysis of pesticides in tea.

  7. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone.

  8. Neonatal, placental, and umbilical cord blood parameters in pregnant women residing in areas with intensive pesticide application.

    PubMed

    Quintana, María Martha; Vera, Berta; Magnarelli, Gladis; Guiñazú, Natalia; Rovedatti, María Gabriela

    2017-07-17

    In rural populations, the proximity to areas with intensive pesticide application represents a risk factor of xenobiotic exposure. Here, we investigated whether newborns born to mothers residing in an area with intensive pesticide application show alterations in placental and neonatal morphometric standards, umbilical cord blood (UCB) biochemical parameters, and/or biomarkers related to oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Samples were collected from 151 healthy pregnant women residing in a rural area (rural group; RG) during the pesticide spraying (SS) and nonspraying (NSS) seasons, as well as from women from an urban population (control group; CG), and grouped according to the delivery type (vaginal or cesarean). In the vaginal delivery group, the placental weight and placental index were higher in the RG groups than in the CG (p = 0.01), whereas in the cesarean delivery group, newborn weight was lower in the RG-SS group than in the CG. In the RG-SS group, UCB erythrocyte osmotic fragility and the DNA damage index (DI) were higher, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was lower than in the RG-NSS group. Acetylcholinesterase and SOD activities were found to be inversely correlated with the DI.

  9. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  10. Atrazine and Cancer Incidence Among Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Hines, Cynthia J.; Coble, Joseph B.; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Sloan, Jennifer; Sandler, Dale P.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Atrazine is a triazine herbicide used widely in the United States. Although it is an animal carcinogen, the mechanism in rodents does not appear to operate in humans. Few epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for an association. Methods: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort that includes 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. In this report, we extend a previous AHS analysis of cancer risk associated with self-reported atrazine use with six additional years of follow-up and more than twice as many cancer cases. Using Poisson regression, we calculated relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for lifetime use of atrazine and intensity-weighted lifetime days, which accounts for factors that impact exposure. Results: Overall, 36,357 (68%) of applicators reported using atrazine, among whom there were 3,146 cancer cases. There was no increase among atrazine users in overall cancer risk or at most cancer sites in the higher exposure categories compared with the lowest. Based on 29 exposed cases of thyroid cancer, there was a statistically significant risk in the second and fourth quartiles of intensity-weighted lifetime days. There was a similar pattern for lifetime days, but neither the risk estimates nor the trend were statistically significant and for neither metric was the trend monotonic. Conclusions: Overall, there was no consistent evidence of an association between atrazine use and any cancer site. There was a suggestion of increased risk of thyroid cancer, but these results are based on relatively small numbers and minimal supporting evidence. PMID:21622085

  11. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  12. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the

  13. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season. We conducted field-scale trials at nine commercial tobacco farms, three in 2104 and six in 2015, to quantify inputs associated with current scouting recommendations, to determine if current ETs were able to reduce insecticide applications as compared to grower standard practices, and to assess the impacts of reduced insecticide applications on end of season yield and pesticide residues. Two fields were identified at each farm and were scouted weekly for insects. One field was only treated with insecticides if pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  14. Pesticide aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of an agricultural vehicle cab during application.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Fismes, Joelle; Subra, Isabelle; Blachère, Veronique; Protois, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Pesticide spraying for crop protection leads to the formation of a mist of droplets, part of which is dispersed into the atmosphere. The characteristics of this aerosol, namely its particle size distribution and concentration, were measured during five campaigns involving cereal crop growing, wine grape culture, and orcharding. The measurement method incorporated a tracer product (fluorescein) with the treatment product; the pesticide aerosol concentration was then deduced from the tracer concentration. This method was validated by comparing the pesticide concentration determined by tracing with the concentration determined by direct measurement of the active substance of the pesticide. Concentration was measured using sampling filters, and particle size distribution was measured using cascade impactors. Instruments were mounted on an agricultural vehicle cab to optimize aerosol characterization, and then the cab's confinement efficiency was determined. Aerosols analyzed were fine, featuring mass median diameters between 4 microm and 15 microm; they are therefore highly dispersive. Their concentration is sufficiently high to justify operator protection by an efficient, filtered-air, pressurized cab, especially in wine grape culture and orcharding, which are the sectors where the highest pesticide transfers have been observed.

  15. Pesticide removal from waste spray-tank water by organoclay adsorption after field application to vineyards.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Ferrari, Tommaso; Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to develop and test a pilot scheme for decontaminating pesticide-containing water derived from pesticide mixtures used to protect vineyards, in which the scheme comprises adsorption by an organoclay and includes a system where an enhanced or rapid microbial degradation of the adsorbed residues can occur. In laboratory experiments, the Freundlich adsorption coefficients of formulations of two fungicides, penconazole and cyazofamid, onto the organoclay Cloisite 20 A were measured in order to predict the efficiency of this organoclay in removing these fungicides from the waste spray-tank water. Subsequently, the adsorption tests were repeated in the pilot system in order to test the practical operation of the depuration scheme. The adsorption tests with the pilot system show 96% removal of both fungicides over a few hours, similar to the efficiency of removal predicted from the laboratory adsorption tests. The formulation type may influence the efficiency of clay recovered after adsorption. Regarding the waste disposal, for instance, the organoclay composted after the treatment, cyazofamid showed significant dissipation after 90 days, whereas the dissipation of penconazole was negligible. The depuration scheme developed showed to be efficient for decontaminating pesticide-containing water derived from vineyards, but additional treatments for the adsorbed residues still appear to be necessary for persistent pesticides. However, future decontamination research should be attempted for water contaminated with pesticides containing antifoaming agents in their formulations, in which case the present pilot system could not be applied.

  16. Hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite: Characterization and application as a pesticide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámiz, B.; Hermosín, M. C.; Cornejo, J.; Celis, R.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work was to prepare and characterize a novel functional material by the modification of SAz-1 montmorillonite with the cationic polymer hexadimethrine (SA-HEXAD), and to explore the potential use of this nanocomposite as a pesticide adsorbent. Comparative preparation and characterization with the well-known hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified SAz-1 montmorillonite (SA-HDTMA) was also assessed. The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), physisorption of N2, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Z potential measurements. The characterization and adsorption experiments showed that the extent of pesticide adsorption was markedly subjected to the structure and features of the surface of each organo-clay and also to the nature of the considered pesticide. SA-HEXAD displayed a high affinity for anionic pesticides which, presumably, were adsorbed by electrostatic attraction on positively-charged ammonium groups of the polymer not directly interacting with the clay. In contrast, SA-HDTMA displayed great adsorption of both uncharged and anionic pesticides with predominance of hydrophobic interactions. This work provided information about the surface properties of a new organic-inorganic nanohybrid material, SA-HEXAD, and its potential as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  17. The first meeting of Peruvian women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón

    2015-12-01

    The First Meeting of Peruvian Women Physicists helped bring together women physicists from different universities, especially from regions in the interior of Peru. Our initial statistical analysis about women entering and completing their undergraduate and graduate studies in Peruvian universities showed a low participation of women in study programs in physics. This situation motivated us to discuss this and propose solutions. In this First Meeting it was possible to broaden our vision of the problems that are common to women in the context of our social reality. We feel we have the strength and will continue working to improve this situation for the benefit of future generations.

  18. Effect of sprayer settings on spray drift during pesticide application in poplar plantations (Populus spp.).

    PubMed

    Grella, Marco; Marucco, Paolo; Manzone, Marco; Gallart, Montserrat; Balsari, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed spray drift generated by sprayer settings commonly used for pesticide application in poplar plantations (Populus spp.). Tests were conducted per the ISO 22866 methodology using a mounted air-assisted sprayer (Tifone VRP600) equipped with a swivel-cannon air conveyor (model Cannone 50S). Trials evaluated sprayer settings, combinations of nozzle types, airflow rates, and air direction in both adult and young poplar plantations. Overall, spray drift amounts registered downwind of poplar plantations were less than those obtained to derive reference drift curves during the EU Plant Protection Product registration process that used late-growth-stage fruit crops. In the adult poplar plantation, Venturi nozzles (TVI 8004 red) yielded the highest drift reductions compared to reference sprayer setting, especially at distances farthest from the sprayed area (86% between 40 and 47m). Highest total drift reductions were achieved when conventional nozzles (1.81mm ceramic disc-core) were combined with their spray direction modified for an inclined cannon spray unit. Alternatively, the young poplar plantation showed no drift reduction for distances farthest from the sprayed area, regardless of sprayer settings, which likely resulted from lower foliage density and widely-spaced rows. Yet, both Venturi nozzles combined with high fan flow rates and conventional nozzles combined with reduced fan flow rate showed total spray drift reductions of over 70% within the downwind sampling area. These experimental results represent the first set of data on spray drift amounts in poplar plantations, which is key for defining the reference curves and best practices to reduce spray drift in tall tree plantations.

  19. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  20. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  1. New insight into pesticide partition coefficient Kd for modelling pesticide fluvial transport: application to an agricultural catchment in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Merlina, Georges; Jean, Séverine; Probst, Jean-Luc; Sánchez Pérez, José Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Pesticides applied on crops are leached with rainfall to groundwater and surface water. They threat the aquatic environment and may render water unfit for human consumption. Pesticide partitioning is one of the pesticide fate processes in the environment that should be properly formalised in pesticide fate models. Based on the analysis of 7 pesticide molecules (alachlor, atrazine, atrazine's transformation product deethylatrazine or DEA, isoproturon, tebuconazole and trifluralin) sampled from July 2009 to October 2010 at the outlet of the river Save (south-western France), the objectives of this study were (1) to check which of the environmental factors (discharge, pH, concentrations of total suspended matter (TSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) could control the pesticide sorption dynamic, and (2) to establish a relationship between environmental factors, the partition coefficient Kd and the octanol/water distribution coefficient Kow. The comparison of physico-chemical parameters values during low flow and high flow shows that discharge, TSM and POC are the factors most likely controlling the pesticide sorption processes in the Save river network, especially for lower values of TSM (below 13mgL(-1)). We therefore express Kd depending on the widely literature-related variable Kow and on the commonly simulated variable TSM concentration. The equation can be implemented in any model describing the fluvial transport and fate of pesticides in both dissolved and sorbed phases, thus, Kd becomes a variable in time and space. The Kd calculation method can be applied to a wide range of catchments and organic contaminants.

  2. Microbial pesticides

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  3. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  4. Bilingual Education: An Experience in Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mildred L., Ed.; Davis, Patricia M., Ed.

    This book reports on an experimental bilingual education program conducted in Peru by Peruvian educators and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) linguists. Sections of the book discuss: (1) the historical perspective of the program; (2) program aspects such as teacher training, goals, and curriculum; (3) what this program may contribute to the…

  5. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  6. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community.

  7. Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil indusry

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga, E.

    1993-12-31

    Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil industry are discussed. The following topics are discussed: historical highlights; sedimentary basins currently available; renewed investment climate; need for oil exploration investment; petroperu`s privatization; global strategy for the sale of petroperu; petroperu`s main assets; and financial profile.

  8. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  9. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  10. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or in which animals are confined. Doctors of Veterinary Medicine engaged in the business of applying... regulated pests. (10) Demonstration and research pest control. This category includes: (i) individuals who... supervise such demonstration, and (ii) persons conducting field research with pesticides, and in doing so...

  11. 77 FR 77077 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Applications for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide... Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active Ingredient: Spirotetramat. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses...: Insecticide. Proposed Use: To control darkling beetles in poultry house litter. Contact: Linda DeLuise, (703...

  12. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 17.5...

  13. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  14. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

  15. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise Greenway, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of... more of land or one acre or more of water. Pursuant to 40 CFR 172.11(a), the Agency has determined that..., Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING...

  16. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  18. Controlling Aedes aegypti in Cryptic Environments with Manually Carried Ultra-Low Volume and Mist Blower Pesticide Applications.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Helmey, Wendy L; Turnwall, Brent B; Justice, Kevin D; Farooq, Muhammed; Richardson, Alec G

    2016-09-01

    Because Aedes aegypti , a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, exhibits resting and reproductive behaviors that present challenges to control them, pesticide application equipment available for vector control must be evaluated for their ability to control this species in a variety of cryptic environments. Five types of pesticide sprayers, representing 3 spray technologies (1 mister, 2 ultra-low volume [ULV] cold foggers, and 2 ULV thermal foggers), were evaluated for their ability to control adult and immature stages of Ae. aegypti in indoor and outdoor environments. Cages holding adult mosquitoes and larvae were placed in cryptic sites for indoor sprays and placed among dense vegetation for outdoor sprays. Adult and pupal mortality data were recorded following applications of a mixture of synergized pyrethrins and pyriproxyfen. We found that no single sprayer was best suited for controlling Ae. aegypti in indoor and outdoor environments, nor was one best for controlling adult and immature mosquitoes. Sprayers producing larger droplets (misters and cold foggers) were more effective in controlling immature mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. Thermal fogging was more effective in controlling adults indoors, whereas cold fogs and misters were more effective for outdoor control.

  19. Application of graphene for the SPE clean-up of organophosphorus pesticides residues from apple juices.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Jianfei; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Hongwu; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an effective graphene-based SPE clean-up procedure coupled with GC-MS was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in apple juices. The apple juice samples were diluted with water and could be loaded onto the cartridge directly. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the type of elution, washing solution, and sample pH. Under the optimized conditions, excellent limits of quantitation for the target analytes were found to be 0.15-1.18 ng/mL, and the average recoveries of the analytes at two spiked levels for real-sample analysis ranged from 69.8 to 106.2% with RSDs less than 7.3%. Furthermore, the graphene-based cartridges exhibited superior reusability for juice sample analysis. The proposed method is sensitive, simple, and cost saving, and provides a detection platform for the monitoring of pesticide residues.

  20. Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Concerned about the risks these chemicals pose to nearby residents, public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites. However, there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce, so decision makers need to set priorities. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a new methodology that develops a cleanup priority index for 1915 metric tons of obsolete pesticide formulations at 197 stockpile sites in Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. What emerges from the Tunisia results is a strategy for sequentially addressing all 197 sites to rapidly reduce potential health damage in a cost-effective way.

  1. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  2. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  3. Attitudes and values of Peruvian coca growers.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza R

    2002-01-01

    This study uses semi-structured interviews to examine the attitudes and values of Peruvian coca growers toward coca leaf and cocaine basic paste (CBP) consumption and its distribution. The subjects of the study were 186 coca growers from Peruvian jungle valleys who are involved in illegal commercialization of coca leaf and cocaine paste production. Data collected in 1994 reveal that growers consider coca leaf to be a most profitable product and a unique opportunity to improve their quality of life. Although growers acknowledge that a problem exists among local users, they do not assume any responsibility for CBP consumption and dissemination in rural areas. This leads to the conclusion that awareness of a CBP consumption problem is not enough for growers to stop drug production; they need consistent training in social values, as well as support in legal and economic alternatives.

  4. Application of RP-HPLC-diode array detector after SPE to the determination of pesticides in pepper samples.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The application of HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) after SPE for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides in red and green pepper samples is demonstrated. An HPLC procedure on an RP column (C18) was developed for analysis of selected pesticides from different chemical groups: metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn. Average recoveries for C18 Polar Plus cartridges and solvents by the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method after SPE are presented. Average recoveries from the spiked samples and the SDs were 22.5 +/- 2.2, 138.0 +/- 4.1, 78.6 +/- 2.8, and 109.2 +/- 2.3% for metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn, respectively, at concentrations of 7 microg/g in the plant material. The efficiency of the SPE procedure was evaluated using real food samples. The quantities of prometryn, linuron, metalaxyl, and metamitron determined were in the ranges of 0.02-2.24 microg/g (n = 24), 0.08-1.01 microg/g (n = 9), 1.61-2.28 microg/g (n=4), and 0.05-1.07 microg/g (n = 3), respectively, in plant material sampled in 2011. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy.

  5. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Pesticide Safety Education Funds Management Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is soliciting proposals from eligible applicants to establish and administer a national subaward program in support of pesticide applicator education and training for certified applicators of restricted use pesticides.

  6. Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized, and major themes common to successful CBPR projects are identified. These common features are taking the time to interact with the community, using multiple approaches to engage the different parts of the community, understanding different participants often have different goals, appreciating each group's strengths, valuing community knowledge, and being flexible and creative in conducting research. The final article in this collection describes the translational research program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) highlighting activities pertinent to the health of rural communities, giving an overview of NIEHS-supported projects addressing health concerns of Native Americans

  7. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soesbergen, A. J. J.; Mulligan, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the application of WaterWorld (www.policysupport.org/waterworld) to the Peruvian Amazon, an area that is increasingly under pressure from deforestation and water pollution as a result of population growth, rural-to-urban migration and oil and gas extraction, potentially impacting both water quantity and water quality. By applying single and combined plausible scenarios of climate change, deforestation around existing and planned roads, population growth and rural-urban migration, mining and oil and gas exploitation, we explore the potential combined impacts of these multiple changes on water resources in the Peruvian Amazon.

  8. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  9. Application and validation of approaches for the predictive hazard assessment of realistic pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Marion; Backhaus, Thomas; Faust, Michael; Scholze, Martin; Grimme, L H

    2006-02-10

    In freshwater systems located in agricultural areas, organisms are exposed to a multitude of toxicologically and structurally different pesticides. For regulatory purposes it is of major importance whether the combined hazard of these substances can be predictively assessed from the single substance toxicity. For artificially designed multi-component mixtures, it has been shown that the mixture toxicity can be predicted by concentration addition (CA) in case of similarly acting substances and by independent action (IA), if mixtures are composed of dissimilarly acting substances. This study aimed to analyse whether these concepts may also be used to predictively assess the toxicity of environmentally realistic mixtures. For this purpose a mixture of 25 pesticides, which reflects a realistic exposure scenario in field run-off water, was studied for its effects on the reproduction of the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The toxicity of the tested mixtures showed a good predictability by CA. This is consistent with the finding that the toxicity was dominated by a group of similarly acting photosystem II inhibitors, although the mixture included substances with diverse and partly unknown mechanisms of action. IA slightly underestimated the actual mixture toxicity. However, the EC(50) values that can be derived from each prediction, according to CA respectively IA, only differed by a factor of 1.3. The finding of such a small difference is partly explainable by the fact that only few components dominate the mixture scenario in terms of so-called toxic units (TUs). This connection is established by developing an equation that allows to calculate the maximum possible ratio between corresponding predictions of effect concentrations by IA and CA for any given ratio of the TUs of mixture components, irrespective of their individual concentration-response functions and independent from their mechanisms of action. To evaluate whether small quantitative differences

  10. Some applications of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) in the analysis of pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Volante, M; Cattaneo, M; Bianchi, M; Zoccola, G

    1998-05-01

    The Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) technique was applied to analyze chlorpropham in potatoes and amitraz in honey. The homogenized sample, suspended in water and stirred, was extracted with a 100 microns thick polidimetylsiloxane fiber and desorbed into the injection port of a gas chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (quadrupole) operating in single ion monitoring. Sensitivities down to 0.01 mg/Kg and linear responses in the range of 0.01-0.1 mg/Kg were obtained. The results of SPME pesticide residue analysis in potatoes corresponded to those obtained with a traditional multiresidue method.

  11. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  12. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  13. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  14. Dependence of pesticide degradation on sorption: nonequilibrium model and application to soil reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Jury, William A.; Wagenet, Robert J.; Flury, Markus

    2000-04-01

    The effect of sorption on degradation of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in a soil amended with various amounts of activated carbon (AC). The relationship between sorption and decay of 2,4-D was analyzed using analytical solutions for equilibrium sorption and to a two-site nonequilibrium adsorption model coupled with two first-order degradation terms for the dissolved and sorbed pesticide, respectively. The sorption parameters in the latter model were determined based on data obtained from batch sorption experiments, while those for degradation were obtained from incubation experiments. The adsorption coefficients, ranging from 0.811 to >315 ml g -1, increased at higher AC, and were negatively related to degradation as measured by the first-order rate constant, implying that degradation is faster from the liquid phase than from the sorbed phase. A nonlinear fit of the decay curves to the nonequilibrium model revealed that degradation rate constants were 0.157 and 0.00243 day -1 for the liquid and sorbed phases, respectively, differing by a factor of 65. Similar results were also obtained using the equilibrium model. A parameter sensitivity analysis of the nonequilibrium model indicates that nonequilibrium sorption will initially favor degradation; however, over the long term, will decrease degradation when desorption kinetics becomes the limiting factor in the degradation process. In the presence of a lag phase that allows appreciable amounts of chemical to diffuse into kinetic sorption sites, nonequilibrium sorption will only impede degradation.

  15. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10(-5)Ω(-1)m(-1), 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t1/2=22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature.

  16. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The... Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are issued... applicants, registrants and distributors concerning pesticide product brand names that may be false or...

  17. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  18. Simulating Effects of Forest Management Practices on Pesticide.

    Treesearch

    M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1993-01-01

    The GLEAMS model pesticide component was modified to simulate up to 245 pesticides simultaneously, and the revised model was used to pesticide pesticide application windows for forest site preparation and pine release. Five herbicides were made for soils representing four hydrologic soil groups in four climatic regions of the southeastern United States. Five herbicides...

  19. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuo; Lan, Xiaoqin; Cui, Lijun; Zhang, Lihui; Tao, Shengyang; Wang, Hainan; Han, Mei; Liu, Zhiguang; Meng, Changgong

    2011-08-12

    Electrochemical reduced β-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene (β-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized π-electron system and the superconductivity of β-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on β-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong π-π interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  20. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  1. Household pesticide contamination from indoor pest control applications in urban low-income public housing dwellings: a community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen R; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-02-19

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 μg/m(2), respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market; however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children's bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls.

  2. HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION FROM INDOOR PEST CONTROL APPLICATIONS IN URBAN LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING DWELLINGS: A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-01-01

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results in order to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 µg/m2, respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market, however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children’s bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  3. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  4. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  5. List of Pesticide Regulatory Consultants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The listed companies provide services to assist applicants related to pesticide registration. The inclusion of any business in this listing does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  7. Assessment of surface water vulnerability to pesticide contamination using the modeling tool PegOpera: Application in North Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukari, Amira; Habaieb, Hamadi; Deliège, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Tunisia is a country in which three quarters of the territory is arid to semi-arid with limited water resources. Decreasing water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water stakeholders particularly in rural areas and poor communities. The main factors influencing water availability in this Mediterranean country is, among others, overexploitation of non-renewable resources and diffuse pollution. Due to intensive agriculture in proximity of rivers and continuous use of pesticides, there is a potential risk for contamination of waterbodies by the agrochemicals used. This could have a negative impact on agricultural production as well as human health and threaten in priority the north part of the country where 82% of surface water is available. Despite this situation, no catchment monitoring program is currently put in place since it is expensive and require large investment. In this study, we established a methodology using the PegOpera modeling tool to assess the potential risk of pesticides contamination of surface water at the scale of a rural catchment situated in the northwestern part of Tunisia, the Joumine basin, draining an area of 418 km2 and devoted to agriculture, mainly rainfed cereal crops. In the downstream part of the basin, the Joumine dam was built in 1984 to provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes. We performed a survey with catchment farmers to report management practices in the area as well as spatial and temporal information about pesticide compounds, timing and application rate from which we identified the most used pesticide molecules. The SIRIS method (System of Integration of Risk with Interactions of Scores) was applied to classify compounds used according to the risk that they present to the aquatic environment and therefore to identify those chemicals that should be monitored (Guerbet et al., 2002; Le Gall et al., 2007). According to the results of this classification, we selected 6 molecules to study in

  8. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  9. Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-20

    This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

  10. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  11. Determinants of agricultural pesticide concentrations in carpet dust.

    PubMed

    Gunier, Robert B; Ward, Mary H; Airola, Matthew; Bell, Erin M; Colt, Joanne; Nishioka, Marcia; Buffler, Patricia A; Reynolds, Peggy; Rull, Rudolph P; Hertz, Andrew; Metayer, Catherine; Nuckols, John R

    2011-07-01

    Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes. We identified determinants of concentrations of agricultural pesticides in dust. We collected samples of carpet dust and mapped crops within 1,250 m of 89 residences in California. We measured concentrations of seven pesticides used extensively in agriculture (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, chlorthal-dimethyl, diazinon, iprodione, phosmet, and simazine). We estimated use of agricultural pesticides near residences from a statewide database alone and by linking the database with crop maps. We calculated the density of pesticide use within 500 and 1,250 m of residences for 180, 365, and 730 days before collection of dust and evaluated relationships between agricultural pesticide use estimates and pesticide concentrations in carpet dust. For five of the seven pesticides evaluated, residences with use of agricultural pesticides within 1,250 m during the previous 365 days had significantly higher concentrations of pesticides than did residences with no nearby use. The highest correlation with concentrations of pesticides was generally for use reported within 1,250 m of the residence and 730 days before sample collection. Regression models that also accounted for occupational and home use of pesticides explained only a modest amount of the variability in pesticide concentrations (4-28%). Agricultural pesticide use near residences was a significant determinant of concentrations of pesticides in carpet dust for five of seven pesticides evaluated.

  12. 77 FR 59611 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Symbol: 85004-RN. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2012- 0609. Applicant: Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc., 12085... Symbol: 85004-RR. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2012- 0609. Applicant: Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc.,...

  13. 77 FR 75153 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: All food and feed commodities to support applications to control adult mosquitoes.... Proposed Uses: All food and feed commodities to support applications to control adult mosquitoes. Contact...

  14. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  15. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  16. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  17. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  18. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  19. [Cost-utility of the vaccine against the Human Papiloma Virus in Peruvian women].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguado, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the cost-utility of the vaccine against the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) in peruvian women after the application of the vaccine at 10 years of age. A cost-utility analysis was performed using the Markov´s hidden model in a hypothetical cohort of peruvian women, based on the information on epidemiological parameters, costs associated to uterine cervical cancer (UCC) and the efficacy and costs of the vaccine against the HPV. The vaccination costs were estimated from the Peruvian Ministry of Health perspective and were compared against the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), using a discount rate of 5%. The annual cost of the vaccination was USD 16,861,490, for the Papanicoau screening it was USD 3,060,793 and the costs associated to the UCC were USD 15,580,000. The incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) was 6,775 USD/QALY. Vaccination against HPV can be cost-utility compared to not vaccinating.

  20. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  1. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  2. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications.

  3. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most

  4. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    PubMed

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between past and present pesticide applications and pollution at a watershed outlet: The case of a horticultural catchment in Martinique, French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Mottes, Charles; Lesueur Jannoyer, Magalie; Le Bail, Marianne; Guéné, Mathilde; Carles, Céline; Malézieux, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%). Second, we showed peak pollution. High amounts of propiconazole and fosthiazate applied at low frequencies caused river pollution peaks for weeks following a single application. Low amounts of diquat and diazinon applied at low frequencies also caused pollution peaks. The high amounts of glyphosate applied at high frequency resulted into pollution peaks by glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in 6 and 20% of the weeks. Any intensification of their uses will result in higher pollution levels. Third, relatively low amounts of glufosinate-ammonium, difenoconazol, spinosad and metaldehyde were applied at high frequencies. Unexpectedly, such pesticides remained barely detected (<1.5%) or undetected in water samples. We showed that AMPA, fosthiazate and propiconazole have serious leaching potential. They might result in future chronic pollution of shallow aquifers alimenting surface water. We prove that to avoid the past errors and decrease the risk of long-term pollution of water resources, it is urgent to reduce or stop the use of pesticides with leaching potential by changing agricultural practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Application of a rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in drinking water and beverages using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Osakada, Masakazu; Nakatsuji, Naoto; Nakayama, Yukiko; Kakimoto, You; Obana, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticides has been applied to drinking water and beverages. To a disposable polypropylene tube containing 10.0 g sample, 20 mL acetonitrile was added and the mixture was shaken vigorously for 1 min to extract pesticides. Then, 1 g sodium chloride and 4 g magnesium sulfate anhydrous were added, followed by vigorous shaking for 1 min and centrifugation to obtain the organic phase. The organic phase was processed with a graphite carbon black/PSA solid phase column. After concentration and reconstitution with 25% methanol containing aqueous solution, the test solution was analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 91 pesticides fortified (0.02 μg/g) in 35 kinds of drinking water and beverages were conducted. The decline of recoveries in alcoholic beverages is considered to be due to the increase of organic phase volume owing to ethanol included in the alcoholic beverages. A simulation study was carried out with simulated alcoholic beverages, which consisted of 50% grape juice, with various amounts of ethanol and water, to examine pesticides recoveries and volume of the organic phase. The results suggested this method would be applicable both to alcoholic beverages containing less than 10% ethanol and to alcoholic beverages containing over 10% ethanol after dilution with water to below 10% ethanol prior to the addition of acetonitrile. A sample could be processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within 2 h. Thus, this method should be useful for monitoring and screening pesticide residues in drinking water and various beverages.

  7. Comparison of tandem-in-space and tandem-in-time mass spectrometry in gas chromatography determination of pesticides: application to simple and complex food samples.

    PubMed

    Garrido Frenich, A; Plaza-Bolaños, P; Martínez Vidal, J L

    2008-09-05

    Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is one of the most powerful techniques in pesticide residue analysis. MS/MS can be conceived in two ways: tandem in space (e.g. triple quadrupole, QqQ) or in time (e.g. ion trap, IT). QqQ and IT are commonly interfaced to GC; however, there has not been any direct comparison between them in pesticide residue analysis so far. In the present work, the performance of GC coupled to these two analyzers (GC-QqQ-MS/MS and GC-IT-MS/MS) was studied and compared for pesticide residue analysis as well as its application in food analysis. The large volume injection (LVI) technique together with programmed-temperature vaporization (PTV) was applied. For this purpose, 19 pesticides, including organochlorine and organophophorus pesticides and pyrethroids, were analyzed in both systems. Mass spectrometric data, performance characteristics (linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision) and the influence of the matrix nature on the analysis of low concentrations were compared. The target compounds were analyzed in solvent and in two representative food matrices such as cucumber (high water content) and egg (high fat content). MS data and intra-day precision were similar in QqQ and IT, whereas inter-day precision was significantly worse in QqQ. Linearity (expressed as determination coefficient, R(2)) in the range 10-150 microg L(-1) was adequate in both systems; however, better R(2) values were obtained with the QqQ analyzer in high and low concentration ranges (1-50 and 1-750 microg L(-1), respectively). The influence of the matrix nature on the analysis of low concentrations of each analyzer was also evaluated. The QqQ and IT performance was similar in cucumber and solvent. However, QqQ provided better sensitivity in egg working in selected reaction monitoring (SRM).

  8. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    PubMed

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  9. 78 FR 48677 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications to Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    .... Docket ID number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0034. Applicant: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 1007 Market...: Postemergence application to sorghum containing the ALS-tolerant ``DuPont INZEN Z'' trait. 4. EPA Registration Numbers: 352-555, 352-748, and 352-816. Docket ID number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0035. Applicant: E.I. du Pont de...

  10. Avian food selection with application to pesticide risk assessment: are dead and desiccated insects a desirable food source?

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Brewer, Larry W; Gessaman, James A

    2003-06-01

    Past evaluations of pesticide exposure have been conducted with substantial uncertainty regarding avian consumption of contaminated food items. One question is whether birds consume invertebrates that are killed by a chemical application and that may present an increasing chemical concentration as they desiccate. We addressed the research question in two phases. First, a laboratory study was conducted in which wild-caught birds were individually offered three food choices, i.e., live, fresh-dead, and desiccated insect larvae. Second, these same food choices plus live, fresh-dead, and desiccated crickets were presented in study plots in two agricultural crops, i.e., a cornfield and an orchard. The experimental food items were monitored with videography equipment to determine their fate and to compare laboratory and field results. Laboratory results showed that birds have a strong preference for live and fresh-dead prey over desiccated prey, with live prey taken before fresh-dead prey in most trials. The field study revealed a similar preference for live prey over desiccated prey, with preference for fresh-dead prey intermediate to the two other types.

  11. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  12. 78 FR 32246 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ..., hay, crop group 18; coffee, bean, green; coffee, bean, roasted, instant; hops; peanut, hay; peanut... ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2013- 0226. Applicant: Bayer CropScience LP, 2 T.W. Alexander Drive, P.O. Box...- 0257. Applicant: Technology Sciences Group, Inc., on behalf of Alpha Scents, Inc., 1150 18th Street,...

  13. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on the application. DATES: Comments must be received... personal threats. viii. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period deadline identified. II... section 3(c)(4), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on the application...

  14. 78 FR 55695 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...-IIE and 352-ITI. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0528. Applicant: DuPont Crop Protection, Stine...-728 and 352-730. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0235. Applicant: DuPont Crop Protection, Stine...

  15. An energy budget agent-based model of earthworm populations and its application to study the effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A.S.A.; Hodson, M.E.; Thorbek, P.; Alvarez, T.; Sibly, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and so are used as model organisms in environmental risk assessments of chemicals. However current risk assessments of soil invertebrates are based on short-term laboratory studies, of limited ecological relevance, supplemented if necessary by site-specific field trials, which sometimes are challenging to apply across the whole agricultural landscape. Here, we investigate whether population responses to environmental stressors and pesticide exposure can be accurately predicted by combining energy budget and agent-based models (ABMs), based on knowledge of how individuals respond to their local circumstances. A simple energy budget model was implemented within each earthworm Eisenia fetida in the ABM, based on a priori parameter estimates. From broadly accepted physiological principles, simple algorithms specify how energy acquisition and expenditure drive life cycle processes. Each individual allocates energy between maintenance, growth and/or reproduction under varying conditions of food density, soil temperature and soil moisture. When simulating published experiments, good model fits were obtained to experimental data on individual growth, reproduction and starvation. Using the energy budget model as a platform we developed methods to identify which of the physiological parameters in the energy budget model (rates of ingestion, maintenance, growth or reproduction) are primarily affected by pesticide applications, producing four hypotheses about how toxicity acts. We tested these hypotheses by comparing model outputs with published toxicity data on the effects of copper oxychloride and chlorpyrifos on E. fetida. Both growth and reproduction were directly affected in experiments in which sufficient food was provided, whilst maintenance was targeted under food limitation. Although we only incorporate toxic effects at the individual level we show how ABMs can readily extrapolate to larger scales by providing

  16. APPLICATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-MODIFIED MICELLAR ELECTRONKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATIONS OF SELECTED NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND THEIR ENANTIOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental chemistry of chiral pesticides is receiving increased attention - enantiomeric ratios are being measured and enantioselective degradation processes are being reported. The requisite analysis involves separation of the various enantiomers. Mixtures of three class...

  17. APPLICATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-MODIFIED MICELLAR ELECTRONKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATIONS OF SELECTED NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND THEIR ENANTIOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental chemistry of chiral pesticides is receiving increased attention - enantiomeric ratios are being measured and enantioselective degradation processes are being reported. The requisite analysis involves separation of the various enantiomers. Mixtures of three class...

  18. Application of XAD-4 solid sorbent to the collection of pesticides from water samples: Final report, November 1985-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Manning, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the efficiency of XAD-4 resin for removing pesticides from water for subsequent analysis. A limited number of pesticides, including lindane, aldrin, and 4,4'-DDT, were added to water, extracted by elution on XAD-4, and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The method was found to be reasonably effective, at least for semiquantitative purposes.

  19. Series of disasters strikes Peruvian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Jim

    A midday blaze severely damaged the Geophysical Observatory at Huancayo, Peru, high in the Andes above Lima on August 28, 1996. The fire, which started accidentally, was one of a series of misfortunes suffered by the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) in recent years.The observatory, which was built in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is a 4-hour drive by bus from the Pacific coast between cosmopolitan Lima and the Amazonian lowlands. From the late 1980s until 1992, the observatory was isolated from the international community due to political developments in Peru, namely the Maoist Communist insurrection known as Sendero Luminoso. The turmoil resulted in the loss of nearly all cooperative contracts with American universities for research at Huancayo. IGP did maintain a few contracts, such as one with Cornell for the Radio Observatory at Jicamarca in the northern part of the country.

  20. Part II: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake sediments of northern Greece: application of an optimized MAE-LC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    PubMed

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The development and application of an analytical methodology for the pretreatment and determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, in lake sediment samples, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are described in this work. Sediments of lakes Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini, located in northern Greece, were collected in two-time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methodology. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extract the pesticide residues from lake sediment samples. Analytical results were stored, categorized, and visualized using geographical information systems, in order to assess and observe spatial and temporal variations of the pollution. Main pesticides that were detected included the following: amitrole, tebuconazole, phoxim, diniconazole, sethoxydim, temephos, tetrachlorvinphos, pendimethalin, boscalid, disulfoton sulfone, lenacil, propiconazole, cycloxydim, pyridaben, and terbuthylazine. Amitrole, diniconazole, and tebuconazole were found to be common in all three lakes. Lakes Kerkini and Doirani exhibited increased concentrations during the first sampling period (winter 2010) with predominant pesticide classes, triazines/triazoles and organophosphates. Pollution is mainly located near the populated villages of the lakes and the nearby cultivations. During the second sampling period, pesticide concentrations appear lower and located in sediments near the center of the lake. Lake Volvi exhibits increased pesticide concentrations during the second sampling period, temporal and spatial variations and different pesticide profile pattern. Increased pollution occurs near the center of the lake during the first sampling period, mainly comprised by triazines/triazoles and organophosphates. During the second sampling period, the majority of the sediment samples demonstrated a different pesticide profile dominated by unclassified pesticides and triazines