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Sample records for pessegueiro prunus persica

  1. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    PubMed

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  2. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background.

  3. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  4. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  5. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  6. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. PMID:25289519

  7. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach.

  8. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  9. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  10. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  11. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. PMID:25872435

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits.

  14. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  15. Archaeological Evidence for Peach (Prunus persica) Cultivation and Domestication in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000–7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700–6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago. PMID:25192436

  16. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. PMID:24747954

  17. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols.

  18. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    PubMed

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'.

  19. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events.

  20. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  3. Simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity in primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Hong; Li, Yin-Xia; Li, Zi-Chao; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Qi, Yong-Wen; Wang, Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisp peach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.

  4. Identification of proteins from prunus persica that interact with peach latent mosaic viroid.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed.

  5. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Different Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar “Xinyu” showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants. PMID:25775157

  6. Preformation in vegetative buds of Prunus persica: factors influencing number of leaf primordia in overwintering buds.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Damiano, C; DeJong, T M

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date, drought and light exposure on the number of leaf primordia formed in dormant vegetative peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected and the number of leaf primordia recorded. Between leaf drop and bud break, the number of leaf primordia doubled from about five to about 10. Parent shoot length, number of nodes on the parent shoot, cross-sectional area of the parent shoot, bud position along the parent shoot and bud cross-sectional area were correlated with the number of leaf primordia. Previous season light exposure, drought and tree carbohydrate status did not affect the number of leaf primordia present. The number of leaf primordia differed significantly among peach varieties and tree ages at leaf drop, but not at bud break. Our results indicate that neoformation accounted for all shoot growth beyond about 10 nodes. The predominance of neoformed shoot growth in peach allows this species great plasticity in its response to current-season conditions. PMID:16414932

  7. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  8. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several

  9. Prunus persica Crop Management Differentially Promotes Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in a Tropical Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. PMID:24520389

  10. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  11. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  12. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  13. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  14. Transcriptome profiling of ripening nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-MCP

    PubMed Central

    Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Begheldo, Maura; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Tonutti, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale transcriptome analysis has been conducted using μPEACH1.0 microarray on nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). 1-MCP maintained flesh firmness but did not block ethylene biosynthesis. Compared with samples at harvest, only nine genes appeared to be differentially expressed when fruit were sampled immediately after treatment, while a total of 90 targets were up- or down-regulated in untreated fruit. The effect of 1-MCP was confirmed by a direct comparison of transcript profiles in treated and untreated fruit after 24 h of incubation with 106 targets differentially expressed. About 30% of these targets correspond to genes involved in primary metabolism and response processes related to ethylene, auxin, and other hormones. In treated fruit, altered transcript accumulation was detected for some genes with a role in ripening-related events such as softening, colour development, and sugar metabolism. A rapid decrease in flesh firmness and an increase in ethylene production were observed in treated fruit maintained for 48 h in air at 20 °C after the end of the incubation period. Microarray comparison of this sample with untreated fruit 24 h after harvest revealed that about 45% of the genes affected by 1-MCP at the end of the incubation period changed their expression during the following 48 h in air. Among these genes, an ethylene receptor (ETR2) and three ethylene-responsive factors (ERF) were present, together with other transcription factors and ethylene-dependent genes involved in quality parameter changes. PMID:18515268

  15. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p < 0.05) in both peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date.

  16. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  17. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders.

  18. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. PMID:27664673

  19. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  20. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica. PMID:27446115

  1. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (−fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica. PMID:27446115

  2. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  3. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted.

  4. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: a comparative study with four different fractions.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-11

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14±2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  5. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  6. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  7. Effects of post-harvest light conditions on quality and aromatic volatile formation in 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Okamoto, Goro

    2007-06-01

    The effect of light condition during post-harvest storage on fruit quality of 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) was examined. Fruits were harvested at the immature stage (7 d before the tree-ripening stage) and firm-ripe (3 d before the tree-ripening) stage and stored at 25 degrees C under light (ca 80 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at the fruit top by a fluorescent lamp) and in darkness. The light and dark conditions did not significantly influence the ethylene production rate except for the fully ripened fruits harvested at firm-ripe stage and stored under light. However, no difference in fruit firmness was detected among treatments at full-ripe stage. The skin anthocyanin content increased significantly during storage under light. Total soluble solid (TSS) content of juice at the full ripe stage was not affected significantly by the storage condition, although titratable acidity (TA) in immature harvested fruits decreased more quickly during storage under light compared with those stored in darkness. Dark storage limited the decrease in juice asparagine to some extent. Aromatic lactones, such as gamma-decalactone and gamma-dodecalactone, both in skin and in flesh tissues increased more rapidly when the fruits were stored under a light condition, irrespective of fruit harvest stage. From these results, we conclude that fruit storage under a light condition is better for fruit quality of the 'Hakuho' peaches than storage in darkness.

  8. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  9. Copigmentation triggers the development of skin burning disorder on peach and nectarine fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Cantín, Celia M; Tian, Li; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-03-23

    Skin burning is a new type of skin damage related to exposure to high pH values during the brushing-waxing postharvest operations that has been observed recently on some newly released peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. In this work, we described this skin disorder for the first time and studied its triggers and biological basis. Different skin burning susceptibility was observed after screening 21 peach and nectarine cultivars. The stability of the skin phenolic extracts to pH in the range 7-10 was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that fruit skin phenolics are not stable at high pH and that the transformations occurring at high pH are reversible and time-dependent. The changes on the UV-visible absorption spectra at different pH values pointed out the copigmentation of anthocyanins as the mechanism beyond the skin burning disorder. Finally, some recommendations to minimize this postharvest damage are also discussed.

  10. Genome-wide analysis and identification of KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Song, Z Z; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-01-30

    The KT/HAK/KUP family members encoding high-affinity potassium (K(+)) transporters mediate K(+) transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells to maintain plant normal growth and metabolic activities. In this paper, we identified 16 potassium transporter genes in the peach (Prunus persica) using the Hidden Markov model scanning strategy and searching the peach genome database. Utilizing the Arabidopsis KT/HAK/KUP family as a reference, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the KT/HAK/KUP family in the peach can be classified into 3 groups. Genomic localization indicated that 16 KT/HAK/KUP family genes were well distributed on 7 scaffolds. Gene structure analysis showed that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes have 6-9 introns. In addition, all of the KT/HAK/KUP family members were hydrophobic proteins; they exhibited similar secondary structure patterns and homologous tertiary structures. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress adaption, Ca(2+) response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, and seed development were observed in the promoters of the KT/HAK/KUP family genes. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that the KT/HAK/KUP members were mainly located in the plasma membrane. Expression levels of the KT/HAK/ KUP family genes were much higher in the fruit and flower than those in the other 7 tissues examined, indicating that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes may have important roles in K(+) uptake and transport, which mainly contribute to flower formation and fruit development in the peach.

  11. The influence of severe shoot pruning on growth, carbon and nitrogen status in young peach trees (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Mediene, S; Jordan, M O; Pagès, L; Lebot, J; Adamowicz, S

    2002-12-01

    One-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were severely pruned in July by removing 60% of the shoots. Tree responses were analyzed in terms of architecture and nutritional status. Tree growth was recorded from July to September by nondestructive (leaf production, thickening and branching of the remaining secondary axes) and destructive measurements (biomass partitioning and concentrations of total nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) in specific tissues). The dry weights of pruned trees were lower than those of control trees at the end of the growing season (i.e., 2.5 months after pruning), whereas shoot:root ratios were restored to the initial values. Tree response occurred in two stages. During the first 24 days following pruning, the growth components of the remaining secondary axes were similar to the control, and new secondary axes were produced. During the next 17 days, increases in both diameter and branching of secondary axes contributed to the maintenance of pruned tree growth rate (similar to that of control trees) and restoration of initial shoot:root ratios. No significant effect of pruning was observed on NC concentrations, whereas N concentrations increased in several organs of the pruned trees during the first growth period. The transient increase in internal N availability contributed to the initiation of new axes and the restoration of a more functional biomass partitioning between shoots and roots.

  12. Differential regulation of two dehydrin genes from peach (Prunus persica) by photoperiod, low temperature and water deficit.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael E; Bassett, Carole L; Renaut, Jenny; Farrell, Robert; Tworkoski, Thomas; Artlip, Timothy S

    2006-05-01

    Dehydrins are one of several proteins that have been specifically associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in cold hardiness. Recent evidence indicates that the regulation of dehydrin genes by low nonfreezing temperature (LT) and short photoperiod (SD) can be complex and deserves more detailed analysis to better understand the role of specific dehydrin genes and proteins in the response of woody plants to environmental stress. We have identified a new peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) dehydrin gene (PpDhn2) and examined the responses of this gene and a previously identified dehydrin (PpDhn1) to SD, LT and water deficit. PpDhn2 was strongly induced by water deficit but not by LT or SD. It was also present in the mature embryos of peach. In contrast, PpDhn1 was induced by water deficit and LT but not by SD. We conducted an in silico analysis of the promoters of these genes and found that the promoter region of PpDhn1 contained two dehydration-responsive-elements (DRE)/C-repeats that are responsive to LT and several abscisic acid (ABA)-response elements (ABREs). In contrast, the promoter region of PpDhn2 contained no LT elements but contained several ABREs and an MYCERD1 motif. Both promoter analyses were consistent with the observed expression patterns. The discrepancy between field-collected samples and growth-chamber experiments in the expression of PpDhn1 in response to SD suggests that SD-induced expression of dehydrin genes is complex and may be the result of several interacting factors.

  13. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  14. Differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrates, dehydrins and related gene expressions under an experimental deacclimation and reacclimation in Prunus persica.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunsuk; Oh, Youngjae; Kim, Daeil

    2015-08-01

    To boost our understanding of a recent outbreak of freezing injury, we sought to confirm distinctive features between the shoot tissues of the peach (Prunus persica) cultivars Daewol and Kiraranokiwami by mimicking unseasonable changes of temperatures that occur in the early spring through repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments. Patterns of cold hardiness declined dramatically during the deacclimation and rose during the reacclimation in both cultivars. Our results indicated that 'Daewol' possessed higher capacity in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments than 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' showed more sensitive changes in the carbohydrates in response to warm and low temperatures compared with 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' indicated almost similar repeated down- and up-patterns in soluble sugar content in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation, whereas it indicated repeated up- and down-patterns in starch content. However, 'Kiraranokiwami' showed a progressive increase in the soluble sugar content and a progressive decrease in starch content. Notably, patterns of accumulation of a 60-kDa dehydrin protein encoded by the PpDhn1 gene were confirmed through western blotting and paralleled fluctuations of cold hardiness in both cultivars. Expression of this dehydrin was weak in both cultivars during deacclimation but its band intensity increased during reacclimation. Changes in related genes (β-amylase, PpDhn1, PpDhn2 and PpDhn3) were positively correlated with changes in cold hardiness throughout the experiment. Our results indicate that recent repeated warm periods may cause premature deacclimation in the early spring, and that more cold-tolerant cultivar may be more resilient to freezing injury caused by unstable temperature conditions.

  15. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    PubMed

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  16. Distribution and partial characterization of seasonally expressed proteins in different aged shoots and roots of 'Loring' peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Bassett, Carole; Arora, Rajeev

    2004-03-01

    During autumnal leaf senescence, leaf nitrogen in deciduous trees is translocated to storage sites, especially bark and xylem tissues. Proteins that accumulate in large amounts in bark and xylem in winter and are absent from these organs in summer are called storage proteins, and are believed to be vehicles for storing nitrogen reserves. These reserves are important for spring growth and help trees tolerate or recover from both abiotic and biotic stresses. Based on seasonal patterns of accumulation, we previously identified three storage proteins with molecular masses of 60, 19 and 16 kDa in bark tissues of 'Loring' peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). To characterize the distribution of these proteins in different-aged tissues and to determine if they have any function other than nitrogen storage, we examined their seasonal distribution in bark tissues of current-year and 1-year-old shoots, scaffold branches, main trunks and 4-5-year-old roots of 'Loring' peach. Verification of protein identity was based on molecular mass and reactions with antibodies directed against each specific protein. Protein distribution was variable. For all three proteins, the greatest amount was present in mid-winter in current-year and 1-year-old shoots. These tissues also showed the greatest seasonal variation in the amount of protein present. The 16 kDa protein was present only in the youngest shoots, whereas the 19 kDa protein was present in all tissues examined. The 60 kDa protein was absent in root tissue. The amino acid composition and sequence of each protein were determined. The 60 kDa protein was identified as a dehydrin, and the 19 kDa protein appeared to be related to a family of allergen proteins in Rosaceous plants, some members of which are associated with pathogenesis-related proteins. The amino acid sequence of the 16 kDa protein appeared to have no homology with any proteins in the SwissProt database. Therefore, it is likely that the 16 kDa protein, in a strict sense, is

  17. Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita▿

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens. PMID:21984233

  18. Bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs in the Prunus persica genome with validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Bai, Youhuang; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Kayesh, Emrul; Jiang, Weibing; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    We predicted 262 potential MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to 70 miRNA families from the peach (Prunus persica) genome and two specific 5' and 3' miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) PCR reactions and sequence-directed cloning were employed to accurately validate 61 unique P. persica miRNAs (Ppe-miRNAs) sequences belonging to 61 families comprising 97 Ppe-miRNAs. Validation of the termini nucleotides in particular can define the real sequences of the Ppe-miRNAs on peach genome. Comparison between predicted and validated Ppe-miRNAs through alignment revealed that 43 unique orthologous sequences were identical, while the remaining 18 exhibited some divergences at their termini nucleotides. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was further employed to analyze the expression of all the 61 miRNAs and 10 putative targets of 8 randomly selected Ppe-miRNAs in peach leaves, flowers and fruits at different stages of development, where both the miRNAs and the putative target genes showed tissue-specific expression.

  19. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine

  20. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine

  1. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  2. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-04-01

    The influence of assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution on sugar concentrations in the mesocarp of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit. Based on measured data and the model, we determined values for the relative rates of sugar transformation. These rates were constant, varied with time or varied with relative fruit growth rate, depending on the type of sugar. Equations were derived to describe these rates and incorporated into the SUGAR model. The model simulated the effects of changing assimilate supply and fruit volume on sugar concentrations. The set of equations for the SUGAR model was rewritten to include the three components influencing sugar concentrations: assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution. The sugar types differed in sensitivity to these components. Sucrose was highly sensitive to changes in assimilate supply and to the dilution effect; it was not subject to intense metabolic transformation. Sorbitol was the most important carbohydrate in fruit metabolism, which explains why the sorbitol concentration was always low despite the strong positive effect of assimilate supply. The reducing sugars constituted a transitory storage pool and their concentrations were closely related to metabolism.

  3. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  4. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  5. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage.

  6. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions.

  7. Characterization and expression analysis of AGAMOUS-like, SEEDSTICK-like, and SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes in peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Demetriou, Kyproula; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2009-08-01

    MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for flowering, flower organogenesis and plant development. Although there are extensive reports on genes involved in flower organogenesis in model and economically important plant species, there are few reports on MADS-box genes in woody plants. In this study, we have cloned and characterized AGAMOUS (AG), SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA (SEP) homologs from peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and studied their expression patterns in different tissues as well as in fruit pericarp during pit hardening. AG- STK- and SEP-like homologs, representative of the C-, D-, E-like MADS-box gene lineages, respectively, play key roles in stamen, carpel, ovule and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarities, phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics were used to provide classification of the isolated genes in type C (PPERAG), type D (PPERSTK) and type E (PPERSEP1, PPERSEP3, PPERFB9) organ identity genes. Expression patterns were determined and in combination with phylogenetic data provided useful indications on the function of these genes. These data suggest the involvement of MADS-box genes in peach flower and fruit development and provide further evidence for the role of these genes in woody perennial trees that is compatible with their function in model plant species.

  8. Effects of iron chlorosis and iron resupply on leaf xylem architecture, water relations, gas exchange and stomatal performance of field-grown peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Eichert, Thomas; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Heredia, Antonio; Fernández, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that iron (Fe) deficiency induces not only leaf chlorosis and a decline of photosynthesis, but also structural changes in leaf morphology, which might affect the functionality of leaves. In this study, we investigated the effects of Fe deficiency on the water relations of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) leaves and the responses of previously chlorotic leaves to Fe resupply via the root or the leaf. Iron deficiency induced a decline of maximum potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (F(V)/F(M)), of rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration and of water use efficiency. Iron chlorosis was associated with a reduction of leaf xylem vessel size and of leaf hydraulic conductance. In the course of the day, water potentials in chlorotic leaves remained higher (less negative) than in green leaves. In chlorotic leaves, normal stomatal functioning was disturbed, as evidenced by the lack of opening upon withdrawal of external CO(2) and stomatal closure after sudden illumination of previously darkened leaves. We conclude that the Fe deficiency induced limitations of xylem conductivity elicited a water saving strategy, which poses an additional challenge to plant growth on high pH, calcareous soils. Fertilisation with Fe improved photosynthetic performance but the proper xylem structure and water relations of leaves were not fully restored, indicating that Fe must be available at the first stages of leaf growth and development.

  9. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica L.) using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Gao, Zhihong; Shi, Ting; Cheng, Zongming; Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in various biological and metabolic processes. The function of miRNAs has been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, the number of identified miRNAs and related miRNA targets in peach (Prunus persica) is limited. To understand further the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes during tissue development in peach, a small RNA library and three degradome libraries were constructed from three tissues for deep sequencing. We identified 117 conserved miRNAs and 186 novel miRNA candidates in peach by deep sequencing and 19 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were further evaluated for their expression by RT-qPCR. The number of gene targets that were identified for 26 conserved miRNA families and 38 novel miRNA candidates, were 172 and 87, respectively. Some of the identified miRNA targets were abundantly represented as conserved miRNA targets in plant. However, some of them were first identified and showed important roles in peach development. Our study provides information concerning the regulatory network of miRNAs in peach and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during tissue development.

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of FRUITFULL- and SHATTERPROOF-like genes from peach (Prunus persica) and their role in split-pit formation.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2007-05-01

    The fruit canning industry processes large quantities of the clingstone varieties of peach (Prunus persica L. Batch). The occurrence of split-pit formation--the opening of the pit and sometimes splitting of the fruit--causes deterioration of canned fruit quality. The frequency of split-pit formation is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying split-pit formation in peach, we cloned and characterized the PPERFUL and PPERSHP genes that are homologues to the genes FRUITFULL and SHATTERPROOF, respectively, which are involved in fruit splitting (pod shattering) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two genes had high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors, and particularly with other members of the FUL-like family of A-type MADS-box proteins and PLENA-like family of C-type MADS-box proteins, respectively. PPERFUL and PPERSHP were expressed throughout fruit development from full anthesis until fruit harvest. Differences in the mRNA abundance of each gene were compared in a split-pit sensitive and a split-pit resistant variety. Results suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP expression may have an effect on the split-pit process.

  11. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  12. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae) tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  13. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit.

  14. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-30

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF), ranging from 1,209.3-1,354.5, 711.7-881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7-785.5, 301.3-499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 2.57-2.77 and 1.54-1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8-80.9% and 66.8-76.5% in peels, and 51.9-60.1% and 43.4-49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  15. Transcriptomic profiling during the post-harvest of heat-treated Dixiland Prunus persica fruits: common and distinct response to heat and cold.

    PubMed

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs), with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47%) and heat-repressed (36%) groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection induced by HT.

  16. Transcriptomic Profiling during the Post-Harvest of Heat-Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Lauxmann, Martin A.; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia A.; Budde, Claudio O.; Lara, María V.; Drincovich, María F.

    2012-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs), with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47%) and heat-repressed (36%) groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection induced by HT. PMID

  17. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of miRNAs Responsive to Drought in Peach (Prunus persica) by High-Throughput Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eldem, Vahap; Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Ozhuner, Esma; Bakır, Yakup; Uranbey, Serkan; Unver, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19–25 nucleotides in length), endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC), leaf stress (LS), root control (RC) and root stress (RS) samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated) of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated) of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS) generated significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activites. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development. PMID:23227166

  19. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage

  20. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  1. The early spring N uptake of young peach trees (Prunus persica) is affected by past and current fertilizations and levels of C and N stores.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Marie-Odile; Vercambre, Gilles; Gomez, Laurent; Pagès, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    In deciduous trees, shoot development in early spring is assumed to be achieved mainly at the expense of nitrogen (N) stores. Indeed, the possible compensation for poor autumn N storage by early spring N uptake has been little studied. We therefore determined the dynamics of spring N uptake in relation to spring N supply, carbon and N storage and shoot development. Young peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. 'GF305') were raised outdoors in a hydroponic set-up during the spring and summer, with an excessive N supply. During the autumn, half of the trees were then N limited. The following spring, the N supply remained either high or low, or changed from high to low or low to high. Between 6 March and 13 May, N uptake was measured automatically on an hourly basis, while shoot growth was monitored once a week. These in situ measurements were completed by three destructive harvests to assess organ composition in N and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Until the end of April, N uptake was dependent on the autumn N treatment, being higher in trees that had been N limited in the autumn. Total non-structural carbohydrate mobilization was also higher in those trees that had lost at least 17 g TNC by 24 April, while TNC levels in non-limited trees remained stable or even rose. Shoot development, estimated by the number of elongated axes and leaves per axis, was also slightly delayed by an N limitation in autumn. After 24 April, N uptake rates increased notably under all treatments and was determined by the spring N supply. In trees receiving a high N supply in the spring, the uptake rates also displayed marked short-term variations. That reduced the differences between treatments and by 13 May no differences could be evidenced between the trees in terms of organ biomass and TNC and N contents, whatever the treatment. We concluded that in the early spring, N uptake may compensate for a deficit of N storage insofar as large quantities of TNC can be mobilized for

  2. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica) by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Eldem, Vahap; Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Ozhuner, Esma; Bakır, Yakup; Uranbey, Serkan; Unver, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19-25 nucleotides in length), endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC), leaf stress (LS), root control (RC) and root stress (RS) samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated) of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated) of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS) generated significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  3. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  4. A Simple Model to Predict the Probability of a Peach (Prunus persicae) Tree Bud to Develop as a Long or Short Shoot as a Consequence of Winter Pruning Intensity and Previous Year Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609

  5. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth

    PubMed Central

    Giannino, Donato

    2012-01-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth. PMID:22888130

  6. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth.

    PubMed

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Vendramin, Elisa; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Mele, Giovanni; Giannino, Donato

    2012-09-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth.

  7. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis.

  8. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  9. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  10. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  11. Current-year and Subsequent-year Effects of Crop-load Manipulation and Epicormic-shoot Removal on Distribution of Long, Short and Epicormic Shoot Growth in Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, D.; Dejong, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution of canopy growth among different shoot types such as epicormic, long and short shoots is not well understood in the peach tree. In this experiment, the effects of crop load and early epicormic sprout removal on current and subsequent-year distribution of vegetative growth among epicormic, long and short shoots was investigated in Prunus persica. Methods Field trials were conducted in Winters, California, in 2003–2004. Crop load was manipulated with fruit thinning in 2003 to produce trees that were de-fruited, commercially thinned or full crop, and half of the trees in each cropping treatment had all current year epicormic sprouts removed at the time of fruit thinning. Yield was recorded and trunk and root carbohydrates were sampled to confirm the effect of 2003 crop load differences on tissue carbohydrate concentration. All current-season vegetative-shoot extension growth was harvested from half of the trees in each treatment in the autumn of 2003 and from the other half in the autumn of 2004. Epicormic, long and short shoots were separately evaluated for dry weight, node number and leaf-stem parameters. Key Results In 2003, long-shoot dry weight and node number were significantly affected by crop load; however, short-shoot dry weight and node number were not significantly affected. The 2003 crop-load treatments did not affect 2004 vegetative growth of any shoot type. Some re-growth of epicormic shoots followed early epicormic sprout removal: by the end of the 2003 season, trees in the early shoot-removal treatment had approximately one-third of the epicormic-shoot dry weight as unpruned trees. Conclusions Fruit thinning promoted distribution of growth similar to that of de-fruited trees. While thinning was effective in increasing fruit size, it exacerbated the problem of epicormic sprouting. Early epicormic sprout removal did not stimulate the excessive epicormic re-growth in the same or subsequent year relative to previously

  12. Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuo; Li, Jinlu; Sun, Jiahui; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Shiliang

    2013-11-01

    The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü & L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed. PMID:23945216

  13. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  14. The peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) homeobox gene KNOPE3, which encodes a class 2 knotted-like transcription factor, is regulated during leaf development and triggered by sugars.

    PubMed

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Caboni, Emilia; Iannelli, Maria Adelaide; Bruno, Leonardo; Mariotti, Domenico; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2009-07-01

    Class 1 KNOTTED1-like transcription factors (KNOX) are known to regulate plant development, whereas information on class 2 KNOX has been limited. The peach KNOPE3 gene was cloned, belonged to a family of few class 2 members and was located at 66 cM in the Prunus spp. G1 linkage-group. The mRNA localization was diversified in leaf, stem, flower and drupe, but recurred in all organ sieves, suggesting a role in sap nutrient transport. During leaf development, the mRNA earliest localized to primordia sieves and subsequently to mesophyll cells of growing leaves. Consistently, its abundance augmented with leaf expansion. The transcription was monitored in leaves responding to darkening, supply and transport block of sugars. It peaked at 4 h after darkness and dropped under prolonged obscurity, showing a similar kinetic to that of sucrose content variation. Feeding leaflets via the transpiration stream caused KNOPE3 up-regulation at 3 h after fructose, glucose and sucrose absorption and at 12 h after sorbitol. In girdling experiments, leaf KNOPE3 was triggered from 6 h onwards along with sucrose and sorbitol raise. Both the phloem-associated expression and sugar-specific gene modulation suggest that KNOPE3 may play a role in sugar translocation during the development of agro-relevant organs such as drupe.

  15. Prunus rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks for apricot and plums offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soil borne diseases, waterlogging, calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling and cl...

  16. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (FST = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. PMID:26106085

  17. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  18. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. PMID:24709154

  19. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes.

  20. Two matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors from Ferula persica var. persica.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Saadat, F; Khorramizadeh, M R; Iranshahi, M; Khoshayand, M R

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in several physiologic and pathologic events. There is some evidence indicating the involvement of MMPs in tumor invasion and inflammatory diseases. Here we studied the chloroform extract of Ferula persica var. persica. The influence of these extracts vs. a reference drug, diclofenac sodium, on MMP production by the fibrosarcoma cell line was investigated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide, and gelatin zymography. The total extract of the roots was found to exhibit a selective inhibitory effect on tumor cell invasion. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of two compounds. These compounds showed highest MMP inhibitory effect at minimal toxic dose levels. Using conventional spectroscopy methods, the active fractions were identified as t-butyl 3-[(1-methylthiopropyl)dithio]-2-propenyl malonate (persicasulphide B) and umbelliprenin, previously isolated from F. persica var. latisecta. Since inhibition of MMP activity has been employed in modality therapy in diseases such as cancer, this compound might be promising in the preparation of anti-MMP therapeutic derivatives.

  1. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  2. Production of chlorogenic acid in Varthemia persica DC (var. persica) callus cultures

    PubMed Central

    Siahpoush, A.; Ghasemi, N.; Ardakani, M. Shams; Asghari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a pharmacologically important compound, is a phenolic compound that occurs in certain commonly used medicinal herbs. We looked for the presence of this compound in the callus cultures of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica). We have evaluated the conditions for establishment of callus cultures of V. persica and the in vitro production of chlorogenic acid. Callus was initiated by culturing seedling of V. persica on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of kinetin, naphthalene acetic acid and 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid. Also, the influence of light, and phytohormones on the production of chlorogenic acid was examined. Kinetin stimulated the production of chlorogenic acid. Replacement of 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid with naphthalene acetic acid did not alter the chlorogenic acid production. The ability to induce the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in the V. persica callus cultures offers an opportunity to produce a phenolic compound with therapeutic value. PMID:22049279

  3. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Petri, César; Alburquerque, Nuria; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of whole leaf explants of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cultivars 'Helena' and 'Canino' is described. Regenerated buds were selected using a two-step selection strategy with paromomycin sulfate and transferred to bud multiplication medium 1 week after they were detected for optimal survival. After buds were transferred to bud multiplication medium, antibiotic was changed to kanamycin and concentration increased gradually at each transfer to fresh medium in order to eliminate possible escapes and chimeras. Transformation efficiency, based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines, was 5.6%. Green and healthy buds, surviving high kanamycin concentration, were transferred to shoot multiplication medium where they elongated in shoots and proliferated. Elongated transgenic shoots were rooted in a medium containing 70 μM kanamycin. Rooted plants were acclimatized following standard procedures. This constitutes the only transformation protocol described for apricot clonal tissues and one of the few of Prunus.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex. PMID:23956129

  6. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

  7. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S.; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M.; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n = 10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. Conclusions This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown. PMID:25007331

  8. Molecular characterisation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes using peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] SSR sequences.

    PubMed

    Wünsch, A; Hormaza, J I

    2002-07-01

    A total of 76 sweet cherry genotypes were screened with 34 microsatellite primer pairs previously developed in peach. Amplification of SSR loci was obtained for 24 of the microsatellite primer pairs, and 14 of them produced polymorphic amplification patterns. On the basis of polymorphism and quality of amplification, a set of nine primer pairs and the resulting 27 informative alleles were used to identify 72 genotype profiles. Of these, 68 correspond to unique cultivar genotypes, and the remaining four correspond to three cultivars that could not be differentiated from the two original genotypes of which they are mutants, and two very closely related cultivars. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.7 while the mean heterozygosity over the nine polymorphic loci averaged 0.49. The results demonstrate the usefulness of cross-species transferability of microsatellite sequences allowing the discrimination of different genotypes of a fruit tree species with sequences developed in other species of the same genus. UPGMA cluster analysis of the similarity data divided the ancient genotypes studied into two fairly well-defined groups that reflect their geographic origin, one with genotypes originating in southern Europe and the other with the genotypes from northern Europe and North America.

  9. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer. PMID:19161694

  10. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  11. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC. PMID:16161354

  12. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  13. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  14. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  15. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants. PMID:27107182

  16. Modelling of Peach Tree (Prunus persica) Full Blooming Dates Using APCC MME Seasonal Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Jong; Kim, Sung; Lee, Hyojin; Han, Hyun-Hee; Son, In-Chang; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Due to global warming, recently, bud-burst and flowering dates of fruit crops have become earlier and the abnormal climate increases the variabilities of temperature in spring, suggesting that the risk of frost damage has increased. However, the full blooming date prediction model for peach tree used by the Rural Developmental Administration (RDA) were developed using only one cultivar (Youmyeong) and observations from a station (Suwon). This model might not adequately reflect the characteristics of peach cultivars or local orchards. the objectives of this study were to develops the site-and cultivar-specific blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivation regions and cultivars and presents a framework for applications of the APEC Climate Center Multimodel Ensemble (APCC MME) seasonal datasets.Developmental rate (DVR), and Sequential dormancy models (Chill day, New chill day, and fraction-time models) were used to develop the locally tailored full blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivars. For the development of these models, bud-burst and full blooming dates of peach tree for 5 cultivars (Cheonhong, Youmyeong, Changbangjosaeng, Cheonjoongdo, and Janghowon) were collected from the 6 major peach cultivation sites: Chuncheon, Suwon, Cheongwon, Cheongdo, Naju, and Jinju. For the chill day model, those measures for the entire dataset regardless the location and cultivar were 2.31%, 0.79, and 3.36 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively. For the new chill day model, those values (2.19%, 0.82, and 3.16 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively) were slightly better than those of the chill day model. The model results showed that the new chill day model was found slightly highest performance than others. Based on the considerations of the predictability of the statistical downscaling method and the observed periods of the full blooming dates at each site, we determined that the APCC MME seasonal datasets were applied for the new chill day model for the Changbangjosaeng and Youmyeong cultivars at the Suwon site. The values of the goodness-of-fit measures using the selected synthetic daily maximum and minimum temperatures reflecting APCC MME seasonal datasets and selected were worse than those using those collected from the Suwon station. It is concluded that further work was recommended that the predictability of APCC MME seasonal forecasts should be improved to reduce the prediction errors of full blooming dates of peach trees.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples.

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis.

  19. Identification and validation of potential conserved microRNAs and their targets in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiaoyan; Shi, Ting; Cai, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Zongming; Zhuang, Weibing

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, especially from model plants and crops, they remain largely unknown in peach. In this study, 110 potential miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified using computational methods. A total of 43 potential targets were found for 21 families based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the plant miRNA and the target sequences. A majority of the targets were transcription factors which play important roles in peach development. qRT-PCR analysis of RNA samples prepared from different peach tissues for 25 miRNA families revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, two target genes were experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage sites in peach using RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Finally, we studied the expression pattern of the two target genes in three different tissues of peach to further understand the mechanism of the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  1. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of 'Dixiland' peach fruit (Prunus persica) upon heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Lara, María V; Borsani, Julia; Budde, Claudio O; Lauxmann, Martin A; Lombardo, Verónica A; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2009-01-01

    Shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage require low temperature; however, cold storage affects fruit quality causing physiological disorders collectively termed 'chilling injury' (CI). In order to ameliorate CI, different strategies have been applied before cold storage; among them heat treatment (HT) has been widely used. In this work, the effect of HT on peach fruit quality as well as on carbon metabolism was evaluated. When fruit were exposed to 39 degrees C for 3 d, ripening was delayed, with softening inhibition and slowing down of ethylene production. Several differences were observed between fruit ripening at ambient temperature versus fruit that had been heat treated. However, the major effects of HT on carbon metabolism and organoleptic characteristics were reversible, since normal fruit ripening was restored after transferring heated peaches to ambient temperature. Positive quality features such as an increment in the fructose content, largely responsible for the sweetness, and reddish coloration were observed. Nevertheless, high amounts of acetaldehyde and low organic acid content were also detected. The differential proteome of heated fruit was characterized, revealing that heat-induced CI tolerance may be acquired by the activation of different molecular mechanisms. Induction of related stress proteins in the heat-exposed fruits such as heat shock proteins, cysteine proteases, and dehydrin, and repression of a polyphenol oxidase provide molecular evidence of candidate proteins that may prevent some of the CI symptoms. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the cellular events in peach under HT in view of a possible technological use aimed to improve organoleptic and shelf-life features.

  2. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis. PMID:24283537

  4. Revision of the Maddenia clade of Prunus (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Shi, Wenting

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Maddenia clade of Prunus L. is monographed based on herbarium and field studies. Four species are currently accepted in this group: Prunus himalayana J.Wen, Prunus hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen, Prunus hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen, and Prunus gongshanensis J.Wen, with the last described herein as a new species. Maddenia fujianensis Y.T.Chang and Maddenia incisoserrata T.T.Yü & T.C.Ku are treated as synonyms of Prunus hypoleuca. PMID:22577333

  5. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  6. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valmor J; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  7. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm.

  8. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  9. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. PMID:26356603

  10. Transition from two to one integument in Prunus species: expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT).

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, Maria

    2015-10-01

    While gymnosperm ovules have one integument, in most angiosperms two integuments surround the ovules. Unitegmic ovules have arisen independently several times during the evolution of angiosperms, but the ultimate genetic cause of the presence of a single integument remains elusive. We compared species of the genus Prunus that have different numbers of integuments: bitegmic species, such as Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Prunus persica (peach), and unitegmic species, such as Prunus incisa, analyzing the expression pattern of genes that are involved in integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana: INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT). Bitegmic and unitegmic species showed similar INO expression patterns, indicative of the conservation of an outer integument. However, expression of ETT, which occurs in the boundary of the outer and inner integuments, was altered in unitegmic ovules, which showed lack of ETT expression. These results strongly suggest that the presence of a single integument could be attributable to the amalgamation of two integuments and support the role of ETT in the fusion of the outer and inner integuments in unitegmic ovules, a situation that could be widespread in other unitegmic species of angiosperms.

  11. Transition from two to one integument in Prunus species: expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT).

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, Maria

    2015-10-01

    While gymnosperm ovules have one integument, in most angiosperms two integuments surround the ovules. Unitegmic ovules have arisen independently several times during the evolution of angiosperms, but the ultimate genetic cause of the presence of a single integument remains elusive. We compared species of the genus Prunus that have different numbers of integuments: bitegmic species, such as Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Prunus persica (peach), and unitegmic species, such as Prunus incisa, analyzing the expression pattern of genes that are involved in integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana: INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT). Bitegmic and unitegmic species showed similar INO expression patterns, indicative of the conservation of an outer integument. However, expression of ETT, which occurs in the boundary of the outer and inner integuments, was altered in unitegmic ovules, which showed lack of ETT expression. These results strongly suggest that the presence of a single integument could be attributable to the amalgamation of two integuments and support the role of ETT in the fusion of the outer and inner integuments in unitegmic ovules, a situation that could be widespread in other unitegmic species of angiosperms. PMID:25991552

  12. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species. PMID:15354194

  13. An expanded genetic linkage map of Prunus based on an interspecific cross between almond and peach.

    PubMed

    Bliss, F A; Arulsekar, S; Foolad, M R; Becerra, V; Gillen, A M; Warburton, M L; Dandekar, A M; Kocsisne, G M; Mydin, K K

    2002-06-01

    The genetic linkage map of Prunus constructed earlier and based on an interspecific F2 population resulting from a cross between almond (Prunus dulcis D.A. Webb) and peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) was extended to include 8 isozyme loci, 102 peach mesocarp cDNAs, 11 plum genomic clones, 19 almond genomic clones, 7 resistance gene analogs (RGAs), 1 RGA-related sequence marker, 4 morphological trait loci, 3 genes with known function, 4 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, 1 RAPD, and 1 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAP) marker. This map contains 161 markers placed in eight linkage groups that correspond to the basic chromosome number of the genus (x = n = 8) with a map distance of 1144 centimorgans (cM) and an average marker density of 6.8 cM. Four more trait loci (Y, Pcp, D, and SK) and one isozyme locus (Mdh1) were assigned to linkage groups based on known associations with linked markers. The linkage group identification numbers correspond to those for maps published by the Arús group in Spain and the Dirlewanger group in France. Forty-five percent of the loci showed segregation distortion most likely owing to the interspecific nature of the cross and mating system differences between almond (obligate outcrosser) and peach (selfer). The Cat1 locus, known to be linked to the D locus controlling fruit acidity, was mapped to linkage group 5. A gene or genes controlling polycarpel fruit development was placed on linkage group 3, and control of senesced leaf color (in late fall season) (LFCLR) was mapped to linkage group 1 at a putative location similar to where the Y locus has also been placed. PMID:12033621

  14. Physiological and biochemical parameters controlling waterlogging stress tolerance in Prunus before and after drainage.

    PubMed

    Amador, María L; Sancho, Sara; Bielsa, Beatriz; Gomez-Aparisi, Joaquín; Rubio-Cabetas, María J

    2012-04-01

    Waterlogging is associated with poor soil drainage. As a consequence oxygen levels decrease in the root environment inducing root asphyxia and affecting plant growth. Some plants can survive under these conditions triggering complex anatomical and biochemical adaptations, mostly in the roots. Long- and short-term responses to waterlogging stress were compared in two trials using a set of two myrobalans (Prunus cerasifera Erhr), 'P.2175' and 'P.2980', as tolerant rootstocks and two almond × peach [Prunus amygdalus Batsch ×Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] interspecific hybrids, 'Garnem' and 'Felinem', as sensitive ones in two consecutive years. Stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were measured in the long-term trials to assess survival performance, while the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) were measured in the short-term trials to study early antioxidant response. The incidence of the stress in the root environment was different as a result of the different plant development at the moment of the treatment, as a consequence of different environmental conditions both before and during the treatment between the 2 years. The activity of the different enzymes was higher in the sensitive genotype 'Felinem' than in the tolerant 'P.2175'. This result shows an activation of the antioxidant system and has been observed to depend of the different nature of the roots between the 2 years. As the antioxidant enzymes seem to work more efficiently when roots are more aerated, we cannot conclude that they are responsible for the higher tolerance observed in the myrobalan plums.

  15. Transcription of densovirus endogenous sequences in the Myzus persicae genome.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Gabriel; van Munster, Manuella; Monsion, Baptiste; Bochet, Nicole; Brault, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Integration of non-retroviral sequences in the genome of different organisms has been observed and, in some cases, a relationship of these integrations with immunity has been established. The genome of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (clone G006), was screened for densovirus-like sequence (DLS) integrations. A total of 21 DLSs localized on 10 scaffolds were retrieved that mostly shared sequence identity with two aphid-infecting viruses, Myzus persicae densovirus (MpDNV) and Dysaphis plantaginea densovirus (DplDNV). In some cases, uninterrupted potential ORFs corresponding to non-structural viral proteins or capsid proteins were found within DLSs identified in the aphid genome. In particular, one scaffold harboured a complete virus-like genome, while another scaffold contained two virus-like genomes in reverse orientation. Remarkably, transcription of some of these ORFs was observed in M. persicae, suggesting a biological effect of these viral integrations. In contrast to most of the other densoviruses identified so far that induce acute host infection, it has been reported previously that MpDNV has only a minor effect on M. persicae fitness, while DplDNV can even have a beneficial effect on its aphid host. This suggests that DLS integration in the M. persicae genome may be responsible for the latency of MpDNV infection in the aphid host. PMID:26758080

  16. The genome of Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Wenbin; Sun, Lidan; Zhao, Fangying; Huang, Bangqing; Yang, Weiru; Tao, Ye; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Zhiqiong; Fan, Guangyi; Xing, Zhen; Han, Changlei; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Xiao; Shi, Wenfang; Liang, Xinming; Du, Dongliang; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Zongda; Hao, Ruijie; Lv, Tian; Lv, Yingmin; Zheng, Zequn; Sun, Ming; Luo, Le; Cai, Ming; Gao, Yike; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Xu, Xun; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees. PMID:23271652

  17. Miswak (Salvadora persica chewing stick): the natural toothbrush revisited.

    PubMed

    Almas, A K; Almas, K

    2014-03-01

    The review encompasses the historical background, chemical composition of miswak (Salvadora persica) and the effects it has on oral health. Miswak is an Arabic word meaning "tooth cleaning stick" and is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of Salvadora persica (S. persica). Not only is S. persica miswak used in several countries throughout the world, but in some cases, it has proved to be more beneficial as compared to its counterparts-a toothbrush and toothpaste. Additionally, how to prepare the miswak, proper use of it, and the techniques to use will be discussed. An overview of the antimicrobial, anticariogenic, antiplaque, and antigingivitis effects of miswak on oral health will be given in the context of in vitro experiments and clinical trials. Lastly, various oral hygiene studies will be discussed, in order to identify a common denominator between modern-day and the age-old practice of miswak. Recent scientific evidence regarding its probiotic role, cell viability and comparative cytotoxicity and future research trends would be highlighted. Miswak, a cultural and history-based oral hygiene tool is now being evaluated on scientific evidence. Through comparing the naturally-occurring and scientific evolution of S. persica's usage, we will be able to better understand the uniqueness of miswak, relative to that of other oral hygiene tools as being a solo oral hygiene tool of a significant part of the World population. It's hope that the review would help health care professionals to have better knowledge and awareness about miswak, to improve the quality of life of their culturally diverse patients population who are uninitiated for regular oral hygiene measures due to various constraints. The use of miswak can be added to the notion of primary health care approach (PHCA) and oral health promotion.

  18. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  19. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools. PMID:27446123

  20. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Juan J.; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools. PMID:27446123

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds. PMID:27609931

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-09-08

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds.

  3. Comparative studies of binding potential of Prunus armeniaca and Prunus domestica gums in tablets formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Haroon; Khan, Mir Azam; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Chishti, Kamran Ahmad; Rahman, Inayat U

    2015-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to compare the binding potential of Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus domestica L. gums in tablets' formulations. Tablet batches (F-1 to F-9) were prepared Diclofenac sodium as model drug using 5%, 7.5% and 10% of each Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus domestica L. gums as binder. PVP K30 was used as a standard binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Flow properties of granules (like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose) as well as the physical parameters of compressed tablets including hardness, friability, thickness and disintegration time were determined. Flow parameters of granules of all the batches were found good. Physical parameters (drug content, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time) of formulated tablets were found within limit when tested. The dissolution studies showed that tablets formulations containing each Prunus domestica showed better binding capacity compared to Prunus armeniaca gum. The binding potential increased as the concentration of gums increased. The FTIR spectroscopic investigation showed that the formulations containing plant gum are compatible with the drug and other excipients used.

  4. Comparative studies of binding potential of Prunus armeniaca and Prunus domestica gums in tablets formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Haroon; Khan, Mir Azam; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Chishti, Kamran Ahmad; Rahman, Inayat U

    2015-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to compare the binding potential of Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus domestica L. gums in tablets' formulations. Tablet batches (F-1 to F-9) were prepared Diclofenac sodium as model drug using 5%, 7.5% and 10% of each Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus domestica L. gums as binder. PVP K30 was used as a standard binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Flow properties of granules (like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose) as well as the physical parameters of compressed tablets including hardness, friability, thickness and disintegration time were determined. Flow parameters of granules of all the batches were found good. Physical parameters (drug content, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time) of formulated tablets were found within limit when tested. The dissolution studies showed that tablets formulations containing each Prunus domestica showed better binding capacity compared to Prunus armeniaca gum. The binding potential increased as the concentration of gums increased. The FTIR spectroscopic investigation showed that the formulations containing plant gum are compatible with the drug and other excipients used. PMID:26004724

  5. The Occurrence of Nitrate Reductase in Leaves of Prunus Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Leece, D. R.; Dilley, David R.; Kenworthy, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  6. Effects of simulated microgravity on male gametophyte of Prunus, Pyrus, and Brassica species.

    PubMed

    De Micco, V; Scala, M; Aronne, G

    2006-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination of both herbaceous and woody species in order to investigate the possibility of applying gametophytic selection for plant growth in the space environment. The behaviour of gametophytes exposed to the stress of clinostat rotation could be used to screen the degree of tolerance of the sporophyte to simulated microgravity. The use of male gametophyte selection overcomes the problems generally encountered by sporophytic selection in space especially for woody plants: the large size of plants and their long juvenile phase. In this experiment, pollen collected from just bloomed flowers of Prunus persica, P. avium, P. domestica, Pyrus communis, and Brassica rapa was subjected to tests assessing its viability by techniques such as fluorochromatic reaction. Once pollen viability was ascertained by fluorescence microscopy, pollen was placed on the growth medium in petri dishes both at 1 g and on the clinostat. After incubating for 1 day at room temperature, pollen was observed under a light microscope in order to detect parameters such as the percentage of germination and the growth direction. Then histochemical analyses were performed in order to verify the presence and distribution of nuclei, cytoplasm, and storage substances. Moreover, the presence, size, and morphology of callose plugs were observed. Results showed that the response of gametophytes to simulated microgravity is dependent on the species, some showing altered metabolism, others being unaffected.

  7. Sugar Profile of Kernels as a Marker of Origin and Ripening Time of Peach (Prunus persicae L.).

    PubMed

    Stanojević, Marija; Trifković, Jelena; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Rakonjac, Vera; Nikolić, Dragan; Šegan, Sandra; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2015-12-01

    Large amounts of fruit seeds, especially peach, are discarded annually in juice or conserve producing industries which is a potential waste of valuable resource and serious disposal problem. Regarding the fact that peach seeds can be obtained as a byproduct from processing companies their exploitation should be greater and, consequently more information of cultivars' kernels and their composition is required. A total of 25 samples of kernels from various peach germplasm (including commercial cultivars, perspective hybrids and vineyard peach accessions) differing in origin and ripening time were characterized by evaluation of their sugar composition. Twenty characteristic carbohydrates and sugar alcohols were determined and quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC/PAD). Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the most important sugars in peach kernels similar to other representatives of the Rosaceae family. Also, high amounts of sugars in seeds of promising hybrids implies that through conventional breeding programs peach kernels with high sugar content can be obtained. In addition, by the means of several pattern recognition methods the variables that discriminate peach kernels arising from diverse germplasm and different stage of maturity were identified and successful models for further prediction were developed. Sugars such as ribose, trehalose, arabinose, galactitol, fructose, maltose, sorbitol, sucrose, iso-maltotriose were marked as most important for such discrimination.

  8. Genetic diversity in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] at the University of Florida: past present and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University of Florida (UF) stone fruit breeding and genetics program was created in 1952 to develop early ripening stone fruit cultivars with high quality, adaptation to summer rainfall, low chilling requirements, and the ability to withstand high disease pressure. Diverse germplasm sources were...

  9. The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Polidoros, Alexios; Darzentas, Nikos; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2011-06-01

    Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The fruitfull (FUL) and shatterproof (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like Spatula (SPT) and Alcatraz (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC. PMID:21324706

  10. Responses of canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach (Prunus persica) trees to alternate partial root zone drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Daozhi; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2005-08-01

    We investigated canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach trees under three irrigation patterns: fixed 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (FPRDI), alternate 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (APRDI) and full root zone drip irrigation (FDI). Canopy transpiration was measured using heat pulse sensors, and canopy conductance was calculated using the Jarvis model and the inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. Results showed that the transpiration rate and canopy conductance in FPRDI and APRDI were smaller than those in FDI. More significantly, the total irrigation amount was greatly reduced, by 34.7% and 39.6%, respectively for APRDI and FPRDI in the PRDI (partial root zone drip irrigation) treatment period. The daily transpiration was linearly related to the reference evapotranspiration in the three treatments, but daily transpiration of FDI is more than that of APRDI and FPRDI under the same evaporation demand, suggesting a restriction of transpiration water loss in the APRDI and FPRDI trees. FDI needed a higher soil water content to carry the same amount of transpiration as the APRDI and FPRDI trees, suggesting the hydraulic conductance of roots of APRDI and FPRDI trees was enhanced, and the roots had a greater water uptake than in FDI when the average soil water content in the root zone was the same. By a comparison between the transpiration rates predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation and the measured canopy transpiration rates for 60 days during the experimental period, an excellent correlation along the 1:1 line was found for all the treatments (R2 > 0.80), proving the reliability of the methodology.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. "Red Pearl".

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Dayan; Vizoso, Paula; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meneses, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI) in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2) have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of "Red Pearl" nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh). RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  12. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning. PMID:27556337

  13. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Han, Jan; Liu, Dan; Wen, Xicheng; Li, Yu; Tao, Ran; Peng, Yongbin; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2014-02-25

    The FKBP protein family has prolyl isomerase activity and is related in function to cyclophilins. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete peach genome sequences allowed the identification of 21 FKBP genes by HMMER and BLAST analyses. Scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the peach genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of peach FKBPs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach FKBP gene results revealed that most peach FKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few peach FKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. This data could contribute to better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach FKBP gene family, and also provide valuable information for further research in peach functional genomics.

  14. Peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) allergen-encoding genes are developmentally regulated and affected by fruit load and light radiation.

    PubMed

    Botton, Alessandro; Andreotti, Carlo; Costa, Guglielmo; Ramina, Angelo

    2009-01-28

    The fruits of Rosaceae species may frequently induce allergic reactions in both adults and children, especially in the Mediterranean area. In peach, true allergens and cross-reactive proteins may cause hypersensitive reactions involving a wide diversity of symptoms. Three known classes of allergenic proteins, namely, Pru p 1, Pru p 3, and Pru p 4, have been reported to be mostly involved, but an exhaustive survey of the proteins determining the overall allergenic potential, their biological functions, and the factors affecting the expression of the related genes is still missing. In the present study, the expression profiles of some selected genes encoding peach allergen isoforms were studied during fruit growth and development and upon different fruit load and light radiation regimens. The results indicate that the majority of allergen-encoding genes are expressed at their maximum during the ripening stage, therefore representing a potential risk for peach consumers. Nevertheless, enhancing the light radiation and decreasing the fruit load achieved a reduction of the transcription rate of most genes and a possible decrease of the overall allergenic potential at harvest. According to these data, new growing practices could be set up to obtain hypoallergenic peach fruits and eventually combined with the cultivation of hypoallergenic genotypes to obtain a significant reduction of the allergenic potential.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of cherry green ring mottle virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Jiang, Dongmei; Niu, Feiqing; Lu, Meiguang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2013-03-01

    Two complete nucleotide sequences of cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) isolated from peach in Hebei (Hs10) and Fujian (F9) Provinces, China, were determined. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the genomes of both isolates. The F9 and Hs10 isolates shared 82.2 % and 83.4-94.4 % nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with two CGRMV isolates from cherry. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the five ORFs of both isolates showed that Hs10 shares the greatest sequence identity with P1A (GenBank AJ291761) from cherry. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CGRMV isolates from peach and cherry are closely related to members of the genus Foveavirus.

  16. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  17. Influence of postharvest treatments on quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid content of stored "spring belle" peach (prunus persica) fruit.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Ivano; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2009-08-12

    The influence of four postharvest treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2), followed by fruit storage at 10 degrees C or of hydrocooling (H2O) at 1 degrees C, followed by storage at 0 degrees C on fruit quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid (ABA) content as well as on ethylene and carbon dioxide production of "Spring Belle" peach fruits, has been examined. Ethylene production was reduced by all the treatments and raised after transfer the fruits at 20 degrees C, their ethylene production in general being lower than that of fruits continuously held at 20 degrees C. Nevertheless, 1-MCP removal enhanced the rise in ethylene occurring at 20 degrees C by the end of storage. Those changes were likely related to fruit softening but not to changes in color or in the soluble solid content (SSC). HPLC analyses showed a relative high content of xanthophylls, particularly violaxanthin. In fruits maintained in air at 20 degrees C, violaxanthin and beta-carotene contents decreased while beta-criptoxanthin increased. ABA content showed a great increase in 1-MCP and significant decrease in carbon dioxide and hydrocooling treated peaches. The results indicated hydrocooling, in combination with low temperature storage, as the best treatment maintaining fruit firmness due to the lowered respiration rate and the content of relevant carotenoids.

  18. Potassium contributes to zinc stress tolerance in peach (Prunus persica) seedlings by enhancing photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Song, Z Z; Duan, C L; Guo, S L; Yang, Y; Feng, Y F; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-07-27

    Zinc (Zn) is considered to be a major industrial pollutant because excessive amounts can impair plant growth. In this paper, we found that peach 'Yoshihime' seedlings are promising Zn tolerant plants. However, heavy Zn toxicity (2 mM) damaged plant performance by disrupting biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, proline production, and K(+) nutrition. Notably, elevated external K(+) supply (10 mM) alleviated peach seedlings from Zn toxicity, evidenced by enhanced photosynthesis, antioxidant defense systems, and plant K(+) nutritional status. Moreover, the transcript levels of KUP (K(+) uptake) genes involved in K(+) acquisition, transport, and homeostasis were significantly upregulated following supply of sufficient K(+) upon Zn toxicity. In general, K(+) favorably contributes to improvements in internal K(+) homeostasis, via the help of K(+) transporters, further protecting plant photosynthesis and the antioxidative defense system. Our findings further benefit the study of the mechanisms underpinning heavy metal tolerance in woody plants.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  20. A Survey of MicroRNA Length Variants Contributing to miRNome Complexity in Peach (Prunus Persica L.).

    PubMed

    Colaiacovo, Moreno; Bernardo, Letizia; Centomani, Isabella; Crosatti, Cristina; Giusti, Lorenzo; Orrù, Luigi; Tacconi, Gianni; Lamontanara, Antonella; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules produced from hairpin structures and involved in gene expression regulation with major roles in plant development and stress response. Although each annotated miRNA in miRBase (www.mirbase.org) is a single defined sequence with no further details on possible variable sequence length, isomiRs - namely the population of variants of miRNAs coming from the same precursors - have been identified in several species and could represent a way of broadening the regulatory network of the cell. Next-gen-based sequencing makes it possible to comprehensively and accurately assess the entire miRNA repertoire including isomiRs. The aim of this work was to survey the complexity of the peach miRNome by carrying out Illumina high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs in three replicates of five biological samples arising from a set of different peach organs and/or phenological stages. Three hundred-ninety-two isomiRs (miRNA and miRNA*-related) corresponding to 26 putative miRNA coding loci, have been highlighted by mirDeep-P and analyzed. The presence of the same isomiRs in different biological replicates of a sample and in different tissues demonstrates that the generation of most of the detected isomiRs is not random. The degree of mature sequence heterogeneity is very different for each individual locus. Results obtained in the present work can thus contribute to a deeper view of the miRNome complexity and to better explore the mechanism of action of these tiny regulators.

  1. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  2. Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.

    PubMed

    Reig, G; Iglesias, I; Gatius, F; Alegre, S

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of 106 peach cultivars from different breeding programs were evaluated at the Estació Experimental de Lleida, IRTA (Catalonia, Spain), during two growing seasons (2010 and 2011). High variability was found among cultivars within each quality trait, where different cultivars were scored as the best and the worst. For example, a 5-fold range (2.17-12.07 g of malic acid L⁻¹), 6-fold range (144.20-711.73 μg of Trolox g⁻¹ of FW), and 11-fold range (0.70-11.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside kg⁻¹ of FW) were observed in titratable acidity, relative antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content, respectively. The breeding program within each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, and flat peach) and qualitative pomological traits also had significant effects on the quality. Nevertheless, each breeding program had specific characteristics that distinguished it from the others. Even so, within each breeding program, there is high variability among cultivars. Therefore, growers should not base their strategy exclusively on the choice of breeding program. Principal component analysis for each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, nonmelting peach, and flat peach) allowed a selection of a set of cultivars from different breeding programs with the highest quality performance. For example, cultivars such as 'Azurite', 'IFF 1230', 'Amiga', 'Fire Top', 'African Bonnigold', 'Ferlot', 'Mesembrine', and 'Platifirst' had higher sweetness and flavor compared to the others. Therefore, this study could help breeders to make decisions for the selection of new cultivars able to improve the quality features of fruit intake, technicians to know better quality performance of peach cultivars, and consumers to meet their expectations for fruit with high health benefits and a specific taste.

  3. The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Polidoros, Alexios; Darzentas, Nikos; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2011-06-01

    Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The fruitfull (FUL) and shatterproof (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like Spatula (SPT) and Alcatraz (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC.

  4. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. PMID:26742437

  5. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  6. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach ( Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, P. R.; Meena, R. S.; Dar, M. A.; Wani, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly ( p⩽0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  7. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, F; Brandt, J; Brantegem, L Van; Bosseler, L; Ducatelle, R

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  8. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  9. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  10. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  11. Identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in Prunus avium (sweet cherry) fruit

    PubMed Central

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Sprink, Thorben; van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CM-related genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in sweet cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. Methods Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the sweet cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. Key Results The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (±5) μg per fruit d−1 about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected sweet cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica (peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. Conclusions The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early sweet cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, Pa

  12. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  13. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, John S; Wilson, Alex CC; de Vos, Martin; Sun, Qi; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Winfield, Agnese; Malloch, Gaynor; Smith, Dawn M; Fenton, Brian; Gray, Stewart M; Jander, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection). The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible interactions with its

  14. In Vitro Scolicidal Effects of Salvadora persica Root Extract against Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

  15. In Vitro Scolicidal Effects of Salvadora persica Root Extract against Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals. PMID:26951980

  16. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  17. Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

  18. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice - A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 106, 1 x 104, 1 x 102 and 4 x 100 spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 106, 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species. PMID:26890814

  19. Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes engaged in fruit development between Prunus mume and Prunus armeniaca.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoying; Korir, Nicholas Kibet; Liu, Lili; Shangguan, Lingfei; Wang, Yuzhu; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-11-15

    Microarray analysis is a technique that can be employed to provide expression profiles of single genes and new insights to elucidate the biological mechanisms responsible for fruit development. To evaluate expression of genes mostly engaged in fruit development between Prunus mume and Prunus armeniaca, we first identified differentially expressed transcripts along the entire fruit life cycle by using microarrays spotted with 10,641 ESTs collected from P. mume and other Prunus EST sequences. A total of 1418 ESTs were selected after quality control of microarray spots and analysis for differential gene expression patterns during fruit development of P. mume and P. Armeniaca. From these, 707 up-regulated and 711 down-regulated genes showing more than two-fold differences in expression level were annotated by GO based on biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. These differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in several important pathways of carbohydrate, galactose, and starch and sucrose metabolism as well as in biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites via KEGG. This could provide detailed information on the fruit quality differences during development and ripening of these two species. With the results obtained, we provide a practical database for comprehensive understanding of molecular events during fruit development and also lay a theoretical foundation for the cloning of genes regulating in a series of important rate-limiting enzymes involved in vital metabolic pathways during fruit development.

  20. Evaluation of wound healing effects between Salvadora persica ointment and Solcoseryl jelly in animal model.

    PubMed

    Imran, Hina; Ahmad, Mansoor; Rahman, Atiqur; Yaqeen, Zahra; Sohail, Tehmina; Fatima, Nudrat; Iqbal, Wasif; Yaqeen, Syed Shafay

    2015-09-01

    In this research study very first time a herbal ointment contain 10% Salvadora persica extract was compared with Solcosseryl jelly 10% and blank Vaseline to evaluate wound healing effects using excision wound healing model in animals. Three groups of rats (n-6) were experimentally wounded on the back of their neck. Group I was dressed with Vaseline containing 10% test drug, Group II was treated with thin layer of Solcoseryl jelly 10% as reference drug while Group III was dressed with thin layer of blank Vaseline as control group. The effect of vehicle on rate of wound healing were assessed and in all cases there were progressive decreased in wound area with time but wound dress with Vaseline containing S. persica extract and wound treated with Solcosseryl jelly significantly healed earlier than those treated with Vaseline. It is concluded that S. persica extract significantly enhance the acceleration rate of wound enclosure in rats.

  1. A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak (Salvadora Persica) on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad M.; Alsareii, Saeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of Salvadora persica and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years. A number of scientific studies have demonstrated that the miswak (Salvadora persica) possesses antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque properties. Several studies have also claimed that miswak has anti-oxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of a miswak has an immediate effect on the composition of saliva. Several clinical studies have confirmed that the mechanical and chemical cleansing efficacy of miswak chewing sticks are equal and at times greater than that of the toothbrush. The present article provides a review of the various therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica on oral health, which will help to elucidate the significance and importance of this indigenous oral hygiene tool. PMID:25935172

  2. Umbelliprenin from Ferula persica roots inhibits the red pigment production in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Mirjani, Roohollah; Amin, Gholamreza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Ferula persica var. persica roots was found to inhibit red pigment production of Serratia marcescens. A bioguided fractionation study by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) detected a fraction (Rf = 0.71, petroleum ether/EtOAc, 2:1 v/v), which was effective on depigmentation of Serratia marcescens. Using conventional spectroscopy methods, the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. Neither the chloroform extract nor the isolated umbelliprenin fraction showed any antibacterial activity against the test strain at a certain concentration. In contrast, they exhibited depigmentation zones on culture plates.

  3. A review on miswak (Salvadora persica) and its effect on various aspects of oral health

    PubMed Central

    Halawany, Hassan Suliman

    2012-01-01

    Plants have been used for centuries to improve dental health and to promote oral hygiene, and this practice persists in several communities throughout the world. “Miswak” is an Arabic word meaning “tooth-cleaning stick,” and Salvadora persica miswak has a wide geographic distribution. It was used by ancient Arabs to whiten and polish the teeth. This review discusses the history and chemical composition of S. persica miswak and its influence on oral health, including the advantages and disadvantages of its use. PMID:23960531

  4. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    PubMed

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  5. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Results Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Conclusions Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically

  6. Antibacterial Effect of an Herbal Product Persica on Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelvehgaran Esfahani, Zahra; Kadkhoda, Zeinab; Eshraghi, Seyed Saeed; Salehi Surmaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The plant Salvadora persica is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that it has antibacterial properties, in addition to its ability to mechanically remove plaques. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the herbal product Persica containing Salvadora persica against periodontopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with moderate and severe periodontitis were recruited. Using paper points, subgingival plaque samples were taken from pockets with attachment loss ≥ 3mm. The samples were subjected to microbial culture to yield P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ditch plate method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria to Persica compared to chlorhexidine and distilled water. The growth inhibition zones of microorganisms around the ditches were measured in millimeters. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Freidman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis of variance with 5% significance level. P<0.05 for main comparisons and P< 0.017 for multiple comparisons were considered statistically significant. Results: P. gingivalis was sensitive to chlorhexidine and persica. There was a significant difference (P=0.001) between antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (mean 28.733mm, SD 5.216) and Persica (mean 16.333mm, SD 5.259) compared to water against P. gingivalis. There was a significant difference (P< 0.001) between the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (24.045mm, SD 3.897) and Persica (0.545mm, SD 2.558) with respect to A. actinomycetemcomitans. There was no significant difference (P=0.317) between the antimicrobial activity of Persica and water against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Conclusion: The herbal product Persica had significant antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and negligible antimicrobial activity against A

  7. Antioxidant polyphenols from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Booren, A M; Gray, J I

    1999-03-01

    Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries were lyophilized and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Methanolic extracts of dried Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+) at 25 ppm concentrations. Further partitioning of this methanol extract with EtOAc yielded a fraction that inhibited lipid peroxidation by 76% at 25 ppm. Purification of this EtOAc fraction afforded eight polyphenolic compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (1), 5,7, 4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (2), chlorogenic acid (3), 5,7,3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavonol-3-rhamnoside (4), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonol 3-rutinoside (5), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'methoxyflavonol-3-rutinoside (6), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone-7-glucoside (7), and 6, 7-dimethoxy-5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone (8), as characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments. The antioxidant assays revealed that 7-dimethoxy-5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone (8) is the most active, followed by quercetin 3-rhamnoside, genistein, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, and genistin, at 10 microM concentrations. PMID:10552377

  8. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  9. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  10. Response of Solanum tuberosum to Myzus persicae infestation at different stages of foliage maturity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Young leaves of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Kardal contain resistance factors to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and normal probing behavior is impeded. However, M. persicae can survive and reproduce on mature and senescent leaves of the cv. Kardal plant without problems. We compared the settling of M. persicae on young and old leaves and analyzed the impact of aphids settling on the plant in terms of gene expression. Settling, as measured by aphid numbers staying on young or old leaves, showed that after 21 h significantly fewer aphids were found on the young leaves. At earlier time points there were no difference between young and old leaves, suggesting that the young leaf resistance factors are not located at the surface level but deeper in the tissue. Gene expression was measured in plants at 96 h postinfestation, which is at a late stage in the interaction and in compatible interactions this is long enough for host plant acceptance to occur. In old leaves of cv. Kardal (compatible interaction), M. persicae infestation elicited a higher number of differentially regulated genes than in young leaves. The plant response to aphid infestation included a larger number of genes induced than repressed, and the proportion of induced versus repressed genes was larger in young than in old leaves. Several genes changing expression seem to be involved in changing the metabolic state of the leaf from source to sink.

  11. The efficacy of Salvadora persica extracts in preserving the viability of human foreskin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Hanan Abdul Ghafour; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Salvadora persica hexane and ethanol extracts in preserving the viability of human foreskin fibroblasts. Materials and methods Normal human foreskin cells were cultivated in Dulbecco modified Minimum Essential Medium (D-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 2 mM of l-glutamine. Cell pellets were suspended in the following test solutions: (1) Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS); (2) homogenized milk; (3) hexane extract of S. persica; or (4) ethanol extract of S. persica. D-MEM with no serum was used as a positive control. For each condition, cell count was adjusted to 8 × 105 cells/ml, and the cells were incubated in the solutions for either 30, 60, or 120 min. Subsequently, the nonviable cells were separated from the viable cells using the trypan blue dye stain. The ratio of viable to nonviable cells was recorded using a cell counter. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by one-way analysis of variance using SPSS Version 16. The level of significance was 5% (p < .05). Results We did not detect a significant difference when comparing the percentage of viable cells in test solutions at the three incubation periods (30 min, p = 0.478; 60 min, p = 0.606; 120 min, p = 0.091). Homogenized milk preserved the viability of foreskin fibroblasts better than all other tested solutions. Incubation of cells in S. persica hexane and ethanol extracts resulted in a similar percentage of viable cells to incubation of cells in HBSS for each incubation period. Conclusions S. persica hexane and ethanol extracts should be considered an alternative storage medium to HBSS. PMID:26236127

  12. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  13. Antiviral activity of Quercus persica L.: High efficacy and low toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Saeedi, Mojtaba; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Drug-resistant strain of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-I) has increased the interest in the use of natural substances. Aims: This study was aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of hydroalchoholic extract of a traditionally used herbal plant, Quercus persica L., on HSV-1 replication on baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Setting: The study was conducted in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Design: This was an experimental study. Materials and Methods: BHK cells were grown in monolayer culture with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and plated onto 48-well culture plates. Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50%) of Q. persica L. on BHK cells was determined. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50%) of the extract on replication of HSV-1 both in interacellular and exteracellular cases was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Statistic Probit model was used for statistical analysis. The dose-dependent effect of antiviral activity of the extracts was determined by linear regression. Results: Q. persica L. had no cytotoxic effect on this cell line. There was significant relationship between the concentration of the extract and cell death (P<0.01). IC50s of Q. persica L. on HSV-1, before and after attachment to BHK cells were 1.02 and 0.257 μg/mL, respectively. There was significant relationship between the concentration of this extract and inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE) (P<0.05). Antioxidant capacity of the extract was 67.5%. Conclusions: The hydroalchoholic extract of Q. persica L. is potentially an appropriate and promising anti herpetic herbal medicine. PMID:24516836

  14. Improving regeneration and transformation for resistance to sharka in prunus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biotechnological approach is a promising strategy to overcome some serious diseases which affects stone fruits such as Sharka. However, members of the genus Prunus are among the most challenging with respect to in vitro organogenesis: regeneration and transformation are highly dependent on spe...

  15. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  17. Estimation of Antimicrobial Properties of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Salvadora Persica (Miswak) on Oral Microbial Pathogens - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Siddeeqh, Salman; Jose, Maji; Pai, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twigs of Salvadora persica (Miswak) plant are being used as a means of oral hygiene since ages for brushing teeth. Though clinical research and trials have shown promising results on effectiveness of Miswak, but some reports are conflicting. Aim To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Salvadora persica (Miswak) against the common microbial pathogens causing dental caries and periodontitis. Materials and Methods A prospective study of one year duration was conducted in Yenopoya dental and medical college, Mangalore. The twigs of Salvadora persica were collected and alcoholic and aqueous extracts were prepared using standard techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Prevotella intermedia, & Peptostreptococcus were performed by agar well diffusion method and two fold broth dilution method. Results No significant results was obtained when water extracts of Salvadora persica was tested except for minimum inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia & Peptostreptococcus and Candida albicans. Relatively significant inhibitory effect was noted with respect to alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica. Conclusion Although comparatively less than chlorhexidine which is a known antimicrobial agent, the alcoholic extracts of Salvadora persica showed antimicrobial effect against the common microbial pathogens causing dental caries and periodontitis indicating a potential beneficial effect of this plant. However, further research with more standardized extraction procedure and advanced techniques is required to find out the exact chemicals responsible for the antimicrobial properties of the plant extract. PMID:27790459

  18. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

  19. High transformation efficiency in plum (Prunus domestica L.): a new tool for functional genomics studies in Prunus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv 'Bluebyrd' using hypocotyl slices as source of explants is described. The addition of 2, 4-D to the regeneration media during co-culture allowed us to increase transformation efficiency up to 10 times over p...

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Wen, J

    2001-01-01

    The economically important plum or cherry genus (PRUNUS:) and the subfamily Amygdaloideae of the Rosaceae have a controversial taxonomic history due to the lack of a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis using the ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was conducted to construct the evolutionary history and evaluate the historical classifications of PRUNUS: and the Amygdaloideae. The analyses suggest two major groups within the Amygdaloideae: (1) PRUNUS: s.l. (sensu lato) and MADDENIA:, and (2) EXOCHORDA:, Oemleria, and PRINSEPIA: The ITS phylogeny supports the recent treatment of including EXOCHORDA: (formerly in the Spiraeoideae) in the Amygdaloideae. MADDENIA: is found to be nested within PRUNUS: s.l. in the parsimony and distance analyses, but basal to PRUNUS: s.l. in the maximum likelihood analysis. Within PRUNUS:, two major groups are recognizable: (1) the AMYGDALUS:-PRUNUS: group, and (2) the CERASUS:-LAUROCERASUS:-PADUS: group. The clades in the ITS phylogeny are not congruent with most subgeneric groups in the widely used classification of PRUNUS: by Rehder. A broadly defined PRUNUS: is supported. PMID:11159135

  1. Uncommon associations in target resistance among French populations of Myzus persicae from oilseed rape crops.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Bertho, Corentin; Bertolla, Paul; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2011-08-01

    Within the framework of a molecular exploration of target resistance in populations of Myzus persicae on oilseed rapes in France, (1) the S431F mutation (coding gene ace2), although previously reckoned to be rare, revealed to be frequent, (2) M918L (phenotypically characterised) and L932F (both on para) were found for the first time in M. persicae, and (3) a linkage was revealed between M918L and S431F. While until recently populations developing on French oilseed rapes were dominated by genotypes possessing pyrethroid target resistance and esterase overproduction, to date a different type of dominating genotype, equipped with carbamate and pyrethroid target resistance, seems to be invading such fields.

  2. Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

  3. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene.

  4. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  5. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach. PMID:26793222

  6. Effects of storage temperature, storage duration, and subsequent ripening on the physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds, and phytochemicals of Western Red nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    PubMed

    Aubert, Christophe; Bony, Philippe; Chalot, Guillaume; Landry, Pierre; Lurol, Sebastien

    2014-05-21

    Western Red nectarines, harvested at commercial maturity, were stored for up to 20 days at 1, 4, or 8 °C and then transferred to 25 °C for 0 or 4 days. The main physicochemical attributes, phytochemicals, and volatile compounds were then determined. During storage and ripening, firmness, titratable acidity, organic acids, and C6 volatile compounds decreased, whereas ethylene production, lactones, and C13 norisoprenoids greatly increased. Soluble solids content, sugars, and polyphenols remained quite constant during both stages. During storage, vitamin C decreased and carotenoids did not significantly change, whereas both greatly increased during ripening. Increased time of low-temperature storage has been found to decrease lactones and C13 norisoprenoids in nectarine and, consequently, to limit its aroma during maturation. Finally, Western Red nectarine was found hardly chilling injury sensitive, and trends for sugars, polyphenols and lactones observed in this study were contrary to those generally reported in the literature for chilling-injured fruit.

  7. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  8. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R.; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many ‘specialty crops’ such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between ‘Hakuho’ (high CR) and ‘UFGold’ (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR. PMID:26430886

  9. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach ‘Goldhoney 3’ and the stony hard flesh peach ‘Yumyeong’ during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. PMID:26307136

  10. Construction of a BAC library and its application to the identification of simple sequence repeats in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Georgi, L.; Wang, Y.; Yvergniaux, D.; Ormsbee, T.; Iñigo, M.; Reighard, G.; Abbott, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Rosaceae contains many economically important crop species, but their genomes are not well characterized, and comparative genetic mapping lags well behind that of other families. To facilitate genome comparisons and gene discovery in the Rosaceae, we have begun the development of genomic resources for peach as the model genome for this family. First, we developed a simplified, cost-effective method for constructing BAC libraries, particularly appropriate for plant species of relatively minor economic importance. Second, we used the library to investigate the abundance and local distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in peach. Our results indicate that microsatellite loci are locally much more highly abundant than previously estimated, and BAC sequencing results suggest that microsatellite repeats are not randomly distributed within gene-containing regions of the peach genome. This makes it relatively easy to identify SSRs in peach by hybridization to BAC clones, and even by random sequencing of BAC clones, not known a priori to contain SSRs. PMID:12582893

  11. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR. PMID:26430886

  12. The KNOTTED-like genes of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) are differentially expressed during drupe growth and the class 1 KNOPE1 contributes to mesocarp development.

    PubMed

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Di Giacomo, Elisabetta; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2015-08-01

    The Knotted-like transcription factors (KNOX) contribute to plant organ development. The expression patterns of peach KNOX genes showed that the class 1 members act precociously (S1-S2 stages) and differentially during drupe growth. Specifically, the transcription of KNOPE1 and 6 decreased from early (cell division) to late (cell expansion) S1 sub-stages, whilst that of STMlike1, 2, KNOPE2, 2.1 ceased at early S1. The KNOPE1 role in mesocarp was further addressed by studying the mRNA localization in the pulp cells and vascular net at early and late S1. The message signal was first diffuse in parenchymatous cells and then confined to hypodermal cell layers, showing that the gene down-tuning accompanied cell expansion. As for bundles, the mRNA mainly featured in the procambium/phloem of collateral open types and subsequently in the phloem side of complex structures (converging bundles, ducts). The KNOPE1 overexpression in Arabidopsis caused fruit shortening, decrease of mesocarp cell size, diminution of vascular lignification together with the repression of the major gibberellin synthesis genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1. Negative correlation between the expression of KNOPE1 and PpGA3ox1 was observed in four cultivars at S1, suggesting that the KNOPE1 repression of PpGA3ox1 may regulate mesocarp differentiation by acting on gibberellin homeostasis.

  13. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Feiqing; Pan, Song; Wu, Zujian; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Shifang

    2012-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (Z1 and Z3) collected from peach in Henan Province, China, were determined. The genomes of both Z1 and Z3 were found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis showed that genomic sequences of Z1 and Z3 isolates shared 67.4%-82.9% and 67.2%-82.6% identity, respectively, with the other eight isolates of ACLSV that have been reported previously. Based on the putative amino acid sequences of the products of the three ORFs, Z1 and Z3 isolates showed the greatest identity to isolate PBM1 (GenBank accession number AJ243438) from plum and the least identity with isolate Ta Tao5 (GenBank Accession Number: EU223295) from peach. Considering the low level of sequence identity between Z1/Z3 isolate and Ta Tao5 isolate, two types of ACLSV may exist in peach.

  15. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C content of different peach and nectarine [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] breeding progenies.

    PubMed

    Cantín, Celia M; Moreno, María A; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2009-06-10

    Antioxidant capacity and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and vitamin C were evaluated in 218 genotypes from 15 peach and nectarine breeding progenies. Significant differences were found among progenies on the fruit antioxidant profile, corroborated by the high contribution showed by cross to the phenotypic variance of each phytochemical trait analyzed (16-45%). Phytochemical profile varied depending on peach/nectarine and yellow/white flesh color qualitative traits. On the other hand, no significant effect of year was found on the bioactive profile of peaches and nectarines. Antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated to total phenolic content, but correlation varied depending on the progeny. No correlation was found for vitamin C versus any other phytochemical trait. The results suggest the importance of genetic background on the antioxidant profile of peaches and nectarines and stress its relevance for the ultimate objective of this work: selecting new peach and nectarine genotypes rich in bioactive compounds to benefit consumer's health.

  17. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach.

  18. Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] KNOPE1, a class 1 KNOX orthologue to Arabidopsis BREVIPEDICELLUS/KNAT1, is misexpressed during hyperplasia of leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Testone, Giulio; Bruno, Leonardo; Condello, Emiliano; Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Alessandro; Mele, Giovanni; Tartarini, Andrea; Spanò, Laura; Innocenti, Anna Maria; Mariotti, Domenico; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2008-01-01

    Class 1 KNOTTED-like (KNOX) transcription factors control cell meristematic identity. An investigation was carried out to determine whether they maintain this function in peach plants and might act in leaf curliness caused by the ascomycete Taphrina deformans. KNOPE1 function was assessed by overexpression in Arabidopsis and by yeast two-hybrid assays with Arabidopsis BELL proteins. Subsequently, KNOPE1 mRNA and zeatin localization was monitored during leaf curl disease. KNOPE1 and Arabidopsis BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) proteins fell into the same phyletic group and recognized the same BELL factors. 35S:KNOPE1 Arabidopsis lines exhibited altered traits resembling those of BP-overexpressing lines. In peach shoot apical meristem, KNOPE1 was expressed in the peripheral and central zones but not in leaf primordia, identically to the BP expression pattern. These results strongly suggest that KNOPE1 must be down-regulated for leaf initiation and that it can control cell meristem identity equally as well as all class 1 KNOX genes. Leaves attacked by T. deformans share histological alterations with class 1 KNOX-overexpressing leaves, including cell proliferation and loss of cell differentiation. Both KNOPE1 and a cytokinin synthesis ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASE gene were found to be up-regulated in infected curled leaves. At early disease stages, KNOPE1 was uniquely triggered in the palisade cells interacting with subepidermal mycelium, while zeatin vascular localization was unaltered compared with healthy leaves. Subsequently, when mycelium colonization and asci development occurred, both KNOPE1 and zeatin signals were scattered in sectors of cell disorders. These results suggest that KNOPE1 misexpression and de novo zeatin synthesis of host origin might participate in hyperplasia of leaf curl disease.

  19. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana; Porter, Weston; Byrne, David; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-07-01

    The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder.

  20. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene. PMID:21274560

  1. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  2. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina. PMID:26348151

  3. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation.

  4. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. PMID:26313192

  5. Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity.

    PubMed

    Maggio; Reddy; Joly

    2000-08-01

    The domestication of halophytes has been proposed as a strategy to expand cultivation onto unfavorable land. However, halophytes mainly have been considered for their performance in extremely saline environments, and only a few species have been characterized in terms of their tolerance and physiological responses to moderately high levels of salinity. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte capable of growing under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. It possesses high potential economic value as a source of oil and medicinal compounds. To quantify its response to salinity, S. persica seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 3 weeks, and growth, leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation were measured. The presence of NaCl induced a 100% increase in fresh weight and a 30% increase in dry weight, relative to non-salinized controls. Increases in fresh weight and dry weight were not associated with higher rates of net CO(2) assimilation, however. Analysis of ion accumulation revealed that S. persica leaves accumulated Na(+) as a primary osmoticum. The concentration of Na(+) in leaves of salinized plants was approximately 40-fold greater than that measured in non-salinized controls, and this was associated with significant reductions in leaf K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations. In addition, a significant accumulation of proline, probably associated with osmotic adjustment and protection of membrane stability, occurred in roots of salinized plants.

  6. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice--A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-02-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4), 1 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(0) spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species.

  7. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from aerial parts of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss.

    PubMed

    Safaeian, L; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, N; Javanmard, Sh Haghjoo; Namvar, H

    2015-01-01

    Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss. is used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of O. persica in dexamethasone (Dex) induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. For induction of hypertension, Dex at 30 μg/kg/day was administered subcutaneously for 14 days. In a prevention study, animals received O. persica extract orally at various doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 4 days before Dex administration and during the test period lasted for 18 days. In a reversal study, rats received O. persica extract from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. The weight of thymus gland was measured as a marker of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined in plasma samples. Dex injection significantly increased SBP and plasma H2O2 levels while decreased the body and thymus weights and FRAP values. Oral administration of O. persica extract prevented and dose-dependently reversed a rise in SBP. Pre-treatment with O. persica extract also reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration, increased the plasma FRAP levels and prevented the body weight loss upon Dex administration. These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of O. persica extract in Dex-induced hypertension. However, further investigations are needed to elucidate the detailed mechanism(s) of antihypertensive effect of this traditional herbal medicine. PMID:26600845

  8. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    PubMed

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  9. A Systematic Review on the Health Effects of Plums (Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina).

    PubMed

    Igwe, Ezinne O; Charlton, Karen E

    2016-05-01

    In recent times, plums have been described as foods with health-promoting properties. Research on the health effects of plum continue to show promising results on its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and memory-improving characteristics. The increased interest in plum research has been attributed to its high phenolic content, mostly the anthocyanins, which are known to be natural antioxidants. A systematic review of literature was carried out to summarize the available evidence on the impact of plums (Prunus species; domestica and salicina) on disease risk factors and health outcomes. A number of databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for relevant studies on plum health effects in vitro, animal studies and clinical trials. A total of 73 relevant peer-reviewed journal articles were included in this review. The level of evidence remains low. Of the 25 human studies, 6 were confirmatory studies of moderate quality, while 19 were exploratory. Plums have been shown to possess antioxidant and antiallergic properties, and consumption is associated with improved cognitive function, bone health parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the human trials used the dried version of plums rather than fresh fruit, thus limiting translation to dietary messages of the positioning of plums in a healthy diet. Evidence on the health effect of plums has not been extensively studied, and the available evidence needs further confirmation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Systematic Review on the Health Effects of Plums (Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina).

    PubMed

    Igwe, Ezinne O; Charlton, Karen E

    2016-05-01

    In recent times, plums have been described as foods with health-promoting properties. Research on the health effects of plum continue to show promising results on its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and memory-improving characteristics. The increased interest in plum research has been attributed to its high phenolic content, mostly the anthocyanins, which are known to be natural antioxidants. A systematic review of literature was carried out to summarize the available evidence on the impact of plums (Prunus species; domestica and salicina) on disease risk factors and health outcomes. A number of databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for relevant studies on plum health effects in vitro, animal studies and clinical trials. A total of 73 relevant peer-reviewed journal articles were included in this review. The level of evidence remains low. Of the 25 human studies, 6 were confirmatory studies of moderate quality, while 19 were exploratory. Plums have been shown to possess antioxidant and antiallergic properties, and consumption is associated with improved cognitive function, bone health parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the human trials used the dried version of plums rather than fresh fruit, thus limiting translation to dietary messages of the positioning of plums in a healthy diet. Evidence on the health effect of plums has not been extensively studied, and the available evidence needs further confirmation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26992121

  11. Black knot [Apiosporina morbosa (Schw.)] resistance in imported and domestic Prunus domestica L. germplasm and cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black knot (BK) Apisporina morbosa (Schw.) is an important fungal disease of Prunus domestica and other Prunus species in North America. BK causes economic losses in the plum growing regions of northern and eastern U.S. and eastern Canada. Relatively few P. domestica commercial cultivars are resis...

  12. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  13. The Effects of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes on Colonization of Streptococcus mutans on Fixed Orthodontics O-rings

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Danesh Ardakani, Mohammad; Zandi, Hengameh; Heidarzadeh, Hamed; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fixed orthodontic appliances predispose patients to dental caries. Use of mouthrinses has been introduced as the effective way for reducing dental plaque accumulation. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Persica mouthwash and Chlorhexidine (CHX) on colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on fixed orthodontic O-rings. Materials and Method Thirty patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and proper oral hygiene were randomly provided by CHX and Persica and trained to use these mouthwashes according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Sampling was carried out right before and 4 weeks after mouthrinsing treatment. The mean amounts of S. mutans colonies in these groups were compared. Results Comparison of S. mutans colonization within each group revealed both mouthrinses to be efficient. However, this difference was found to be significant only in CHX group. Conclusion Persica cannot be a good alternative mouthwash and patients on orthodontic treatment are still recommended to use CHX. PMID:25759859

  14. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding

  15. Japanese plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and phytochemicals--breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest storage, processing and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Kent J; Topp, Bruce; Russell, Dougal; Stanley, Roger; Netzel, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums.

  16. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  17. Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1987-08-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

  18. Host Generated siRNAs Attenuate Expression of Serine Protease Gene in Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Varnika; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Uniyal, Prem L.; Singh, Rajendra; Niranjan, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sap sucking hemipteran aphids damage diverse crop species. Although delivery of ds-RNA or siRNA through microinjection/feeding has been demonstrated, the efficacy of host-mediated delivery of aphid-specific dsRNA in developing aphid resistance has been far from being elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing ds-RNA of Myzus persicae serine protease (MySP) was developed that triggered the generation of corresponding siRNAs amenable for delivery to the feeding aphids. M. persicae when fed on the transgenic plants for different time intervals under controlled growth conditions resulted in a significant attenuation of the expression of MySP and a commensurate decline in gut protease activity. Although the survivability of these aphids was not affected, there was a noticeable decline in their fecundity resulting in a significant reduction in parthenogenetic population. Conclusions/Significance The study highlighted the feasibility of developing host based RNAi-mediated resistance against hemipteran pest aphids. PMID:23071558

  19. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  20. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2015-12-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  1. Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants

    PubMed Central

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

  2. Survey for Resistance to Four Inecticides in Myzus persicae Clones from Peach and Weeds in South-central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticides esfenvalerate, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and methamidophos were screened against 74 clonal populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) collected as fundatrices from peach and as apterous virginoparae from peach, and various weeds near potato fields in the Yakima Va...

  3. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    PubMed

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones. PMID:23179694

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Otostegia persica against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbartabar Toori, Mehdi; Joodi, Behzad; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Jafari, Mehrzad; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Mehraban, Foad; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Ghavamizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of Otostegia persica (O. persica) ethanol extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I served as normal control and was given only olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.). Group II, III, IV, and V were administered CCl4 mixed with olive oil 1:1 (1 ml/kg) i.p., twice a week for 8 weeks. Group II was maintained as CCl4-intoxicated control (hepatotoxic group). Group III, IV, and V received O. persica extract at a dose of 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg for 8 weeks every 48 h orally, respectively. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and lipid peroxidation marker (Malonaldialdehyde, (MDA) were determined in serum. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed, livers dissected out, and evaluated for histomorphological changes. Results: The administration of CCl4 increased AST, ALT, ALP, TB, and MDA in serum but it decreased TP , and ALB compared with normal control. Treatment with O. persica extract at three doses resulted in decreased enzyme markers, bilirubin levels, and lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) and increased TP and ALB compared with CCl4 group. The results of pathological study also support the hepatoprotective effects which were observed at doses of 80 and 120 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that ethanol extract of O. persica may have hepatoprotective effect which is probably due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26101757

  5. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole.

  6. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. PMID:27247299

  7. Inhibitory activity of Salvadora persica extracts against oral bacterial strains associated with periodontitis: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Amir Alireza, Rasouli Ghahroudi; Afsaneh, Rezaei; Seied Hosein, Mohseni Salehifard; Siamak, Yaghoobee; Afshin, Khorsand; Zeinab, Kadkhoda; Mahvash, Moosavi Jazi; Amir Reza, Rokn

    2014-01-01

    Aims The use of natural plant extracts in pharmacology, medicine and dental hygiene has found a growing interest in modern scientific research. Salvadora persica is a natural tree whose fibrous branches have been approved by the World Health Organization for oral hygiene. Periodontitis is a highly prevalent adult gingival disease that leads to bone destruction and connective tissue attachment loss. The aim of this research was assessment the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Salvadora persica (miswak) on isolated strains from the oral fluid. Methods In practical section, 50 female university students (21.4 ± 1 year) participated in the study. Based on examination by a periodontist, they were grouped into (Group I, n = 21) and (Group II, n = 29) i.e. with and without periodontitis respectively. Their un-stimulated saliva samples were obtained in sterile tubes. While three bacterial genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were identified in all subjects, Enterococcus and Escherichia were only detected in Group I. Results A statistically significant difference in colonization levels between the two groups was observed. The effect of methanolic extract of S. persica against oral bacterial strains isolated from saliva was investigated using agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. Although methanolic extract of S. persica was effective on growth inhibition of all strains, it was significantly more effective on Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative ones. Conclusions Effective substances present in S. persica extracts, exhibit a broad range of antibacterial activity and affect almost all bacterial species regardless of the Gram-staining nature. PMID:25737914

  8. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    PubMed

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  9. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. PMID:25466099

  10. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  11. Impact of Prunus Cerasus on PGR and HAS2 in Cumulus Cells and Fertility Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Namvar Vansofla, Fatemeh; Roshangar, Leila; Montaseri, Azadeh; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cumulus cells have a critical role in normal oocyte development and fertilization. Prunus cerasus is an anthocyanin rich berry and performs strong antioxidant activity. The present study set to determine if Prunus cerasus can affect expression of HAS2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and progesterone receptor in Cumulus cells and its consequences outcome of the in vitro fertilization. Methods: 60 female and 15 male adult mice were used for mating and IVF (in vitro fertilization). Prunus cerasus extraction was added to the diet of female mice for 30 days. Ovulation induction and oocytes collection were done as routine. The cumulus cells were dissected apart, and the expression of progesterone receptor and HAS2 was detected using RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Fertilization rate was evaluated by IVF. All data were analyzed using t-test. Results: Data was showed that expression of progesterone receptor and HAS2 in cumulus cells of mice that received prunus cerasus increased. Moreover, oocyte fertilization rate also increased significantly. Conclusion: Prunus cerasus as an antioxidant natural can become an important medication for improving oocyte quality and opening new opportunities for infertility treatment. It is concluded that Prunus cerasus consumption could improve fertility rate by increasing progesterone receptor and HAS2 activity in cumulus cells. PMID:27123419

  12. Toxicity of biorational insecticides: activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer).

    PubMed

    Edelson, Jonathan V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between dose for each of four biorational insecticides (pyrethrins, neem extract, capsiacin extract, insecticidal soap) and mortality of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) was determined using a laboratory bioassay. These insecticides were toxic to aphids and paired mixtures of the insecticides provided synergistic activity as measured by aphid mortality under the laboratory bioassay conditions. Capsiacin extracts were found to provide low levels of mortality alone but acted synergistically in mixtures with the other insecticides and provided higher than expected levels of mortality. Activity as determined in the laboratory for each insecticide was not evident under field-use conditions in five separate experiments. Under field conditions and using common application methods, these insecticides did not provide significant levels of control of aphids.

  13. [Factors influencing pathogenicity of Collectotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. veronicae to Veronica persica].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing; Qiang, Sheng

    2002-07-01

    The effects of the characters of the fungus, the growing period of plants and environmental factors on the pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. veronicae infecting Veronica persica were studied in pot experiments. The results showed that 1.08 x 10(8) spores.ml-1 suspension could kill the seedlings with two cotyledons within one week and cause old plants serious disease. 1 x 10(8) spores.ml-1 was optimal concentration and 1 or 2 weeks old was the best age of the spores for killing birdseye speedwell. The optimal temperature was 15-25 degrees C for the disease development. More than two days' dew exposure was required to kill the weed. However, the disease was also developed better when corn or soybean flour was added or the darkness period during dew exposure was prolonged.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak) Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Attia, Hany Goda; AlMarrani, Abduljabbar Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Much effort has focused on examining the inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microorganisms, but information concerning its antibacterial activity against other human pathogens, particularly multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of Salvadora persica L. extracts against 10 MDR bacterial clinical isolates other than oral pathogens. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol miswak extracts was assessed using the agar dilution and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Overall, the 400 mg/mL of miswak extract was the most effective on all strains. The methanol extract exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (3.3–13.6 mm) than Gram-positive (1.8–8.3 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (0.39, 1.56 µg/mL), followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (1.56 µg/mL). The highest MIC value (6.25, 12.5 µg/mL) was recorded for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the moderate to strong antibacterial activity of miswak extracts against all tested MDR-pathogens. Methanol extract appears to be a potent antimicrobial agent that could be considered as complementary and alternative medicine against resistant pathogens. Further studies on a large number of MDR organisms are necessary to investigate and standardize the inhibitory effect of miswak extracts against these emerging pathogens. PMID:26904146

  15. Alarm pheromone habituation in Myzus persicae has fitness consequences and causes extensive gene expression changes.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Martin; Cheng, Wing Yin; Summers, Holly E; Raguso, Robert A; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-17

    In most aphid species, facultative parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid growth and formation of large single-genotype colonies. Upon predator attack, individual aphids emit an alarm pheromone to warn the colony of this danger. (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and many other aphid species. Continuous exposure to alarm pheromone in aphid colonies raised on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that produce EBF leads to habituation within three generations. Whereas naive aphids are repelled by EBF, habituated aphids show no avoidance response. Similarly, individual aphids from the habituated colony can revert back to being EBF-sensitive in three generations, indicating that this behavioral change is not caused by a genetic mutation. Instead, DNA microarray experiments comparing gene expression in naive and habituated aphids treated with EBF demonstrate an almost complete desensitization in the transcriptional response to EBF. Furthermore, EBF-habituated aphids show increased progeny production relative to EBF-responsive aphids, with or without EBF treatment. Although both naive and habituated aphids emit EBF upon damage, EBF-responsive aphids have a higher survival rate in the presence of a coccinellid predator (Hippodamia convergens), and thus outperform habituated aphids that do not show an avoidance response. These results provide evidence that aphid perception of conspecific alarm pheromone aids in predator avoidance and thereby bestows fitness benefits in survivorship and fecundity. Therefore, although habituated M. persicae produce more progeny, EBF-emitting transgenic plants may have practical applications in agriculture as a result of increased predation of habituated aphids. PMID:20679203

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak) Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Attia, Hany Goda; AlMarrani, Abduljabbar Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Much effort has focused on examining the inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microorganisms, but information concerning its antibacterial activity against other human pathogens, particularly multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of Salvadora persica L. extracts against 10 MDR bacterial clinical isolates other than oral pathogens. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol miswak extracts was assessed using the agar dilution and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Overall, the 400 mg/mL of miswak extract was the most effective on all strains. The methanol extract exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (3.3-13.6 mm) than Gram-positive (1.8-8.3 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (0.39, 1.56 µg/mL), followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (1.56 µg/mL). The highest MIC value (6.25, 12.5 µg/mL) was recorded for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the moderate to strong antibacterial activity of miswak extracts against all tested MDR-pathogens. Methanol extract appears to be a potent antimicrobial agent that could be considered as complementary and alternative medicine against resistant pathogens. Further studies on a large number of MDR organisms are necessary to investigate and standardize the inhibitory effect of miswak extracts against these emerging pathogens. PMID:26904146

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina.

    PubMed

    Urtubia, Carolina; Devia, Jessica; Castro, Alvaro; Zamora, Pablo; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; Barba, Paola; Dell Orto, Paola; Moynihan, Michael R; Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Prieto, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the hypocotyl slice technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supplemented Murashige and Skoog (MS) media reached 11% for 'Angeleno' and 19% for 'Larry Anne' hypocotyl slices. Transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring a plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes produced ten independent lines, six from 'Angeleno' and four from 'Larry Anne', representing transformation efficiencies of 0.8 and 0.3%, respectively, relative to the initial number of hypocotyl slices. Plants of six lines were found to produce the transgene encoded mRNAs. DNA blotting demonstrated the presence of transgene sequences in trees from five lines after 18 months of growth in the greenhouse.

  18. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  19. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  20. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Chin, Siew-Wai; Shaw, Joey; Haberle, Rosemarie; Wen, Jun; Potter, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Most previous molecular phylogenetic studies of Prunus have been conducted primarily with crop species and their close relatives. As the center of crop diversity of the genus is in Eurasia, the geographic origin of Prunus has inevitably been inferred to be Eurasia as well. The lesser-known tropical Prunus species have not been well represented in previous phylogenetic reconstructions; therefore, their effects on inferences about the phylogenetic structure and geographic origin of Prunus are uncertain. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of Prunus, including an expanded sampling of species from tropical regions in Southeast Asia and the Americas, using sequences from four plastid markers and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. A penalized likelihood method was used to estimate the absolute age of Prunus and the timing of infrageneric cladogenic events. The geographic origin of Prunus and ancestral sites of cladogenesis were inferred using the Bayes-DIVA approach. Our results indicate that the modern genus appeared ∼61Myr in eastern Asia and that diversification of all major lineages may have been triggered by the global warming period of the early Eocene. In addition, our molecular dating estimates suggest that the crown clade that includes the temperate deciduous crop species is older than the one that includes the tropical evergreen species, while incongruence between plastid and nuclear phylogenies suggests that the latter lineage originated via an ancient hybridization event. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the temperate crop species was a component of the continuous boreotropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere, while the MRCA of the tropical species represented the last remains of the boreotropical elements and subsequently radiated throughout the Old and New World tropics from refugial areas at lower latitudes. Complex biogeographic histories leading to the present global distribution of the genus were driven by several geologic events

  1. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Chin, Siew-Wai; Shaw, Joey; Haberle, Rosemarie; Wen, Jun; Potter, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Most previous molecular phylogenetic studies of Prunus have been conducted primarily with crop species and their close relatives. As the center of crop diversity of the genus is in Eurasia, the geographic origin of Prunus has inevitably been inferred to be Eurasia as well. The lesser-known tropical Prunus species have not been well represented in previous phylogenetic reconstructions; therefore, their effects on inferences about the phylogenetic structure and geographic origin of Prunus are uncertain. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of Prunus, including an expanded sampling of species from tropical regions in Southeast Asia and the Americas, using sequences from four plastid markers and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. A penalized likelihood method was used to estimate the absolute age of Prunus and the timing of infrageneric cladogenic events. The geographic origin of Prunus and ancestral sites of cladogenesis were inferred using the Bayes-DIVA approach. Our results indicate that the modern genus appeared ∼61Myr in eastern Asia and that diversification of all major lineages may have been triggered by the global warming period of the early Eocene. In addition, our molecular dating estimates suggest that the crown clade that includes the temperate deciduous crop species is older than the one that includes the tropical evergreen species, while incongruence between plastid and nuclear phylogenies suggests that the latter lineage originated via an ancient hybridization event. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the temperate crop species was a component of the continuous boreotropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere, while the MRCA of the tropical species represented the last remains of the boreotropical elements and subsequently radiated throughout the Old and New World tropics from refugial areas at lower latitudes. Complex biogeographic histories leading to the present global distribution of the genus were driven by several geologic events

  2. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  3. Synteny conservation between the Prunus genome and both the present and ancestral Arabidopsis genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sook; Main, Dorrie; Staton, Margaret; Cho, Ilhyung; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Arús, Pere; Abbott, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Due to the lack of availability of large genomic sequences for peach or other Prunus species, the degree of synteny conservation between the Prunus species and Arabidopsis has not been systematically assessed. Using the recently available peach EST sequences that are anchored to Prunus genetic maps and to peach physical map, we analyzed the extent of conserved synteny between the Prunus and the Arabidopsis genomes. The reconstructed pseudo-ancestral Arabidopsis genome, existed prior to the proposed recent polyploidy event, was also utilized in our analysis to further elucidate the evolutionary relationship. Results We analyzed the synteny conservation between the Prunus and the Arabidopsis genomes by comparing 475 peach ESTs that are anchored to Prunus genetic maps and their Arabidopsis homologs detected by sequence similarity. Microsyntenic regions were detected between all five Arabidopsis chromosomes and seven of the eight linkage groups of the Prunus reference map. An additional 1097 peach ESTs that are anchored to 431 BAC contigs of the peach physical map and their Arabidopsis homologs were also analyzed. Microsyntenic regions were detected in 77 BAC contigs. The syntenic regions from both data sets were short and contained only a couple of conserved gene pairs. The synteny between peach and Arabidopsis was fragmentary; all the Prunus linkage groups containing syntenic regions matched to more than two different Arabidopsis chromosomes, and most BAC contigs with multiple conserved syntenic regions corresponded to multiple Arabidopsis chromosomes. Using the same peach EST datasets and their Arabidopsis homologs, we also detected conserved syntenic regions in the pseudo-ancestral Arabidopsis genome. In many cases, the gene order and content of peach regions was more conserved in the ancestral genome than in the present Arabidopsis region. Statistical significance of each syntenic group was calculated using simulated Arabidopsis genome. Conclusion We

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of essential oil and fatty acids of different parts of Ligularia persica Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Hosseini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. Results: GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively. The main components of flowers oil were cis-ocimene (15.4%), β-myrcene (4.4%), β-ocimene (3.9%), and γ-terpinene (5.0%). The major constituents of stems oil were β-phellandrene (5.4%), β-cymene (7.0%), valencene (3.9%). The main compounds of root oil were fukinanolid (17.0%), α-phellandrene (11.5%) and Β-selinene (5.0%) and in the case of leaves oil were cis-ocimene (4.8%), β-ocimene (4.9%), and linolenic acid methyl ester (4.7%). An analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS on the fatty-acid composition of the different parts of L. persica showed that major components were linoleic acid (11.3-31.6%), linolenic acid (4.7-21.8%) and palmitic acid (7.2-23.2%). Saturated fatty acids were found in lower amounts than unsaturated ones. The least minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the L. persica was 7.16 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the essential oil from L. persica stems and flowers showed high inhibitory effect on the Gram negative bacteria. The results also showed that fatty acids from the stems and leaves contained a high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27462560

  5. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  6. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-02-24

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction.

  7. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  8. Biodiesel from Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Yu, Haiyan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oil was investigated for the first time as a promising non-conventional feedstock for preparation of biodiesel. Siberian apricot seed kernel has high oil content (50.18 ± 3.92%), and the oil has low acid value (0.46 mg g(-1)) and low water content (0.17%). The fatty acid composition of the Siberian apricot seed kernel oil includes a high percentage of oleic acid (65.23 ± 4.97%) and linoleic acid (28.92 ± 4.62%). The measured fuel properties of the Siberian apricot biodiesel, except cetane number and oxidative stability, were conformed to EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards, especially the cold flow properties were excellent (Cold filter plugging point -14°C). The addition of 500 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) resulted in a higher induction period (7.7h) compliant with all the three biodiesel standards. PMID:22440572

  9. Genistein isoflavone glycoconjugates in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abrankó, László; Nagy, Ádám; Szilvássy, Blanka; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Hegedűs, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone genistein on the contrary to its well-established health-beneficial effects is not a major component of the Western diet, since soy consumption, considered as the main dietary source of genistein, in these populations is low. Genistein compounds in twelve commercial sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary were studied. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) was used for screening and confirmatory analyses. Genistin and genistein were found in 'Pipacs1', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Debreceni bőtermő' and 'Éva', which are native cultivars to Hungary. Genistein content of the latter three were in the range of 0.4-0.6, while in 'Pipacs1' in total 4.4 mg genistein compounds were measured expressed as aglycone equivalents per 100g of fresh fruit flesh. These cultivars may play important role as complementary genistein sources in the Western diet. Especially 'Pipacs 1', may be best utilised in functional food products. PMID:25053048

  10. Stamen development and winter dormancy in apricot (Prunus armeniaca)

    PubMed Central

    Julian, C.; Rodrigo, J.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims In temperate woody perennials, flower bud development is halted during the winter, when the buds enter dormancy. This dormant period is a prerequisite for adequate flowering, is genetically regulated, and plays a clear role in possibly adapting species and cultivars to climatic areas. However, information on the biological events underpinning dormancy is lacking. Stamen development, with clear differentiated stages, appears as a good framework to put dormancy in a developmental context. Here, stamen developmental changes are characterized in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and are related to dormancy. Methods Stamen development was characterized cytochemically from the end of August to March, over 4 years. Developmental changes were related to dormancy, using the existing empirical information on chilling requirements. Key Results Stamen development continued during the autumn, and the flower buds entered dormancy with a fully developed sporogenous tissue. Although no anatomical changes were observed during dormancy, breaking of dormancy occurred following a clear sequence of events. Starch accumulated in particular places, pre-empting further development in those areas. Vascular bundles developed and pollen mother cells underwent meiosis followed by microspore development. Conclusions Dormancy appears to mark a boundary between the development of the sporogenous tissue and the occurrence of meiosis for further microspore development. Breaking of dormancy occurs following a clear sequence of events, providing a developmental context in which to study winter dormancy and to evaluate differences in chilling requirements among genotypes. PMID:21474504

  11. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  12. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles. PMID:12232341

  13. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  14. Population genetic structure of Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Yang, X M; Tang, S H; Xu, P J; Bian, W J; Wang, X F; Wang, X W; Ren, G W

    2015-12-17

    The tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important agricultural pest that feeds on host plants and transmits plant viruses in China. To effectively control this pest, we investigated the genetic variation and genetic structure of 54 populations of tobacco aphids collected in China, using five microsatellite loci. An average of 7 alleles with effective number ranging from 1.5 to 6.6 was detected using these five loci, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.652, suggesting that the five selected microsatellite loci were polymorphic and suitable for the study of population genetics. The expected heterozygosities in the populations studied ranged from 0.128 and 0.653, with an average value of 0.464. However, the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.250 and 0.942 (average = 0.735), revealing a high genetic variability and heterozygosity excess in the Chinese tobacco aphid populations. The global fixation index (F(ST)) and mean gene flow (N(m)) were 0.34 (P < 0.0001) and 0.50, respectively, suggesting the high genetic differentiation among Chinese populations. The 54 populations of tobacco aphids were classified into two groups. The populations did not cluster geographically, as populations from the same provinces were usually present in different clusters. This was also confirmed by the Mantel test, which showed no significant correlation between the genetic distance and geographical distance or altitude. Long distance migration might be responsible for the lack of distance-related isolation.

  15. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Salvadora persica L. and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Miri, A; Dorani, N; Darroudi, M; Sarani, M

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) shows special physicochemical properties, therefore they use many applications such as catalysis, health, electronic and optical. In this study, AgNPs was synthesized using aqueous extract of Salvadora persica bark. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The optimal synthesis condition to prepare nanoparticles was determined as silver nitrate 3 mM, 5 ml of aqueous extract in the room temperature for 1 h. The TEM image of AgNPs showed the formation of spherical, non-uniform nanoparticles of mean size of 50 nm. The antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The MIC values of AgNPs were 100 and 400 µg/mL on E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Also the MBC of AgNPs was 200 µg/mL for E. coli and there was no result observed for S. aureus bacteria. The results showed that synthesized nanoparticles have favorable antibacterial properties. PMID:27585261

  17. Nepetalactone content and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of Nepeta persica.

    PubMed

    Shafaghat, Ali; Oji, Khodamali

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, stem and root of Nepeta persica Boiss., analyzed by GC and GC/MS, were shown to contain 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (58.5%, 62.3%, 66.2% and 27.1%, respectively), and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (33.0%, 28.3%, 24.9% and 7.6%, respectively). The other main component of the flower and stem oils was alpha-pinene (3.6% and 4.4%) and of the leaf oil beta-ocimene (3.6%). In the root oil, other main constituents were alpha-pinene (40.4%), alpha-amorphene (5.3%), gamma-cadinene (2.9%), and cis-calamenene (2.5%). Nepetalactone was the major component of the flower, leaf and stem oils, which are thus important sources of nepetalactone. Antibacterial activities of the flower, leaf, stem and root oils were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The flower, leaf, stem, and root oils had difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oils might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  18. Systemic response to aphid infestation by Myzus persicae in the phloem of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Divol, Fanchon; Vilaine, Françoise; Thibivilliers, Sandra; Amselem, Joëlle; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Dinant, Sylvie

    2005-03-01

    Little is known about the molecular processes involved in the phloem response to aphid feeding. We investigated molecular responses to aphid feeding on celery (Apium graveolenscv. Dulce) plants infested with the aphid Myzus persicae, as a means of identifying changes in phloem function. We used celery as our model species as it is easy to separate the phloem from the surrounding tissues in the petioles of mature leaves of this species. We generated a total of 1187 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), corresponding to 891 non-redundant genes. We analysed these ESTs in silico after cDNA macroarray hybridisation. Aphid feeding led to significant increase in RNA accumulation for 126 different genes. Different patterns of deregulation were observed, including transitory or stable induction 3 or 7 days after infestation. The genes affected belonged to various functional categories and were induced systemically in the phloem after infestation. In particular, genes involved in cell wall modification, water transport, vitamin biosynthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation and nitrogen and carbon mobilisation were up-regulated in the phloem. Further analysis of the response in the phloem or xylem suggested that a component of the response was developed more specifically in the phloem. However, this component was different from the stress responses in the phloem driven by pathogen infection. Our results indicate that the phloem is actively involved in multiple adjustments, recruiting metabolic pathways and in structural changes far from aphid feeding sites. However, they also suggest that the phloem displays specific mechanisms that may not be induced in other tissues.

  19. Effects of Salvadora persica Extract on the Hematological and Biochemical Alterations against Immobilization-Induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Kholoud S.; Alshamrani, Salha A.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, extract alone, and stress + extract (n = 6 each), for total 21 days of treatment. The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting them in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were postorally treated with Salvadora persica at a dose of 900 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. The vital organ weights were not significantly affected in stressed rats as compared to control rats. Compared to the control group, the stress treated group showed significances in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the stress group showed significantly increased blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the stress + extract treated group were approximately similar to control group. The SP extract restored the changes observed following stress treatment. PMID:26221565

  20. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  1. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae. PMID:26826651

  2. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae. PMID:26826651

  3. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae.

  4. Impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and natural enemies on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations in pepper.

    PubMed

    Boutard-Hunt, Caroline; Smart, Christine D; Thaler, Jennifer; Nault, Brian A

    2009-12-01

    Management of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in bell pepper, Capsicum annuum L., was explored through a combination of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and endemic biological control in New York in 2006 and 2007. We hypothesized that by using PGPR-treated peppers 1) M. persicae infestations would be reduced via induced resistance, 2) natural enemies would be lured to plants through the elicitation of volatile organic compounds, and 3) yield amount and quality would be improved. Pepper seed was planted in soil containing the PGPR formulation BioYield or untreated soil. Plants were transplanted to field plots and then treated with an insecticide regimen designed to remove or conserve populations of natural enemies. Apterous aphids and natural enemies were counted weekly on plants and pepper fruit were harvested, graded and weighed three times. PGPR did not directly or indirectly reduce aphid densities in either year. In 2006, there were more natural enemies in PGPR-treated plots than untreated ones, but this was probably a density-dependent response to aphid densities rather than a response of natural enemies to volatiles from PGPR-treated plants. For the first harvest date in 2006, yield of all fruit grades, especially the premium Fancy Grade, was 1.7-2.3 times greater in PGPR-treated plots than in untreated plots. However, no differences in yield were observed for the other two harvest dates or overall yield in 2006; no differences in yield among treatments were detected in 2007. Our results suggest that PGPR will not significantly impact M. persicae infestations or natural enemy populations but could enhance yield and quality of pepper fruit in some years.

  5. Physiological, Anatomical and Metabolic Implications of Salt Tolerance in the Halophyte Salvadora persica under Hydroponic Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Asish K.; Veerabathini, Sairam K.; Kumari, Asha; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2016-01-01

    Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analyzing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, and 750 mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area, and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem, and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl). There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, diameter of hypodermal cell, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by twofold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl). The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM), whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl). The proline content increased in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control

  6. Physiological, Anatomical and Metabolic Implications of Salt Tolerance in the Halophyte Salvadora persica under Hydroponic Culture Condition.

    PubMed

    Parida, Asish K; Veerabathini, Sairam K; Kumari, Asha; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2016-01-01

    Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analyzing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, and 750 mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area, and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na(+) contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K(+) content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem, and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl). There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, diameter of hypodermal cell, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by twofold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl). The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM), whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl). The proline content increased in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to

  7. Physiological, Anatomical and Metabolic Implications of Salt Tolerance in the Halophyte Salvadora persica under Hydroponic Culture Condition.

    PubMed

    Parida, Asish K; Veerabathini, Sairam K; Kumari, Asha; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2016-01-01

    Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analyzing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, and 750 mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area, and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na(+) contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K(+) content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem, and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl). There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, diameter of hypodermal cell, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by twofold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl). The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM), whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl). The proline content increased in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to

  8. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  9. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  10. The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan

    2002-10-01

    Sequences from s6pdh, a gene that encodes sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the Rosaceae, are used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 22 species of Prunus. The s6pdh sequences alone and in combination with previously published sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer are analyzed using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Both methods reconstructed the same phylogeny when s6pdh sequences are used alone and in combination with ITS and trnL-trnF, and the topology is in agreement with previous studies that used a larger sample size. The s6pdh sequences have about twice as many informative sites as ITS. A molecular clock is rejected for s6pdh, most likely due to greater rates of evolution in subgenera Padus and Laurocerasus than in the rest of the genus. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Prunus as determined by analysis of the combined data set suggests an early split into two clades. One is composed of subgenera Cerasus, Laurocerasus, and Padus. The second includes subgenera Amygdalus, Emplectocladus, and Prunus. Species of section Microcerasus (formerly in subgenus Cerasus) are nested within subgenus Prunus. The order of branching and relationships among early diverging lineages is weakly supported, as a result of very short branches that may indicate rapid radiation. PMID:21665596

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as almond (Prunus...

  12. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  13. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of palladium nanoparticles from Prunus × yedoensis leaf extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eco-friendly production of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) by Prunus × yedoensis tree leaf extract was studied for the first time. Initial confirmation of PdNP production was confirmed by a color change from light yellow to dark brown. The optimization parameters show that pH 7, 8% leaf extract,...

  15. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  16. Effects of extracts of Salvadora persica on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh sadat; Moezizadeh, Maryam; Javand, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Efficacy of an ideal antimicrobial agent depends on its ability to eliminate microorganisms while causing minimal toxicity to host cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ethanolic and water extracts of Salvadora persica (SP) on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, the effects of seven concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of SP (ranging from 5.75 mg/ml to 0.08 mg/ml) on hDPSCs were evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Water extract of SP only had cytotoxic effect at 5.75 mg/ml concentration; and caused significant cell proliferation at 1.43-0.08 mg/ml concentrations at 24 h (P < 0.05). At 48 h, only 0.17 and 0.08 mg/ml concentrations caused significant cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Ethanolic extract of SP at 5.75-1.43 mg/ml concentrations showed severe cytotoxic effects at 24 and 48 h. Other concentrations had no significant effects on cells (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The highest concentrations of both water and ethanolic extracts of SP had cytotoxic effects on hDPSCs. Water extract of SP has favorable effects on cell proliferation at specific concentrations in a time-dependent manner. PMID:26180418

  17. Biochemical characterisation of chlorophyllase from leaves of selected Prunus species--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Sprawka, Iwona; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sempruch, Cezary; Leszczyński, Bogumił; Sikora, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Despite senescence-induced chlorophyll depletion in plants has been widely studied, the enzymatic background of this physiologically regulated process still remains highly unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine selected biochemical properties of partially purified fractions of chlorophyllase (Chlase, chlorophyll chlorophyllido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14) from leaves of three Prunus species: bird cherry (Prunus padus L.), European plum (Prunus domestica L.), and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Secondarily, this report was aimed at comparing seasonal dynamics of Chlase activity and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content within investigated plant systems. Molecular weight of native Chlase F1 has been estimated at 90 kDa (bird cherry) and approximately 100 kDa (European plum and sour cherry), whereas molecular mass of Chlase F2 varied from 35 kDa (European plum) to 60 kDa (sour cherry). Furthermore, enzyme fractions possessed similar optimal pH values ranging from 7.6 to 8.0. It was found that among a broad panel of tested metal ions, Hg(+2), Fe(+2), and Cu(+2) cations showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect on the activity of Chlase. In contrast, the presence of Mg(+2) ions influenced a subtle stimulation of the enzymatic activity. Importantly, although Chlase activity was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in leaves of examined Prunus species, detailed comparative analyses revealed an incidental decrement of enzymatic activity in early or moderately senescing leaves. It provides evidence that foliar Chlase is not the only enzyme involved in autumnal chlorophyll breakdown and further in-depth studies elucidating this catabolic process are required.

  18. Biochemical characterisation of chlorophyllase from leaves of selected Prunus species--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Sprawka, Iwona; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sempruch, Cezary; Leszczyński, Bogumił; Sikora, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Despite senescence-induced chlorophyll depletion in plants has been widely studied, the enzymatic background of this physiologically regulated process still remains highly unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine selected biochemical properties of partially purified fractions of chlorophyllase (Chlase, chlorophyll chlorophyllido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14) from leaves of three Prunus species: bird cherry (Prunus padus L.), European plum (Prunus domestica L.), and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Secondarily, this report was aimed at comparing seasonal dynamics of Chlase activity and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content within investigated plant systems. Molecular weight of native Chlase F1 has been estimated at 90 kDa (bird cherry) and approximately 100 kDa (European plum and sour cherry), whereas molecular mass of Chlase F2 varied from 35 kDa (European plum) to 60 kDa (sour cherry). Furthermore, enzyme fractions possessed similar optimal pH values ranging from 7.6 to 8.0. It was found that among a broad panel of tested metal ions, Hg(+2), Fe(+2), and Cu(+2) cations showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect on the activity of Chlase. In contrast, the presence of Mg(+2) ions influenced a subtle stimulation of the enzymatic activity. Importantly, although Chlase activity was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in leaves of examined Prunus species, detailed comparative analyses revealed an incidental decrement of enzymatic activity in early or moderately senescing leaves. It provides evidence that foliar Chlase is not the only enzyme involved in autumnal chlorophyll breakdown and further in-depth studies elucidating this catabolic process are required. PMID:23894730

  19. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 μg/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 μg/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  20. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  1. Insecticide resistance monitoring and metabolic mechanism study of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xu, Zhifeng; Shi, Li; Shen, Guangmao; He, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is one of the most important agricultural pests in China, which caused serious losses every year. For resistance monitoring, twelve populations of this pest were collected from tobacco field in Chongqing, China, and their sensitivities to 4 insecticides were tested. Results showed that only WL (RR=6.51) and FJ (RR=6.03) populations have developed minor resistance to imidacloprid, and the others still remained susceptible. One population (NC) has reached a high resistance level to cyhalothrin (RR=41.28), five populations showed medium level (10.36≤RR≤20.45), and the other six remained susceptible (0.39≤RR≤3.53). As regards carbosulfan, three populations have developed medium resistance, four populations showed only minor resistance, and the other five (0.81≤RR≤3.97) were still susceptible. Population SZ developed a medium level (RR=14.83) to phoxim, the other 11 were susceptible (0.29≤RR≤2.41). To analysis the potential resistance mechanism, inhibition effects of synergists and detoxifying enzyme activities were detected. The results indicated that the MFO was the most important detoxifying enzyme conferring imidacloprid resistance, and CarE was most important to cyhalothrin, carbosulfan and phoxim. Our study provided a comprehensive survey of insecticide resistance of M. persicae in Chongqing, and suggested that different counties should take corresponding management to delay the insecticide resistance development and prolong the usefulness of insecticides. PMID:27521909

  2. Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Shiel, Patrick; Berger, Philip H

    2002-01-01

    The influence of viral disease symptoms on the behaviour of virus vectors has implications for disease epidemiology. Here we show that previously reported preferential colonization of potatoes infected by potato leafroll virus (genus Polerovirus) (luteovirus) (PLRV) by alatae of Myzus persicae, the principal aphid vector of PLRV, is influenced by volatile emissions from PLRV-infected plants. First, in our bioassays both differential immigration and emigration were involved in preferential colonization by aphids of PLRV-infected plants. Second, M. persicae apterae aggregated preferentially, on screening above leaflets of PLRV-infected potatoes as compared with leaflets from uninfected plants, or from plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) or potato virus Y (PVY). Third, the aphids aggregated preferentially on screening over leaflet models treated with volatiles collected from PLRV-infected plants as compared with those collected from uninfected plants. The specific cues eliciting the aphid responses were not determined, but differences between headspace volatiles of infected and uninfected plants suggest possible ones. PMID:11886636

  3. Toxicity of newly isolated piperideine alkaloids from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a major insect pest of many agronomic and horticultural crops and is distributed worldwide Aphid management is often based on application of insecticides. However, the aphid is now resistant to many of these and much interest has recently develope...

  4. Seasonal Changes Affect Root Prunasin Concentration in Prunus serotina and Override Species Interactions between P. serotina and Quercus petraea.

    PubMed

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Stachowiak, Jerzy; Mejza, Iwona; Bułaj, Bartosz

    2016-03-01

    The allocation of resources to chemical defense can decrease plant growth and photosynthesis. Prunasin is a cyanogenic glycoside known for its role in defense against herbivores and other plants. In the present study, fluctuations of prunasin concentrations in roots of Prunus serotina seedlings were hypothesized to be: (1) dependent on light, air temperature, and humidity; (2) affected by competition between Prunus serotina and Quercus petraea seedlings, with mulching with Prunus serotina leaves; (3) connected with optimal allocation of resources. For the first time, we determined prunasin concentration in roots on several occasions during the vegetative season. The results indicate that seasonal changes have more pronounced effects on prunasin concentration than light regime and interspecific competition. Prunus serotina invested more nitrogen in the synthesis of prunasin under highly restricted light conditions than in higher light environments. In full sun, prunasin in roots of Prunus serotina growing in a monoculture was correlated with growth and photosynthesis, whereas these relationships were not found when interspecific competition with mulching was a factor. The study demonstrates that prunasin concentration in Prunus serotina roots is the result of species-specific adaptation, light and temperature conditions, ontogenetic shift, and, to a lesser extent, interspecific plant-plant interactions. PMID:26961681

  5. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  6. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  7. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  8. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  9. Purification and characterization of α-Amylase from Miswak Salvadora persica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The miswak (Salvadora persica) is a natural toothbrush. It is well known that very little information has been reported on enzymes in miswak as medicinal plant. Recently, we study peroxidase in miswak. In the present study, the main goal of this work is to purify and characterize α-amylase from miswak. The second goal is to study the storage stability of α-amylase in toothpaste. Method The purification method included chromatographaphy of miswak α-amylase on DEAE-Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Molecular weight was determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Results Five α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b from miswak were purified and they had molecular weights of 14, 74, 16, 30 and 20 kDa, respectively. α-Amylases had optimum pH from 6 to 8. Affinity of the substrates toward all enzymes was studied. Miswak α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b had Km values for starch and glycogen of 3.7, 3.7, 7.1, 0.52, 4.3 mg/ml and 5.95, 5.9 4.16, 6.3, 6.49 mg/ml, respectively. The optimum temperature for five enzymes ranged 40°C- 60°C. Miswak α-amylases were stable up to 40°C- 60°C after incubation for 30 min. Ca+2 activated all the miswak α-amylases, while Ni2+, Co+2 and Zn+2 activated or inhibited some of these enzymes. The metal chelators, EDTA, sodium citrate and sodium oxalate had inhibitory effects on miswak α-amylases. PMSF, p-HMB, DTNB and 1,10 phenanthroline caused inhibitory effect on α-amylases. The analysis of hydrolytic products after starch hydrolysis by miswak α-amylases on paper chromatography revealed that glucose, maltose, maltotriose and oligosaccharide were the major products. Crude miswak α-amylase in the toothpaste retained 55% of its original activity after 10 months of storage at room temperature. Conclusions From these findings, α-amylases from miswak can be considered as beneficial enzymes for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, we study the storage stability of the crude α-amylase of miswak, which contained the five

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Petri, César; Wang, Hong; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Mohamed; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2008-08-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation for scored, whole leaf explants of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cultivar Helena was developed. Regenerated shoots were selected using a two-step increased concentrations of paromomycin sulphate. Different factors affecting survival of transformed buds, including possible toxicity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time of exposure to high cytokine concentration in the regeneration medium, were examined. Transformation efficiency, based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines was 5.6%, when optimal conditions for bud survival were provided. Southern blot analysis on four randomly chosen PCR-positive shoots confirmed the presence of the nptII transgene. This is the first time that stable transformation of an apricot cultivar is reported and constitutes also one of the few reports on the transformation of Prunus cultivars.

  11. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.; Schneider, E.; Wudl, F. |

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown, for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.

  12. Purunusides A-C, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory homoisoflavone glucosides from Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Shaheen; Fatima, Itrat; Mahmood, Azhar; Ahmed, Rehana; Malik, Abdul; Talib, Sumaira; Chouhdary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-12-01

    Purunusides A-C (1-3), new homoisoflavone glucosides together with the known compounds beta-sitosterol (4) and 6,7-methylenedioxy-8-methoxycoumarin (5) have been isolated from n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of Prunus domestica. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectral studies. The compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme alpha-glucosidase.

  13. Simple method for refining arabinan polysaccharides by alcohol extraction of the prune, Prunus domestica L.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukari; Mizukawa, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Ikami, Takao; Kato, Koji; Yabe, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    L-Arabinose is a useful sugar in the food industry. We demonstrate here simple methods for refining arabinan polysaccharides by alcohol extraction from prune, Prunus domestica L., as a source of L-arabinose. Alcohol-soluble polysaccharides were purified from a solution of prune extracted by 80% ethanol. After fractionating the polysaccharides by ion-exchange chromatography, arabinans were identified as mainly constituted by (1→5)-linked arabinofuranosyl units.

  14. New Insights into Asian Prunus Viruses in the Light of NGS-Based Full Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Candresse, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Double stranded RNAs were purified from five Prunus sources of Asian origin and submitted to 454 pyrosequencing after a random, whole genome amplification. Four complete genomes of Asian prunus virus 1 (APV1), APV2 and APV3 were reconstructed from the sequencing reads, as well as four additional, near-complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the close relationships of these three viruses and the taxonomical position previously proposed for APV1, the only APV so far completely sequenced. The genetic distances in the respective polymerase and coat protein genes as well as their gene products suggest that APV2 should be considered as a distinct viral species in the genus Foveavirus, even if the amino acid identity levels in the polymerase are very close to the species demarcation criteria for the family Betaflexiviridae. However, the situation is more complex for APV1 and APV3, for which opposite conclusions are obtained depending on the gene (polymerase or coat protein) analyzed. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that recombination events may have been involved in the evolution of APV. Moreover, genome comparisons show that the unusually long 3’ non-coding region (3' NCR) is highly variable and a hot spot for indel polymorphisms. In particular, two APV3 variants differing only in their 3’ NCR were identified in a single Prunus source, with 3' NCRs of 214–312 nt, a size similar to that observed in other foveaviruses, but 567–850 nt smaller than in other APV3 isolates. Overall, this study provides critical genome information of these viruses, frequently associated with Prunus materials, even though their precise role as pathogens remains to be elucidated. PMID:26741704

  15. Electronic nose to detect volatile compound profile and quality changes in 'spring Belle' peach (Prunus persica L.) during cold storage in relation to fruit optical properties measured by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Bianchi, Giulia; Vanoli, Maristella; Lurie, Susan; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to study the relationships between electronic nose (E-nose) pattern, maturity class of peaches assessed at harvest by means of absorption coefficient at 670 nm (μ(a)670) measured in fruit pulp by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), and quality evolution during a 4 week cold storage. 'Spring Belle' peaches were measured for μ(a)670 by TRS, ranked according to decreasing μ(a)670 value, divided into three TRS maturity classes (less (LeM), medium (MeM), and more (MoM) mature), and randomized into 9 samples of 30 fruit each, so that fruits from the whole μ(a)670 range were present in each sample. At harvest and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 0 and 4 °C, fruits of each sample were evaluated for firmness, expressible juice, μ(a)670, and ethylene production. LeM and MoM peaches of each sample were analyzed for aroma pattern by a commercial electronic nose and by static HS-GC and for sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) and organic acid (quinic, malic, and citric acids) compositions by HPLC. Principal component analysis (PCA) of electronic nose data emphasized the ability of the E-nose to assess the ripening stage of fruit associated with maturity class, storage time, and storage temperature. The sensors having the highest influence on the pattern were W5S in PC-1, W1S in PC-2, and W2S in PC-3. From linear correlation analysis between PCs and firmness, flavor, and volatile compounds, it was found that PC-1 was related to ethylene production and volatile compounds (mainly acetate esters and ethanol); the highest PC-1 scores were found for fruit belonging to the MoM class after 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C, which showed the rise in ethylene production coupled with the highest total volatile production and sugar and acid composition of ripe peach fruits. PC-2 correlated with hexanal, ethyl acetate, and sugar composition, and PC-3 was mainly related to flavor compounds; both functions significantly changed with cold storage time in different ways according to storage temperature and maturity class.

  16. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana. PMID:27348423

  17. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  19. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-01-01

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus. PMID:21053179

  20. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. PMID:27464261

  1. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana. PMID:27348423

  2. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  3. Early detection of graft incompatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) using in vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Errea, Pilar; Garay, Lilibeth; Marín, Juan Antonio

    2001-05-01

    Graft compatibility has been studied in vitro using callus tissues of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and different Prunus rootstocks to form scion/rootstock combinations with different degrees of graft compatibility. In these species, incompatibility is manifested by a breakdown of the trees at the union area that can occur some years after grafting. Here, the possibility of obtaining an early detection method to determine graft incompatibility is explored by callus fusion in vitro. The adhesion of the two callus partners, the development of the cells at the contact surface (cell arrangement, intensity of cell-wall staining), and the presence of lipid and phenolic compounds have been studied during the first 3 weeks after grafting in both compatible and incompatible combinations. Differences were observed at the second and the third week of callus co-culture in most of the characters determined, although these differences were present as early as the first week in the case of phenolic compounds. The behaviour of the grafts grown in vitro was correlated to that of the same combinations in the field, suggesting that callus fusion in vitro could be a possible and reliable method for an early detection of graft incompatibility in different Prunus combinations.

  4. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia. PMID:23862158

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana—Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed. PMID:23847627

  6. Reduced abundance of the CYP6CY3-targeting let-7 and miR-100 miRNAs accounts for host adaptation of Myzus persicae nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tianfei; Pan, Yiou; Gao, Xiwu; Xi, Jinghui; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Kangsheng; Wu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Juhong; Shang, Qingli

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine is one of the most abundant and toxic secondary plant metabolites in nature and is defined by high toxicity to plant-feeding insects. Studies suggest that increased expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP6CY3) and the homologous CYP6CY4 genes in Myzus persicae nicotianae is correlated with tolerance to nicotine. Indeed, through expression analyses of the CYP6CY3 and CYP6CY4 genes of different M. persicae subspecies, we determined that the mRNA levels of these two genes were much higher in M. persicae nicotianae than in M. persicae sensu stricto. We hypothesized that the expression of these two genes is subject to post-transcriptional regulation. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the miRNA profile of M. persicae nicotianae was sequenced, and twenty-two miRNAs were predicted to target CYP6CY3. Validation of these miRNAs identified two miRNAs, let-7 and miR-100, whose abundance was highly inversely correlated with the abundance of the CYP6CY3 gene. This result implies that the let-7 and miR-100 miRNAs play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of the CYP6CY3 gene. Modulation of the abundance of let-7 and miR-100 through the addition of inhibitors/mimics of let-7 or miR-100 to artificial diet significantly altered the tolerance of M. persicae nicotianae to nicotine, further confirming the regulatory role of these two miRNAs. Interestingly, after decreasing the transcript levels of CYP6CY3 by modulating regulatory miRNAs, the transcript levels of the homologous isozyme CYP6CY4 were significantly elevated, suggesting a compensatory mechanism between the CYP6CY3 gene and its homologous CYP6CY4 gene. Our findings provide insight into the molecular drivers of insect host shifts and reveal an important source of genetic variation for adaptive evolution in insect species. PMID:27318250

  7. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae), distributed in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh Mr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain south west of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by Cicadatra persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits), while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits). A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females) were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates), constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates) constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3) whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  8. DNA variation and polymorphism in Tunisian plum species (Prunus spp): contribution of flow cytometry and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Walker, D; Ben Mustapha, S; Abdallah, D; Baraket, G; Salhi Hannachi, A; Zehdi Azzouzi, S

    2015-12-22

    Plums (Prunus spp) are among the most important stone fruit crops in the world. European (Prunus domestica) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums are characterized by different levels of ploidy. Because genetic variability is the prerequisite for any plant-breeding program, we aimed to establish the taxonomic status of Tunisian plums and study their genetic variability. The nuclear DNA content of 45 wild and cultivated Tunisian plums was determined by flow cytometry. Two arbitrary primers (AD10, AD17) were used to elaborate SCAR markers useful to identify plum species. Three wild trees, Zenou 1, Zenou 6, and Zenou 3, which had 2C nuclear DNA contents of 1.99, 2.05, and 2.13 pg, were shown to be hexaploid (2n = 6x = 48), whereas the others were diploid (2n = 2x = 16). These results suggest that the three hexaploid wild plums belong to Prunus insititia, and the others belong to Prunus salicina. No SCAR markers were revealed using the AD10 and AD17 RAPD primers in relation to the ploidy of plums. We note also that AD17 primer appears to be the most informative concerning the genetic diversity. Morphological and pomological traits revealed similarity between introduced and Tunisian plum cultivars. Despite the significant morphological differences found, all the cultivars studied belong to P. salicina. The information obtained in this analysis provided on local plum genetic resources will be helpful to establish a core collection, to evaluate genetic diversity, and to initiate an improvement and selection program.

  9. Rice-Straw Mulch Reduces the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations on Kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21–36°C and to 18–32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants. PMID:24714367

  10. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  11. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits) and Fragaria (the strawberry)

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Santiago; Sargent, Daniel J; Arús, Pere; Monfort, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae) and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae); however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16) and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14) were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78%) and Fragaria (78%) genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36), most of which produced by inversions (27) and the rest (9) by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae. PMID:18564412

  12. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed. PMID:18617504

  13. Exon skipping of AGAMOUS homolog PrseAG in developing double flowers of Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Di; Li, Fenglan; Lu, Hai

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Two transcript isoforms of AGAMOUS homologs, from single and double flower Prunus lannesiana, respectively, showed different functions. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG) confers stamen and carpel identity. Loss of AG function results in homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and formation of double flowers. In order to present a molecular dissection of a double-flower cultivar in Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae), we isolated and identified a single-copy gene, AG homolog from two genetically cognate P. lannesiana bearing single and double flowers, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the AG homolog, prseag-1, from double flowers showed a 170-bp exon skipping as compared to PrseAG (Prunus serrulata AGAMOUS) from the single flowers. Genomic DNA sequence revealed that abnormal splicing resulted in mutant prseag-1 protein with the C-terminal AG motifs I and II deletions. In addition, protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the PrseAG was grouped into the euAG lineage. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of PrseAG was restricted to reproductive organs of stamens and carpels in single flowers of P. lannesiana 'speciosa', while the prseag-1 mRNA was highly transcribed throughout the petals, stamens, and carpels in double flowers from 'Albo-rosea'. The transgenic Arabidopsis containing 35S::PrseAG displayed extremely early flowering, bigger stamens and carpels and homeotic conversion of petals into staminoid organs, but ectopic expression of prseag-1 could not mimic the phenotypic ectopic expression of PrseAG in Arabidopsis. In general, this study provides evidences to show that double flower 'Albo-rosea' is a putative C functional ag mutant in P. lannesiana.

  14. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F.

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S33 and S34, that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S35, plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S14 and S16 are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S16-, S33-, S34-, and S35-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that ‘hetero-allelic’ pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed. PMID:18617504

  15. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content. PMID:23127522

  16. [Treatment of prostatic disorders with a combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine].

    PubMed

    Ahmad Samhan, K

    1980-01-01

    A combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine has been administered to thirty-seven patients suffering from several prostate processes, with a predominance of prostatites and prostate adenoma into first two phases in the male and pseudoprostatism in the female. The patients' ages ranged between 28 and 82 years. Good results were achieved in 90% of the cases and there was perfect tolerance in 85%. The authors explain the methods of study and discuss the results. As there are no toxic or hormone risks, their final conclusion is to recommend this combination for prostate patients before attempting any other solution.

  17. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  18. Molecular characterization of three non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-10-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) exhibits a genotype-dependent loss of gametophytic self-incompatibility that is caused by the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes with disrupted pistil component (stylar-S) and/or pollen component (pollen-S) function. Genetic studies using diverse sour cherry germplasm identified non-functional S-haplotypes for which an equivalent wild-type S-haplotype was present in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), a diploid progenitor of sour cherry. In all cases, the non-functional S-haplotype resulted from mutations affecting the stylar component S-RNase or Prunus pollen component S-haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). This study determines the molecular bases of three of these S-haplotypes that confer unilateral incompatibility, two stylar-part mutants (S(6m2) and S(13m)) and one pollen-part mutant (S(13)'). Compared to their wild-type alleles, S(6m2)-RNase has a 1 bp deletion, S(13m) -RNase has a 23 bp deletion and SFB(13)' has a 1 bp substitution that lead to premature stop codons. Transcripts were identified for these three alleles, S(6m2)-RNase, S(13m)-RNase, and SFB(13)', however, these transcripts presumably result in altered proteins with a resulting loss of activity. Our characterization of natural pollen-part and stylar-part mutants in sour cherry along with other natural S-haplotype mutants identified in Prunus supports the view that loss of pollen specificity and stylar rejection evolve independently and are caused by structural alterations affecting the S-haplotype. The prevalence of non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry but not in sweet cherry (a diploid) suggests that polyploidization and gene duplication were indirectly responsible for the dysfunction of some S-haplotypes and the emergence of self-compatibility in sour cherry. This resembles the specific mode of evolution in yeast where accelerated evolution occurred to one member of the duplicated gene pair. PMID:16915517

  19. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells. PMID:12232409

  20. A genetic linkage map for an apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) BCI population mapping Plum pox virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum pox virus (sharka or PPV) can cause severe crop loss in economically important Prunus species such as peach, plum, apricot, and cherry. Of these species, certain apricot cultivars ('Stark Early Orange', 'Goldrich', 'Harlayne') display significant levels of resistance to the disease and are the...

  1. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  2. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of mixed transgenic Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA, was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel trees of ‘Italian Prune’ and ‘Seneca‘ plums, which are sexually compatible with the transgenic trees, were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from t...

  3. Quantification of Cylindrocarpon in roots of almond and peach trees from orchards affected by Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunus replant disease (PRD) is a poorly understood soilborne complex that suppresses replanted almond and peach orchards in California. Using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, we found Cylindrocarpon (Cyl) macrodidymum among microorganisms associated with PRD. We developed a qPC...

  4. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability

    PubMed Central

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid’s life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2. PMID:26743585

  5. Visual monitoring of Cucumber mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana following transmission by the aphid vector Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Krenz, Bjoern; Bronikowski, Agathe; Lu, Xiaoyun; Ziebell, Heiko; Thompson, Jeremy R; Perry, Keith L

    2015-09-01

    The single-stranded, positive-sense and tripartite RNA virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was used in this study as a method for monitoring the initial stages of virus infection following aphid transmission. The RNA2 of CMV was modified to incorporate, in a variety of arrangements, an open reading frame (ORF) encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The phenotypes of five engineered RNA2s were tested in Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana clevelandii and Nicotiana benthamiana. Only one construct (F4), in which the 2b ORF was truncated at the 3' end and fused in-frame with the eGFP ORF, was able to systemically infect N. benthamiana plants, express eGFP and be transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae. The utility of this construct was demonstrated following infection as early as one day post-transmission (dpt) continuing through to systemic infection. Comparisons of the inoculation sites in different petiole sections one to three dpt clearly showed that the onset of infection and eGFP expression always occurred in the epidermal or collenchymatous tissue just below the epidermis; an observation consistent with the rapid time frame characteristic of the non-persistent mode of aphid transmission. PMID:25979730

  6. Infection of host plants by Cucumber mosaic virus increases the susceptibility of Myzus persicae aphids to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2015-06-04

    Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids--documented in previous studies--compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission.

  7. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-08

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2.

  8. Functional analysis and molecular docking identify two active short-chain prenyltransferases in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Lei; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2012-10-01

    Short-chain prenyltransferases are responsible for biosynthesis of the C(10)-C(20) precursors of a variety of isoprenoids. We previously isolated two different short-chain prenyltransferases from the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2). In this study, the activity of the two aphid prenyltransferases was analyzed in vitro. Kinetic analysis using recombinant enzymes showed that both prenyltransferases could efficiently catalyze the formation of C(10) geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and C(15) farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) from the C(5) substrates isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), and MpIPPS2 had higher catalytic activity than MpIPPS1. Product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that FPP was generated as the major product, but GPP could be detected at low enzyme concentrations. Molecular docking revealed that MpIPPS2 had higher binding affinity with the substrates DMAPP, IPP, and GPP than MpIPPS1, which supported the experimentally determined kinetic parameters. Molecular docking also identified an amino acid residue (K266) critical to the catalytic activity of both MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2. This prediction was subsequently confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, in which a point mutation (K266I) abolished the activity of both MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2. Our data illustrate that both aphid short-chain prenyltransferases are active forms, which is in contrast to the previously reported results.

  9. Infection of host plants by Cucumber mosaic virus increases the susceptibility of Myzus persicae aphids to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Kerry E.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids—documented in previous studies—compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission. PMID:26043237

  10. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2. PMID:26743585

  11. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    PubMed

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  12. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. PMID:23521804

  13. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance. PMID:27133976

  14. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  15. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments. PMID:14969972

  16. Virulence of soil-borne pathogens and invasion by Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Tytgat, Tom; Van der Putten, Wim H; Clay, Keith

    2010-04-01

    *Globally, exotic invaders threaten biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies often report that invading plants are less affected by enemies in their invaded vs home ranges, but few studies have investigated the underlying mechanisms. *Here, we investigated the variation in prevalence, species composition and virulence of soil-borne Pythium pathogens associated with the tree Prunus serotina in its native US and non-native European ranges by culturing, DNA sequencing and controlled pathogenicity trials. *Two controlled pathogenicity experiments showed that Pythium pathogens from the native range caused 38-462% more root rot and 80-583% more seedling mortality, and 19-45% less biomass production than Pythium from the non-native range. DNA sequencing indicated that the most virulent Pythium taxa were sampled only from the native range. The greater virulence of Pythium sampled from the native range therefore corresponded to shifts in species composition across ranges rather than variation within a common Pythium species. *Prunus serotina still encounters Pythium in its non-native range but encounters less virulent taxa. Elucidating patterns of enemy virulence in native and nonnative ranges adds to our understanding of how invasive plants escape disease. Moreover, this strategy may identify resident enemies in the non-native range that could be used to manage invasive plants. PMID:20100208

  17. Establishing a baseline on the distribution and pattern of occurrence of Salvadora persica L. with meteorological data and assessing its adaptation in the adjacent warmed-up zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Amin U.; Sharif, Faiza; Hamza, Ali

    2016-04-01

    The natural occurrence of Salvadora persica L., stretching from the coastal area of the Arabian sea to northward along the Indus floodplains, was surveyed to document the pattern of its occurrence with the available meteorological record showing increasing trends of frost northwards. Information was compiled from various sources to generate the past and present temperature data in order to establish relationship between the changing temperature factors and the extent of the area available due to climate change over the years for introducing species beyond its range of natural distribution. In addition, the species was experimentally introduced in the warmed-up zones to monitor its performance and to evaluate its adaptability. The reconnaissance survey showed that the natural populations of thorn forest communities with S. persica, as associate, are now surviving only as degraded remnants. Its common occurrence is documented in zones where the mean winter temperatures are above the threshold level of frost, whereas it is rarely found in zones where it drops below this level for a single month, which seems to be its range edge. S. persica does not occur in zones where low temperature could persist for 2 months. Recent temperature data suggests that the month of December has warmed up above the threshold level; therefore, it was expected that correspondingly the range edge of the frost-sensitive species has potentially shifted further northwards. The response of the species introduced at the experimental sites beyond its natural occurrence suggests high survival and growth, demonstrating its adaptability to the new sites beyond its limit of distribution.

  18. Assessment of the Dominance Level of the R81T Target Resistance to Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Mottet, Claire; Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Mahéo, Frédérique; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2016-10-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), a major crop pest worldwide, displays insecticide resistance to most molecules. The R81T substitution on the β1 subunit of nicotinic receptors of acetylcholine (nAChR) confers target site resistance to neonicotinoids and is widespread in aphid populations colonizing peach tree orchards in Southern Europe. But the impact of this resistance in the field, as well as ways to optimize its management, depends largely on the dominance level of the R81T mutation. In this study, we measured by in vitro assays the response of R81T mutation to two neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and thiacloprid) in 23 M. persicae clones with different resistance genotypes in order to assess the dominance status of this allele. In this study, all homozygous clones for the R81T mutation (genotype 81(TT)) showed a much higher level of resistance to both active substances than other clones. The heterozygous clones 81(RT) displayed a slightly higher level of resistance than wild homozygous, though resistance phenotypes against both neonicotinoids in these two genotypes were overlapping. A great variation of resistance level was found within these two latter clones' categories. The dominance level of insecticide resistance (DLC) strongly suggested that the mutant allele 81T is semirecessive (the wild 81R allele being rather dominant) for both insecticide molecules under test. Mean DLC values were 0.316 for imidacloprid and 0.351 for thiacloprid. Cross-resistance was shown between imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This partial recessivity is valuable information to broaden the knowledge on neonicotinoid resistance, a prerequisite for devising adapted management strategies against insecticide-resistant populations of M. persicae. PMID:27498842

  19. Assessment of the Dominance Level of the R81T Target Resistance to Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Mottet, Claire; Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Mahéo, Frédérique; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2016-10-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), a major crop pest worldwide, displays insecticide resistance to most molecules. The R81T substitution on the β1 subunit of nicotinic receptors of acetylcholine (nAChR) confers target site resistance to neonicotinoids and is widespread in aphid populations colonizing peach tree orchards in Southern Europe. But the impact of this resistance in the field, as well as ways to optimize its management, depends largely on the dominance level of the R81T mutation. In this study, we measured by in vitro assays the response of R81T mutation to two neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and thiacloprid) in 23 M. persicae clones with different resistance genotypes in order to assess the dominance status of this allele. In this study, all homozygous clones for the R81T mutation (genotype 81(TT)) showed a much higher level of resistance to both active substances than other clones. The heterozygous clones 81(RT) displayed a slightly higher level of resistance than wild homozygous, though resistance phenotypes against both neonicotinoids in these two genotypes were overlapping. A great variation of resistance level was found within these two latter clones' categories. The dominance level of insecticide resistance (DLC) strongly suggested that the mutant allele 81T is semirecessive (the wild 81R allele being rather dominant) for both insecticide molecules under test. Mean DLC values were 0.316 for imidacloprid and 0.351 for thiacloprid. Cross-resistance was shown between imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This partial recessivity is valuable information to broaden the knowledge on neonicotinoid resistance, a prerequisite for devising adapted management strategies against insecticide-resistant populations of M. persicae.

  20. Coordinated Changes in Antioxidative Enzymes Protect the Photosynthetic Machinery from Salinity Induced Oxidative Damage and Confer Salt Tolerance in an Extreme Halophyte Salvadora persica L.

    PubMed Central

    Rangani, Jaykumar; Parida, Asish K.; Panda, Ashok; Kumari, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-induced modulations in growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, photosystem II efficiency, and changes in activity of various antioxidative enzymes were studied in the halophyte Salvadora persica treated with various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mM NaCl) to obtain an insight into the salt tolerance ability of this halophyte. Both fresh and dry biomass as well as leaf area (LA) declined at all levels of salinity whereas salinity caused an increase in leaf succulence. A gradual increase was observed in the Na+ content of leaf with increasing salt concentration up to 750 mM NaCl, but at higher salt concentration (1000 mM NaCl), the Na+ content surprisingly dropped down to the level of 250 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), the transpiration rate (E), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate remained unchanged at low salinity (250 to 500 mM NaCl) whereas, significant reduction in these parameters were observed at high salinity (750 to 1000 mM NaCl). The RWC% and water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The salinity had no effect on maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) which indicates that PS II is not perturbed by salinity-induced oxidative damage. Analysis of the isoforms of antioxidative enzymes revealed that the leaves of S. persica have two isoforms each of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD and one isoform of Cu-Zn SOD, three isoforms of POX, two isoforms of APX and one isoform of CAT. There was differential responses in activity and expression of different isoforms of various antioxidative enzymes. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content (a product of lipid peroxidation) of leaf remained unchanged in S. persica treated with various levels of salinity. Our results suggest that the absence of pigment

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae): Insight into Developmental Regulation and Inter-Species Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Wang, Yujun; Cheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Li; Fang, Jichao; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap. Here, we obtained transcriptomic sequences of green peach aphid nymphs and adults, respectively, using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 2244 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, many of which were associated with detoxification, hormone production, cuticle formation, metabolism, food digestion, and absorption. When searched against publically available pea aphid mRNA sequences, 13,752 unigenes were found to have no homologous counterparts. Interestingly, many of these unigenes that could be annotated in other databases were involved in the “xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism” pathway, suggesting the two aphids differ in their adaptation to secondary metabolites of host plants. Conversely, 3989 orthologous gene pairs between the two species were subjected to calculations of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, and 148 of the genes potentially evolved in response to positive selection. Some of these genes were predicted to be associated with insect-plant interactions. Our study has revealed certain molecular events related to aphid development, and provided some insight into biological variations in two aphid species, possibly as a result of host plant adaptation. PMID:27812361

  2. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

  3. Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Badgley, Emily M.; Grubisha, Lisa C.; Roland, Anna K.; Connolly, Bryan A.; Klooster, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Methods and Results: Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species’ geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • Conclusions: These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States. PMID:25699222

  4. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  5. Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Fahima; Ahmed, Rehana; Mahmood, Azhar; Ahmad, Zaheer; Bibi, Nazia; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2007-08-01

    Investigations on the chemical constituents of the fruits of Prunus armeniaca have led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, 4',5,7-trihydroxy flavone-7-O-[beta-D-mannopyranosyl (1'''-->2")]-beta-D-allopyranoside (1) and 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-3',5'-di-methoxy flavone 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1'''-->6")]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), from the butanolic fraction of the fruits. The butanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectral studies, including 2D-NMR (COSY, NOESY, J-resolved), HMQC and HMBC experiments.

  6. Identification, quantitative determination, and antioxidative activities of chlorogenic acid isomers in prune (Prunus domestica L. ).

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Kayano, S; Kikuzaki, H; Sumino, K; Katagiri, K; Mitani, T

    2000-11-01

    Neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA) and cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), isolated from prune (Prunus domestica L.), were identified by NMR and MS analyses. In addition, the quantity of chlorogenic acid isomers in prune were measured by HPLC. These isomers, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), were contained in the ratio 78.7:18. 4:3.9, respectively. 4-CQA was identified and quantified in prune for the first time, and relatively high amounts of this isomer were characteristic. Antioxidative activities of the chlorogenic acid isomers, such as scavenging activity on superoxide anion radicals and inhibitory effect against oxidation of methyl linoleate, were also evaluated. Each isomer showed antioxidative activities which were almost the same.

  7. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-01

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  8. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces.

  9. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marull, J.; Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Soler, A.

    1991-01-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible. PMID:19283164

  10. Genetic diversity in wild sweet cherries (Prunus avium) in Turkey revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ercisli, S; Agar, G; Yildirim, N; Duralija, B; Vokurka, A; Karlidag, H

    2011-06-21

    Wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are abundant in the northern part of Turkey, including the Coruh Valley. We analyzed 18 wild sweet cherry genotypes collected from diverse environments in the upper Coruh Valley in Turkey to determine genetic variation, using 10 SSR primers. These SSR primers generated 46 alleles; the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 7, with a mean of 4.6. The primer PS12A02 gave the highest number of polymorphic bands (N = 7), while CPSCT010, UDAp-401 and UDAp-404 gave the lowest number (N = 3). Seven groups were separated in the dendrogram, although most of the genotypes did not cluster according to phenological and morphological traits. This level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees would be useful as breeders for crosses between cultivated sweet cherry and wild genotypes.

  11. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  12. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  13. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  14. Molecular characterization and similarity relationships among apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes using simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Hormaza, J.I.

    2002-02-01

    A collection of 48 apricot genotypes, originated from diverse geographic areas, have been screened with 37 SSR primer pairs developed in different species of Prunus in order to identify and characterize the genotypes and establish their genetic relations. Thirty one of those primer pairs resulted in correct amplifications and 20 produced polymorphic repeatable amplification patterns with the 48 genotypes studied. A total of 82 alleles were detected for the 20 loci. All the genotypes studied could be unequivocally distinguished with the combination of SSRs used. The results obtained evidence for the cross-species transportability of microsatellite sequences, allowing the discrimination among different genotypes of a given fruit-tree species with sequences developed in other species. UPGMA cluster analysis of the similarity data grouped the genotypes studied according to their geographic origin and/or their pedigree information.

  15. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds.

    PubMed

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two beta-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. PMID:16652960

  16. Population genetic analysis of European Prunus spinosa (Rosaceae) using chloroplast DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Aparajita; Martín, Juan Pedro; Aguinagalde, Itziar

    2002-08-01

    Chloroplast DNA diversity in Prunus spinosa, a common shrub of European deciduous forests, was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Thirty-two haplotypes were detected in 25 populations spread across the European continent. Ten haplotypes were shared by two or more populations, and 22 were private. The major proportion of the total cpDNA diversity (H(T) = 0.73) was located within the populations (H(S) = 0.49), and differentiation between populations was low (G(ST) = 0.33) compared with other forest species. Haplotype diversity was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe, indicating probable localization of glacial refugia in southern Europe. The minimum-length spanning tree of haplotypes showed incongruency between the phylogeny of haplotypes and their geographic locations. This might be the result of intensive seed movements following recolonization, which thereby erased the phylogeographic structure in P. spinosa.

  17. Non-TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Gutermuth, A; György, Zsuzsanna; Hegedus, A; Pedryc, A

    2011-06-01

    Genes encoding for proteins with nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat motifs (NBS-LRR) have been suggested to play a general role in plant defence mechanism. In Prunus species, many TIR (Toll / Interleukin-1 Receptor), and only very few non-TIR sequences were identified, which was explained either by the unequal distribution of TIR/non-TIR sequences in the Prunus genome or by the incapability of primers in the amplification of non-TIR RGAs. The objective of this work was to check whether a new semi-nested PCR strategy can be developed for the targeted isolation of non-TIR-NBS-LRR Resistance Gene Analog (RGA) sequences from apricot. Three primers (CUB-P-loop F, CUB-Kin2 F and CUB-HD R) were designed, from which CUB-Kin2 F and CUB-HD R were constructed to anneal selectively to the non-TIR sequences. A colony Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) indicated that out of the 96 clones tested 28 showed amplification using the newly developed primers, while no amplification occurred when using the formerly described primers. Half of the 28 positive clones were sequenced and they turned out to represent 11 different non-TIR RGA sequences. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on an alignment containing 293 Rosaceae and 21 non-Rosaceaa sequences. A significantly higher ratio (91%) of non-TIR sequences were arranged in multi-genera clades than that of (57%) the TIR groups confirming that non-TIR sequences might be of more ancient origin than TIR sequences.

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    PubMed

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  19. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information.

  20. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    PubMed

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  1. Leaf morphological and physiological adjustments to the spectrally selective shade imposed by anthocyanins in Prunus cerasifera.

    PubMed

    Kyparissis, A; Grammatikopoulos, G; Manetas, Y

    2007-06-01

    Prunus domestica L. has green leaves, whereas Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. atropurpurea has red leaves due to the presence of mesophyll anthocyanins. We compared morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of these species, which were sampled from shoots grafted in pairs on P. domestica rootstocks, each pair comprising one shoot of each species. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) anthocyanins protect red leaves against photoinhibition; and (2) red leaves display shade characteristics because of light attenuation by anthocyanins. Parameters were measured seasonally, during a period of increasing water stress, which caused a similar drop in shoot water potential in each species. As judged by predawn measurements of maximum PSII yield, chronic photoinhibition did not develop in either species and, despite the anthocyanic screen, the red leaves of P. cerasifera displayed lower light-adapted PSII yields and higher non-photochemical quenching than the green leaves of P. domestica. Thus, it appears that, in this system, anthocyanins afford little photoprotection. As predicted by the shade acclimation hypothesis, red leaves were thinner and had a lower stomatal frequency, area- based CO2 assimilation rate, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll a:b ratio than green leaves. However, red leaves were similar to green leaves in conductivity to water vapor diffusion, dry-mass-based chlorophyll concentrations and carotenoid:chlorophyll ratios. The data for red leaves indicate adaptations to a green-depleted, red-enriched shade, rather than a neutral or canopy-like shade. Thus, green light attenuation by anthocyanins may impose a limitation on leaf thickness. Moreover, the selective depletion of light at wavelengths that are preferentially absorbed by PSII and chlorophyll b may lead to adjustments in chlorophyll pigment ratios to compensate for the uneven spectral distribution of internal light. The apparent photosynthetic cost associated with lost photons

  2. The NIa-Pro protein of Turnip mosaic virus improves growth and reproduction of the aphid vector, Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Yang, Chunling; Nanduri, Ananya C; De Jong, Hannah N; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Many plant viruses depend on aphids and other phloem-feeding insects for transmission within and among host plants. Thus, viruses may promote their own transmission by manipulating plant physiology to attract aphids and increase aphid reproduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) prefer to settle on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and fecundity on virus-infected N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is higher than on uninfected controls. TuMV infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense, and increases the amount of free amino acids, the major source of nitrogen for aphids. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, 10 TuMV genes were over-expressed in plants to determine their effects on aphid reproduction. Production of a single TuMV protein, nuclear inclusion a-protease domain (NIa-Pro), increased M. persicae reproduction on both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Similar to the effects that are observed during TuMV infection, NIa-Pro expression alone increased aphid arrestment, suppressed callose deposition and increased the abundance of free amino acids. Together, these results suggest a function for the TuMV NIa-Pro protein in manipulating the physiology of host plants. By attracting aphid vectors and promoting their reproduction, TuMV may influence plant-aphid interactions to promote its own transmission. PMID:24372679

  3. Unexpected effects of chitinases on the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) when delivered via transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum Linné) and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saguez, Julien; Hainez, Romaric; Cherqui, Anas; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Jeanpierre, Haude; Lebon, Gaël; Noiraud, Nathalie; Beaujean, Antony; Jouanin, Lise; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    With the aim of producing insect-resistant potato plants, internode explants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée were transformed with an Agrobacterium strain C58pMP90 containing an insect (Phaedon cochleariae: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) chitinase gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as selectable marker, both under the control of the viral CaMV 35S promoter. Three transformed potato lines (CH3, CH5 and CH25) exhibiting the highest chitinolytic activities were selected for feeding experiments with the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. Aphids fed on transgenic potato plants showed a reduced pre-reproductive period and an enhanced daily fecundity. Transgenic potato lines did not affect nymphal mortality, but improved several biological parameters related to aphid population's growth. Artificial diets were used to provide active (1, 10, 100 and 500 microg ml(-1)) and inactive (500 microg ml(-1)) bacterial (Serratia marcescens) chitinase to M. persicae. These compounds increased nymph survival at all active chitinase doses when compared to the control diet, while inactive chitinase did not. Although the pre-reproductive period was slightly shortened and the daily fecundity slightly higher, active and inactive chitinase provided as food led a reduction from 1 to 1.5 day population's doubling time. Therefore chitinase activity was responsible for the probiotic effects on aphids. Our results question the relevance of a chitinase-based strategy in the context of potato culture protection.

  4. The NIa-Pro protein of Turnip mosaic virus improves growth and reproduction of the aphid vector, Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Yang, Chunling; Nanduri, Ananya C; De Jong, Hannah N; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Many plant viruses depend on aphids and other phloem-feeding insects for transmission within and among host plants. Thus, viruses may promote their own transmission by manipulating plant physiology to attract aphids and increase aphid reproduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) prefer to settle on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and fecundity on virus-infected N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is higher than on uninfected controls. TuMV infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense, and increases the amount of free amino acids, the major source of nitrogen for aphids. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, 10 TuMV genes were over-expressed in plants to determine their effects on aphid reproduction. Production of a single TuMV protein, nuclear inclusion a-protease domain (NIa-Pro), increased M. persicae reproduction on both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Similar to the effects that are observed during TuMV infection, NIa-Pro expression alone increased aphid arrestment, suppressed callose deposition and increased the abundance of free amino acids. Together, these results suggest a function for the TuMV NIa-Pro protein in manipulating the physiology of host plants. By attracting aphid vectors and promoting their reproduction, TuMV may influence plant-aphid interactions to promote its own transmission.

  5. Inhibitory activity on type 2 diabetes and hypertension key-enzymes, and antioxidant capacity of Veronica persica phenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Sharifi-Rad, J; Iriti, M; Varoni, E M; Razazi, S

    2016-05-30

    Veronica genus (Plantaginaceae) is broadly distributed in different habitats. In this study, the inhibitory activity of free soluble and conjugated phenolic extracts of Veronica persica on key enzymes associated to type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme, ACE) was assessed, as well as their antioxidant power. Our results showed that both the extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, free phenolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 532.97 µg/mL), whereas conjugated phenolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited α-amylase (IC50 489.73 µg/mL) and ACE (290.06 µg/mL). The enzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Anyway, the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE, along with the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic-rich extracts, could represent a putative mechanism through which V. persica exerts its antidiabetes and antihypertension effects.

  6. Pathogenicity of conidia-based preparations of entomopathogenic fungi against the greenhouse pest aphids Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, and Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Jandricic, S E; Filotas, M; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

    2014-05-01

    Seeking new isolates of entomopathogenic fungi with greater virulence against greenhouse aphid pests than those currently registered in North America for control of these insects, single-dose screening assays of 44 selected fungal isolates and 4 commercially available strains were conducted against first-instar nymphs of Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. The assays identified a number of Beauveria and Metarhizium isolates with virulence equal to or greater than that of the commercial strains against the nymphal aphids, but none exhibited exceptionally high virulence. Virulence of Isaria isolates was unexpectedly low (<31% mortality at doses>1000conidia/mm(2)). In dose-response assays, Beauveria ARSEF 5493 proved most virulent against M. persicae and A. gossypii; however, LC50s of this isolate did not differ significantly from those of B. bassiana commercial strain JW-1. Dose-response assays were also conducted with Aulacorthum solani, the first reported evaluations of Beauveria and Metarhizium against this pest. The novel isolate Metarhizium 5471 showed virulence⩾that of Beauveria 5493 in terms of LC25 and LC50, but 5493 produced a steeper dose response (slope). Additional tests showed that adult aphids are more susceptible than nymphs to fungal infection but confirmed that infection has a limited pre-mortem effect on aphid reproduction. Effects of assay techniques and the potential of fungal pathogens as aphid-control agents are discussed.

  7. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae. PMID:26329800

  8. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis. PMID:23976873

  9. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    PubMed

    Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  10. Identification of a recently active Prunus-specific non-autonomous Mutator element with considerable genome shaping force.

    PubMed

    Halász, Júlia; Kodad, Ossama; Hegedűs, Attila

    2014-07-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are known to contribute to the evolution of plants, but only limited information is available for MITEs in the Prunus genome. We identified a MITE that has been named Falling Stones, FaSt. All structural features (349-bp size, 82-bp terminal inverted repeats and 9-bp target site duplications) are consistent with this MITE being a putative member of the Mutator transposase superfamily. FaSt showed a preferential accumulation in the short AT-rich segments of the euchromatin region of the peach genome. DNA sequencing and pollination experiments have been performed to confirm that the nested insertion of FaSt into the S-haplotype-specific F-box gene of apricot resulted in the breakdown of self-incompatibility (SI). A bioinformatics-based survey of the known Rosaceae and other genomes and a newly designed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay verified the Prunoideae-specific occurrence of FaSt elements. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a recent activity of FaSt in the Prunus genome. The occurrence of a nested insertion in the apricot genome further supports the recent activity of FaSt in response to abiotic stress conditions. This study reports on a presumably active non-autonomous Mutator element in Prunus that exhibits a major indirect genome shaping force through inducing loss-of-function mutation in the SI locus.

  11. Differential induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression in response to in vitro callus unions of Prunus spp.

    PubMed

    Pina, Ana; Errea, Pilar

    2008-05-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, which play a prominent role in graft union formation, including the marked effects of their accumulation in incompatibility response. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the abundance of PAL mRNA during graft union development. Partial cDNA clones encoding the enzyme were isolated from in vitro callus tissue in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Moniqui and the plum rootstock Marianna 2624 (Prunus munsoniana x Prunus cerasifera). The deduced partial amino acid sequence showed high homology with PAL genes from other plant species. We monitored PAL expression 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after the establishment of in vitro callus unions. The levels of PAL mRNA increased 5 days after grafting in both compatible and incompatible unions. Nevertheless, significant differences were observed at the transcript level through both types of combinations from the second week. The results showed a higher level of PAL transcription in graft unions of incompatible partners, where a lack of adaptation between stock and scion takes place. The level of scion-stock compatibility was related to the PAL expression pattern. In addition, cell walls of the callus cells were not stained by phloroglucinol-HCl, indicating that the increased PAL expression did not result in the formation of lignin. However, staining with Naturstoff reagent A confirmed the highest accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolic compounds at the graft interface of incompatible unions.

  12. Tissue Level Compartmentation of (R)-Amygdalin and Amygdalin Hydrolase Prevents Large-Scale Cyanogenesis in Undamaged Prunus Seeds.

    PubMed

    Poulton, J. E.; Li, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    Plum (Prunus domestica) seeds, which contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin and lesser amounts of the corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, release the respiratory toxin HCN upon tissue disruption. Amygdalin hydrolase (AH) and prunasin hydrolase (PH), two specific [beta]-glucosidases responsible for hydrolysis of these glucosides, were purified to near homogeneity by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography. Both proteins appear as polypeptides with molecular masses of 60 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but they exhibit different isoelectric points (PH, 5.6-6.0; AH, 7.8-8.2). AH and PH were localized within mature plum seeds by tissue printing, histochemistry, and silver-enhanced immunogold labeling. As was previously shown in black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds (E.Swain, C.P. Li, J.E. Poulton [1992] Plant Physiol 100: 291-300), AH and PH are restricted to protein bodies of specific procambial cells and are absent from the cotyledonary parenchyma, bundle sheath, and endosperm cells. In contrast, the cyanogenic glycosides in both plum and black cherry seeds, which were detected by tissue printing, occur solely in the cotyledonary parenchyma and are absent from the procambium and endosperm. It is concluded that tissue level compartmentation prevents large-scale cyanoglycoside hydrolysis in intact Prunus seeds. PMID:12232058

  13. Genetic linkage maps of two apricot cultivars ( Prunus armeniaca L.) compared with the almond Texas x peach Earlygold reference map for Prunus.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P; Hagen, L S; Arus, P; Audergon, J M

    2004-04-01

    Several genetic linkage maps have been published in recent years on different Prunus species suggesting a high level of resemblance among the genomes of these species. One of these maps (Joobeur et al., Theor Appl Genet 97:1034-1041 [(1998); Aranzana et al., Theor Appl Genet 106:819-825 (2002b)] constructed from interspecific almond Texas x peach Earlygold F(2) progeny (TxE) was considered to be saturated. We selected 142 F(1) apricot hybrids obtained from a cross between P. armeniaca cvs. Polonais and Stark Early Orange for mapping. Eighty-eight RFLP probes and 20 peach SSR primer pairs used for the 'reference map' were selected to cover the eight linkage groups. One P. davidiana and an additional 14 apricot simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mapped for the F(1) progeny. Eighty-three amplified fragment length polymorphisms were added in order to increase the density of the maps. Separate maps were made for each parent according to the 'double pseudo-testcross' model of analysis. A total of 141 markers were placed on the map of Stark Early Orange, defining a total length of 699 cM, and 110 markers were placed on the map of Polonais, defining a total length of 538 cM. Twenty-one SSRs and 18 restriction placed in the TxE map were heterozygous in both parents (anchor loci), thereby enabling the alignment of the eight homologous linkage groups of each map. Except for 15 markers, most markers present in each linkage group in apricot were aligned with those in TxE map, indicating a high degree of colinearity between the apricot genome and the peach and almond genomes. These results suggest a strong homology of the genomes between these species and probably between Prunophora and Amygdalus sub-genera.

  14. Development a of multiplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Asian prunus viruses, plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus, and peach latent mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian prunus viruses (APV 1, APV 2 and APV 3) and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV) are two recently described viruses infecting Prunus spp., and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a viroid that infects the same species. A single-tube multiplex, TaqMan real-time RT-PCR as...

  15. Experimental epizootiology of Zoophthora anhuiensis (Entomophthorales) against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) with a description of a modified Gompertz model for aphid epizootics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping

    2003-11-01

    Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t

  16. Fitness trade-off in peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae) between insecticide resistance and vulnerability to parasitoid attack at several spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Foster, S P; Denholm, I; Poppy, G M; Thompson, R; Powell, W

    2011-12-01

    Insecticide-resistant clones of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), have previously been shown to have a reduced response to aphid alarm pheromone compared to susceptible ones. The resulting vulnerability of susceptible and resistant aphids to attack by the primary endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), was investigated across three spatial scales. These scales ranged from aphids confined on individual leaves exposed to single female parasitoids, to aphids on groups of whole plants exposed to several parasitoids. In all experiments, significantly fewer aphids from insecticide-susceptible clones became parasitised compared to insecticide-resistant aphids. Investigations of aphid movement showed at the largest spatial scale that more susceptible aphids than resistant aphids moved from their inoculation leaves to other leaves on the same plant after exposure to parasitoids. The findings imply that parasitoids, and possibly other natural enemies, can influence the evolution and dynamics of insecticide resistance through pleiotropic effects of resistance genes on important behavioural traits.

  17. Effects of Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica mouth rinses on the force degradation of elastic chains and NiTi coil springs

    PubMed Central

    Javanmardi, Zahra; Salehi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastomeric chains and NiTi coil springs are two major traction aids in orthodontic tooth movements. Force degradation occurs over time in both groups, with higher percentages in elastic chains. The effects of environmental factors and some mouth rinses on this force decay have been previously studied. No study has been performed to evaluate the effect of current popular mouth rinses such as Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica on this force degradation. Methods. Forty pieces of elastic chains consisting of 5 loops (Ortho Technology, USA) and 40 NiTi closed coil springs (3M Unitek, Germany) were divided into 4 groups: control (artificial saliva), Orthokin mouthwash, Sensikin mouthwash and Persica mouthwash. All the groups were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 3 weeks. In the test groups, the samples were immersed in mouthwash twice a day. Force degradation was measured at 5 time intervals: baseline, 1 hour, 24 hours, 1 week and 3 weeks, using a digital force gauge. Repeated-measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results. Force decay occurred over time in both elastic chainand coil spring groups. In elastic chain group, after 3 weeks, Orthokin mouth rinse had significantly lower force degradation compared to other groups (P < 0.05) and in coil spring group there were no statistically significant differences in force degradation after 3 weeks between the subgroups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based the results of this study, these three mouthwashes did not increase the force degradation of orthodontic traction aids under study. PMID:27429726

  18. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  19. Specific loops D, E and F of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta1 subunit may confer imidacloprid selectivity between Myzus persicae and its predatory enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; You, Zhiqi; Yao, Xiangmei; Cheng, Jiagao; Liu, Zewen; Lin, Kejian

    2009-11-01

    One nicotinic acetylcholine receptor non-alpha subunit was cloned from the pond wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important predatory enemy of some insect pests with agricultural importance, such as the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. The subunit shows high amino acid identities to insect beta1 subunits (74-78%), and was denoted as Ppbeta1. Although high identities are found between Ppbeta1 and insect beta1 subunits, amino acid differences are found within loops D, E and F, important segments contributing to ligand binding. The effects of amino acid differences within these loops were evaluated by introducing loops of insect or spider beta1 subunits into rat beta2 subunit and co-expressing with insect alpha subunit. The corresponding regions of rat beta2 chimera beta2(Mpbeta1) (beta2 with loops D, E and F from M. persicae beta1 subunit Mpbeta1) were replaced by loops D, E and F of Ppbeta1 singly or together to construct different chimeras. When these chimeras were co-expressed with insect Nlalpha1, it was found that the replacement of loops D, E and F of beta2(Mpbeta1) by that of Ppbeta1 resulted in a right-ward shift of the imidacloprid dose-response curves, reflecting increases in EC(50), compared to Nlalpha1/beta2(Mpbeta1). By contrast, the influences on ACh potency were minimal. The further study showed that R81Q, N137G and F190W differences, within loops D, E and F respectively, contributed mainly to these sensitivity changes. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying selectivity of neonicotinoids against insects over spiders.

  20. Effects of Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica mouth rinses on the force degradation of elastic chains and NiTi coil springs.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Zahra; Salehi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastomeric chains and NiTi coil springs are two major traction aids in orthodontic tooth movements. Force degradation occurs over time in both groups, with higher percentages in elastic chains. The effects of environmental factors and some mouth rinses on this force decay have been previously studied. No study has been performed to evaluate the effect of current popular mouth rinses such as Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica on this force degradation. Methods . Forty pieces of elastic chains consisting of 5 loops (Ortho Technology, USA) and 40 NiTi closed coil springs (3M Unitek, Germany) were divided into 4 groups: control (artificial saliva), Orthokin mouthwash, Sensikin mouthwash and Persica mouthwash. All the groups were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 3 weeks. In the test groups, the samples were immersed in mouthwash twice a day. Force degradation was measured at 5 time intervals: baseline, 1 hour, 24 hours, 1 week and 3 weeks, using a digital force gauge. Repeated-measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results. Force decay occurred over time in both elastic chainand coil spring groups. In elastic chain group, after 3 weeks, Orthokin mouth rinse had significantly lower force degradation compared to other groups (P < 0.05) and in coil spring group there were no statistically significant differences in force degradation after 3 weeks between the subgroups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based the results of this study, these three mouthwashes did not increase the force degradation of orthodontic traction aids under study. PMID:27429726

  1. Temperature-Dependent Development of the Two-Spotted Ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata, on the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae, and a Factitious Food Under Constant Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Mohammad. Amin.; Tirry, Luc; Arbab, Abbas; Clercq, Patrick De

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a natural enemy to tolerate a wide temperature range is a critical factor in the evaluation of its suitability as a biological control agent. In the current study, temperature-dependent development of the two-spotted ladybeetle A. bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and a factitious food consisting of moist bee pollen and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs under six constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 35° C. On both diets, the developmental rate of A. bipunctata showed a positive linear relationship with temperature in the range of 15–30° C, but the ladybird failed to develop to the adult stage at 35° C. Total immature mortality in the temperature range of 15–30° C ranged from 24.30–69.40% and 40.47–76.15% on the aphid prey and factitious food, respectively. One linear and two nonlinear models were fitted to the data. The linear model successfully predicted the lower developmental thresholds and thermal constants of the predator. The non-linear models of Lactin and Brière overestimated the upper developmental thresholds of A. bipunctata on both diets. Furthermore, in some cases, there were marked differences among models in estimates of the lower developmental threshold (tmin). Depending on the model, tmin values for total development ranged from 10.06 to 10.47° C and from 9.39 to 11.31° C on M. persicae and factitious food, respectively. Similar thermal constants of 267.9DD (on the aphid diet) and 266.3DD (on the factitious food) were calculated for the total development of A. bipunctata, indicating the nutritional value of the factitious food. PMID:20879918

  2. Preference and Performance of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Winter-Adapted Canola.

    PubMed

    Jessie, W P; Giles, K L; Rebek, E J; Payton, M E; Jessie, C N; McCornack, B P

    2015-06-01

    In the southern plains of the United States, winter-adapted canola (Brassica napus L.) is a recently introduced annual oilseed crop that has rapidly increased in hectares during the past 10 yr. Winter canola fields are infested annually with populations of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), and these Brassica specialists are known to sequester plant volatiles from host plants, producing a chemical defense system against predators. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is also common in winter canola fields, but as a generalist herbivore, does not sequester plant compounds. These three aphid species are expected to affect predator survival and development in very different ways. We conducted laboratory studies to 1) determine whether Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) larvae demonstrate feeding preferences among winter canola aphids and 2) describe the suitability of these prey species. Predators demonstrated no significant preference among prey, and each aphid species was suitable for predator survival to the adult stage. However, prey species significantly affected development times and adult weights of each predator species. Overall, predator development was delayed and surviving adults weighed less when provided with L. erysimi or B. brassicae, which sequestered high levels of indole glucosinolates from their host plants. Our results indicate that although common winter canola aphids were suitable prey for H. convergens and C. carnea, qualitative differences in nutritional suitability exist between Brassica-specialist aphids and the generalist M. persicae. These differences appear to be influenced by levels of sequestered plant compounds that are toxic to aphid predators. PMID:26313995

  3. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  4. Effects of Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica mouth rinses on the force degradation of elastic chains and NiTi coil springs.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Zahra; Salehi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastomeric chains and NiTi coil springs are two major traction aids in orthodontic tooth movements. Force degradation occurs over time in both groups, with higher percentages in elastic chains. The effects of environmental factors and some mouth rinses on this force decay have been previously studied. No study has been performed to evaluate the effect of current popular mouth rinses such as Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica on this force degradation. Methods . Forty pieces of elastic chains consisting of 5 loops (Ortho Technology, USA) and 40 NiTi closed coil springs (3M Unitek, Germany) were divided into 4 groups: control (artificial saliva), Orthokin mouthwash, Sensikin mouthwash and Persica mouthwash. All the groups were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 3 weeks. In the test groups, the samples were immersed in mouthwash twice a day. Force degradation was measured at 5 time intervals: baseline, 1 hour, 24 hours, 1 week and 3 weeks, using a digital force gauge. Repeated-measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results. Force decay occurred over time in both elastic chainand coil spring groups. In elastic chain group, after 3 weeks, Orthokin mouth rinse had significantly lower force degradation compared to other groups (P < 0.05) and in coil spring group there were no statistically significant differences in force degradation after 3 weeks between the subgroups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based the results of this study, these three mouthwashes did not increase the force degradation of orthodontic traction aids under study.

  5. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  6. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  7. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  8. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-03-16

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v), solvent B: dichloromethane) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%-24.2%) in both extracts (dominant in solvent B) and coumarin (0.3%-2.4%) from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A) and headspace (0.9%-1.8%) were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey's botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  9. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  10. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed. PMID:21609316

  11. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Malsawmtluangi, C; Thanzami, K; Lalhlenmawia, H; Selvan, Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2014-08-01

    The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates was investigated in this study. The total carbohydrate and protein content were found to be 73.72±2.44% and 2.33±1.25%, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharide composition by HPLC-RI system after acid hydrolysis of the gum showed the presence of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose. The molecular weight of the gum was also found to be 5.55×10(5)Da. FTIR and DSC studies showed characteristics typical of a natural polysaccharide. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow and the gum was also found to show pH dependent swelling. Determination of the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate the gum possess fairly good powder flow property. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining DPPH and hydroxyl scavenging activities, reducing power and total phenolic contents which showed the gum possess antioxidant property.

  12. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation.

  13. Salinity Induced Limitations on Photosynthesis in Prunus salicina, a Deciduous Tree Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Seemann, Jeffrey R.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    The response of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to salinization in 19 year old Prunus salicina was evaluated under field conditions for a 3 year period. The observed decline in CO2 assimilation capacity was apparently related to increasing leaf chloride (Cl−) content, and independent of changes in leaf carbohydrate status. The response of net CO2 assimilation (A) to leaf intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) indicated that the reduction in the capacity for A with Cl− was not the result of decreased stomatal conductance but a consequence of nonstomatal inhibition. The nonstomatal limitations to CO2 assimilation capacity, as determined by the response of A to Ci and biochemical assay, were related to a decline in the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubpcase) and the pool size of triose phosphate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (Rubp) and phosphoglycerate with increasing salinity. Lack of agreement between the initial slope of the A to Ci response curve and Rubpcase activity suggests the occurrence of heterogeneous stomatal apertures with the high salinity treatment (28 millimolar). Prolonged exposure to chloride salts appeared to increase the Rubp or Pi regeneration limitation, decrease Rubpcase activity and reduce leaf chlorophyll content. Observed changes in the biochemical components of CO2 fixation may, in turn, affect total leaf carbohydrates, which also declined with time and salinity. The reduction in Rubpcase activity was apparently a consequence of a reduced Rubpcase protein level rather than either a regulatory or inhibitory effect. PMID:16667594

  14. Self-compatibility of 'Katy' apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with pollen-part mutations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gu, Chao; Du, Yu-Hu; Wu, Hua-Qing; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Liu, Ning; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars originated in China display a typical S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). 'Katy', a natural self-compatible cultivar belonging to the European ecotype group, was used as a useful material for breeding new cultivars with high frequency of self-compatibility by hybridizing with Chinese native cultivars. In this work, the pollen-S genes (S-haplotype-specific F-box gene, or SFB gene) of 'Katy' were first identified as SFB₁ and SFB (8), and the S-genotype was determined as S₁ S₈. Genetic analysis of 'Katy' progenies under controlled pollination revealed that the stylar S₁-RNase and S₈-RNase have a normal function in rejecting wild-type pollen with the same S-haplotype, while the pollen grains carrying either the SFB₁ or the SFB₈ gene are both able to overcome the incompatibility barrier. However, the observed segregation ratios of the S-genotype did not fit the expected ratios under the assumption that the pollen-part mutations are linked to the S-locus. Moreover, alterations in the SFB₁ and SFB₈ genes and pollen-S duplications were not detected. These results indicated that the breakdown of SI in 'Katy' occurred in pollen, and other factors not linked to the S-locus, which caused a loss of pollen S-activity. These findings support a hypothesis that modifying factors other than the S-locus are required for GSI in apricot.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels.

    PubMed

    Yiğit, D; Yiğit, N; Mavi, A

    2009-04-01

    The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69%) and total phenolic content (7.9 +/- 0.2 microg/mL) were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey) and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value). Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  16. Characterization and mapping of NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Soriano, J M; Vilanova, S; Romero, C; Llácer, G; Badenes, M L

    2005-03-01

    Genomic DNA sequences sharing homology with the NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) resistance genes were isolated and cloned from apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) using a PCR approach with degenerate primers designed from conserved regions of the NBS domain. Restriction digestion and sequence analyses of the amplified fragments led to the identification of 43 unique amino acid sequences grouped into six families of resistance gene analogs (RGAs). All of the RGAs identified belong to the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) group of the plant disease resistance genes (R-genes). RGA-specific primers based on non-conserved regions of the NBS domain were developed from the consensus sequences of each RGA family. These primers were used to develop amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-RGA markers by means of an AFLP-modified procedure where one standard primer is substituted by an RGA-specific primer. Using this method, 27 polymorphic markers, six of which shared homology with the TIR class of the NBS-LRR R-genes, were obtained from 17 different primer combinations. Of these 27 markers, 16 mapped in an apricot genetic map previously constructed from the self-pollination of the cultivar Lito. The development of AFLP-RGA markers may prove to be useful for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning of R-genes in apricot.

  17. Differential expression levels of aroma-related genes during ripening of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Troncoso, Sebastián; Gudenschwager, Orianne; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Moya-León, María A; Defilippi, Bruno G

    2009-05-01

    Fruit aroma is a complex trait, particularly in terms of the number of different biosynthetic pathways involved, the complexity of the final metabolites, and their regulation. In order to understand the underlying biochemical processes involved in apricot aroma, four cDNAs (Pa-aat, EU784138; Pa-adhEU395433; Pa-pdcEU395434; and Pa-loxEU439430) encoding an alcohol acyl transferase (AAT), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and lipoxygenase (LOX), respectively, were isolated and characterized at four stages of maturity in Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Modesto. We observed a reduction in aldehyde and alcohol production between early-harvested fruit and late-harvest fruit, concomitant with an increase in ester production. qPCR analyses showed that the expression levels of the adh gene and the lox gene stayed constant at all stages. Interestingly, aat levels showed a sharp increase in the late-harvest stages concurrent with the changes observed in ester levels. The significance of these changes in relation to aroma production in apricot is discussed.

  18. Distribution of amygdalin in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds studied by Raman microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Cervellati, Claudia; Paetz, Christian; Schneider, Bernd; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of several plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Cyanogenic glycosides can be specifically probed by Raman spectroscopy due to an inherent nitrile group which shows a well-resolved band near 2245 cm(-1). In the current study the subcellular distribution of amygdalin in thin apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seed sections is probed by high-resolution Raman imaging with a step size of 2.5 μm. Further, Raman images and line maps were collected from four apricot seeds with step sizes between 30 and 70 μm. The data were processed by functional group mapping and the spectral unmixing algorithm vertex component analysis. Spectral contributions of amygdalin, lipids, and cellulose were identified. One seed had low amygdalin content in its center and higher content toward its epidermis. The other three specimens showed different distributions of amygdalin, with highest concentration in the center and local concentration spots throughout the seed. We conclude from these preliminary results on Raman imaging in apricot seeds that amygdalin is unevenly distributed and its location does not follow the same pattern for all seeds. The observed biological variability of the amygdalin distribution cannot yet be explained satisfactorily and requires further investigation.

  19. Purification and biochemical characteristics of pectinesterase from Malatya apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Ozler, Aynur; Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule

    2008-01-01

    Pectinesterase (PE) in Malatya apricot pulp (Prunus armeniaca L.) was extracted and purified through (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and DEAE-Sephadex gel filtration chromatography. The samples obtained from the dialysis procedure, named partially purified enzyme, were used for characterization of the apricot pectinesterase. The effect of various factors such as pH, temperature, heat, and storage stability on the partially purified apricot PE enzyme was investigated. Optimum pH value was 9.0 for PE with 1% pectin in 0.1 N NaCl (w/v). The optimum temperature for apricot PE was found to be 60 degrees C on standard analysis conditions. Heat inactivation studies showed a decrease in enzymatic activity at temperatures above 70 degrees C. Km and V(max) values were 0.77 mM and 1.75 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) for apricot PE. Five inhibitors were tested in the study; the most effective inhibitor was found to be sodium carbonate (100% inhibition). The order of inhibitory effectiveness was: Na(2)CO(3), iodine, lauril sulphate, AgNO(3), EDTA. Thermal inactivation data indicated that apparent activation energy with pectin substrate was 2.96 kcal mol(-1) for the enzyme. Ascorbic acid, CaCl(2), and KCl showed activatory effect on the apricot PE enzyme.

  20. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    PubMed

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  1. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    PubMed

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations.

  2. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana

    PubMed Central

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-01-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations. PMID:24849171

  3. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    PubMed

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  4. Diversity of phenolic profiles in the fruit skin of Prunus domestica plums and related species.

    PubMed

    Treutter, Dieter; Wang, Diwei; Farag, Mohamed A; Baires, Giselle D Argueta; Rühmann, Susanne; Neumüller, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The fruits of the European plum Prunus domestica exhibit a great diversity in appearance including skin colors. This study attempts to elucidate the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid profiles of 28 plum varieties belonging to P. domestica and related species as well as hybrids. A total of 49 phenolic compounds extracted from the fruit skin were quantitatively evaluated in an HPLC-DAD-based metabolomic study. The total phenolic contents of the cultivars varied among 0.4-29.9 mg/g fresh weight. The predominant anthocyanins were glycosides of cyanidin and peonidin, and rutin was the principal flavonol, whereas neochlorogenic acid and n-chlorogenic acid were the main hydroxycinnamic acids. Aside from these major phenolic classes, a group of tentatively identified flavones and several acylated flavonoids were also found. Principal component analysis revealed that anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids contributed most to variety separation. The heterogeneity between the different varieties was also assessed using hierarchical cluster analysis of sample phenolics profile. A simple separation of species could not be found confirming the close relationship among them.

  5. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    PubMed

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Zhong; Miao, Xingjun; Zhou, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 252 accessions from 21 Prunus sibirica L. populations were investigated using 10 ISSR, SSR, and SRAP markers. The results suggest that the entire population has a relatively high level of genetic diversity, with populations HR and MY showing very high diversity. A low level of inter-population genetic differentiation and a high level of intra-population genetic differentiation was found, which is supported by a moderate level of gene flow, and largely attributable to the cross-pollination and self-incompatibility reproductive system. A STRUCTURE (model-based program) analysis revealed that the 21 populations can be divided into two main groups, mainly based on geographic differences and genetic exchanges. The entire wild Siberia apricot population in China could be divided into two subgroups, including 107 accessions in subgroup (SG) 1 and 147 accessions in SG 2. A Mantel test revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices, and there was a very significant positive correlation among three marker datasets. Overall, we recommend a combination of conservation measures, with ex situ and in situ conservation that includes the construction of a core germplasm repository and the implement of in situ conservation for populations HR, MY, and ZY. PMID:24384840

  7. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, S; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Hardeland, R; Reiter, R J

    2001-10-01

    The antioxidant melatonin was recently identified in a variety of edible plants and seeds in high concentrations. In plants, as in animals, melatonin is believed to function as a free radical scavenger and possibly in photoperiodism. In this study, melatonin was detected and quantified in fresh-frozen Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both cherry species contain high levels of melatonin compared to the melatonin concentrations in the blood of mammals. Montmorency cherries (13.46 +/- 1.10 ng/g) contain approximately 6 times more melatonin than do Balaton cherries (2.06 +/- 0.17 ng/g). Neither the orchard of origin nor the time of harvest influenced the amount of melatonin in fresh cherries. The implication of the current findings is that consuming cherries could be an important source of dietary melatonin inasmuch as melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally. Also, previously published data and the results presented here show that melatonin is not only endogenously produced but also present in the diet. PMID:11600041

  8. Prunus pananensis (Rosaceae), a New Species from Pan'an of Central Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Zhou, Ying-Ying; Tang, Mei-Qin; Fu, Meng-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Prunus pananensis Z. L. Chen, W. J. Chen & X. F. Jin, a new species of Rosaceae from central Zhejiang, China is described and illustrated. Micromorphological characters of the indumentum on young shoots, leaves, petioles and peduncles, including scanning electron microscope [SEM] images, are provided. This new species is morphologically similar to P. schneiderianae Koehne in having its young shoots, petioles and pedicels all densely villose, but differs in having bracts persistent, styles glabrous, stipules 8–9 mm long, stamens 28–30 of per flower, and drupes glabrous. The new species is also similar to P. discoidea (Yü & C. L. Li) Yü & C. L. Li ex Z. Wei & Y. B. Chang in having 2 or 3 flowers in an umbellate inflorescence, and bracts persistent and marginally glandular, but it differs in having young shoots and petioles densely covered with yellowish-brown villose trichomes; leaves rounded or slightly cordate at base, the mid-ribs and lateral veins abaxially densely covered with yellowish-brown villose trichomes; and hypanthium ca. 3 mm long, shorter than sepals. The atpB-rbcL and trnL-F intergenic chloroplast spacers are selected for identification of the new and its similar species. PMID:23349780

  9. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  10. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. Nutritional value and volatile compounds of black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Aguilar, Leticia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A

    2015-02-17

    Prunus serotina (black cherry), commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Aglès, M.; Dalmau, E.; Fernández, C.; Felipe, A.

    1996-01-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests. PMID:19277184

  13. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile. PMID:26310798

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of 'Angeleno' and 'Lamoon' Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina).

    PubMed

    González, Máximo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Salazar, Erika; Silva, Herman; Carrasco, Basilio

    2016-09-01

    Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which is an economically important stone fruit around the world. Currently, Japanese plum breeding programs combine traditional breeding and plant physiology strategies with genetic and genomic analysis. In order to understand the flavonoid pathway regulation and to develop molecular markers associated to the fuit skin color (EST-SSRs), we performed a next generation sequencing based on Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 22.4 GB and 21 GB raw data were obtained from 'Lamoon' and 'Angeleno' respectively, corresponding to 85,404,726 raw reads to 'Lamoon' and 79,781,666 to 'Angeleno'. A total of 139,775,975 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp) and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red) and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie. PMID:27408806

  15. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in "Tardy Nonpareil." Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering.

  16. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  17. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  18. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  19. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of 'Angeleno' and 'Lamoon' Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina).

    PubMed

    González, Máximo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Salazar, Erika; Silva, Herman; Carrasco, Basilio

    2016-09-01

    Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which is an economically important stone fruit around the world. Currently, Japanese plum breeding programs combine traditional breeding and plant physiology strategies with genetic and genomic analysis. In order to understand the flavonoid pathway regulation and to develop molecular markers associated to the fuit skin color (EST-SSRs), we performed a next generation sequencing based on Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 22.4 GB and 21 GB raw data were obtained from 'Lamoon' and 'Angeleno' respectively, corresponding to 85,404,726 raw reads to 'Lamoon' and 79,781,666 to 'Angeleno'. A total of 139,775,975 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp) and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red) and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  1. Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; da Silva, Juliana F Moreira; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Janisiewicz, Wojciech J

    2012-10-01

    Enophytic fungi were isolated from plum (Prunus domestica) leaves, identified with ITS1 and ITS4 primers, and their antagonistic activity was tested against Monilinia fructicola, which causes brown rot, blossom blight, and twig blight of stone fruits, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on a variety of fruit crops. The production of antifungal compounds was determined in agar-diffusion and volatile inverted-plate tests. A total of 163 fungi were recovered from 30 plum trees, representing 22 cultivars. Twenty-nine morphotypes were detected, but only 14 species were identified genetically. The most frequently isolated species was Phaeosphaeria nodorum, constituting 86.5% of the total isolates. Four isolates produced inhibitory volatiles to M. fructicola; however, no isolate produced volatiles inhibitory to C. gloeosporioides. The volatiles produced by these fungi were identified as ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, 2-propyn-1-ol, and 2-propenenitrile. The fungal volatiles inhibited growth and reduced width of the hyphae, and caused disintegration of the hyphal content. This is the first study describing fungal endophytes in stone fruits. The P. nodorum strains producing inhibitory volatiles could play a significant role in reduction of M. fructicola expansion in plum tissues. Potential of these strains for biological control of this pathogen on stone fruits warrants further investigation.

  2. Characterisation of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liyang; Bolling, Bradley W

    2014-04-01

    Stilbene polyphenols are present in some fruits and nuts, but their abundance in many foods, such as almonds, is unknown. Therefore, we characterised stilbenes from Nonpareil, Butte and Carmel almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties from California. UHPLC-MS conditions were optimised to resolve cis- and trans-resveratrol, d4-resveratrol, dienestrol, hexestrol, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pterostilbene, and resveratrol-3-β-glucoside (polydatin). Stilbenes were isolated from ethanolic almond extracts by solid-phase extraction and identified with UHPLC-MS by comparison of retention times, mass spectra, in-source CID spectra, and enzymatic hydrolysis to authentic standards. Polydatin was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19-8.52 μg/100 g almond. Piceatannol+oxyresveratrol was tentatively identified in almond blanch water, at 0.19-2.55 μg/100 g almond. Polydatin was concentrated in almond skins, which contained 95.6-97.5% of the total almond content. Therefore, almonds contain the stilbene class of polyphenols in addition to the previously identified proanthocyanidin, hydrolysable tannin, flavonoid, and phenolic acid classes.

  3. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  5. Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2006-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

  6. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen

    2007-10-17

    An exhaustive study of the phenolic composition of almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins was carried out in order to evaluate their potential application as a functional food ingredient. Using the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS technique, a total of 33 compounds corresponding to flavanols, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavanones, and other nonflavonoid compounds were identified. Peaks corresponding to another 23 structure-related compounds were also detected. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to characterize almond skin proanthocyanidins, revealing the existence of a series of A- and B-type procyanidins and propelargonidins up to heptamers, and A- and B-type prodelphinidins up to hexamers. Flavanols and flavonol glycosides were the most abundant phenolic compounds in almond skins, representing up to 38-57% and 14-35% of the total quantified phenolics, respectively. Due to their antioxidant properties, measured as oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 0.398-0.500 mmol Trolox/g, almond skins can be considered as a value-added byproduct for elaborating dietary antioxidant ingredients.

  7. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage.

  8. A population genetic analysis of chloroplast DNA in wild populations of Prunus avium L. in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, A; Martín, J P; Aguinagalde, I

    2001-10-01

    A population genetic study of chloroplast DNA was carried out in 23 wild populations of Prunus avium sampled from several European deciduous forests. An analysis of approx. 9% of the chloroplast genome detected mostly insertion-deletion mutations and one point mutation. In all, 16 haplotypes were detected. Six haplotypes were shared by two or more populations and 10 were unique. One haplotype was present in 21 of the 23 populations and 161 of 211 individuals, which probably indicates its ancient origin. The level of population subdivision, using unordered and ordered alleles, was low, GSTC=0.29 and NSTC=0.33, respectively. The difference between GSTC and NSTC is nonsignificant, indicating an absence of correlation between haplotype phylogeny and geographical distribution. The absence of phylogeographic structure in wild cherry may be attributed to long distance gene flow among populations by birds, animals and anthropogenic activities. The minimum-length spanning tree depicting the phylogenetic relationships between the haplotypes indicates the possible existence of two lineages represented by the haplotypes H3 and H4. The information about homogeneity or heterogeneity of populations in terms of haplotype constitution and detection of rare haplotypes in some populations will be useful for formulation of conservation and management strategies of wild cherry.

  9. Effect of temperature on pollen tube kinetics and dynamics in sweet cherry, Prunus avium (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Hedhly, A; Hormaza, J I; Herrero, M

    2004-04-01

    Prevailing ambient temperature during the reproductive phase is one of several important factors for seed and fruit set in different plant species, and its consequences on reproductive success may increase with global warming. The effect of temperature on pollen performance was evaluated in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), comparing as pollen donors two cultivars that differ in their adaptation to temperature. 'Sunburst' is a cultivar that originated in Canada with a pedigree of cultivars from Northern Europe, while 'Cristobalina' is a cultivar native to southeast Spain, adapted to warmer conditions. Temperature effects were tested either in controlled-temperature chambers or in the field in a plastic cage. In both genotypes, an increase in temperature reduced pollen germination, but accelerated pollen tube growth. However, a different genotypic response, which reflected the overall adaptation of the pollen donor, was obtained for pollen tube dynamics, expressed as the census of the microgametophyte population that successfully reached the base of the style. While both cultivars performed similarly at 20°C, the microgametophyte population was reduced at 30°C for Sunburst and at 10°C for Cristobalina. These results indicate a differential genotypic response to temperature during the reproductive phase, which could be important in terms of the time needed for a plant species to adapt to rapid temperature changes.

  10. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature. PMID:26320359

  11. Morphological changes in woody stem of Prunus jamasakura under simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoneyama, Emi; Ishimoto-Negishi, Yoko; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-01-01

    When the four-week-old woody stem of Prunus jamasakura was grown under simulated microgravity condition on a three-dimensional clinostat, it bent at growth, and width of its secondary xylem decreased due to the reduction of fiber cell numbers and a smaller microfibril angle in the secondary cell wall, as reported in our previous paper. Gravity induces the development of the secondary xylem that supports the stem upward against the action of gravity. In this study, morphological changes of the tissues and cells were microscopically observed. Disorder was found in the concentric structure of tissues that organize the stem. The radial arrangement of the cells was also disturbed in the secondary xylem, and in the secondary phloem secondary cell walls of the bast fiber cells were undeveloped. These findings suggest that differentiation and development of the secondary xylem and the bast fiber cells are strongly controlled by terrestrial gravity. These tissue and cells functions to support the stem under the action of gravity. Furthermore, clinorotation induced disorder in the straight joint of vessel elements and the lattice-like structure of radial parenchyma cells, which is responsible for water transportation and storage, respectively. Gravity is an essential factor for keeping the division and differentiation normal in woody stem.

  12. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-04-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. PMID:16668810

  13. Larvae of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea, inhibit cyanogenesis in Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    2008-03-01

    The larvae of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Dru.), though vulnerable to cyanide poisoning, consume the cyanogenic leaves of black cherry, Prunus serotina, without apparent harm. The cyanide contents of leaves, defensive regurgitant, the bolus, and frass were assayed by ion chromatography to determine the fate of the toxin in the caterpillar. Leaves collected in September, when the caterpillars were feeding, contained 1592+/-276 p.p.m. cyanide. Samples of dried frass obtained from caterpillars fed these leaves yielded 2868+/-552 p.p.m. cyanide. Frass extracted directly in NaOH yielded approximately five percent of the cyanide obtained from frass ground in buffer and distilled in Warburg flasks, indicating that cyanogenesis is largely inhibited as the bolus traverses the gut. This inhibition is attributable to the ability of the caterpillar to maintain a foregut environment in the presence of the bolus that is sufficiently alkaline to suppress the conversion of the plant cyanogen to cyanide. Although a number of caterpillars feed without harm on cyanogenic plants, this it the first shown to inhibit cyanogenesis in this manner. PMID:18281329

  14. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  15. Nutritional value and volatile compounds of black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Aguilar, Leticia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Prunus serotina (black cherry), commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25690299

  16. Spatial variation in soil-borne disease dynamics of a temperate tree, Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Clay, Keith

    2009-11-01

    Soil-borne pathogens are posited to maintain forest diversity. However, their in situ impact and spatial variation are largely unknown. We examined spatial patterns of pathogenic activity in a deciduous forest using a common garden experiment and also in a natural experiment around replicated trees, and we quantified Pythium (a soil-borne pathogen) density around individual Prunus serotina trees. In both experiments, P. serotina seedling survival was 52-57% greater in plots treated with a metalaxyl-based fungicide specific to oomycetes (i.e., Pythium) than in untreated plots. Disease dynamics were not density dependent, but pathogenic activity and Pythium density were spatially variable. In the common garden and natural experiments, pathogenic activity of soil inoculum varied among trees, while in the natural experiment disease dynamics were also distance dependent and pathogenic activity decreased away from P. serotina trees. Disease and Pythium density were not always related but displayed considerable spatial variation. We found that Pythium density did not vary with distance away from P. serotina trees but did vary among trees. Understanding the spatial complexity of soil-borne pathogens is critical to accurately characterizing their effects on populations and ultimately on forest diversity. PMID:19967855

  17. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    PubMed

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects. PMID:14969934

  18. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. PMID:26434520

  19. Association Between Chloroplast DNA and Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes in Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae) Populations across Europe

    PubMed Central

    MOHANTY, APARAJITA; MARTÍN, JUAN PEDRO; GONZÁLEZ, LUIS MIGUEL; AGUINAGALDE, ITZIAR

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were studied in 24 populations of Prunus spinosa sampled across Europe. The cpDNA and mtDNA fragments were amplified using universal primers and subsequently digested with restriction enzymes to obtain the polymorphisms. Combinations of all the polymorphisms resulted in 33 cpDNA haplotypes and two mtDNA haplotypes. Strict association between the cpDNA haplotypes and the mtDNA haplotypes was detected in most cases, indicating conjoint inheritance of the two genomes. The most frequent and abundant cpDNA haplotype (C20; frequency, 51 %) is always associated with the more frequent and abundant mtDNA haplotype (M1; frequency, 84 %). All but two of the cpDNA haplotypes associated with the less frequent mtDNA haplotype (M2) are private haplotypes. These private haplotypes are phylogenetically related but geographically unrelated. They form a separate cluster on the minimum‐length spanning tree. PMID:14534199

  20. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  1. Spatial variation in soil-borne disease dynamics of a temperate tree, Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Clay, Keith

    2009-11-01

    Soil-borne pathogens are posited to maintain forest diversity. However, their in situ impact and spatial variation are largely unknown. We examined spatial patterns of pathogenic activity in a deciduous forest using a common garden experiment and also in a natural experiment around replicated trees, and we quantified Pythium (a soil-borne pathogen) density around individual Prunus serotina trees. In both experiments, P. serotina seedling survival was 52-57% greater in plots treated with a metalaxyl-based fungicide specific to oomycetes (i.e., Pythium) than in untreated plots. Disease dynamics were not density dependent, but pathogenic activity and Pythium density were spatially variable. In the common garden and natural experiments, pathogenic activity of soil inoculum varied among trees, while in the natural experiment disease dynamics were also distance dependent and pathogenic activity decreased away from P. serotina trees. Disease and Pythium density were not always related but displayed considerable spatial variation. We found that Pythium density did not vary with distance away from P. serotina trees but did vary among trees. Understanding the spatial complexity of soil-borne pathogens is critical to accurately characterizing their effects on populations and ultimately on forest diversity.

  2. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Racchi, Milvia Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits. PMID:26784469

  3. Microwave-assisted autohydrolysis of Prunus mume stone for extraction of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, S; Ozaki, Y; Azuma, J

    2010-03-01

    Stone of Prunus mume (P. mume) is a by-product of pickled P. mume industry. Stones of native and pickled P. mume, mainly composed of holocellulose (83.8 +/- 1.8% and 65.1 +/- 0.3%, respectively) and acid-insoluble lignin (25.3 +/- 2.2% and 30.6 +/- 0.9%, respectively), were autohydrolyzed by microwave heating to extract polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. By heating at 200 to 230 degrees C, 48.0% to 60.8% of polysaccharide and 84.1% to 97.9% of phenolic compound were extracted in water along with partial degradation of hemicelluloses and lignin. The extracted liquors showed antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical originated from phenolic compounds. The pickled P. mume stone showed higher autohydrolyzability and microwave absorption capacity than the native stone due to absorbed salts and acids during pickling in fruit juice of P. mume with external addition of sodium chloride. Pickling process in salty and weak acidic juice seemed to be a kind of pretreatment for softening the stones prior to autohydrolysis induced by microwave heating. PMID:20492219

  4. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in “Tardy Nonpareil.” Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering. PMID:25071812

  5. Ion-mediated flow changes suppressed by minimal calcium presence in xylem sap in Chrysanthemum and Prunus laurocerasus.

    PubMed

    van Ieperen, Wim; van Gelder, Annie

    2006-01-01

    After the discovery of ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance a few years ago, a number of research papers were published that related ion-mediated flow changes in the xylem to various aspects of whole plant functioning and evolutionary diversification of vascular cells. Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are commonly quantified as the percentile change in hydraulic resistance, relative to the hydraulic resistance measured using a reference fluid, usually (ultra) pure deionized water. In this research the impact was investigated of the complete absence of all ions in deionized water compared with reference fluids containing a minimal amount of free calcium on the quantification of ion-mediated flow changes in stem segments of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev) and Prunus L. (Prunus laurocerasus L.). The addition of 10 mM KCl to deionized water significantly increased flow rate in Chrysanthemum (17-24%) and Prunus L. (16%). The addition of 1 mM CaCl(2) to the reference fluid reduced this KCl-mediated increase in flow rate to 1-2% in both species. 1 mM Ca(2+) is within the lower range of Ca(2+)-concentrations normally measured in xylem sap of many plant species, and three times lower than the original Ca(2+)-concentration measured in the xylem sap of Chrysanthemum plants used for the present measurements. The present results indicate that the complete removal of cations from the xylem fluid with deionized water causes the major part of the ion-mediated flow change previously reported in the xylem of plants. It is concluded that the use of deionized water as a reference fluid should be avoided. Earlier proposed relationships between ion-mediated changes and water flow in xylem of plants should be re-evaluated if they were based on deionized water as the reference fluid.

  6. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant. PMID:27081098

  7. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant.

  8. Identification of self-incompatibility genotypes of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) by S-allele-specific PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Jie, Qi; Shupeng, Gai; Jixiang, Zhang; Manru, Gu; Huairui, Shu

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA of 417 bp encoding an S-RNase gene, named PA S3, was isolated from apricot, Prunus aremeniaca. Nine S-alleles, S1-S9, were recognized by S-allele-specific PCR and confirmed by Southern blot analysis using PA S3 as probe. The S-genotypes of the six cultivars were determined and the results of self- and cross-pollination tests among the six cultivars were consistent with the predicted S-haplotypes by PCR analysis.

  9. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  10. Identification of phenolic compounds in plum fruits (Prunus salicina L. and Prunus domestica L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and characterization of varieties by quantitative phenolic fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Karaköse, Hande; Rühmann, Susanne; Goldner, Katharina; Neumüller, Michael; Treutter, Dieter; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-12-11

    Plums (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus salicina L.) are edible fruits mostly consumed in America, China, and Europe. We have used LC-MS(n) to detect and characterize the phenolic compounds in plum varieties. Forty-one phenolics were detected comprising caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acids, methyl caffeoylquinates, methyl p-coumaroylquinate, caffeoylshikimic acids, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, esculin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-hexosides, dimeric proanthocyanidins, trimeric proanthocyanidins, caffeoyl-glucoside, feruloyl-glucoside, p-coumaroyl-glucoside, vanillic acid-glucosides, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-pentoside-rhamnosides, and 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid. This is the first time when 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid is reported in nature. Chlorogenic acids and proanthocyanidins were the major phenolics present in plums. Furthermore, HPLC with DAD and chemical reaction detection was used to generate quantitative phenolic fingerprints from the fruit flesh of 33 plum varieties. The predominant compound was 3-caffeoylquinic acid in nearly all varieties studied; generally, however, the qualitative and quantitative profiles showed high diversity even among closely related progenies.

  11. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Kirti S.; Kasture, S.B.; Mengi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods: The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory parameters were evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM), passive avoidance and motor activity paradigms. Brain ChE activity and serum biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, total triglycerides and glucose were evaluated. Results: It was observed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.)-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. Conclusion: Because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, PA may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:20871769

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  13. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests?

    PubMed

    Farwig, Nina; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bleher, Bärbel

    2006-03-01

    Forest destruction and disturbance can have long-term consequences for species diversity and ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. Understanding these consequences is a crucial component of conserving vulnerable ecosystems. In the heavily fragmented and disturbed Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, we studied seed dispersal of Prunus africana (Rosaceae). In the main forest, five forest fragments, and differently disturbed sites, we quantified the overall frugivore community as an indicator for species diversity. Furthermore, we determined the frugivores on 28 fruiting P. africana trees, estimated seed dispersal, crop size and the general fruit availability of surrounding trees. During the overall frugivore census we recorded 49 frugivorous species; 36 of them were observed visiting P. africana trees and feeding on their fruits. Although overall frugivore species richness was 1.1 times lower in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.02 times higher in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites, P. africana experienced 1.1 times higher numbers of frugivores in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher numbers of frugivores in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites. Correspondingly, seed dispersal was 1.5 times higher in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher in more disturbed than less disturbed sites. Fruit availability of surrounding trees and crop size influenced the number of visitors to some degree. Thus, the number of dispersed seeds seemed to be slightly higher in fragmented and highly disturbed sites. This indicates that loss of single species does not necessarily lead to a decrease of ecosystem services. However, loss of diversity could be a problem in the long term, as a multitude of species might act as buffer against future environmental change.

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  16. Urbanisation induces early flowering: evidence from Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus.

    PubMed

    Mimet, A; Pellissier, V; Quénol, H; Aguejdad, R; Dubreuil, V; Rozé, F

    2009-05-01

    The effect of towns on plant phenology, i.e. advancement of spring development compared with a rural environment, via the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, has been shown for many towns in many countries. This work combines experimental and observational methodology to provide a better and deeper view of climatic habitat in an urban context with a view to understanding the relationship between plant development and urban climate on the intra-urban scale (by taking into account town structure). A dense network of 17 meteorological stations was set up in Rennes, France, enabling us to identify and quantify climatic changes associated with the UHI. Meanwhile, phenological observations were made during early spring (March and April) in 2005 on Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus to study the relationship between climatic and phenological data. The results show that there is both a climatic gradient and a developmental gradient corresponding to the type of urbanisation in the town of Rennes. The town influences plant phenology by reducing the diurnal temperature range and by increasing the minimum temperature as one approaches the town centre. The influence of ground cover type (plants or buildings) on development is also shown. The developmental phases of preflowering and flowering are influenced to differing extents by climatic variables. The period during which climatic variables are effective before a given developmental phase varies considerably. The preflowering phases are best correlated with the mean of the minimum air temperature for the 15-day period before the observation, whereas flowering appears to be more dependent on the mean of the daily diurnal temperature range for the 8 days preceding the observation. PMID:19219464

  17. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, “Rojo Pasión” and “Z506-7”, resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  18. Urbanisation induces early flowering: evidence from Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimet, A.; Pellissier, V.; Quénol, H.; Aguejdad, R.; Dubreuil, V.; Rozé, F.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of towns on plant phenology, i.e. advancement of spring development compared with a rural environment, via the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, has been shown for many towns in many countries. This work combines experimental and observational methodology to provide a better and deeper view of climatic habitat in an urban context with a view to understanding the relationship between plant development and urban climate on the intra-urban scale (by taking into account town structure). A dense network of 17 meteorological stations was set up in Rennes, France, enabling us to identify and quantify climatic changes associated with the UHI. Meanwhile, phenological observations were made during early spring (March and April) in 2005 on Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus to study the relationship between climatic and phenological data. The results show that there is both a climatic gradient and a developmental gradient corresponding to the type of urbanisation in the town of Rennes. The town influences plant phenology by reducing the diurnal temperature range and by increasing the minimum temperature as one approaches the town centre. The influence of ground cover type (plants or buildings) on development is also shown. The developmental phases of preflowering and flowering are influenced to differing extents by climatic variables. The period during which climatic variables are effective before a given developmental phase varies considerably. The preflowering phases are best correlated with the mean of the minimum air temperature for the 15-day period before the observation, whereas flowering appears to be more dependent on the mean of the daily diurnal temperature range for the 8 days preceding the observation.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  20. Ethephon-Induced Gummosis in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Olien, William C.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    Ethephon, (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, was sprayed at concentrations up to 69.2 millimolar to enhance gum formation in 1-year-old shoots of mature Prunus cerasus L. cv Montmorency trees. Gum accumulation caused rupturing of the shoot periderm, followed by gum extrusion. Lower ethephon concentrations were required to induce gum formation in spring and early summer (1.7-3.5 millimolar) then in late summer and fall (13.8-69.2 millimolar). The number of functional vessels, shoot hydraulic conductance, and water potential of both leaf and internode tissue decreased as gum content of shoots increased. Nontreated control shoots also contained small quantities of gum. There was no difference in neutral sugar composition of gum exuded by the tree, obtained from aqueous shoot extracts, or flushed from the vessels of shoots, whether induced by ethephon or not. Severe decrease in shoot and leaf water potential was associated with shoot die-back. Recovery of xylem function may occur where gummosis is less severe. Discrepancy between measured and predicted hydraulic conductance increased as shoot gum content increased, suggesting that decrease in number of functional vessels alone was not sufficient to explain the effects of gum on loss of shoot hydraulic conductance. Increased gum content in those vessels remaining functional would increase vessel sap viscosity and further reduce hydraulic conductance. The viscosities necessary to account for discrepancy between measured and predicted hydraulic conductance were calculated. Gum concentration less than 1.0% (w/v) would produce these viscosities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16662532

  1. Multiple introductions boosted genetic diversity in the invasive range of black cherry (Prunus serotina; Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, Marie; Petitpierre, Blaise; Campbell, Michael; Guisan, Antoine; Broennimann, Olivier; Baret, Philippe V.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Besnard, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a North American tree that is rapidly invading European forests. This species was introduced first as an ornamental plant then it was massively planted by foresters in many countries but its origins and the process of invasion remain poorly documented. Based on a genetic survey of both native and invasive ranges, the invasion history of black cherry was investigated by identifying putative source populations and then assessing the importance of multiple introductions on the maintenance of gene diversity. Methods Genetic variability and structure of 23 populations from the invasive range and 22 populations from the native range were analysed using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and five chloroplast DNA regions. Key Results Chloroplast DNA diversity suggests there were multiple introductions from a single geographic region (the north-eastern United States). A low reduction of genetic diversity was observed in the invasive range for both nuclear and plastid genomes. High propagule pressure including both the size and number of introductions shaped the genetic structure in Europe and boosted genetic diversity. Populations from Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany showed high genetic diversity and low differentiation among populations, supporting the hypothesis that numerous introduction events, including multiple individuals and exchanges between sites, have taken place during two centuries of plantation. Conclusions This study postulates that the invasive black cherry has originated from east of the Appalachian Mountains (mainly the Allegheny plateau) and its invasiveness in north-western Europe is mainly due to multiple introductions containing high numbers of individuals. PMID:20400456

  2. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods for sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium) in sub-humid climate.

    PubMed

    Denmirtas, Cigdem; Buyukcangaz, Hakan; Yazgan, Senih; Candogan, Burak Nazmi

    2007-02-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs of the crop (100% of ETc) and to allow good rooting and tree growth. The water balance relationship was used in estimating ETc. A total of 4 climatological methods were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature ans relative humidity. An attempt was made in the current study to develop regional relationship between the evapotranspiration measured and that estimated by the climatological methods, such as FAO-Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. Performance of the climatological methods in estimating the ETo values as compared to the measured values was evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE). In 2001, the Penman-Monteith equation gave the best results followed by FAO-Penman, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. In 2002, the Penman-Monteith and FAO-Blaney-Criddle equations gave same results. PMID:19069518

  3. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase : Purification, N-Terminal Sequencing, and Antibody Production.

    PubMed

    Li, C P; Swain, E; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I', II, II') were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, K(m), V(max)) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. PMID:16652959

  4. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  6. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  7. In vitro cold-storage duration of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) shoots is affected by carbon source and nitrogen concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro cold storage of fruit crop germplasm is useful for preservation of heritage or commercial cultivars. Shoot cultures of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars Dolgozdannaya, Moya Radost and Zukovskaya, were cold stored at 4°C in either five-section tissue-culture bags or in 150 ml glass j...

  8. In Vitro Cold-Storage Duration of Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Shoots is Affected by Carbon Source and Nitrogen Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro cold storage of fruit crop germplasm is useful for preservation of heritage or commercial cultivars. Shoot cultures of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars Dolgozdannaya, Moya Radost and Zukovskaya, were cold stored at 4°C in either five-section tissue culture bags or in 150 ml glass ...

  9. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species. PMID:26185739

  10. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae) Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Xi-Wang; Zuo, Yun-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chin, Siew-Wai; Haberle, Rosemarie; Potter, Daniel; Chang, Zhao-Yang; Wen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1) the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus); (2) the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus); and (3) the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group). The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II) is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has important

  11. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae) Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yun-juan; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chin, Siew-Wai; Haberle, Rosemarie; Potter, Daniel; Chang, Zhao-Yang; Wen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1) the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus); (2) the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus); and (3) the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group). The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II) is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has important

  12. Origin and dissemination of the pollen-part mutated SC haplotype which confers self-compatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Halász, Júlia; Pedryc, Andrzej; Hegedus, Attila

    2007-01-01

    In China, its centre of origin, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is self-incompatible. However, most European cultivars are self-compatible. In most cases, self-compatibility is a result of a loss-of-function mutation within the pollen gene (SFB) in the SC haplotype. Controlled pollinations performed in this work revealed that the cross 'Ceglédi óriás' (S8S9)x'Ceglédi arany' (SCS9) set well, as expected, but the reciprocal cross did not. Apricot S8, S9 and SC haplotypes were analysed using a multilevel approach including fruit set evaluation, pollen tube growth analysis, RNase activity assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and DNA sequencing of the S-RNase and SFB alleles. SFB8 was revealed to be the first known progenitor allele of a naturally occurring self-compatibility allele in Prunus, and consequently SC=The first intron of SC-RNase is a phase one intron, indicating its more recent evolutionary origin compared with the second intron. Sequence analysis of different cultivars revealed that more single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulated in SC-RNase than in SFBC. New methods were designed to allow high-throughput analysis of S genotypes of apricot cultivars and selections. S-RNase sequence data from various sources helped to elucidate the putative origin and dissemination of self-compatibility in apricot conferred by the SC haplotype.

  13. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood.

    PubMed

    Damm, U; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU and ITS rDNA) basis. Two isolates that formed a teleomorph in culture are newly described as Calosphaeria africana sp. nov. Although asci of Calosphaeria are characterised by having non-amyloid apical rings, two functional wall layers were observed in asci of C. africana, which has hitherto not been observed in any member of the Calosphaeriaceae. However, Calosphaeriaceae (Calosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes) are not closely related to other bitunicate fungi like Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriales and bitunicate lichens. Possession of two separating wall layers is considered to be a result of both inherited abilities and convergent evolution under a strong selection pressure of the environmental conditions that favour an extension of the ascus. The other two species represented a separate lineage within Calosphaeriaceae, and formed phialophora-like anamorphs. By obtaining the teleomorph in culture, one of them could be identified as a species of Jattaea, described here as Jattaea prunicola sp. nov., while the second, which only produced the anamorph, is named as Jattaea mookgoponga sp. nov. These findings suggest that some species of Jattaea are true members of the Calosphaeriaceae, though the phylogenetic relation of the type, J. algeriensis, remains unknown. Furthermore, it also represents the first report of Jattaea on Prunus wood, and from South Africa.

  14. Stability of gene silencing-based resistance to Plum pox virus in transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Scorza, Ralph; Malinowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Barbara; Ravelonandro, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most devastating diseases of Prunus species. Since few sources of resistance to PPV have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing PPV-resistant stone fruit cultivars. C5, a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica L., containing the PPV coat protein (CP) gene, has been described as highly resistant to PPV in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We show in this report that C5 trees exposed to natural aphid vectors in the field remained uninfected after 4 years while susceptible transgenic and untransformed trees developed severe symptoms within the first year. C5 trees inoculated by chip budding showed only very mild symptoms and PPV could be detected in these trees by IC-RT-PCR. The PPV-CP transgene in C5 was specifically hyper-methylated with no detectable expression. These results indicate both stability and efficiency of PTGS-based PPV resistance in plum under field conditions.

  15. Prunus spp. intoxication in ruminants: a case in a goat and diagnosis by identification of leaf fragments in rumen contents.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-11-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry) intoxication was diagnosed on postmortem examination of a goat. The clinical signs were weakness, depression, seizure-like activity, and lateral recumbency. Natural cases of black cherry intoxication have not been reported in goats in the United St