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Sample records for pesticide applicators association

  1. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  2. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  3. Acute Pesticide Illnesses Associated with Off-Target Pesticide Drift from Agricultural Applications: 11 States, 1998–2006

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Mehler, Louise; Beckman, John; Diebolt-Brown, Brienne; Prado, Joanne; Lackovic, Michelle; Waltz, Justin; Mulay, Prakash; Schwartz, Abby; Mitchell, Yvette; Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie; Gergely, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and off-target pesticide drift exposes workers and the public to harmful chemicals. Objective: We estimated the incidence of acute illnesses from pesticide drift from outdoor agricultural applications and characterized drift exposure and illnesses. Methods: Data were obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks–Pesticides program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Drift included off-target movement of pesticide spray, volatiles, and contaminated dust. Acute illness cases were characterized by demographics, pesticide and application variables, health effects, and contributing factors. Results: From 1998 through 2006, we identified 2,945 cases associated with agricultural pesticide drift from 11 states. Our findings indicate that 47% were exposed at work, 92% experienced low-severity illness, and 14% were children (< 15 years). The annual incidence ranged from 1.39 to 5.32 per million persons over the 9-year period. The overall incidence (in million person-years) was 114.3 for agricultural workers, 0.79 for other workers, 1.56 for nonoccupational cases, and 42.2 for residents in five agriculture-intensive counties in California. Soil applications with fumigants were responsible for the largest percentage (45%) of cases. Aerial applications accounted for 24% of cases. Common factors contributing to drift cases included weather conditions, improper seal of the fumigation site, and applicator carelessness near nontarget areas. Conclusions: Agricultural workers and residents in agricultural regions had the highest rate of pesticide poisoning from drift exposure, and soil fumigations were a major hazard, causing large drift incidents. Our findings highlight areas where interventions to reduce off-target drift could be focused. PMID:21642048

  4. Rhinitis associated with pesticide use among private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study.

    PubMed

    Slager, Rebecca E; Simpson, Sean L; Levan, Tricia D; Poole, Jill A; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.

  5. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  6. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P),...

  7. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  8. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  9. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  10. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  11. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  12. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  13. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  14. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  15. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  16. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  17. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  18. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  19. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  20. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  1. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  7. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  8. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  9. Apply Pesticides Properly: A Guide for Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed as a guide for pesticide applicators to meet specific standards required for certification by federal regulations or state law. The eight sections included describe: (1) The most common features of pests, how they develop, and the kinds of damage they do; (2) Methods used to control pests and how to combine these methods…

  10. Pesticides and myocardial infarction incidence and mortality among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2009-10-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides.

  11. Pesticides and Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Mortality Among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2009-01-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993–1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides. PMID:19700503

  12. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  13. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  14. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  15. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  16. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  17. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  18. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here.

  19. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here. PMID:26479458

  20. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  1. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  2. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  3. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  4. Enhanced Dissipation of Triazole and Multiclass Pesticide Residues on Grapes after Foliar Application of Grapevine-Associated Bacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Varsha P; Sawant, Indu S; Banerjee, Kaushik; Wadkar, Pallavi N; Sawant, Sanjay D

    2015-12-23

    Disease management in vineyards with fungicides sometimes results in undesirable residue accumulations in grapes at harvest. Bioaugmentation of the grape fructosphere can be a useful approach for enhancing the degradation rate and reducing the residues to safe levels. This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo biodegradation of three triazole fungicides commonly used in Indian vineyards, by Bacillus strains, namely, DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204, which were earlier found to enhance the dissipation rate of profenophos and carbendazim. The strains utilized the triazoles as carbon source and enhanced their in vitro rate of degradation. Myclobutanil, tetraconazole, and flusilazole were applied in separate vineyard plots at field doses of 0.40 g L(-1), 0.75 mL L(-1), and 0.125 mL L(-1), respectively. Residue analysis of field samples from the treated fields reflected 87.38 and >99% degradations of myclobutanil and tetraconazole, respectively, by the strain DR-39, and 90.82% degradation of flusilazole by the strain CS-126 after 15-20 days of treatment. In the respective controls, the corresponding percent degradations were 72.07, 58.88, and 54.28, respectively. These Bacillus strains could also simultaneously degrade the residues of profenofos, carbendazim, and tetraconazole on the grape berries and can be useful in multiclass pesticide residue biodegradation. PMID:26492206

  5. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or peripheral nerve conduction, but fewer studies have considered these outcomes. It is possible that the most sensitive manifestation of pesticide neurotoxicity is a general malaise lacking in specificity and related to mild cognitive dysfunction, similar to that described for Gulf War syndrome. Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases are limited and inconclusive. Future studies will need to improve assessment of pesticide exposure in individuals and consider the role of genetic susceptibility. More studies of pesticides other than organophosphates are needed. Major unresolved issues include the relative importance of acute and chronic exposure, the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning, and the relationship of pesticide-related neurotoxicity to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:15198914

  6. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist aerial pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. An introduction with the explanation of requirements of effective aerial application is presented. The six topics included describe: (1) Dispersal equipment; (2) Calibration; (3) Pattern testing; (4)…

  7. PR notice 86-4. Notice to registrants of pesticides, and applicants for pesticide registration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces a new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy regarding incomplete applications for registration of pesticides under section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 USC 136a et seq. This notice also specifies new requirements for submitting applications to the Agency in order to implement this policy.

  8. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions.

  9. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND PESTICIDE USE AMONG MALE PRIVATE PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Goldner, Whitney S.; Sandler, Dale P.; Yu, Fang; Shostrom, Valerie; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between thyroid disease and use of insecticides, herbicides, fumigants/fungicides in male applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods We examined the association between use of 50 specific pesticides and self-reported hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and ‘other’ thyroid disease among 22,246 male pesticide applicators. Results There was increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever-use of the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, alachlor, dicamba, and petroleum oil. Hypothyroidism was also associated with ever-use of eight insecticides: organochlorines chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene; organophosphates diazinon and malathion; and the carbamate carbofuran. Exposure-response analysis showed increasing odds with increasing level of exposure for the herbicides alachlor and 2,4-D, and the insecticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, lindane, and parathion. Conclusions There is an association between hypothyroidism and specific herbicides and insecticides in male applicators, similar to previous results for spouses. PMID:24064777

  10. Central nervous system function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes, however, little is known about the neurotoxicity of chronic exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and CNS function, neurobehavioral (NB) tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence that long-term OP pesticide use is associated with adverse CNS-associated NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null associations

  11. Persistence of human norovirus in reconstituted pesticides--pesticide application as a possible source of viruses in fresh produce chains.

    PubMed

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh produce is frequently associated with outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) disease. To prevent the contamination of fresh produce with hNoV, knowledge of the possible introduction sources of the viruses, such as water, is needed to be able to implement appropriate and efficient preventive measures. Contaminated water used to reconstitute pesticides could be a relevant source of infectious hNoV, determined by the initial level of virus contamination and the persistence of these viruses in reconstituted pesticides. We studied the persistence of hNoV GI.4, hNoV GII.4 and murine norovirus (MNV-1), the only culturable norovirus, in eight different pesticides after 0 and 2h. Virus concentrations were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and infectivity of MNV-1 was determined by endpoint dilutions followed by maximum likelihood estimations. MNV-1 was found to remain infectious in seven of the eight tested pesticides at the highest concentration applied in practice. In the presence of the insecticide Vertimec, MNV-1 infectivity decreased rapidly with a 1.9 log(10)-unit reduction at timepoint T(0). Also, the concentration of NoV GI.4 RNA decreased considerably with a 1.7 log(10)-unit reduction; whereas the detected PCR fragment of hNoV GII.4 remained stable. Assuming a similar persistence of infectious MNV-1 and hNoV we can conclude that water containing hNoV used to dilute pesticides may be an important source of infectious hNoV in fresh produce chains. The application of pesticides may therefore not only be a chemical hazard, but also a microbiological hazard for public health. The inclusion of antiviral substances in reconstituted pesticides may be appropriate to reduce the virological health risk posed by the application of pesticides.

  12. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  13. Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the child’s lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, cholorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19700145

  14. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with…

  16. Applicator Training Manual for: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhults, Douglas G.

    This training manual discusses both the advantages and limitations of aerial application of pesticides. Other topics included are: agricultural aircraft equipment, dispersal accessories, drift control, calibration, spray testing, granular materials testing, operations, and personal safety. Safety check lists are given for pilots, ground crew, and…

  17. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  18. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  19. 77 FR 59611 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide...

  20. High pesticide exposure events and central nervous system function among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While acute pesticide poisoning can be associated with persistent adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects, little is known about the effect of episodic and unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) that typically do not result in acute poisoning. The objective of this investigation was to examine the association between HPEEs and CNS function among licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods In 2006–2008, 693 male participants, with no history of a physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning, completed nine neurobehavioral tests to assess memory, motor speed, sustained attention, verbal learning, and visual scanning and processing. Information on HPEEs and pesticide poisonings was obtained from previous AHS interviews. Associations between HPEEs and neurobehavioral outcomes were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results A history of at least one HPEE was reported by 156 (23%) participants. Adverse associations were observed between HPEEs and two of the nine neurobehavioral tests. On a test of visual scanning and processing (Digit-Symbol), participants with HPEEs were 4.2 seconds slower (95% CI: −7.27, −1.11) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age in this population. On a test of visual scanning and motor speed (Sequences A), participants with HPEEs were 2.5 seconds slower (95% CI: −4.53, −0.41) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age. No significant associations were observed between HPEEs and the other neurobehavioral tests. Conclusions HPEEs may contribute to adverse CNS outcomes independent of diagnosed pesticide poisoning. PMID:21927986

  1. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  2. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater. PMID:25939349

  3. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater.

  4. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  5. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  7. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  8. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  9. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  10. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  11. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  12. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  13. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  14. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate.

  15. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. PMID:24105794

  16. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of...

  18. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288

  20. Application of pesticide transport model for simulating diazinon runoff in California’s central valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Brian A.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Mailapalli, Damodhara R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant spray application of pesticides to almond and other stone fruit orchards is the main source of diazinon during the winter in California's central valley. Understanding the pesticide transport and the tradeoffs associated with the various management practices is greatly facilitated by the use of physically-based contaminant transport models. In this study, performance of Joyce's et al. (2008) pesticide transport model was evaluated using experimental data collected from two ground treatments such as resident vegetation and bare soil. The model simulation results obtained in calibration and validation process were analyzed for pesticide concentration and total load. The pesticide transport model accurately predicted the pesticide concentrations and total load in the runoff from bare field and was capable of simulating chemical responses to rainfall-runoff events. In case of resident vegetation, the model results exhibited a larger range of variation than was observed in the bare soil simulations due to increased model parameterization with the addition of foliage and thatch compartments. Furthermore, the model was applied to study the effect of runoff lag time, extent of crop cover, organic content of soil and post-application irrigation on the pesticide peak concentration and total load. Based on the model results, recommendations were suggested to growers prior to implementing certain management decisions to mitigate diazinon transport in the orchard's spray runoff.

  1. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ..., Collierville, TN 38017. Product name: Carbon Power Concentrate. Plant growth regulator. Active ingredient... formulating agricultural pesticide formulations, plant growth, regulators, herbicides, fungicides, seed... Biosciences, Inc. Product name: Carbon Power . Plant growth regulator. Active ingredient:...

  2. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0089. Company Name and Address: Arizona Cotton Research and Protection...

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  4. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Joel R., Ed.

    This programed text on pesticide application provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. The seven chapters cover pest and pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, application equipment, use and maintenance of equipment, using pesticides safely, and the…

  5. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T{sub 3}, total T{sub 4}, serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T{sub 4} hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SIGMADMP) in urine (p-trend < 0.001) and a decrease in total T{sub 3} serum levels with an increase of SIGMADMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T{sub 4} serum hormone levels and decreasing T{sub 3} serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  6. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Lacasaña, Marina; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T(3), total T(4), serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T(4) hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SigmaDMP) in urine (p-trend<0.001) and a decrease in total T(3) serum levels with an increase of SigmaDMP levels in the urine (p-trend=0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T(4) serum hormone levels and decreasing T(3) serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  7. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  8. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  9. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Private Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, J. Blair; And Others

    This publication is a training manual for the private pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective private applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The primary focus of this publication is on agricultural pesticide…

  11. Standards for Certification of Pesticide Applicators. 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This publication specified the requirements for certification of pesticide applicators as provided in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1972. Sections 171.1-171.6 of the Act are outlined in detail for clarification. Included in this document are: definitions of terms, categories of commercial applicators,…

  12. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  13. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  18. Partnering with Industry to Deliver Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with private industry can empower Extension educators to enhance their educational outreach efforts. Since 2011, UF/IFAS has cooperated with the Florida Turfgrass Association in conducting a 1-day statewide Polycom® event for providing continuing education to licensed pesticide applicators employed primarily in the ornamental and…

  19. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    PubMed

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

  20. Applications of new mass spectrometry techniques in pesticide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.

    1987-01-01

    The partial contents are: New Instruments, New Methods and the Search for Selectivity. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry in Pesticide Metabolite Indentification. Negative Ion Electron Capture Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Fluorinated Pesticide Derivatives. Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Toxaphene. Methane-enhanced Negative Ion Mass Spectra of Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Derivatives. Isomer Specific Analysis of Dioxins and Dibenzofurnas by HRGC/SIM-MS. Determination of Double-bond Position in Conjugated Dienes by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Isobutane. Application of Desorption Chemical Ionization Techniques for Analysis of Biologically Active Compounds Isolated from Insects. FD and FAB Mass Spectrometry of Sulfate Conjugants and of Conjugated Metabolites of Pyroquilon. Application of Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry to Polar Pesticides. Thermospray HPLC/MS as a Problem-solving Tool for the Analysis of Thermally Labile Herbicides.

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  2. Dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus in applicators of agricultural pesticides in Majes – Arequipa (Peru)

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Steenland, Kyle; Chung, Arturo; Choque, Fredy; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-01-01

    Background Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides are the most commonly used pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. The population at risk for OPs exposure includes formulators, applicators and farmers. Majes Valley is the most important agricultural center of the Southern region of Peru. The present study was aimed to determine the knowledge about using OPs, safety practice and urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites on OP applicators in the Majes Valley, Peru. Methods This study was based on a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of safety practices to handling OPs, characteristics of pesticide application and use of protective measures to avoid pesticide contamination. Exposure was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. The sample consisted of 31 men and 2 women aged 20 – 65 years old. Results 76% of applicators had at least one urinary dialkylphosphate metabolite above the limit of detection. The geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of DMP and DEP were 5.73 ug/g cr. (GSD 2.51), and 6.08 ug/g cr. (GSD 3.63), respectively. The percentage of applicators with detectable DMP, DMDTP, and DMTP in urine was 72.72%, 3.03%, and 15.15%, respectively, while the corresponding figures for DEP, DETP, and DEDTP were 48.48%, 36.36% and 15.15%, respectively. There was no significant association between the use of protection practices and the absence of urine OPs metabolites suggesting inadequate protection practices. Conclusion The pesticide applicators in Majes Valley have significant exposure to OP pesticides, probably due to inappropriate protective practices. Future work should evaluate possible health effects. PMID:17177990

  3. Certification Training Manual for the Structural Pesticide Applicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed for use by commercial applicators preparing for certification in the use or supervision of the use of restricted pesticides especially in, on, or around food handling establishments, human dwellings, institutions, industries and any other structures and adjacent areas, public or private; and for the protection of stored,…

  4. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  6. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  7. Spatial relationships between water quality and pesticide application rates in agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John W; Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Richard, Nancy; Connor, Val; Worcester, Karen; Angelo, Mark; Bern, Amanda; Fulfrost, Brian; Mulvaney, Dustin

    2006-10-01

    Pesticide applications to agricultural lands in California, USA, are reported to a central data base, while data on water and sediment quality are collected by a number of monitoring programs. Data from both sources are geo-referenced, allowing spatial analysis of relationships between pesticide application rates and the chemical and biological condition of water bodies. This study collected data from 12 watersheds, selected to represent a range of pesticide usage. Water quality parameters were measured during six surveys of stream sites receiving runoff from the selected watershed areas. This study had three objectives: to evaluate the usefulness of pesticide application data in selecting regional monitoring sites, to provide information for generating and testing hypotheses about pesticide fate and effects, and to determine whether in-stream nitrate concentration was a useful surrogate indicator for regional monitoring of toxic substances. Significant correlations were observed between pesticide application rates and in-stream pesticide concentrations (p < 0.05) and toxicity (p < 0.10). In-stream nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with either the amount of pesticides applied, in-stream pesticide concentrations, or in-stream toxicity (all p > 0.30). Neither total watershed area nor the area in which pesticide usage was reported correlated significantly with the amount of pesticides applied, in-stream pesticide concentrations, or in-stream toxicity (all p > 0.14). In-stream pesticide concentrations and effects were more closely related to the intensity of pesticide use than to the area under cultivation.

  8. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  9. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamide, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid,...

  10. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the...

  11. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  12. Cancer Incidence among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Patel, Rahulkumar; Koutros, Stella; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Landgren, Ola; Bonner, Matthew R.; Coble, Joseph; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture, in public health, and in many U.S. homes and gardens. Objective In this study we evaluated the incidence of cancer among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods A total of 49,093 pesticide applicators were included in this analysis of the AHS, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide exposure and lifestyle factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires completed in 1993–1997. Average length of follow-up since applicator enrollment in the cohort was 9.14 years. We used two permethrin exposure metrics: a) lifetime days applicators personally mixed or applied permethrin and b) intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days weighted by estimated intensity of exposure). We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for malignancies by tertiles of exposure. Results We found no associations between permethrin and all malignant neoplasms combined, or between permethrin and melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, or cancers of the colon, rectum, lung, or prostate. We found elevated and statistically significant risks for multiple myeloma in the highest tertiles of both lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.72; 95% CI, 2.76–11.87) and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.01; 95% CI, 2.41–10.42), compared with applicators reporting they never used permethrin; these results are based on only 15 exposed cases. These findings were similar across a variety of alternative exposure metrics, exposure categories, and reference groups. Conclusions This study found no association with most cancers analyzed. Although the suggested association with multiple myeloma was based on a small number of cases, it warrants further evaluation. PMID:19440497

  13. The upper midwest health study: a case–control study of pesticide applicators and risk of glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case–control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using “ever-never” exposure to farm pesticides and analyzing men and women separately, found no positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma risks. The primary objective was to determine if quantitatively estimated exposure of pesticide applicators was associated with an increased risk of glioma in male and female participants. Methods The study included 798 histologically confirmed primary intracranial glioma cases (45 % with proxy respondents) and 1,175 population-based controls, all adult (age 18–80) non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The analyses used quantitatively estimated exposure from questionnaire responses evaluated by an experienced industrial hygienist with 25 years of work on farm pesticide analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression modeling were calculated adjusting for frequency-matching variables (10-year age group and sex), and for age and education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Analyses were separately conducted with or without proxy respondents. Results No significant positive associations with glioma were observed with cumulative years or estimated lifetime cumulative exposure of farm pesticide use. There was, a significant inverse association for phenoxy pesticide used on the farm (OR 0.96 per 10 g-years of cumulative exposure, CI 0.93-0.99). No significant findings were observed when proxy respondents were excluded. Non-farm occupational applicators of any pesticide had decreased glioma risk: OR 0.72, CI 0.52-0.99. Similarly, house and garden pesticide applicators had a decreased risk

  14. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  16. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying...

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  20. Agricultural pesticide emissions associated with common crops in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Benjey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Annual emissions for the year 1987 from the application of agricultural pesticides have been estimated by crop type by county for the United States using a geographic information system. The emissions estimates are based upon computed volatilization rates accounting for the properties of each pesticide, evaporation rates, mode of application (surface or soil incorporation) and percent of interception by leaves. Key pesticide properties include the Henry's Law constant, half-life in soil and the organic carbon partitioning coefficient. The volatilization rates are multiplied by the amount of pesticide applied by crop acreage in each county as determined from agricultural census and pesticide sales data. The geographic distribution of the dominant emissions, such as atrazine and diazinon, etc. are presented by crop type and state. For a given pesticide, the geographic variability is controlled principally by amount applied and water availability as reflected in evaporation rates.

  1. Application of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating pesticide contamination of freshwater resources: state of the art and challenges for optimization.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Bers, Karolien; Vandermeeren, Pieter; Herrmann, Steffi; Sekhar, Aswini; Seuntjens, Piet; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the application of pesticide biodegradation in remediation of pesticide-contaminated matrices moved from remediating bulk soil to remediating and mitigating pesticide pollution of groundwater and surface water bodies. Specialized pesticide-degrading microbial populations are used, which can be endogenous to the ecosystem of interest or introduced by means of bioaugmentation. It involves (semi-)natural ecosystems like agricultural fields, vegetated filter strips, and riparian wetlands and man-made ecosystems like on-farm biopurification systems, groundwater treatment systems, and dedicated modules in drinking water treatment. Those ecosystems and applications impose challenges which are often different from those associated with bulk soil remediation. These include high or extreme low pesticide concentrations, mixed contamination, the presence of alternative carbon sources, specific hydraulic conditions, and spatial and temporal variation. Moreover, for various indicated ecosystems, limited knowledge exists about the microbiota present and their physiology and about the in situ degradation kinetics. This review reports on the current knowledge on applications of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating freshwater pesticide contamination. Attention is paid to the challenges involved and current knowledge gaps for improving those applications.

  2. Application of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating pesticide contamination of freshwater resources: state of the art and challenges for optimization.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Bers, Karolien; Vandermeeren, Pieter; Herrmann, Steffi; Sekhar, Aswini; Seuntjens, Piet; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the application of pesticide biodegradation in remediation of pesticide-contaminated matrices moved from remediating bulk soil to remediating and mitigating pesticide pollution of groundwater and surface water bodies. Specialized pesticide-degrading microbial populations are used, which can be endogenous to the ecosystem of interest or introduced by means of bioaugmentation. It involves (semi-)natural ecosystems like agricultural fields, vegetated filter strips, and riparian wetlands and man-made ecosystems like on-farm biopurification systems, groundwater treatment systems, and dedicated modules in drinking water treatment. Those ecosystems and applications impose challenges which are often different from those associated with bulk soil remediation. These include high or extreme low pesticide concentrations, mixed contamination, the presence of alternative carbon sources, specific hydraulic conditions, and spatial and temporal variation. Moreover, for various indicated ecosystems, limited knowledge exists about the microbiota present and their physiology and about the in situ degradation kinetics. This review reports on the current knowledge on applications of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating freshwater pesticide contamination. Attention is paid to the challenges involved and current knowledge gaps for improving those applications. PMID:27475808

  3. Application of the electrosorption technique to remove Metribuzin pesticide.

    PubMed

    Kitous, O; Cheikh, A; Lounici, H; Grib, H; Pauss, A; Mameri, N

    2009-01-30

    The present work deals with the removal of Metribuzin from aqueous solutions in a batch and continuous mode using electrosorption technique. This technique is based on the combination of two processes: the adsorption of Metribuzin into activated granular carbon (GAC) column and the application of the electrochemical potential. The effects of various experimental parameters (electrochemical potential, volumetric flow rate and initial Metribuzin concentration) on the removal efficiency were investigated. The pesticide sorption capacity at the breakthrough point of the GAC column reached 22 mg(pesticide)g(GAC)(-1). It was increased by more than 100% when the desired electrical potential (-50 mV/SCE) was applied in comparison with the conventional GAC column in similar experimental conditions without electrical potential. Evenmore, the electrosorption technique reduced considerably the drastic decrease encountered when passing from batch mode to continuous column mode.

  4. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production..., Greensboro, NC 27419-8300. Active Ingredient: Fluazifop. Proposed Uses: Bananas, citrus, grapes, plantains...-emergence applications to established seed production grass fields in the states of Idaho, Oregon,...

  5. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  6. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  7. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  8. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  9. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 3 - Ornamentals and Turf for New York State. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuchorski, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  10. Application of land-use data and screening tests for evaluating pesticide runoff toxicity in surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.

    1993-05-01

    Survey information on pesticide usage in New Zealand during 1985-1989 is summarized by regions and principal applications. Two screening tests, one based on a simple water-balance method and the other based on a semiempirical runoff formula, have been used to identify 18 pesticides with application rates that may yield runoff concentrations that are harmful to aquatic fauna. These are predominantly associated either with intensive applications in horticulture or extensive applications to cereal crops and pasture. The purpose of the screening tests was to calculate typical edge-of-field concentrations in runoff and, by comparing them with known aquatic toxicity values, determine which compounds are applied at rates that may yield toxic runoff. While it may be possible to extend these methods to calculate typical surface water concentrations, further studies will be needed to evaluate pesticide persistence and assimilation in stream channels.

  11. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  12. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Domagalski, Joseph L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2009-12-20

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3,000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  13. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

  14. Maternal Residence Near Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Autism Spectrum Disorders among Children in the California Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric M.; English, Paul B.; Grether, Judith K.; Windham, Gayle C.; Somberg, Lucia; Wolff, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of pesticides (“pesticide drift”) are detectable at residences near agricultural field sites. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications during key periods of gestation could be associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Methods We identified 465 children with ASD born during 1996–1998 using the California Department of Developmental Services electronic files, and matched them by maternal date of last menstrual period to 6,975 live-born, normal-birth-weight, term infants as controls. We determined proximity to pesticide applications using California Department of Pesticide Regulation records refined using Department of Water Resources land use polygons. A staged analytic design applying a priori criteria to the results of conditional logistic regressions was employed to exclude associations likely due to multiple testing error. Results Of 249 unique hypotheses, four that described organochlorine pesticide applications—specifically those of dicofol and endosulfan—occurring during the period immediately before and concurrent with central nervous system embryogenesis (clinical weeks 1 through 8) met a priori criteria and were unlikely to be a result of multiple testing. Multivariate a posteriori models comparing children of mothers living within 500 m of field sites with the highest nonzero quartile of organochlorine poundage to those with mothers not living near field sites suggested an odds ratio for ASD of 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.4–15.3). ASD risk increased with the poundage of organochlorine applied and decreased with distance from field sites. Conclusions The association between residential proximity to organochlorine pesticide applications during gestation and ASD among children should be further studied. PMID:17938740

  15. Male reproductive hormones and thyroid function in pesticide applicators in the Red River Valley of Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F; Holland, Seth E; Erickson, Leanna L; Burroughs, Barbara L

    2003-06-13

    In the present effort, 144 pesticide applicators and 49 urban control subjects who reported no chronic disease were studied. Applicators provided records of the season's pesticides used by product, volumes, dates, and methods of application. Blood specimens for examination of hormone levels were obtained in summer and fall. In the herbicide-only applicator group, significant increases in testosterone levels in fall compared to summer and also elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the fall were noted. With respect to fungicide use, in an earlier cross-sectional epidemiologic study, data demonstrated that historic fungicide use was associated with a significant alteration of the sex ratio of children borne to applicators. As before, among current study subjects it was noted that historic fungicide use was associated with increased numbers of girls being born. Lower mean total testosterone concentrations by quartile were also correlated with increased numbers of live-born female infants. A downward summer to fall seasonal shift in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations occurred among applicators but not among controls. Farmers who had aerial application of fungicides to their land in the current season showed a significant shift in TSH values (from 1.75 to 1.11 mU/L). Subclinical hypothyroidism was noted in 5/144 applicators (TSH values >4.5 mU/L), but not in urban control subjects. Based on current and past studies, it was concluded that, in addition to pesticide exposure, individual susceptibility and perhaps economic factors may play a supporting role in the reported results.

  16. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  17. Sediment-associated pesticides in an urban stream in Guangzhou, China: implication of a shift in pesticide use patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Sun, Baoquan; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Pesticide use patterns in China have changed in recent years; however, the study of the environmental fate of current-use pesticides (CUPs) and their ecotoxicological significance in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In the present study, sediments were collected from an urban stream in the Chinese city of Guangzhou. Sediment-associated legacy organochlorine pesticides and CUPs-including organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil, and abamectin-were analyzed. Additionally, the relative toxicity of the sediments was evaluated with 10-d bioassays using Chironomus dilutus. Fifteen of 16 sediments collected from the stream were acutely toxic to C. dilutus, with 81% of the samples causing 100% mortality. Abamectin, fipronil, and pyrethroids (mainly cypermethrin) were identified as the principal contributors to the noted toxicity in the midges, with median predicted toxic units of 1.63, 1.63, and 1.03, respectively. Sediments taken from downstream sites, where residential and industrial regions were located, had elevated CUP concentrations and sediment toxicity compared with upstream sites. The present study is the first of its kind to link sediment CUPs, fipronil, and abamectin concentrations with toxicity in urban streams in China with a focus on shifting pesticide usage patterns.

  18. Association between organochlorine pesticide exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that exposure to DDT may be related to changes in thyroid hormone levels in animals and humans, even though results across studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to p,p'-DDE (a stable metabolite of DDT) and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the States of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, who were occupationally exposed to pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine serum levels of TSH, total T3, total T4, and p,p'-DDE, and metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (OP), respectively. The analysis of the associations between p,p'-DDE levels and thyroid hormone profile adjusting by potential confounding variables including urinary OP metabolites was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed that the geometric means of p,p'-DDE levels were 6.17 ng/ml and 4.71 ng/ml in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. We observed positive associations between the serum levels of p,p'-DDE and those of total T3 (β=0.01, 95% CI: -0.009, 0.03), and total T4 (β=0.08, 95% CI:0.03, 0.14) and negative but no significant changes in TSH in male floricultural workers, supporting the hypothesis that acts as thyroid disruptor in humans. PMID:27344267

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fumigation with Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist uses of fumigant pesticides prepared for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. An introduction with the explanation of fumigation is presented. The nine sections included describe: (1) Nature and effects of fumigants; (2) Modern fumigants; (3) Precautions to follow when using fumigants;…

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  2. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal…

  3. The Forum of the International HCH and Pesticides Association--a platform for international cooperation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, John; Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable life cycle management of pesticides in the last 60 years has created large pesticide stockpiles. The two major working areas of the International HCH and Pesticide Association (IHPA; www.ihpa.info ) address a part of these legacies and are shortly introduced here: (1) The assessment and support of the management of the worlds single largest POPs stockpile: the globally dumped 4 to 7 million tonnes hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) wastes from lindane production, and (2) the support for the management of the obsolete pesticides legacy in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries of ~240,000 t, leaving these pesticides in unregulated storages without adequate safety control being a huge risk to the environment and human health. The integrative approach IHPA takes-promoting international cooperation and the exchange of knowledge and experiences-is shortly explained. IHPA has developed various supporting tools for its work: the IHPA web page and newsletter informing on the threats and challenges, but also on the progresses of managing pesticide stockpiles; the joint GIZ-PAN-IHPA exhibition on awareness of the pesticide stockpile challenge; and the 'International HCH and Pesticides Forum' as most important tool to progress the integrative work and mission of IHPA. Finally, a summary of the 11th International HCH and Pesticides Forum held in Gabala, Azerbaijan is given which brought together more than 120 scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental and international organisations, industry and students from more than 40 countries to progress the obsolete pesticides and hazardous chemical waste challenge in EECCA countries. The event finished with adoption of 'Gabala Declaration', which aims to mobilise efforts of all stakeholders for prevention and elimination of POPs, obsolete pesticides, and hazardous chemical waste in the region.

  4. RETINAL DEGENERATION AND OTHER EYE DISORDERS IN WIVES OF FARMER PESTICIDE APPLICATORS ENROLLED IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes an epidemiological investigation of the wives of licensed pesticide applicators who are enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a large ongoing epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their families in North Carolina and Iowa. The Agricult...

  5. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  6. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  7. Selected Issues Associated with the Risk Assessment Process for Pesticides with Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Characteristics

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Scientific Advisory Panel meeting will address selected scientific issues associated with assessing the potential ecological risks resulting from use of a pesticide active ingredient which has persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) characteristics. EPA will pose speci...

  8. A new concept for reduction of diffuse contamination by simultaneous application of pesticide and pesticide-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Onneby, Karin; Jonsson, Anders; Stenström, John

    2010-02-01

    Pesticide residues and their transformation products are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters. This study examined whether adding pesticide-degrading microorganisms simultaneously with the pesticide at application could significantly reduce diffuse contamination from pesticide use. Degradation of the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was studied in soil microcosm experiments after simultaneous spraying of herbicide and herbicide-degrading bacteria on an agricultural soil and on a sand with low degradation potential. The latter represented pesticide use on non-agricultural soils poor in microbial activity. Degradation and possible loss of herbicidal effect were also tested in a system with plants and the amounts of bacteria needed to give satisfactory MCPA-degradation rate and the survival of degrading bacteria in formulated MCPA were determined. The results showed >80-99% degradation of 2,4-D and MCPA in soil within 1 day and >99% within 3 days after inoculation with 10(5)-10(7) herbicide-degrading bacteria g(-1) dry weight of soil. Enhanced degradation of MCPA was also obtained in the presence of winter wheat and white mustard without loss of the intended herbicidal effect on white mustard. The survival of an isolated MCPA-degrading Sphingomonas sp. in three realistic concentrations of formulated MCPA was very poor, showing that in practical applications direct contact between the microorganisms and the pesticide formulation must be precluded. The applicability and economic feasibility of the method and the information needed to obtain a useable product for field use are discussed.

  9. Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide-associated toxicity in two coastal watersheds (California, USA).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Hunt, John W; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Tjeerdema, Ron S; McNeill, Katie

    2012-07-01

    Portions of the Santa Maria River and Oso Flaco Creek watersheds in central California, USA, are listed as impaired under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and require development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocations. These listings are for general pesticide contamination, but are largely based on historic monitoring of sediment and fish tissue samples that showed contamination by organochlorine pesticides. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in these watersheds is caused by organophosphate pesticides (water and sediment) and pyrethroid pesticides (sediment). The present study was designed to provide information on the temporal and spatial variability of toxicity associated with these pesticides to better inform the TMDL process. Ten stations were sampled in four study areas, one with urban influences, and the remaining in agriculture production areas. Water toxicity was assessed with the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and sediment toxicity was assessed with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Stations in the lower Santa Maria River had the highest incidence of toxicity, followed by stations influenced by urban inputs. Toxicity identification evaluations and chemical analysis demonstrated that the majority of the observed water toxicity was attributed to organophosphate pesticides, particularly chlorpyrifos, and that sediment toxicity was caused by mixtures of pyrethroid pesticides. The results demonstrate that both agriculture and urban land uses are contributing toxic concentrations of these pesticides to adjacent watersheds, and regional water quality regulators are now using this information to develop management objectives. PMID:22549911

  10. Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide-associated toxicity in two coastal watersheds (California, USA).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Hunt, John W; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Tjeerdema, Ron S; McNeill, Katie

    2012-07-01

    Portions of the Santa Maria River and Oso Flaco Creek watersheds in central California, USA, are listed as impaired under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and require development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocations. These listings are for general pesticide contamination, but are largely based on historic monitoring of sediment and fish tissue samples that showed contamination by organochlorine pesticides. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in these watersheds is caused by organophosphate pesticides (water and sediment) and pyrethroid pesticides (sediment). The present study was designed to provide information on the temporal and spatial variability of toxicity associated with these pesticides to better inform the TMDL process. Ten stations were sampled in four study areas, one with urban influences, and the remaining in agriculture production areas. Water toxicity was assessed with the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and sediment toxicity was assessed with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Stations in the lower Santa Maria River had the highest incidence of toxicity, followed by stations influenced by urban inputs. Toxicity identification evaluations and chemical analysis demonstrated that the majority of the observed water toxicity was attributed to organophosphate pesticides, particularly chlorpyrifos, and that sediment toxicity was caused by mixtures of pyrethroid pesticides. The results demonstrate that both agriculture and urban land uses are contributing toxic concentrations of these pesticides to adjacent watersheds, and regional water quality regulators are now using this information to develop management objectives.

  11. Risk factors to pesticide exposure and associated health symptoms among cut-flower farmers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2005-06-01

    The study looked into the risk factors associated with pesticide exposure among cut-flower farmers. A survey questionnaire was given to 102 respondents in Barangay Bahong in La Trinidad, the center of cut-flower production in the Philippines. Results showed that 32% were symptomatic or had experienced pesticide-related illnesses since their first use of pesticides. The majority of the pesticides used by the farmers were Categories Ib and II which are moderately or highly hazardous chemicals. Individuals with signs and symptoms most often centered on the eye, ear, nose and throat (EENT) (44 respondents reporting these symptoms) followed by general and neuralgic (16 respondents) and the integumentary (14 respondents). The most common general signs and symptoms manifested were weakness followed by fatigue and muscle pain then by chills and fever. The most common EENT manifestations were eye itchiness and blurring of vision. For neurological signs and symptoms, dizziness followed by headache was reported. Logistic regression showed that illnesses for the past 12 months were associated with certain risk factors such as farm use of pesticides, exposure to pesticide while applying it, respiratory inhalation of pesticide vapours and mists (p = 0.05). Moreover, those who re-entered a recently sprayed area were 20 times more likely to get ill during the past 12 months than those who did not. Those who used pesticide-contaminated pieces of fabric to wipe sweat off their faces were 2% more likely to get ill, and those who had spills on their bodies while applying pesticide were 26 times more likely to get ill. The study suggested that the risk factors to pesticide exposure should be considered in policy formulations for the cut-flower farmers in the country.

  12. Associations among Organochlorine Pesticides, Methanobacteriales, and Obesity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Sook; Lee, Je-Chul; Lee, In-Kyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Methanobacteriales in the gut has recently been linked to obesity, no study has examined the hypothesis that waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are positively associated with Methanobacteriales in the general population. Since Methanobacteriales increase in a petroleum-contaminated environment to biodegrade petroleum as one way of autopurification, we also hypothesized that high body burden of highly lipophilic petroleum-based chemicals like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is associated with higher levels of Methanobacteriales in the gut. Methodology/Principal Findings Among 83 Korean women who visited a community health service center for a routine health checkup, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on 16S rDNA was used to quantify Methanobacteriales in feces. Nine OCPs were measured in both serum and feces of 16 subjects. Methanobacteriales were detected in 32.5% (27/83 women). Both BMI and waist circumference among women with Methanobacteriales were significantly higher than in women without Methanobacteriales (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). Also, Methanobacteriales levels in feces were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (r = +0.23 and P = 0.03 for both). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between feces Methanobacteriales levels and serum concentrations of most OCPs, including with cis-nonachlor (r = +0.53, P<0.05), oxychlordane (r = +0.46, P<0.1), and trans-nonachlor (r = +0.43, P<0.1). Despite high correlations of serum and feces concentrations of most OCPs, feces OCP concentrations were not clearly associated with feces Methanobacteriales levels. Conclusion/Significance In this cross-sectional study, the levels of Methanobacteriales in the human gut were associated with higher body weight and waist circumference. In addition, serum OCP concentrations were positively correlated with levels of Methanobacteriales. There may be a meaningful link among

  13. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 9: Regulatory Pest Control. CS-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses methods to prevent the introduction and/or spread of pests and diseases through application of suppression, control and eradication. (CS)

  14. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register...

  15. 77 FR 72342 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register...

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  17. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF TWO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES WITHIN A RESIDENCE AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Post-application temporal and spatial distributions of two organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, were monitored after homeowner applications for indoor and outdoor insect control. Samples were taken before and up to 12 days after treatments in the family room...

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  20. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  1. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, D.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

  2. Nanoencapsulation, Nano-guard for Pesticides: A New Window for Safe Application.

    PubMed

    Nuruzzaman, Md; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-24

    The application of nanotechnology in pesticide delivery is relatively new and in the early stages of development. This technology aims to reduce the indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides and ensure their safe application. This critical review investigated the potential of nanotechnology, especially the nanoencapsulation process for pesticide delivery. In-depth investigation of various nanoencapsulation materials and techniques, efficacy of application, and current research trends are also presented. The focus of ongoing research was on the development of a nanoencapsulated pesticide formulation that has slow releasing properties with enhanced solubility, permeability, and stability. These properties are mainly achieved through either protecting the encapsulated active ingredients from premature degradation or increasing their pest control efficacy for a longer period. Nanoencapsulated pesticide formulation is able to reduce the dosage of pesticides and human exposure to them, which is environmentally friendly for crop protection. However, lack of knowledge of the mechanism of synthesis and lack of a cost-benefit analysis of nanoencapsulation materials hindered their application in pesticide delivery. Further investigation of these materials' behavior and their ultimate fate in the environment will help the establishment of a regulatory framework for their commercialization. The review provides fundamental and critical information for researchers and engineers in the field of nanotechnology and especially the use of nanoencapsulation techniques to deliver pesticides.

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly. A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This programed text on application of pesticides provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. Each chapter consists of pretest, posttest, and learning program, which consists of a series of items (i.e. multiple choice questions and word matching) requiring learner…

  4. Can Inconsistent Association between Hypertension and Cognition in Elders be Explained by Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides?

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.

  5. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  6. Associations between Organochlorine Pesticides and Vitamin D Deficiency in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently low dose organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been strongly linked to various chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Both field and animal studies have suggested a possibility that persistent lipophilic chemicals like OC pesticides can cause vitamin D deficiency, but there have been no human studies of exposure to any chemical as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency. This study was performed to examine if serum concentrations of OC pesticides were associated with serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the U.S. general population. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-sectional associations of serum OC pesticides with serum 25(OH)D were investigated in 1,275 subjects aged ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES), 2003–2004. We selected 7 OC pesticides detectable in ≥80% of participants. Among the 7 OC pesticides, p,p′-DDT (β = −0.022, P<0.01), p,p′-DDE (β = −0.018, P = 0.04), and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = −0.022, P = 0.02) showed significant inverse associations with serum 25(OH)D levels. When study subjects were stratified by age, race, and the presence of various chronic diseases, p,p′-DDT showed consistent inverse associations in all subgroups, although stronger associations tended to be observed among subjects with old age, white race, or chronic diseases. Conclusion/Significance The current study suggests that the background exposure to some OC pesticides leads to vitamin D deficiency in human. Considering the importance of vitamin D deficiency in the development of chronic diseases, chemical exposure as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency should be evaluated in prospective and experimental studies. PMID:22295072

  7. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  8. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide use pattern, and the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4... another isolate, provided sufficient similarity is established, to support registration. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject to additional data or information requirements on a...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide use pattern, and the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4... another isolate, provided sufficient similarity is established, to support registration. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject to additional data or information requirements on a...

  11. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  12. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  13. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  14. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  15. Pesticide occurrence in groundwater and the physical characteristics in association with these detections in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McManus, Sarah-Louise; Richards, Karl G; Grant, Jim; Mannix, Anthony; Coxon, Catherine E

    2014-11-01

    This study explores the associations of pesticide occurrence in groundwater to geological characteristics of the monitoring points (MPs) contributing area. Pesticide analyses were undertaken during a 2-year groundwater monitoring campaign which generated 845 samples. MCPA and mecoprop were the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater. Each MP (n = 158) had a specifically delineated zone of contribution (ZOC) and the dominant physical characteristics present from nine national datasets were recorded for each ZOC. Associations between detections in groundwater and the dominant physical characteristic in each MPs ZOC tested were then statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test, logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression. The original physical characteristic datasets used that were associated with detections in groundwater were the type of MP, aquifer type, and Quaternary deposit type. Logistic regression revealed that springs, regionally important aquifer types, aquifers with a karstic flow regime, and alkaline Quaternary deposits in existence above karst aquifers in a MP's ZOC were more likely to have a pesticide detection in groundwater. Multiple regression from this exploratory work showed some mutual dependency between soil association, aquifer type, and the Geological Survey of Ireland groundwater vulnerability map. The combination of national monitoring data and physical attribute datasets can be used to explore key areas where groundwater is more vulnerable to pesticide contamination.

  16. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    PubMed

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health. PMID:24364441

  17. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    PubMed

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  18. A review of model applications for structured soils: b) Pesticide transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhne, John Maximilian; Köhne, Sigrid; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2009-02-01

    The past decade has seen considerable progress in the development of models simulating pesticide transport in structured soils subject to preferential flow (PF). Most PF pesticide transport models are based on the two-region concept and usually assume one (vertical) dimensional flow and transport. Stochastic parameter sets are sometimes used to account for the effects of spatial variability at the field scale. In the past decade, PF pesticide models were also coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and groundwater flow models for application at the catchment and larger regional scales. A review of PF pesticide model applications reveals that the principal difficulty of their application is still the appropriate parameterization of PF and pesticide processes. Experimental solution strategies involve improving measurement techniques and experimental designs. Model strategies aim at enhancing process descriptions, studying parameter sensitivity, uncertainty, inverse parameter identification, model calibration, and effects of spatial variability, as well as generating model emulators and databases. Model comparison studies demonstrated that, after calibration, PF pesticide models clearly outperform chromatographic models for structured soils. Considering nonlinear and kinetic sorption reactions further enhanced the pesticide transport description. However, inverse techniques combined with typically available experimental data are often limited in their ability to simultaneously identify parameters for describing PF, sorption, degradation and other processes. On the other hand, the predictive capacity of uncalibrated PF pesticide models currently allows at best an approximate (order-of-magnitude) estimation of concentrations. Moreover, models should target the entire soil-plant-atmosphere system, including often neglected above-ground processes such as pesticide volatilization, interception, sorption to plant residues, root uptake, and losses by runoff. The

  19. 76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...)(2) The preamble of the final rule (71 FR 60988, October 26, 2007), codifying the provision found at... and Biochemical Pesticides (71 FR 12072, March 8, 2006): f. Submittal of samples. This provision is... action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October...

  20. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF PESTICIDES WITHIN RESIDENCES AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study begun in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice and exterior perimeter treatments. In each participating househol...

  1. Application of quantitative structure-property relationship analysis to estimate the vapor pressure of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Honarparvar, Bahareh; Ortiz, Erlinda V; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2016-06-01

    The application of molecular descriptors in describing Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) for the estimation of vapor pressure (VP) of pesticides is of ongoing interest. In this study, QSPR models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to predict the vapor pressure values of 162 pesticides. Several feature selection methods, namely the replacement method (RM), genetic algorithms (GA), stepwise regression (SR) and forward selection (FS), were used to select the most relevant molecular descriptors from a pool of variables. The optimum subset of molecular descriptors was used to build a QSPR model to estimate the vapor pressures of the selected pesticides. The Replacement Method improved the predictive ability of vapor pressures and was more reliable for the feature selection of these selected pesticides. The results provided satisfactory MLR models that had a satisfactory predictive ability, and will be important for predicting vapor pressure values for compounds with unknown values. This study may open new opportunities for designing and developing new pesticide.

  2. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  3. Application of artificial neural networks to assess pesticide contamination in shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, G.B.; Ray, C.; Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed and applied to predict pesticide concentrations in groundwater monitoring wells. Pesticide concentration data are challenging to analyze because they tend to be highly censored. Input data to the neural network included the categorical indices of depth to aquifer material, pesticide leaching class, aquifer sensitivity to pesticide contamination, time (month) of sample collection, well depth, depth to water from land surface, and additional travel distance in the saturated zone (i.e., distance from land surface to midpoint of well screen). The output of the neural network was the total pesticide concentration detected in the well. The model prediction results produced good agreements with observed data in terms of correlation coefficient (R = 0.87) and pesticide detection efficiency (E = 89%), as well as good match between the observed and predicted "class" groups. The relative importance of input parameters to pesticide occurrence in groundwater was examined in terms of R, E, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), and pesticide occurrence "class" groups by eliminating some key input parameters to the model. Well depth and time of sample collection were the most sensitive input parameters for predicting the pesticide contamination potential of a well. This infers that wells tapping shallow aquifers are more vulnerable to pesticide contamination than those wells tapping deeper aquifers. Pesticide occurrences during post-application months (June through October) were found to be 2.5 to 3 times higher than pesticide occurrences during other months (November through April). The BPNN was used to rank the input parameters with highest potential to contaminate groundwater, including two original and five ancillary parameters. The two original parameters are depth to aquifer material and pesticide leaching class. When these two parameters were the only input parameters for the BPNN

  4. Application of artificial neural networks to assess pesticide contamination in shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Goloka B; Ray, Chittaranjan; Mehnert, Edward; Keefer, Donald A

    2006-08-15

    In this study, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed and applied to predict pesticide concentrations in groundwater monitoring wells. Pesticide concentration data are challenging to analyze because they tend to be highly censored. Input data to the neural network included the categorical indices of depth to aquifer material, pesticide leaching class, aquifer sensitivity to pesticide contamination, time (month) of sample collection, well depth, depth to water from land surface, and additional travel distance in the saturated zone (i.e., distance from land surface to midpoint of well screen). The output of the neural network was the total pesticide concentration detected in the well. The model prediction results produced good agreements with observed data in terms of correlation coefficient (R=0.87) and pesticide detection efficiency (E=89%), as well as good match between the observed and predicted "class" groups. The relative importance of input parameters to pesticide occurrence in groundwater was examined in terms of R, E, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), and pesticide occurrence "class" groups by eliminating some key input parameters to the model. Well depth and time of sample collection were the most sensitive input parameters for predicting the pesticide contamination potential of a well. This infers that wells tapping shallow aquifers are more vulnerable to pesticide contamination than those wells tapping deeper aquifers. Pesticide occurrences during post-application months (June through October) were found to be 2.5 to 3 times higher than pesticide occurrences during other months (November through April). The BPNN was used to rank the input parameters with highest potential to contaminate groundwater, including two original and five ancillary parameters. The two original parameters are depth to aquifer material and pesticide leaching class. When these two parameters were the only input parameters for the BPNN, they

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase variation enhances effect of pesticides associated with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental and genetic alterations of neuronal aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes were associated with increased Parkinson disease (PD) risk in an epidemiologic study. Methods: A novel ex vivo assay was developed to identify pesticides that can inhibit neuronal ALDH activity. These were investigated for PD associations in a population-based case-control study, the Parkinson's Environment & Genes (PEG) Study. Common variants in the mitochondrial ALDH2 gene were genotyped to assess effect measure modification (statistical interaction) of the pesticide effects by genetic variation. Results: All of the metal-coordinating dithiocarbamates tested (e.g., maneb, ziram), 2 imidazoles (benomyl, triflumizole), 2 dicarboxymides (captan, folpet), and 1 organochlorine (dieldrin) inhibited ALDH activity, potentially via metabolic byproducts (e.g., carbon disulfide, thiophosgene). Fifteen screened pesticides did not inhibit ALDH. Exposures to ALDH-inhibiting pesticides were associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in PD risk; genetic variation in ALDH2 exacerbated PD risk in subjects exposed to ALDH-inhibiting pesticides. Conclusion: ALDH inhibition appears to be an important mechanism through which environmental toxicants contribute to PD pathogenesis, especially in genetically vulnerable individuals, suggesting several potential interventions to reduce PD occurrence or slow or reverse its progression. PMID:24491970

  6. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  7. Pesticide application among farmers in the catchment of Ashaiman irrigation scheme of Ghana: health implications.

    PubMed

    Mattah, Memuna M; Mattah, Precious A D; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified. PMID:26798369

  8. Pesticide Application among Farmers in the Catchment of Ashaiman Irrigation Scheme of Ghana: Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Mattah, Memuna M.; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified. PMID:26798369

  9. 77 FR 2060 - Amendment of the System of Records for Records of Pesticide Applicators Certified Under EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Pesticide Programs, as described in 75 FR 49489 (August 13, 2010). This system of records, entitled... AGENCY Amendment of the System of Records for Records of Pesticide Applicators Certified Under EPA...'s (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs, Field and External Affairs Division, is giving notice that...

  10. Interpreting population estimates of birds following pesticide applications--behavior of male starlings exposed to an organophosphate pesticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.J.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    We determined activity budgets for 10 pairs of captive male Starlings between 7 May and 18 July 1980. Our objective was to quantify changes in behavior after exposure to an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and to assess the impact of changes in behavior on the interpretation of population estimates of birds following pesticide applications. We observed each pair of males for an hour at 07:30 and 09:30 for four days and classified their behavior into one of four categories: flying, perching, foraging, or singing and displaying. At 06:30 on day 2, one male received a single oral dose of 2.5 mg dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) per kg of body weight; the other male received an equivalent exposure of corn oil. Changes in the activity budgets of OP-dosed and control males were compared using t-tests. Activity of OP-dosed males was significantly (P _ 0.05) reduced within the 2-4 h following exposure. OP-dosed males spent more time perching (46.1%) than controls and less time flying (-96.6%), foraging (-28.5%), and singing and displaying (-49.5%). The frequency of perching (-75.3%), flying (-83.8%), foraging (-54.1%), and singing and displaying (- 59.2%) was significantly reduced. Activity in OP-dosed males returned to normal by 26-28 h posttreatment. Results suggest that movement and vocalization may be significantly reduced in birds exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Conventional censusing techniques and population estimating procedures may, therefore, be inadequate to assess changes in bird populations after pesticide applications because of the difficulty in separating decreases in density due to mortality or emigration from reductions in activity.

  11. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

  13. Applicability of ELISA-based Determination of Pesticides for Groundwater Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchihara, Takeo; Yoshimoto, Shuhei; Ishida, Satoshi; Imaizumi, Masayuki

    The principals and procedures of ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)-based determination of pesticides (Fenitrothion) in environmental samples were reviewed, and the applicability of the ELISA method for groundwater quality monitoring were validated through the experimental tracer tests in soil columns and the field test in Okinoerabu Island. The test results showed that the ELISA method could be useful not only for screening but also for quantitative analysis of pesticides. In the experimental tracer tests in soil columns, the retardation of pesticides leaching compared with conservative tracers were observed. In the field test, the contamination of the pesticide was detected in groundwater samples in Okinoerabu Island, even though the targeted pesticide was considered to be applied to the upland field 4 months ago. In order to investigate the transport and fate of pesticides in groundwater taking into account retardation from the field to groundwater table and the residue in groundwater, continuous observations of pesticides in groundwater are in a strong need, and the ELISA method is applicable to the long-term quality groundwater monitoring.

  14. Strong associations between the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane and type 2 diabetes in Saudi adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Yakout, Sobhy; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2014-08-29

    Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the body burden of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) with the risk of T2DM in a sample of adults from Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were obtained from 280 adult subjects. Hexachlorocyclohexane isomer residues were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data on lifestyle, dietary habits, and health status were gathered. Associations between exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. Around 49% of adults enrolled in this study were diagnosed with T2DM. Among various HCH isomers, serum concentrations of the pesticides β and γ-HCH were most strongly and consistently linked to T2DM in our studied subjects. Associations of HCH varied across five components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four out of the five components, especially elevated triglycerides, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL-cholesterol. This study in line with earlier ones about diabetes associated with HCH pesticide exposure and proposes possible hormonal pathways worthy of further investigation.

  15. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  16. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  17. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  18. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  19. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks. PMID:27501312

  20. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.

  1. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  2. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    depression storage (including degradation, infiltration and runoff). Processes on hard surfaces employs the conceptualization described in the paragraph above. The WetSpa-PST model can account for various spatial details of the urban features in a catchment, such as asphalt, concrete and roof areas. The distributed feature also allows users to input detailed pesticide application data of both non-point and point origins. Thanks to the Python modelling framework prototype used in the WetSpa-Python model, processes in the WetSpa-PST model can be simulated at different time steps depending on data availability and the characteristic temporal scale of each process. This helps to increase the computational accuracy during heavy rainfall events, especially for the associated fast transport of pesticides into surface water. Overall, the WetSpa-PST model has good potential in predicting effects of management options on pesticide releases from heavily urbanized catchments.

  3. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Moran, Patrick W

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n=3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  4. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Moran, Patrick W

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n=3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  5. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  6. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results.

  7. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  8. Documentation of a spatial data-base management system for monitoring pesticide application in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schurr, K.M.; Cox, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System was created as a demonstration project and was tested with data submitted to the Washington State Department of Agriculture by pesticide applicators from a small geographic area. These data were entered into the Department's relational data-base system and uploaded into the system's ARC/INFO files. Locations for pesticide applica- tions are assigned within the Public Land Survey System grids, and ARC/INFO programs in the Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System can subdivide each survey section into sixteen idealized quarter-quarter sections for display map grids. The system provides data retrieval and geographic information system plotting capabilities from a menu of seven basic retrieval options. Additionally, ARC/INFO coverages can be created from the retrieved data when required for particular applications. The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System, or the general principles used in the system, could be adapted to other applica- tions or to other states.

  9. Toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides to Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuping; Weston, Donald P; You, Jing; Rothert, Amanda K; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Two hundred sediment samples were collected and their toxicity evaluated to aquatic species in a previous study in the agriculturally dominated Central Valley of California, United States. Pyrethroid insecticides were the main contributors to the observed toxicity. However, mortality in approximately one third of the toxic samples could not be explained solely by the presence of pyrethroids in the matrices. Hundreds of pesticides are currently used in the Central Valley of California, but only a few dozen are analyzed in standard environmental monitoring. A significant amount of unexplained sediment toxicity may be due to pesticides that are in widespread use that but have not been routinely monitored in the environment, and even if some of them were, the concentrations harmful to aquatic organisms are unknown. In this study, toxicity thresholds for nine sediment-associated pesticides including abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were established for two aquatic species, the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. For midges, the median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of the pesticides ranged from 0.18 to 964 μg/g organic carbon (OC), with abamectin being the most toxic and propargite being the least toxic pesticide. A sublethal growth endpoint using average individual ash-free dry mass was also measured for the midges. The no-observable effect concentration values for growth ranged from 0.10 to 633 μg/g OC for the nine pesticides. For the amphipods, fenpropathrin was the most toxic, with an LC₅₀ of 1-2 μg/g OC. Abamectin, diazinon, and methyl parathion were all moderately toxic (LC₅₀s 2.8-26 μg/g OC). Dicofol, indoxacarb, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were all relatively nontoxic, with LC₅₀s greater than the highest concentrations tested. The toxicity information collected in the present study will be helpful in decreasing the

  10. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  11. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...: Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). ] This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather...: Manufacturing use product for joint compound, masonry coatings, paints, roof coatings, sealants, stuccos, and... 19446. Active ingredient: Silver. Proposed Uses: Antimicrobial and preservative additive used to...

  12. Ubertool: Web Application for Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate (license) pesticides before they become commercially available to ensure they will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the envi...

  13. Exposure to pesticides and cryptorchidism: geographical evidence of a possible association.

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, J; García-Martín, M; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; de Dios Luna-del-Castillo, J; Espigares García, M; Olea, N; Lardelli-Claret, P

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic hormone-disrupting chemicals may play a role in the increased frequency of cryptorchidism observed in some studies. We used a spatial ecological design to search for variations in orchidopexy rates in the province of Granada in Spain and to search for relationships between these differences and geographical variations in exposure to pesticides. Orchidopexy rates were estimated for the period from 1980 to 1991 in all municipalities and health care districts served by the University of Granada Hospital. A random sample of males of the same age (1-16 years) admitted for any reason during the same period was used to estimate inpatient control rates. Each municipality was assigned to one of four levels of pesticide use. We used Poisson homogeneity tests to detect significant differences in rates of orchidopexy between districts and between levels of pesticide use. Poisson and logistic regression models were also used to estimate the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use. Orchidopexy rates tended to be higher in districts near the Mediterranean coast where intensive farming is widespread. The city of Granada, where the reference hospital is located, also had higher figures both for orchidopexy and inpatient control rates. Regression models showed that the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use tended to increase with higher levels of use, with the exception of level 0 (mainly in the city of Granada). Our results are compatible with a hypothetical association between exposure to hormone-disruptive chemicals and the induction of cryptorchidism. Several methodological limitations in the design make it necessary to evaluate the results with caution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8930551

  14. Safety effectiveness of pesticide mixing-loading and application equipment used in 1976.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Jackson, T; Fredrickson, A S; Maddy, K T; Akesson, N B

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of currently used pesticide mixing-loading and application equipment in preventing workers from being exposed to cholinesterase (ChE) inhibiting pesticides was measured. Blood samples from workers involved in the application of pesticides in Monterey and Imperial counties of California were analyzed for ChE activity. The analyses indicated that only the mean red cell activity of mixer-loaders was significantly less than controls. Seasonal variations in ChE activity were noted for workers in Imperial County between January and August. These variations were apparently related to the toxicity of the pesticides used. A prototype, closed-transfer system used in Imperial County did not substantially reduce pesticide residues in the air around mixing-loading sites or prevent a reduction in ChE activity over that of open-transfer systems. This was attributed to inadequate training in the use of the new equipment on the part of the mixer-loaders and improperly maintained equipment. A protytype closed-transfer system used in Monterey County appeared to give some protection to mixer-loader applicators during the application season; however, the blood ChE activities of two mixer-loaders using another prototype closed system in Monterey County were severely depressed.

  15. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  16. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    This training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  17. Principles of Pesticide Use, Handling, and Application: Instructional Modules for Vocational Agriculture Education. Teacher Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis Associates, Inc., College Park, MD.

    The training package is designed to present the basic principles of pesticide use, handling, and application. Included in this package is information on Federal laws and regulations, personal safety, environmental implications, storage and disposal considerations, proper application procedures, and fundamentals of pest management. Successful…

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  19. POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE POTENTIAL TO PESTICIDES IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice treatments was initiated by the U.S. EPA in 1999. In participating households, pre- and post-application samples of indoor ...

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  3. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  5. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  6. Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Bhula, Raj; Bodnaruk, Kevin; Carazo, Elizabeth; Felsot, Allan S; Harris, Caroline A; Katayama, Arata; Kuiper, Harry A; Racke, Kenneth D; Rubin, Baruch; Shevah, Yehuda; Stephenson, Gerald R; Tanaka, Keiji; Unsworth, John; Wauchope, R Donald; Wong, Sue-Sun

    2007-11-01

    The large-scale commercial cultivation of transgenic crops has undergone a steady increase since their introduction 10 years ago. Most of these crops bear introduced traits that are of agronomic importance, such as herbicide or insect resistance. These traits are likely to impact upon the use of pesticides on these crops, as well as the pesticide market as a whole. Organizations like USDA-ERS and NCFAP monitor the changes in crop pest management associated with the adoption of transgenic crops. As part of an IUPAC project on this topic, recent data are reviewed regarding the alterations in pesticide use that have been observed in practice. Most results indicate a decrease in the amounts of active ingredients applied to transgenic crops compared with conventional crops. In addition, a generic environmental indicator -- the environmental impact quotient (EIQ) -- has been applied by these authors and others to estimate the environmental consequences of the altered pesticide use on transgenic crops. The results show that the predicted environmental impact decreases in transgenic crops. With the advent of new types of agronomic trait and crops that have been genetically modified, it is useful to take also their potential environmental impacts into account.

  7. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  8. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable. PMID:26755130

  11. Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region.

    PubMed

    Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Adu, Derick Taylor; Aziz, Ahmed Abdul; Ofori, Amoako; Denkyirah, Elijah Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application. In view of this, the study assessed the factors influencing cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application. A total of 240 cocoa farmers from six cocoa growing communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana were selected for the study using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Probit and Tobit regression models were used to estimate factors influencing farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application, respectively. Results of the study revealed that the use of pesticide is still high among farmers in the Region and that cocoa farmers do not follow the Ghana Cocoa Board recommended frequency of pesticide application. In addition, cocoa farmers in the study area were found to be using both Ghana Cocoa Board approved/recommended and unapproved pesticides for cocoa production. Gender, age, educational level, years of farming experience, access to extension service, availability of agrochemical shop and access to credit significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. Also, educational level, years of farming experience, membership of farmer based organisation, access to extension service, access to credit and cocoa income significantly influenced frequency of pesticide application. Since access to extension service is one key factor that reduces pesticide use and frequency of application among cocoa farmers, it is recommended that policies by

  12. Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region.

    PubMed

    Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Adu, Derick Taylor; Aziz, Ahmed Abdul; Ofori, Amoako; Denkyirah, Elijah Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application. In view of this, the study assessed the factors influencing cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application. A total of 240 cocoa farmers from six cocoa growing communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana were selected for the study using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Probit and Tobit regression models were used to estimate factors influencing farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application, respectively. Results of the study revealed that the use of pesticide is still high among farmers in the Region and that cocoa farmers do not follow the Ghana Cocoa Board recommended frequency of pesticide application. In addition, cocoa farmers in the study area were found to be using both Ghana Cocoa Board approved/recommended and unapproved pesticides for cocoa production. Gender, age, educational level, years of farming experience, access to extension service, availability of agrochemical shop and access to credit significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. Also, educational level, years of farming experience, membership of farmer based organisation, access to extension service, access to credit and cocoa income significantly influenced frequency of pesticide application. Since access to extension service is one key factor that reduces pesticide use and frequency of application among cocoa farmers, it is recommended that policies by

  13. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  15. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  17. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  18. Perceptions of Polycom Programming for Delivery of Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Ferrell, Jason; Vallad, Gary; Price, Jim; Cherry, Ron; Mizell, Russ; Duncan, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Polycom technology has potential for efficient use of program delivery by Extension educators. A survey of licensed pesticide applicators attending a 1-day event at one of 20 host polycom sites revealed that polycom distance learning is effective for presenting information and learning. Responses also indicated that most of this audience is…

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  2. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  4. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  6. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  7. Evaluation of Aerosol Pesticide Application Against Old World Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  8. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Used among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Ag...

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  10. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  11. Demonstration and Research Pest Control: A Training Program for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators, Manual No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Harry K.; And Others

    This manual is intended to provide the information necessary to meet EPA standards for demonstration and research pest control and prepare for the written examination required for certification. Emphasis is placed on the principles of safe pesticide use. Chapters are included on pesticide applicator certification in Virginia, basics of pest…

  12. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  13. An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Cognition During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Donauer, Stephanie; Altaye, Mekibib; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition-Mental and Psychomotor Developmental indices were administered at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition, at age 4, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, at age 5. Mothers with higher urinary total dialkylphosphate concentrations reported higher levels of socioeconomic status and increased fresh fruit and vegetable intake. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition at 1-5 years of age. In our cohort, exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy was not associated with cognition during early childhood. It is possible that a higher socioeconomic status and healthier diet may protect the fetus from potential adverse associations with gestational organophosphate pesticide exposure, or that dietary exposure to the metabolites is innocuous and not an ideal measure of exposure to the parent compound. PMID:27539379

  14. Estimation of measurement uncertainty associated to the determination of pesticide residues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Patrizia; Barbini, Danilo Attard; Girolimetti, Silvana; Dommarco, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    In the analytical analysis the measurement uncertainty is a quantitative indicator of the confidence describing the range around a reported or experimental result within which the true value can be expected. Several approaches can be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty associated to the analysis of pesticide residues: a) the top-down, the estimation can be referred to default values; b) the bottom-up the estimation is related to the uncertainty sources. Concerning the bottom-up approach, the following contributions have been investigated: weight of sample, calibration solutions, final volume of sample and intermediate repeatability studies. The commodity/residue combination selected in this study was celery/tau-fluvalinate pesticide. Tau-fluvalinate is a broad-spectrum insecticide in the pyrethroid class of pesticides. The Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of tau-fluvalinate in celery has been set at 0.01 mg/kg. The tau- Fluvalinate showed two chromatographic peaks. Since the individual standards are not available, the two peaks were integrated separately and the instrumental responses were added. The total residue was calculated on the basis of resulted peaks. The present work aims to compare the uncertainty estimated by experimental data using repeated analysis (n = 12) of a real sample and a spiked sample. The relative expanded uncertainty for two data set, incurred and spiked, was 22 % and 20 %, respectively. No differences were observed from repeated determinations of real samples and spiked samples.

  15. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  16. Pesticides associated with suspended sediments entering San Francisco Bay following the first major storm of water year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Fram, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Estuaries receive large quantities of suspended sediments following the first major storm of the water year. The first-flush events transport the majority of suspended sediments in any given year, and because of their relative freshness in the hydrologic system, these sediments may carry a significant amount of the sediment-associated pesticide load transported into estuaries. To characterize sediment-associated pesticides during a first-flush event, water and suspended sediment samples were collected at the head of the San Francisco Bay during the peak in suspended sediment concentration that followed the first major storm of the 1996 hydrologic year. Samples were analyzed for a variety of parameters as well as 19 pesticides and degradation products that span a wide range of hydrophobicity. Tidal mixing at the head of the estuary mixed relatively fresh suspended sediment transported down the rivers with suspended sediments in estuary waters. Segregation of the samples into groups with similar degrees of mixing between river and estuary water revealed that transport of suspended sediments from the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage basin strongly influenced the concentration and distribution of sediment-associated pesticides entering the San Francisco Bay. The less-mixed suspended sediment contained a different distribution of pesticides than the sediments exposed to greater mixing. Temporal trends were evident in pesticide content after samples were segregated according to mixing history. These results indicate sampling strategies that collect at a low frequency or do not compare samples with similar mixing histories will not elucidate basin processes. Despite the considerable influence of mixing, a large number of pesticides were found associated with the suspended sediments. Few pesticides were found in the concurrent water samples and in concentrations much lower than predicted from equilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and sedimentary phases. The observed

  17. Neurotoxicity of the Parkinson Disease-Associated Pesticide Ziram Is Synuclein-Dependent in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lulla, Aaron; Barnhill, Lisa; Bitan, Gal; Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Nguyen, Binh; O’Donnell, Kelley; Stahl, Mark C.; Yamashiro, Chase; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Sagasti, Alvaro; Bronstein, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the commonly used dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD), although the mechanisms by which they exert their toxicity are not completely understood. Objective: We studied the mechanisms of ziram’s (a DTC fungicide) neurotoxicity in vivo. Methods: Zebrafish (ZF) embryos were utilized to determine ziram’s effects on behavior, neuronal toxicity, and the role of synuclein in its toxicity. Results: Nanomolar-range concentrations of ziram caused selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and impaired swimming behavior. Because ziram increases α-synuclein (α-syn) concentrations in rat primary neuronal cultures, we investigated the effect of ziram on ZF γ-synuclein 1 (γ1). ZF express 3 synuclein isoforms, and ZF γ1 appears to be the closest functional homologue to α-syn. We found that recombinant ZF γ1 formed fibrils in vitro, and overexpression of ZF γ1 in ZF embryos led to the formation of neuronal aggregates and neurotoxicity in a manner similar to that of α-syn. Importantly, knockdown of ZF γ1 with morpholinos and disruption of oligomers with the molecular tweezer CLR01 prevented ziram’s DA toxicity. Conclusions: These data show that ziram is selectively toxic to DA neurons in vivo, and this toxicity is synuclein-dependent. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms by which pesticides may cause PD. Citation: Lulla A, Barnhill L, Bitan G, Ivanova MI, Nguyen B, O’Donnell K, Stahl MC, Yamashiro C, Klärner FG, Schrader T, Sagasti A, Bronstein JM. 2016. Neurotoxicity of the Parkinson disease-associated pesticide ziram is synuclein-dependent in zebrafish embryos. Environ Health Perspect 124:1766–1775; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP141 PMID:27301718

  18. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted. PMID:27266324

  19. Effects of pesticides on the reduction of plant and human pathogenic bacteria in application water.

    PubMed

    Mahovic, Michael; Gu, Ganyu; Rideout, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Overhead spray applications of in-field tomato treatments dissolved in aqueous solutions have specific pest targets (fungal, bacterial, insect, or other). Any organism present in the solution or on treated plant surfaces that is not a specific target of the application is unlikely inactivated and can instead be spread through the phyllosphere. In this laboratory study, commercially labeled pesticides (including Actigard 50WG, Bravo Weather Stik 6F, Cabrio 20EG, Kasumin, Kocide 3000 46WG, Oxidate 27L, Penncozeb 75DF, ProPhyt 54.5L, Stimplex 100L, Firewall, 22.4WP, and Tanos 50DF) in common use in commercial tomato production fields of the Eastern Shore of Virginia were investigated for activity against in vitro bacterial contamination of pesticide application waters. Pesticides of interest were tank mixed individually with one of the plant pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, or one of two serovars (Newport and Montevideo) of the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to assess reduction values during the average time between mixing and initial application. Observations suggested that while some treatments had a noticeable effect on population levels, only the oxidizer, peroxyacetic acid, showed significant and consistent levels of suppression against all bacteria investigated, at levels that could have practical implications. PMID:23575141

  20. Development and application of a catchment scale pesticide fate and transport model for use in drinking water risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pullan, S P; Whelan, M J; Rettino, J; Filby, K; Eyre, S; Holman, I P

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of IMPT (Integrated Model for Pesticide Transport), a parameter-efficient tool for predicting diffuse-source pesticide concentrations in surface waters used for drinking water supply. The model was applied to a small UK headwater catchment with high frequency (8h) pesticide monitoring data and to five larger catchments (479-1653km(2)) with sampling approximately every 14days. Model performance was good for predictions of both flow (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency generally >0.59 and PBIAS <10%) and pesticide concentrations, although low sampling frequency in the larger catchments is likely to mask the true episodic nature of exposure. The computational efficiency of the model, along with the fact that most of its parameters can be derived from existing national soil property data mean that it can be used to rapidly predict pesticide exposure in multiple surface water resources to support operational and strategic risk assessments. PMID:27151500

  1. Alternative control technology document: Control of VOC emissions from the application of agricultural pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In many States, some of the ozone nonattainment areas are comprised primarily of agricultural counties where a potentially significant contribution to the ozone may result from area sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emissions. A potential source of VOC emissions in agricultural counties is the release of organic compounds from the application of agricultural pesticides. The report provides technical information that State and local agencies can consider while developing strategies for reducing VOC emissions.

  2. Evaluation of predictive algorithms used for estimating potential postapplication, nondietary ingestion exposures to pesticides associated with children's hand-to-mouth behavior.

    PubMed

    Driver, J; Ross, J; Pandian, M; Assaf, N; Osimitz, T; Holden, L

    2013-01-01

    Postapplication exposure assessment related to indoor residential application of pesticide products requires consideration of product use information, application methods, chemical-specific deposition, time-dependent availability and transferability of surface residues, reentry time, and temporal location and macro- and microactivity/behavior patterns ( Baker et al., 2000 ). Children's mouthing behavior results in potential postapplication exposure to available pesticides in treated microenvironments through the nondietary ingestion route, in addition to the dermal or inhalation routes. Children's activities and associated behaviors may result in multiple or repeat contact of dermal areas (clothed and unclothed body areas and hands) with treated surfaces, or surfaces that may have indirect sources of residues. Further, some surfaces contacted may have transferable pesticide residues and others may not. Transfer of residues from the indoor residential environment to the dermal surface (e.g., hands) of an individual has been assumed to be linear as a function of time and number of contacts. However, studies suggest that this transfer process to the hands and other body areas may be rapidly saturable. In the most recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) "Residential Exposure Assessment Standard Operating Procedures" (U.S. EPA, 2012), the input variable for the number of dermal contacts (with treated surfaces) is an exponent, making the relationship nonlinear. Further, removal processes such as hand washing and transfer to untreated surfaces are important to consider. Predictive algorithms for estimating children's hand-to-mouth-related incidental ingestion exposures post pesticide application have been developed by the EPA/OPP and incorporated into probabilistic models. A review of literature addressing variables used to estimate potential incidental ingestion exposure is presented. Data relevant to input variables for

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide use on California almonds and associated risks to the surrounding environment.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua

    2014-02-15

    Various stakeholders of California almonds have been investing efforts into mitigating pesticide impacts on human and ecosystem health. This study is the first comprehensive evaluation that examines the spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide use and associated environmental risks. The pesticide use data from 1996 to 2010 were obtained from the Pesticide Use Reporting database. The Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation indicator was employed to evaluate the pesticide environmental risks based on the pesticide properties and local environmental conditions. Analyses showed that the use intensities (UI) of insecticides (oils accounted for 86% of the total insecticide UI) and herbicides both increased from north to south; fungicides showed the opposite spatial pattern; and fumigants were used most intensively in the middle region. The UI of fungicides and herbicides significantly decreased and increased, respectively, throughout the study area. The insecticide UI significantly decreased in the north but increased in many areas in the south. In particular, the organophosphate UI significantly decreased across the study area, while the pyrethroid UI significantly increased in the south. The fumigant UI did not show a trend. The regional risk intensities of surface water (RIW), soil (RIS), and air (RIA) all increased from north to south, while the groundwater regional risk intensity (RIG) decreased from north to south. The main trends of RIW, RIG, and RIS were decreasing, while the RIA did not show a trend in any region. It's noticeable that although the herbicide UI significantly increased, the UI of high-leaching herbicides significantly decreased, which led to the significant decrease of RIG. In summary, the temporal trends of the pesticide use and risks indicate that the California almond growers are making considerable progress towards sustainable pest management via integrated pest management, but still require more efforts to curb the fast increase of herbicide use.

  4. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  5. Pesticide: Application Equipment, Calibration and Maintenance. MP-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Michael A.

    This document discusses methods of calibration for chemical sprayers to insure proper control of the target plant or insect. Both granular and spray application techniques are presented with special emphasis given to computing chemical mixes properly. (CS)

  6. Association of in Utero Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation in an Agricultural Population

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Weltzien, Erin; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Barr, Dana B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Holland, Nina T.

    2004-01-01

    Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [βadjusted = −0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.75–−0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (βadjusted = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13–0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population. PMID:15238287

  7. Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Baston, D.S.; Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method useful for the quantification of a range of pesticides and pesticide degradation products associated with suspended sediments was developed by testing a variety of extraction and cleanup schemes. The final extraction and cleanup methods chosen for use are suitable for the quantification of the listed pesticides using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and the removal of interfering coextractable organic material found in suspended sediments. Methylene chloride extraction followed by Florisil cleanup proved most effective for separation of coextractives from the pesticide analytes. Removal of elemental sulfur was accomplished with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfite. The suitability of the method for the analysis of a variety of pesticides was evaluated, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were determined (0.1-6.0 ng/g dry weight of sediment) for 21 compounds. Recovery of pesticides dried onto natural sediments averaged 63%. Analysis of duplicate San Joaquin River suspended-sediment samples demonstrated the utility of the method for environmental samples with variability between replicate analyses lower than between environmental samples. Eight of 21 pesticides measured were observed at concentrations ranging from the MDL to more than 80 ng/g dry weight of sediment and exhibited significant temporal variability. Sediment-associated pesticides, therefore, may contribute to the transport of pesticides through aquatic systems and should be studied separately from dissolved pesticides.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. PART II - USE OF THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid physiological and behavioral development. In addition, young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to engage in activities (i.e., playing, sitting on the floor) in which they may ...

  9. Improve the Dispersion of Nanoclay Using Biochar and Biosilica-Application to Decrease the Loss of Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longhai; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Guilong; Ge, Chunmei; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Dispersion of nanomaterials could influence their functions and suspending capacity in aqueous solution, which could further affect their applications. Therefore, improving the dispersion of nanomaterials was rather significant. Herein, to enhance the dispersion of attapulgite (ATP), a kind of naturally aggregated nanoclay, straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) with micro/nano porous structure was added to ATP suspension under ultrasonic processing to form ATP-BCS nanocomposites. This approach could effectively decrease the particle size of originally aggregated ATP through steric hindrance effect of BCS and cavitation effect of ultrasound, resulting in a significant improvement of the dispersion and suspension capacity of ATP. Moreover, the ATP-BCS, when added into pesticide, could effectively improve the adhesion of pesticide, so that the loss of pesticide could be decreased and the pollution risk of pesticide could be lowered. PMID:27427646

  10. Improve the Dispersion of Nanoclay Using Biochar and Biosilica-Application to Decrease the Loss of Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longhai; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Guilong; Ge, Chunmei; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Dispersion of nanomaterials could influence their functions and suspending capacity in aqueous solution, which could further affect their applications. Therefore, improving the dispersion of nanomaterials was rather significant. Herein, to enhance the dispersion of attapulgite (ATP), a kind of naturally aggregated nanoclay, straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) with micro/nano porous structure was added to ATP suspension under ultrasonic processing to form ATP-BCS nanocomposites. This approach could effectively decrease the particle size of originally aggregated ATP through steric hindrance effect of BCS and cavitation effect of ultrasound, resulting in a significant improvement of the dispersion and suspension capacity of ATP. Moreover, the ATP-BCS, when added into pesticide, could effectively improve the adhesion of pesticide, so that the loss of pesticide could be decreased and the pollution risk of pesticide could be lowered.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake, China, and associated human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deqing; Yu, Yingxin; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Zhang, Shaohuan; Wu, Minghong

    2013-12-01

    Because contaminants and nutrients always coexist in fish, the risk from contaminants and the benefit from nutrients, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also concomitant via fish consumption. To investigate the risk and benefit via fish consumption, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the whole- and portion-muscles of fish from Taihu Lake, China, were measured. Based on the contaminant data and nutrients from our previous study, and the associated risk and benefit via fish consumption were estimated. The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the whole-muscles ranged from 7.8 × 10² to 3.4×10³ pg g⁻¹ ww, and from 67.3 to 300 pg g⁻¹ ww, respectively. Of DDTs and HCHs measured, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH were respectively the most abundant pesticides. The composition profiles of DDTs and HCHs suggested that the pesticides were mainly historical residues. The benefit-risk quotient (BRQ) of EPA+DHA vs. POPs (persistent organic pollutants including data of DDTs, HCHs, and those of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers cited from our previous study) via consumption of fish from Taihu Lake was calculated. As a result, to achieve the recommended EPA+DHA intake of 250 mg d⁻¹ for a healthy adult, the consumption of most fish species from the lake can cause cancer and non-cancer risks. However, the fish consumption at the rates of 44.9 g d⁻¹ by Chinese would not lead to the risks for most of the species. The results also suggested that the risk of consuming silver carp was generally lower than other fish species, and those of dorsal muscles were lower than ventral and tail muscles.

  12. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies.

  13. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

  14. Environmental hazards associated with pesticide import into Costa Rica, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Elba; Bravo-Durán, Viria; Ramírez, Fernando; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Raw pesticide import data from 1977 to 2009 obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture in Costa Rica were processed and analyzed. The quantity of specific active ingredients (a.i.), and chemical groups were calculated by year and presented in ten-year periods. Three sets of environmental hazard indicators were constructed: one for general pesticides exposure to monitor tendencies in time, including total quantities imported divided by significant denominators, such as hectares of protected and wetland areas. The second indicator calculates pesticide use on the Pacific or Caribbean slope. The third one is an assessment of environmental hazards intended to estimate fate and toxicity to aquatic biota. A review of Costa Rican aquatic ecosystems' contamination with pesticides is presented. The annual average import as well as the quantity of pesticides capable of reaching water bodies increased during the analyzed period. The same was observed for harmful a.i., 98% of the pesticides imported were classified as acutely toxic for fish and crustaceans and 73% for amphibians. Approximately 8.4 kg of a.i. were imported per hectare of protected areas and 24.3 kg of a.i. per hectare of wetlands. The contamination of aquatic systems over time by specific pesticides matches quite well the list of imported ones. We recommend using data of pesticide imports as a source of information to evaluate environmental risk exposure and promote changes to reduce impacts on aquatic systems.

  15. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  16. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... greater than 150 psi, or (b) Applied as a: (i) Fumigant, or (ii) Smoke, or (iii) Mist, or (iv) Fog, or (v... section are met Entire enclosed area is the treated area (i) Smoke, or (ii) Mist, or (iii) Fog, or...

  17. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... greater than 150 psi, or (b) Applied as a: (i) Fumigant, or (ii) Smoke, or (iii) Mist, or (iv) Fog, or (v... section are met Entire enclosed area is the treated area (i) Smoke, or (ii) Mist, or (iii) Fog, or...

  18. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... greater than 150 psi, or (b) Applied as a: (i) Fumigant, or (ii) Smoke, or (iii) Mist, or (iv) Fog, or (v... section are met Entire enclosed area is the treated area (i) Smoke, or (ii) Mist, or (iii) Fog, or...

  19. Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (CVU) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (CHL) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  20. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml. PMID:27265938

  1. URINARY LEVELS OF 2,4-D AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL FOR SPOUSES AND CHILDREN OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted pesticides, 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos, was measured in conjunction with agricultural applications for a subset of appl...

  2. Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

  3. Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

  4. 78 FR 53139 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Application for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide flonicamid, pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). DATES... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid...

  5. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site.

  6. Nutrient and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in American alligator eggs and their associations with clutch viability.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Wiebe, Janet E; Honeyfield, Dale C; Gross, Timothy S

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1900s, the lakes of the Ocklawaha basin in central Florida have experienced ecological degradation due to anthropogenic development. One species affected by this degradation is the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, which has suffered from poor clutch viability and embryo mortality. Although some studies indicate that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may be involved, OCPs do not account for all of the variation seen in hatch rates. Indeed, nutrition and non-OCP contaminants have been associated with developmental problems in fish and birds. Our study evaluated embryo mortality in alligators at reference and OCP-contaminated sites as a function of exposure to OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with egg nutrients (Zn, Se, and vitamins A, E, and B1). The four-pronged study consisted of a case-control cohort study, an expanded field study, a topical egg treatment thiamine amelioration experiment, and a topical egg treatment thiamine antagonist experiment. The results from the two field studies suggested that the total thiamine levels in the eggs were positively associated with clutch viability and negatively associated with the lipid content and certain OCPs measured in egg yolks. In addition, PCBs, PAHs, Zn, Se, and vitamins A and E were not found to be associated with the observed clutch viability defects. The thiamine levels in the eggs explained 38% of the variation in clutch survival in the case-control cohort study and 27% in the expanded field study. The topical egg treatment experiments were successful in elevating the thiamine concentrations in the albumin but not the yolk. No significant differences were noted among treatment groups in either egg treatment experiment with respect to clutch survival. In summary, thiamine egg concentrations explain some of the variation in the clutch viability of free-ranging alligators, but the cause-effect relationships are still unclear. PMID

  7. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling...

  8. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling...

  9. PR notice 87-9. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  10. PR notice 87-10. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  11. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or custom blending, as defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...

  12. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or custom blending, as defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...

  13. Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A

    2001-06-01

    The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized, and major themes common to successful CBPR projects are identified. These common features are taking the time to interact with the community, using multiple approaches to engage the different parts of the community, understanding different participants often have different goals, appreciating each group's strengths, valuing community knowledge, and being flexible and creative in conducting research. The final article in this collection describes the translational research program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) highlighting activities pertinent to the health of rural communities, giving an overview of NIEHS-supported projects addressing health concerns of Native Americans

  14. Associations of maternal organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity with birth outcomes in SAWASDEE birth cohort, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Srinual, Niphan; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Riederer, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of OP pesticides on human fetal development have not yet been elucidated. Our pilot study birth cohort, the Study of Asian Women and Offspring's Development and Environmental Exposures (SAWASDEE cohort) aimed to evaluate environmental chemical exposures and their relation to birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment in 52 pregnant farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A large array of data was collected multiple times during pregnancy including approximately monthly urine samples for evaluation of pesticide exposure, three blood samples for pesticide-related enzyme measurements and questionnaire data. This study investigated the changes in maternal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and their relation to urinary diakylphosphates (DAPs), class-related metabolites of OP pesticides, during pregnancy. Maternal AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PON1 activities were measured three times during pregnancy and urinary DAP concentrations were measured, on average, 8 times from enrollment during pregnancy until delivery. Among the individuals in the group with low maternal PON1 activity (n=23), newborn head circumference was negatively correlated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (gestational age=12±3 weeks; β=-1.0 cm, p=0.03 and β=-1.8 cm, p<0.01, respectively) and at 32 weeks pregnancy (β=-1.1cm, p=0.04 and β=-2.6 cm, p=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, among these mothers, newborn birthweight was also negatively associated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (β=-219.7 g, p=0.05 and β=-371.3g, p=0.02, respectively). Associations between maternal DAP levels and newborn outcomes were not observed in the group of participants with high maternal PON1 activity. Our results support previous findings from US birth

  15. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  16. Differential Effects of Pesticide Applications on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its Parasitoids on Pea in Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guantai, M M; Ogol, C P K O; Salifu, D; Kasina, J M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    Three Liriomyza species [Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Liriomyza sativae Blanchard] have been reported as the most important leafminer pests in vegetable production systems in Africa. In Kenya, farmers rely on indiscriminate synthetic insecticides use. On-farm field investigations were set up at three different locations (Sagana, Kabaru, and Naromoru) in central Kenya to determine the effect of pesticide application on the abundance of leafminers and their parasitoids under three management practices, namely: farmer practice (FP), reduced pesticide use (RP), and a control with no use of pesticides (CO). In addition, laboratory experiments were designed to test the effect of commonly used pesticides in pea production systems in central Kenya--Dimethoate, Dynamec, Thunder, Cyclone, Bestox, Folicur, Milraz, and Bulldock--on L. huidobrensis and two of its parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon. The mean numbers of leafminer flies in control treatment were higher than in RP and FP in both first and second seasons across all sites, but RP and FP did not differ significantly. Parasitoid numbers were very low and there was no much variation between treatments at each location in both first and second seasons. No significant differences were observed between the three management practices with regards to the yield measurements. In the laboratory, the estimated LD50 values for L. huidobrensis larvae were all more than two times higher than the recommended dosages, while the LD50 of adults were below the recommended dosages. The estimated LD50 values for the parasitoids were much lower than recommended dosages for all pesticides except Thunder. This study, therefore, demonstrates that the pesticides currently used do not control the Liriomyza leafminer larvae that constitute the most destructive stage of the pest, but are rather detrimental to their parasitoids. In addition, the current low level of

  17. Movement and deposition of two organophosphorus pesticides within a residence after interior and exterior applications.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R G; Fortune, C R; Blanchard, F T; Camann, D E

    2001-03-01

    Post-application temporal and spatial distributions of two organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-[6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-4-pyrimidinyl] phosphorothioate, CAS No. 333-41-5) and chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl-O-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate, CAS No. 2921-88-2], were monitored after homeowner applications for indoor and outdoor insect control. Samples of indoor air, vacuumable carpet dust, carpet dislodgeable residues, deposits on bare floors, table tops and dinnerware, surrogate food, and residues on children's hands and toys were taken before and up to 12 days after treatments in the family room, kitchen, and child's bedroom. Results from the study demonstrate the nature and magnitude of translocation of pesticides from the areas of application to surfaces accessible for human contact and permit comparisons of potential exposures via respiration and dermal contact/oral ingestion. Potential indoor inhalation exposures were estimated to be as high as 0.5 microg/kg/day for diazinon applied indoors and 0.05 microg/kg/day for chlorpyrifos applied to the outside perimeter of the house. While ingestion of carpet dust at the rate of 100 microg/day would have added a maximum of only approximately 0.01 microg/kg/day to the daily dose, residues found on the children's hands suggest that repeated mouthing could have contributed as much as 1-1.5 microg/kg/day. These estimates are below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose for chlorpyrifos, but exceed those for diazinon. PMID:11266098

  18. Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Rao, Pamela; Snively, Beverly M; Camann, David E; Doran, Alicia M; Yau, Alice Y; Hoppin, Jane A; Jackson, David S

    2004-01-01

    Children of farmworkers can be exposed to pesticides through multiple pathways, including agricultural take-home and drift as well as residential applications. Because farmworker families often live in poor-quality housing, the exposure from residential pesticide use may be substantial. We measured eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses in residences of 41 farmworker families with at least one child < 7 years of age in western North Carolina and Virginia. Wipe samples were taken from floor surfaces, toys, and children's hands. We also collected interview data on possible predictors of pesticide presence, including characteristics of the household residents, cleaning practices, and characteristics of the home. All families were Spanish-speaking, primarily from Mexico. Results indicate that six agricultural and 11 residential pesticides were found in the homes, with agricultural, residential, or both present in 95% of homes sampled. In general, residential pesticides were more commonly found. Presence of both types of pesticides on the floor was positively associated with detection on toys or hands. Agricultural pesticide detection was associated with housing adjacent to agricultural fields. Residential pesticide detection was associated with houses judged difficult to clean. Although the likelihood of agricultural pesticide exposure has been considered high for farmworker families, these results indicate that residential pesticide use and exposure in this population merit further study. PMID:14998757

  19. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  20. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops (Version 1.4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method for conducting and reporting results from verification testing of pesticide application technologies. It can be used to evaluate technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift, hence the term “drift reduction t...

  1. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds. PMID:26832876

  2. Graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructures for enhanced Raman readout and their applications in pesticide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-04-01

    Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich nanostructure as a SERS substrate, the Raman signals of analytes were dramatically enhanced due to having plenty of hot spots on their surfaces and the unique structure of the graphene oxide sheets. These features make the sandwich nanostructured film an ideal SERS substrate to improve the sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of the Raman readout. The sandwich nanostructure film can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G) with an enhancement factor (EF) of ~7.0 × 107 and the pesticide thiram in commercial grape juice with a detection limit of as low as 0.1 μM (0.03 ppm), which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The GO embedded sandwich nanostructure also has the ability to selectively detect dithiocarbamate compounds over other types of agricultural chemical. Furthermore, spiked tests show that the sandwich nanostructure can be used to monitor thiram in natural lake water and commercial grape juice without further treatment. In addition, the GO enhanced Raman spectroscopic technique offers potential practical applications for the on-site monitoring and assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural products and environments.Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich

  3. Graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructures for enhanced Raman readout and their applications in pesticide monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-05-01

    Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich nanostructure as a SERS substrate, the Raman signals of analytes were dramatically enhanced due to having plenty of hot spots on their surfaces and the unique structure of the graphene oxide sheets. These features make the sandwich nanostructured film an ideal SERS substrate to improve the sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of the Raman readout. The sandwich nanostructure film can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G) with an enhancement factor (EF) of ∼7.0 × 10(7) and the pesticide thiram in commercial grape juice with a detection limit of as low as 0.1 μM (0.03 ppm), which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The GO embedded sandwich nanostructure also has the ability to selectively detect dithiocarbamate compounds over other types of agricultural chemical. Furthermore, spiked tests show that the sandwich nanostructure can be used to monitor thiram in natural lake water and commercial grape juice without further treatment. In addition, the GO enhanced Raman spectroscopic technique offers potential practical applications for the on-site monitoring and assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural products and environments.

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

  5. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Saadia Rashid; Shafiq, Musharaf; Chotana, Ghayoor Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd) and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin). FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The results of the study revealed slightly enhanced levels of Ni and Cd in these samples while the rest of the metals were present within tolerable range. Acetamiprid residues in soil were strongly positively correlated with Cu and negatively correlated with Cr. Similarly, imidacloprid in soil was negatively correlated with Ni. Thus it was evidenced that Cu stabilizes acetamiprid while Cr and Ni facilitate the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the soil. PMID:27051560

  6. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Musharaf; Chotana, Ghayoor Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd) and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin). FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The results of the study revealed slightly enhanced levels of Ni and Cd in these samples while the rest of the metals were present within tolerable range. Acetamiprid residues in soil were strongly positively correlated with Cu and negatively correlated with Cr. Similarly, imidacloprid in soil was negatively correlated with Ni. Thus it was evidenced that Cu stabilizes acetamiprid while Cr and Ni facilitate the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the soil. PMID:27051560

  7. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite. PMID:17168218

  8. Farmer perceptions and pesticide use practices in vegetable production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ntow, William J; Gijzen, Huub J; Kelderman, Peter; Drechsel, Pay

    2006-04-01

    As an initial part of a programme aimed at promoting safe and sound agricultural practices in Ghana, a study was made of farmers' perceptions of pesticides for use and application in vegetable production, using a small survey of 137 farmers who applied pesticides. Field surveys, interviews, questionnaires and analytical games were used to obtain information on the type, scope and extent of use of pesticides, farmers' knowledge of pesticides, and their perceptions about the chemicals' potential for harm. Data from this sample of farmers were used to describe the status of use of pesticides in vegetable cultivation in Ghana. Using chi2 tests, associations between farmers' age and possible pesticide poisoning symptoms, their farm size and method of spraying pesticides, and their perception of pesticide hazard and its perceived effectiveness against pests were also examined. The survey showed that knapsack sprayers were the most widely used type of equipment for spraying pesticides. However, on large-scale vegetable farms of 6-10 acres, motorised sprayers were also used. Various inappropriate practices in the handling and use of pesticides caused possible poisoning symptoms among those farmers who generally did not wear protective clothing. Younger farmers (<45 years of age) were the most vulnerable group, probably because they did more spraying than older farmers (>45 years of age). Farmers did not necessarily associate hazardous pesticides with better pest control. The introduction of well-targeted training programmes for farmers on the need for and safe use of pesticides is advocated.

  9. Pesticides and health risks.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Robyn C; Huffling, Katie; Sattler, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are a category of chemicals formulated to kill or repel a pest or halt its reproduction. In this article we review the toxicological and epidemiological literature; describe common potential pesticide exposures; and focus on the associated health risks to fetal development. Clinical implications are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding the integration of this environmental health concern into nursing education, practice, research, and policy/advocacy work. Recommendations for pesticide elimination and reduction in health care settings are included. PMID:20409108

  10. Exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavallé, N; Font, L; Garcia‐Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Methods This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998–2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non‐arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Results Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non‐arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Conclusions Long term exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers. PMID:16757510

  11. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and application in mineralization of pesticides using membrane support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimegalai, G.; Shanthakumar, S.; Sharma, Chandan

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides are deliberately used for controlling the pests in agriculture and public health, due to which, a part of it is present in the drinking water. Due to their widespread use, they are present in both surface and ground water. Most of the pesticides are resistant to biodegradation and are found to be carcinogenic in nature even at trace levels. Conventional methods of pesticide removal are disadvantageous due to their inherent time consumption or expensiveness. Nanoparticles alleviate both of these drawbacks and hence, they can be effectively utilized for the mineralization of pesticides. To prevent the presence of nanoparticles in the purified water after mineralization of pesticides, they need to be incorporated on a support. In earlier studies, researchers employed activated carbon and alumina as support for silver nanoparticles in pesticide mineralization. However, not many studies have been carried out on polymeric membranes as support for silver nanoparticles in the mineralization of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). With this in view, a detailed study has been carried out to estimate the mineralization potential of silver nanoparticles (synthesized using glucose) supported on cellulose acetate membrane. It is observed that the silver nanoparticles can effectively mineralize the pesticides, and the concentration of nanoparticles enhances the rate of mineralization.

  12. 77 FR 77077 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Applications for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B.../or data that you used. v. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at...

  13. 78 FR 25436 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Receipt of Applications; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Mains, Ph.D., Mosquito Mate, Inc., 1122 Oak Hill Drive, Lexington, KY 40505-3322. Pesticide Chemical... 30,000 male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes infected with the Wolbachia pipientis microbial pesticide per week for 6 months in neighborhoods of Lexington, KY. The released male mosquitoes are expected to...

  14. 77 FR 8861 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This... . 10. File Symbol: 84059-RT. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0058. Company name and address: Marrone...

  15. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Neubron, Propham, Swep, 2,4-D, Dicamba, Silvex, 2,4,5-T, Siduron, Perthane, and Dicofol. (c) The... Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a pesticide... source performance and pretreatment standards for that pesticide active ingredient listed in table 2...

  16. 77 FR 30524 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide.... Proposed Classification/Uses: Banana and plantain; bushberry subgroup, crop subgroups 13-07B and...

  17. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  18. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  19. Association of Parkinson’s Disease and Its Subtypes with Agricultural Pesticide Exposures in Men: A Case–Control Study in France

    PubMed Central

    Spinosi, Johan; Delabre, Laurène; Gourlet, Véronique; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Bénatru, Isabelle; Goldberg, Marcel; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), but there are few data on important exposure characteristics such as dose–effect relations. It is unknown whether associations depend on clinical PD subtypes. Objectives We examined quantitative aspects of occupational pesticide exposure associated with PD and investigated whether associations were similar across PD subtypes. Methods As part of a French population-based case–control study including men enrolled in the health insurance plan for farmers and agricultural workers, cases with clinically confirmed PD were identified through antiparkinsonian drug claims. Two controls were matched to each case. Using a comprehensive occupational questionnaire, we computed indicators for different dimensions of exposure (duration, cumulative exposure, intensity). We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among exposed male farmers (133 cases, 298 controls). We examined the relation between pesticides and PD subtypes (tremor dominant/non-tremor dominant) using polytomous logistic regression. Results There appeared to be a stronger association with intensity than duration of pesticide exposure based on separate models, as well as a synergistic interaction between duration and intensity (p-interaction = 0.04). High-intensity exposure to insecticides was positively associated with PD among those with low-intensity exposure to fungicides and vice versa, suggesting independent effects. Pesticide exposure in farms that specialized in vineyards was associated with PD (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.98). The association with intensity of pesticide use was stronger, although not significantly (p-heterogeneity = 0.60), for tremor-dominant (p-trend < 0.01) than for non-tremor–dominant PD (p-trend = 0.24). Conclusions This study helps to better characterize different aspects of pesticide exposure associated with PD, and shows a significant

  20. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    PubMed

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides.

  1. Safety effectiveness of closed-transfer, mixing-loading, and application equipment in preventing exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Jackson, T; Fredrickson, A S; Rivera, L; Maddy, K T; Akesson, N B

    1980-01-01

    Blood cholinesterase (CHE) activities and urinary dialkyl phosphate levels of five mixer-loaders and four mixer-loader applicators, using a closed-transfer system in conjunction with mixing-loading and application equipment, were monitored over a period of 18 weeks. Airborne pesticide residues in the breathing zone during mixing-loading and the transfer of concentrated liquid pesticide from their original container to mix and spray tanks were determined along with airborne residues during ground application. Blood ChE activities of the majority of the workers increased slightly during the study with increased use of toxic organophosphates and carbamates. Urinary dialkyl phosphate levels varied between 0.02 and 2.4 ppm. During the study, the blood ChE activities of two mixer-loaders decreased and dialkyl phosphate levels of 2.4 ppm were found in the urine of one worker. An investigation indicated that the workers had failed to use the provided closed-transfer system. Airborne residues from liquid pesticides during closed transfer and mixing-loading averaged 5.8 microgram/m3, while residues from dusty powders averaged 152 microgram/m3. Airborne residues during ground application averaged 3.7 microgram/m3 during the workday. Mevinphos residues on cloth patches averaged 0.2 microgram/cm2.

  2. Summary of national standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, bed sediment, and aquatic organisms and their application to water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)

  3. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  4. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change. PMID:25313074

  5. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  6. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change. PMID:25313074

  7. Biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications: results after 4 years of study.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, O; De Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; Huyghebaert, B; Planchon, V; Pussemier, L; Culot, M

    2006-01-01

    Biofilters were developed in order to eliminate or reduce the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers. Biofilters consist in 1, 2 or 3 plastic containers of 1 m3 placed in a vertical pile and containing a substrate elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and compost able to absorb and degrade the pesticides. Biofilters are installed near the area for cleaning and rinsing the sprayer and the waste waters are pumped into the system. Since 2002, a pilot study is carried out in Belgium in order to evaluate the efficacy of these systems. Twenty pilot systems were installed since 2002 until 2004 in several farms, agricultural technical centres or schools and in a municipal maintenance service. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for several chemical classes of herbicides (sulfonylurea, aryloxyalcanoic acids, chloroacetanilides), insecticides (pyrethroids, carbamates) and fungicides (dicarboximides, phenylamides, triazoles and strobilurines). The balance of the inputs and the outputs of the pesticides was determined by monitoring the elutes. The degradation kinetic of pesticides into the substrate was evaluated by analysing the pesticides into the substrate. The microbiological activity of the substrate was also evaluated by measuring respiration and some indirect parameters like dry matter content, Kjeldahl nitrogen content, organic carbon content and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Results obtained until now after four years of experiments have showed an overall good efficacy (retention) of pesticides by the biofilter and a high degradation rate for the majority of pesticides. Biofilters permit to reduce highly the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers and contribute significantly to the reduction of the contamination of surface water. Biofilters are now registered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of the Walloon Region in Belgium and are recommended to pesticides

  8. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  9. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, Beth A. Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A.

    2008-09-15

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  10. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  11. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  12. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Alessandra; Pizzeghello, Diego; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. Materials and Methods In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures) treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole), with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days). FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI) and ester-linked method (EL). Results and Discussion The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2) values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time. Conclusion Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides. PMID:26694029

  13. Evaluation of Candidate Genes for cholinesterase Activity in Farmworkers Exposed to organophosphorous Pesticides-Association of SNPs in BCHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Organophosphate pesticides act as cholinesterase inhibitors, and as such may give rise to potential neurological effects. Cholinesterase activity is a useful, indirect measurement of pesticide exposure, especially in high-risk individuals such as farmworkers. To und...

  14. 75 FR 6027 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Agrochemicals Ltd., (62097-EUP-R). Pesticide Chemical: Prohydrojasmon (PDJ). Summary of Request: Use as a plant growth regulator on red apple varieties in the states of California, Maryland, Michigan, New York,...

  15. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides are excluded from coverage in this subpart. Insecticidal pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as... CFR 124.8....

  16. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides are excluded from coverage in this subpart. Insecticidal pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as... CFR 124.8....

  17. APPLICATION OF ELECTROPHORESIS TO STUDY THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF FIVE CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN AEROBIC SOIL SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomers of five chiral pesticides of environmental interest, metalaxyl, imazaquin, fonofos (dyfonate), ruelene (cruformate) and dichlorprop, were separated analytically using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with cyclodextrin chiral selectors. CE is shown to be a simple, ef...

  18. PESTICIDE LEACHING ANALYTICAL MODEL AND GIS-BASED APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides and other organic pollutants has been detected across agricultural areas and is on the increase. Because groundwater monitoring is too costly to define the geographic extent of contamination at such large scales, indirect methods are needed...

  19. 76 FR 56751 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...-EUP- RNA from Dow Chemical Co. requesting an experimental use permit (EUP) for Dibromomalonamide. The... Chemical Co., (464-EUP-RNA). Pesticide Chemical: Dibromomalonamide. Summary of Request: Evaluation for...

  20. Micrometeorologic methods for measuring the post-application volatilization of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    A wide variety of micrometeorological measurement methods can be used to estimate the postapplication volatilization of pesticides from treated fields. All these estimation methods require that the entire study area have the same surficial characteristics, including the area surrounding the actual study site, and that the pesticide under investigation be applied as quickly and as uniformly as possible before any measurements are made. Methods such as aerodynamic profile, energy balance, eddy correlation, and relaxed eddy accumulation require a large (typically 1 or more hectare) study area so that the flux measurements can be made in a well developed atmospheric boundary- layer and that steady-state conditions exist. The area surrounding the study plot should have similar surficial characteristics as the study plot with sufficient upwind extent so the wind speed and temperature gradients are fully developed. Mass balance methods such as integrated horizontal flux and trajectory simulations do not require a large source area, but the area surrounding the study plot should have similar surficial characteristics. None of the micrometeorological techniques for estimating the postapplication volatilization fluxes of pesticides disturb the environment or the soil processes that influence the gas exchange from the surface to the atmosphere. They allow for continuous measurements and provide a temporally averaged flux value over a large area. If the behavior of volatilizing pesticides and the importance of the volatilization process in redistributing pesticides in the environment are to be fully understood, it is critical that we understand not only the processes that govern pesticide entry into the lower atmosphere, but also how much of the millions of kilograms of pesticides that are applied annually are introduced into, and redistributed by, the atmosphere. We also must be aware of the assumptions and limitations of the estimation techniques used, and adapt the field of

  1. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  2. Application of automated mass spectrometry deconvolution and identification software for pesticide analysis in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Derksen, George; Colodey, Alan

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to surface water analysis has been investigated in order to enhance the detection of different organic contaminants in Nathan Creek, British Columbia. Water samples from Nathan Creek were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction using dichloromethane (DCM) as an extraction solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry method in scan mode (GC-MS scan). To increase sensitivity for pesticides detection, acquired scan data were further analyzed by Automated Mass Spectrometry Deconvolution and Identification Software (AMDIS) incorporated into the Agilent Deconvolution Reporting Software (DRS), which also includes mass spectral libraries for 567 pesticides. Extracts were reanalyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry single ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) to confirm and quantitate detected pesticides. Pesticides: atrazine, dimethoate, diazinone, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, napropamide, oxadiazon, propazine and simazine were detected at three sampling sites on the mainstream of the Nathan Creek. Results of the study are further discussed in terms of detectivity and identification level for each pesticide found. The proposed approach of monitoring pesticides in surface waters enables their detection and identification at trace levels. PMID:17090491

  3. Application of a cholinesterase biosensor to screen for organophosphorus pesticides extracted from soil.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, S; Morita, M

    1995-04-01

    Based on the principle of enzyme inactivation, a butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8.) biosensor, to determine some organophosphorus (ORP) pesticides (Fenitrothion, Diazinon, Parathion ethyl, Mevinphos and Heptenophos) in soil extracts, is presented. The enzyme was immobilized on pre-activated Pall Biodyne(TM) transfer membranes, which were physically attached to the sensitive ends of glass pH electrodes. Contact of the enzyme with pesticide samples results in specific inhibition of enzyme activity. Sensor calibration was possible by correlating the inhibition of enzyme activity (monitored by observing reduction in electrode potential changes with substrate additions) with varying concentrations of pesticide compounds in a buffer solution. A simple procedure was designed to extract ORP pesticides from spiked soil samples using a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone as the extraction solvent mixture. The sensor was successfully used to determine pesticide concentrations ranging from a low of 35 ppb (Diazinon) to 21 ppm (Fenitrothion) in soil, with resultant relative standard deviations of percentage enzyme inactivation less than 12%. The complete extraction and analytical procedure is simple, inexpensive and rapid. Mass production of the enzyme membranes and their easy attachment to the electrodes, render them disposable after a single use. The biosensor is seen as a potential analytical instrument for early warning against pesticide contaminations in soil. PMID:18966276

  4. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  5. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Tina M.; Basso, Olga; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Knott, Charles; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between pesticide use during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we estimated the association between self-reported pesticide-related activities during the first trimester of the most recent pregnancy and GDM among 11,273 women whose pregnancy occurred within 25 years of enrollment. RESULTS A total of 506 (4.5%) women reported having had GDM. Women who reported agricultural pesticide exposure (mixing or applying pesticides to crops or repairing pesticide application equipment) during pregnancy were more likely to report GDM (odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% CI 1.5–3.3]). We saw no association between residential pesticide exposure (applying pesticides in the home and garden during pregnancy) and GDM (1.0 [0.8–1.3]). Among women who reported agricultural exposure during pregnancy, risk of GDM was associated with ever-use of four herbicides (2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-TP; atrazine; or butylate) and three insecticides (diazinon, phorate, or carbofuran). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that activities involving exposure to agricultural pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM. PMID:17327316

  6. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  7. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  8. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  9. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the

  10. Pesticide aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of an agricultural vehicle cab during application.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Fismes, Joelle; Subra, Isabelle; Blachère, Veronique; Protois, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Pesticide spraying for crop protection leads to the formation of a mist of droplets, part of which is dispersed into the atmosphere. The characteristics of this aerosol, namely its particle size distribution and concentration, were measured during five campaigns involving cereal crop growing, wine grape culture, and orcharding. The measurement method incorporated a tracer product (fluorescein) with the treatment product; the pesticide aerosol concentration was then deduced from the tracer concentration. This method was validated by comparing the pesticide concentration determined by tracing with the concentration determined by direct measurement of the active substance of the pesticide. Concentration was measured using sampling filters, and particle size distribution was measured using cascade impactors. Instruments were mounted on an agricultural vehicle cab to optimize aerosol characterization, and then the cab's confinement efficiency was determined. Aerosols analyzed were fine, featuring mass median diameters between 4 microm and 15 microm; they are therefore highly dispersive. Their concentration is sufficiently high to justify operator protection by an efficient, filtered-air, pressurized cab, especially in wine grape culture and orcharding, which are the sectors where the highest pesticide transfers have been observed.

  11. Hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite: Characterization and application as a pesticide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámiz, B.; Hermosín, M. C.; Cornejo, J.; Celis, R.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work was to prepare and characterize a novel functional material by the modification of SAz-1 montmorillonite with the cationic polymer hexadimethrine (SA-HEXAD), and to explore the potential use of this nanocomposite as a pesticide adsorbent. Comparative preparation and characterization with the well-known hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified SAz-1 montmorillonite (SA-HDTMA) was also assessed. The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), physisorption of N2, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Z potential measurements. The characterization and adsorption experiments showed that the extent of pesticide adsorption was markedly subjected to the structure and features of the surface of each organo-clay and also to the nature of the considered pesticide. SA-HEXAD displayed a high affinity for anionic pesticides which, presumably, were adsorbed by electrostatic attraction on positively-charged ammonium groups of the polymer not directly interacting with the clay. In contrast, SA-HDTMA displayed great adsorption of both uncharged and anionic pesticides with predominance of hydrophobic interactions. This work provided information about the surface properties of a new organic-inorganic nanohybrid material, SA-HEXAD, and its potential as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  12. Pesticide aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of an agricultural vehicle cab during application.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Fismes, Joelle; Subra, Isabelle; Blachère, Veronique; Protois, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Pesticide spraying for crop protection leads to the formation of a mist of droplets, part of which is dispersed into the atmosphere. The characteristics of this aerosol, namely its particle size distribution and concentration, were measured during five campaigns involving cereal crop growing, wine grape culture, and orcharding. The measurement method incorporated a tracer product (fluorescein) with the treatment product; the pesticide aerosol concentration was then deduced from the tracer concentration. This method was validated by comparing the pesticide concentration determined by tracing with the concentration determined by direct measurement of the active substance of the pesticide. Concentration was measured using sampling filters, and particle size distribution was measured using cascade impactors. Instruments were mounted on an agricultural vehicle cab to optimize aerosol characterization, and then the cab's confinement efficiency was determined. Aerosols analyzed were fine, featuring mass median diameters between 4 microm and 15 microm; they are therefore highly dispersive. Their concentration is sufficiently high to justify operator protection by an efficient, filtered-air, pressurized cab, especially in wine grape culture and orcharding, which are the sectors where the highest pesticide transfers have been observed. PMID:17487720

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  14. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  15. Association of chronic pesticide exposure with serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary functions.

    PubMed

    Sutoluk, Zeynel; Kekec, Zeynep; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hant, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the analysis of serum cholinesterase levels and the pulmonary function tests in seasonal farm workers who were chronically exposed to pesticides, mostly organophosphorus, in comparison with non-farm workers in the farming areas of Cukurova region, Turkey. Serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary function tests using spyrometer in 50 male seasonal farm workers (study group) were compared to 50 male non-farm workers (control group) in this cross-sectional study. The mean serum cholinesterase enzyme level in the farm worker group (7095.5 ± 1699.4 U/L) was significantly lower than those of the control group (9716.4 ± 1484.4 U/L) (p < .001). There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests of 2 groups (p > .05). These results show that chronic environmental organophosphorus exposure caused a decrease in the serum cholinesterase enzyme levels in farm workers, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention. PMID:24484366

  16. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  17. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities.

  18. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities. PMID:21338670

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  20. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

  1. 75 FR 4381 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Amendment and Extension Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ..., (29964-EUP- 6). Pesticide Chemicals: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein and the genetic material... and Development (OECD) Unique Identifier: DAS-01507-1), Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1...-7 (OECD Unique Identifier: DAS-59122-7), Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin protein...

  2. 78 FR 48677 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications to Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... provide any technical information and/or data that you used. v. If you estimate potential costs or...

  3. 78 FR 75343 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or...). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... information and/or data that you used. v. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you...

  4. Barrage fishponds: Reduction of pesticide concentration peaks and associated risk of adverse ecological effects in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Juliette; Thomas, Marielle; Iuretig, Alain; Pallez, Christelle; Feidt, Cyril; Dauchy, Xavier; Banas, Damien

    2016-03-15

    Constructed wetlands have been suggested as pesticide risk mitigation measures. Yet, in many agricultural areas, ponds or shallow lakes are already present and may contribute to the control of non-point source contamination by pesticides. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of extensively managed barrage fishponds (n = 3) on the dissolved concentrations of 100 pesticides in headwater streams over the course of a year. Among the 100 pesticides, 50 different substances were detected upstream and 48 downstream. Highest measured concentration upstream was 26.5 μg/L (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) and 5.19 μg/L (isoproturon) downstream. Fishponds were found to reduce peak exposure levels as high pesticide concentrations (defined here as ≥ 1 μg/L) generally decreased by more than 90% between upstream and downstream sampling sites. The measured concentrations in the investigated streams were compared to laboratory toxicity data for standard test organisms (algae, invertebrates and fish) using the toxic unit approach. When considering the threshold levels set by the European Union within the first tier risk assessment procedure for pesticide registration (commission regulation (EU) N° 546/2011), regulatory threshold exceedances were observed for 22 pesticides upstream from fishponds and for 9 pesticides downstream. Therefore, the investigated barrage fishponds contributed to the reduction of pesticide peak concentrations and potential risk of adverse effects for downstream ecosystems.

  5. Barrage fishponds: Reduction of pesticide concentration peaks and associated risk of adverse ecological effects in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Juliette; Thomas, Marielle; Iuretig, Alain; Pallez, Christelle; Feidt, Cyril; Dauchy, Xavier; Banas, Damien

    2016-03-15

    Constructed wetlands have been suggested as pesticide risk mitigation measures. Yet, in many agricultural areas, ponds or shallow lakes are already present and may contribute to the control of non-point source contamination by pesticides. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of extensively managed barrage fishponds (n = 3) on the dissolved concentrations of 100 pesticides in headwater streams over the course of a year. Among the 100 pesticides, 50 different substances were detected upstream and 48 downstream. Highest measured concentration upstream was 26.5 μg/L (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) and 5.19 μg/L (isoproturon) downstream. Fishponds were found to reduce peak exposure levels as high pesticide concentrations (defined here as ≥ 1 μg/L) generally decreased by more than 90% between upstream and downstream sampling sites. The measured concentrations in the investigated streams were compared to laboratory toxicity data for standard test organisms (algae, invertebrates and fish) using the toxic unit approach. When considering the threshold levels set by the European Union within the first tier risk assessment procedure for pesticide registration (commission regulation (EU) N° 546/2011), regulatory threshold exceedances were observed for 22 pesticides upstream from fishponds and for 9 pesticides downstream. Therefore, the investigated barrage fishponds contributed to the reduction of pesticide peak concentrations and potential risk of adverse effects for downstream ecosystems. PMID:26773430

  6. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, A.V.F.; Mbise, T.J.; Ijani, A.S.M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

  7. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  8. Occurrence of Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water of Wyoming, so the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality on behalf of the Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, collected ground-water samples twice (during late summer/early fall and spring) from 296 wells during 1995-2006 to characterize pesticide occurrence. Sampling focused on the State's ground water that was mapped as the most vulnerable to pesticide contamination because of either inherent hydrogeologic sensitivity (for example, shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) or a combination of sensitivity and associated land use. Because of variations in reporting limits among different compounds and for the same compound during this study, pesticide detections were recensored to two different assessment levels to facilitate qualitative and quantitative examination of pesticide detection frequencies - a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter and an assessment level that differed by compound, referred to herein as a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL). Because of severe data censoring (fewer than 50 percent of the data are greater than laboratory reporting limits), categorical statistical methods were used exclusively for quantitative comparisons of pesticide detection frequencies between seasons and among various natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. One or more pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than the CAL in water from about 23 percent of wells sampled in the fall and from about 22 percent of wells sampled in the spring. Mixtures of two or more pesticides occurred at concentrations greater than the CAL in about 9 percent of wells sampled in the fall and in about 10 percent of wells sampled in the spring. At least 74 percent of pesticides detected were classified as herbicides

  9. Pesticides in Iowa precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nations, B.K.; Hallberg, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Rainfall was sampled for pesticides to assess their occurrence in precipitation and potential impacts on water resources. Three areas in Iowa were sampled; two localities were in rural settings, and a third in an urban area. Fourteen pesticides, including ten herbicides and four insecticides, were detected from October 1987 through September 1990. Atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor were the most commonly detected, with one or more of these four herbicides found in almost every rainfall sample during the growing season. Concentrations of individual pesticides ranged from 0.1 ??g L-1 to 40.0 ??g L-1, with most detections under 1.0 ??g L-1. Pesticide detections in rainfall began in April and ended in July or August, probably related to the timing of chemical application and greater volatilization rates during warmer weather. Samples from the urban site had detections of the same agricultural chemicals found at the rural sites, but in lesser quantities. In addition to the commonly detected herbicides, three of the four insecticides detected in rainfall were only found in urban samples. Two of these have urban as well as agricultural uses. Some variation of pesticide detections were seen at the three sampling localities, related to regional and local use patterns. Concentrations were greater at sampling sites near fields where pesticides are applied, suggesting that local volatilization and distance of transport affect the concentrations in rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were highest at the beginning of a rainfall event with concentrations becoming lower in samples taken later in the event.

  10. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  11. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated. PMID:20306773

  12. Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography to the analysis of uncharged pesticides of environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Segura Carretero, Antonio; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; Cortacero Ramírez, Sonia; Carrasco Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2004-09-22

    A test mixture of five pesticides and metabolites (naphthalene acetamide, carbaryl, 1-naphthol, thiabendazole, and carbendazime) has been investigated by capillary electrophoresis with an ultraviolet diode array detector. These compounds were separated in <10 min by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). MEKC was performed in 30 mM ammonium chloride/ammonia buffer (pH 9.0) containing 15 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The lowest detection limit was obtained for the insecticide carbaryl (0.22 microg mL(-)(1)) and the highest for its metabolite 1-naphthol (1.13 microg mL(-)(1)). This method was applied to the analysis of the pesticides in cultivated vegetables such as cucumbers, which were extracted with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, obtaining recovery percentages ranging from 90.1 to 110.2%. PMID:15366822

  13. Gas Chromatography-Infrared (GC-IR) Applications In Pesticide Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.

    1981-10-01

    After pesticides in bait formulation have been applied in the field, it is important that the fate of that amount of toxicant which has not been consumed by the pest is known. Many of these substances are not compatible with the environment and it is also important that their biodegradation be understood and controlled to a certain extent. In efforts to monitor and direct these reactions GC-IR has been found to be an invaluable tool.

  14. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  15. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  16. Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

    2005-11-01

    For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

  17. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  18. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  19. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C; Husby, S; Christiansen, L; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Grandjean, P; Main, K M; Andersen, H R

    2016-07-01

    Many modern pesticides have endocrine disrupting abilities and early-life exposure may affect growth and disease risk later in life. Previously, we reported associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and higher childhood body fat content measured by anthropometry. The associations were affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born by occupationally exposed or unexposed women (greenhouse workers and controls) two follow-up examinations (age 10-15 and 11-16 years) including simple anthropometry, skinfold measurements, pubertal staging and blood sampling were performed. Total and regional fat% was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat percentage (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p < 0.05). Stratified by sex, the associations were significant in girls (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p < 0.05), but not in boys. Carrying the R-allele (child or mother, separately, or both) augmented the differences between exposed and unexposed children (total fat: β = 1.0 SDS, β = 0.8 SDS, p < 0.05, respectively, and β = 1.2 SDS, p < 0.01). No exposure-related differences were found if either the child or mother had the QQ wild-type. At age 11-16, exposed children tended to have a higher total fat% estimated by skinfolds than unexposed children (p = 0.06). No significant associations between prenatal exposure and body mass index or waist circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android

  20. GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Vinod; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a commonly used pesticide against aphids and accumulates in plant parts, maximum in leaves. Present study was conducted to check the efficiency of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) for reduction of this pesticide in the leaves of Brassica juncea L. plants raised from 24-EBL pre-soaked seeds and grown in soils supplemented with IMI. Leaves were analyzed for IMI residues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content were determined by spectrophotometry. Soil containing 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil resulted in 88.66 μg/g fresh weight (FW) of IMI residue in the leaves, which was maximum decrease to 35.31 μg/g FW (60.17 %), when seeds were pre-soaked in 100 nM 24-EBL. In this treatment (350 mg IMI/kilogram soil + 100 nM 24-EBL), GSH content, GR, POD, and GST activities were increased by 42.30, 34.5, 20.5, and 13.4 %, respectively, as compared to plants grown in soils amended with 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil. PMID:27068909

  1. Calibration and field application of passive sampling for episodic exposure to polar organic pesticides in streams.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Bandow, Nicole; Muñoz, Katherine; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-11-01

    Rainfall-triggered runoff is a major driver of pesticide input in streams. Only few studies have examined the suitability of passive sampling to quantify such episodic exposures. In this study, we used Empore™ styrene-divinylbenzene reverse phase sulfonated disks (SDB disks) and event-driven water samples (EDS) to assess exposure to 15 fungicides and 4 insecticides in 17 streams in a German vineyard area during 4 rainfall events. We also conducted a microcosm experiment to determine the SDB-disk sampling rates and provide a free-software solution to derive sampling rates under time-variable exposure. Sampling rates ranged from 0.26 to 0.77 L d(-1) and time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations from 0.05 to 2.11 μg/L. The 2 sampling systems were in good agreement and EDS exceeded TWA concentrations on average by a factor of 3. Our study demonstrates that passive sampling is suitable to quantify episodic exposures from polar organic pesticides.

  2. Association between Parkinson’s Disease and Cigarette Smoking, Rural Living, Well-Water Consumption, Farming and Pesticide Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Breckenridge, Charles B.; Berry, Colin; Chang, Ellen T.; Sielken, Robert L.; Mandel, Jack S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bradford Hill’s viewpoints were used to conduct a weight-of-the-evidence assessment of the association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and rural living, farming and pesticide use. The results were compared with an assessment based upon meta-analysis. For comparison, we also evaluated the association between PD and cigarette smoking as a “positive control” because a strong inverse association has been described consistently in the literature. Methods PubMed was searched systematically to identify all published epidemiological studies that evaluated associations between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and cigarette smoking, rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat. Studies were categorized into two study quality groups (Tier 1 or Tier 2); data were abstracted and a forest plot of relative risks (RRs) was developed for each risk factor. In addition, when available, RRs were tabulated for more highly exposed individuals compared with the unexposed. Summary RRs for each risk factor were calculated by meta-analysis of Tier 1, Tier 2 and all studies combined, with sensitivity analyses stratified by other study characteristics. Indices of between-study heterogeneity and evidence of reporting bias were assessed. Bradford Hill’s viewpoints were used to determine if a causal relationship between PD and each risk factor was supported by the weight of the evidence. Findings There was a consistent inverse (negative) association between current cigarette smoking and PD risk. In contrast, associations between PD and rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat were less consistent when assessed quantitatively or qualitatively. Conclusion The weight of the evidence and meta-analysis support the conclusion that there is a causal relationship between PD risk and cigarette smoking, or some unknown factor

  3. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides.

  4. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides. PMID:26196902

  5. Pesticide Use And Chronic Bronchitis Among Farmers in The Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Valcin, Martin; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Alavanja, Michael CR; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Farmers have increased risk for chronic bronchitis. Few investigators have considered pesticides. Methods We evaluated pesticides as risk factors for chronic bronchitis using the Agricultural Health Study enrollment data on lifetime pesticide use and history of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis from 20,908 private pesticide applicators, primarily farmers. Results A total of 654 farmers (3%) reported chronic bronchitis diagnosed after age 20. After adjustment for correlated pesticides as well as confounders, 11 pesticides were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. Heptachlor use had the highest odds ratio (OR=1.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.19, 1.89). Increased prevalence for chronic bronchitis was also seen for individuals who had a history of a high pesticide exposure event (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.51, 2.25) and for those who also applied pesticides in off-farm jobs (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.04, 1.88). Co-morbid asthma and current farm activities did not explain these results. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that pesticide use may increase chronic bronchitis prevalence. PMID:17975796

  6. Agricultural Pesticide Use and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hou, Lifang; Coble, Joseph; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Hoppin, Jane A.; Silverman, Debra T.; Alavanja, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a rapidly fatal disease that has been linked with pesticide use. Previous studies have reported excess risks of pancreatic cancer with organochlorines such as DDT, however, many other commonly used pesticides have not been examined. To further examine the potential associations between the use of a number of pesticides and pancreatic cancer, we conducted a case-control analysis in the Agricultural Health Study, one of the largest prospective cohorts with over 89,000 participants including pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. This analysis included 93 incident pancreatic cancer cases (64 applicators, 29 spouses) and 82,503 cancer-free controls who completed an enrollment questionnaire providing detailed pesticide use, demographic and lifestyle information. Ever use of 24 pesticides and intensity-weighted lifetime days [(lifetime exposure days) × (exposure intensity score)] of 13 pesticides was assessed. Risk estimates were calculated using unconditional logistic regression controlling for age, smoking, and diabetes. Among pesticide applicators, two herbicides (EPTC and pendimethalin) of the 13 pesticides examined for intensity-weighted lifetime use showed a statistically significant exposure-response association with pancreatic cancer. Applicators in the top half of lifetime pendimethalin use had a 3.0-fold (95% CI 1.3-7.2, p-trend=0.01) risk compared to never users, and those in the top half of lifetime EPTC use had a 2.56-fold (95% CI=1.1-5.4, p-trend=0.01) risk compared to never users. Organochlorines were not associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer in this study. These findings suggest that herbicides, particularly pendimethalin and EPTC, may be associated with pancreatic cancer. PMID:19142867

  7. Association of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides with dietary intake and other lifestyle factors among urban Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Dai, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Blair, Aaron; Tessari, John D; Tian Ji, Bu; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-02-01

    Concerns about the carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have led to a global ban on OCP use. However, OCPs persist in the environment for decades because of their long half-life. We evaluated serum levels of OCPs and their correlations with usual dietary intake and other lifestyle factors among 250 healthy women who participated as controls in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Serum levels of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), dichloro-di-phenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) isomers (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), trans-nonachlor (TNC), and eight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners (IUPAC no. 74, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 183, and 187) were measured. Lifestyle factors and usual dietary habits over the past 5 years were assessed through an in-person interview. With the exception of PCB, total OCP levels in our study population were significantly higher than those observed in other countries. Age, income, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, number of pregnancies, and/or total duration of breastfeeding were all significantly correlated with all types of OCPs. Of the 20 food groups evaluated, correlations with serum total OCPs were observed for eggs (r=0.13), fresh beans (r=-0.17), tea (r=0.14), and animal fat (r=0.18). Multiple regression analyses showed that age and animal fat intake were positively associated with serum total level OCPs, while leafy vegetable and fresh bean consumption was negatively associated with OCPs level. Our study suggests that dietary intake may be an important contributor of serum levels of OCPs in Chinese women.

  8. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  9. Characterization and Application of Passive Samplers for Monitoring of Pesticides in Water.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Daneshvar, Atlasi; Lau, Anna E; Kreuger, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Five different water passive samplers were calibrated under laboratory conditions for measurement of 124 legacy and current used pesticides. This study provides a protocol for the passive sampler preparation, calibration, extraction method and instrumental analysis. Sampling rates (RS) and passive sampler-water partition coefficients (KPW) were calculated for silicone rubber, polar organic chemical integrative sampler POCIS-A, POCIS-B, SDB-RPS and C18 disk. The uptake of the selected compounds depended on their physicochemical properties, i.e., silicone rubber showed a better uptake for more hydrophobic compounds (log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) > 5.3), whereas POCIS-A, POCIS-B and SDB-RPS disk were more suitable for hydrophilic compounds (log KOW < 0.70). PMID:27584699

  10. Pesticide Exposures to Migrant Farmworkers in Eastern NC: Detection of metabolites in farmworker urine associated with housing violations and camp characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Raymer, J. H.; Studabaker, W.; Gardner, M.; Talton, J.; Quandt, S.A.; Chen, H.; Michael, L. C.; McCombs, M.; Arcury, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to present and evaluate descriptively bivariate associations between urinary metabolites of pesticides and herbicides and migrant camp conditions, violations and personal worker behaviors at home for farmworkers who do not apply pesticides. Methods We studied 183 migrant farmworker camps in eastern North Carolina in 2010. Data and urine samples were collected from 371 men. Predictor measures included violations in six domains of housing regulations and nonviolation characteristics and personal behaviors that might impact urinary metabolites. Results Cockroaches and bathroom violations were predictive of increased exposure to pyrethroids and cyfluthrin/chlorpyrifos, respectively. Changing and storing clothing and shoes in sleeping rooms increased the number of detects for the diazinon metabolite. Conclusions Farmworkers had exposures to multiple chemicals. No single housing domain was identified as critical to mitigating housing-related exposure;specific attention should be paid to changing and storing soiled clothing in sleeping rooms, and insect infestations. PMID:24273087

  11. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  12. 75 FR 71693 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Announcement of New Membership and Notice of Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... farmers; pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental, consumer, and farmworker groups; animal... PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and...

  13. Comparison of Two Parametric Methods to Estimate Pesticide Mass Loads in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, D.K.; Lorenz, D.L.; Domagalski, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mass loadings were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream, and (2) the Sine Wave model, in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal mass loading patterns. The models were applied to data collected during water years 1997 through 2005. The pesticides modeled were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. Estimated seasonal loads compared well with results from previous studies for both models. Loads estimated by the two models did not differ significantly from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and rainfall. However, in watersheds with variable and intermittent pesticide applications, the SeaWave model is more suitable for use on the basis of its robust capability of describing seasonal variation of pesticide concentrations. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Pesticide and transformation product detections and age-dating relations from till and sand deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, K.L.; Morrow, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Pesticide and transformation product concentrations and frequencies in ground water from areas of similar crop and pesticide applications may vary substantially with differing lithologies. Pesticide analysis data for atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, acetochlor, and cyanazine and their pesticide transformation products were collected at 69 monitoring wells in Illinois and northern Indiana to document occurrence of pesticides and their transformation products in two agricultural areas of differing lithologies, till, and sand. The till is primarily tile drained and has preferential fractured flow, whereas the sand primarily has surface water drainage and primary porosity flow. Transformation products represent most of the agricultural pesticides in ground water regardless of aquifer material - till or sand. Transformation products were detected more frequently than parent pesticides in both the till and sand, with metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid being most frequently detected. Estimated ground-water recharge dates for the sand were based on chlorofluorocarbon analyses. These age-dating data indicate that ground water recharged prior to 1990 is more likely to have a detection of a pesticide or pesticide transformation product. Detections were twice as frequent in ground water recharged prior to 1990 (82%) than in ground water recharged on or after 1990 (33%). The highest concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and their transformation products, also were detected in samples from ground water recharged prior to 1990. These age/pesticide detection relations are opposite of what would normally be expected, and may be the result of preferential flow and/or ground-water mixing between aquifers and aquitards as evident by the detection of acetochlor transformation products in samples with estimated ground-water ages predating initial pesticide application. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  15. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  16. 76 FR 69730 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...: Propiconazole. Proposed use: Foliar application to sugarcane. Contact: Erin Malone, Registration Division, (703... ingredients: Propiconazole and Azoxystrobin. Proposed use: Foliar application to sugarcane. Contact:...

  17. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dana B; Martin, Eden R; Mayhew, Gregory M; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Jewett, Rita; Stacy, Mark A; Scott, Burton L; Vance, Jeffery M; Scott, William K

    2008-01-01

    Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29). Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013). Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies. PMID:18373838

  18. 40 CFR 158.2200 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....2200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2200 Applicability. Part 158, subpart W establishes data requirements for any pesticide product that is: (a) A pesticide that...

  19. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions with susceptibility to DNA damage in the pesticide-exposed workers of Punjab.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, S; Kaur, N; Kaur, S; Lata, M; Sharma, J K; Sharma, A

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphism. To achieve this aim, DNA damage and the genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were studied from blood lymphocytes of pesticide-exposed and unexposed (control) agricultural workers of the Punjab region of northwestern India. The blood samples were collected from 40 exposed and 27 unexposed subjects from the Kakrala and Sanour villages of Patiala district. DNA damage was evaluated by using an alkaline comet assay. The analysis of the comets was done through visual scoring and image analysis software (Tritek's CometScore). Damage Index (DI), Damage Frequency (DF) (calculated by visual scoring method), and % DNA in tail (measured by image analysis software) were considered for assessing DNA damage. The DNA extraction from blood cells was done using proteinase K and the phenol-chloroform method, and genotyping of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was done using multiplex PCR. It was found that all the pesticide-exposed subjects showed higher DI, DF, and % DNA in tail in comparison to the controls. The statistical comparison of DNA damage between the exposed group and unexposed group revealed highly significant differences (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). In addition, the GSTT1 gene deletion and simultaneous deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in increasing DNA damage were observed in the exposed group. PMID:20370484

  20. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  1. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  2. Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-20

    This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

  3. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  4. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  5. 77 FR 39640 - Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of the Pesticide Applicator Certificate With the Underlying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... plan. Applicators must demonstrate competency to the certifying agency granting the certificate... documentation of a valid certificate from a certifying agency, without further demonstration of competency... competency. ] All certifying agencies implement a recertification program for applicators. These...

  6. Agricultural pesticides in Mississippi Delta oxbow lake sediments during autumn and their effects on Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Bryant, Charles T; Smith, Sammie

    2009-10-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination of sediments from five Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes and their effects and bioavailablity to Hyalella azteca were assessed during a low-application season-autumn. Three reference oxbow lakes were located in the White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR), Arkansas and two impaired lakes, according to the US Environmental Agency Sect. 303 (d) Clean Water Act, were located in Mississippi. Surface sediment (top 5 cm) was collected at three sites within each lake and analyzed for 17 current and historic-use pesticides and metabolites. Chronic 28-day H. azteca sediment bioassays and pesticide body residue analyses were completed to determine the degree of biological responses and bioavailability. The greatest number of detectable pesticides in WRNWR and 303 (d) sediment samples was 9 and 12, respectively, with historic-use pesticide metabolite, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] ubiquitous. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in animal survival were observed among sites. Animal growth was significantly (p < 0.05) less at only one site in a 303 (d)-listed lake (Macon Lake). Only six pesticides were observed in H. azteca with current-use pesticides detected at three sites; historic-use pesticides and metabolites detected at 11 sites. Animal body residues of a historic-use pesticide (dieldrin) and metabolite (p,p'-DDE) were associated with observed growth responses. Results show limited current-use pesticide contamination of sediments and H. azteca body tissues during autumn and that historic-use pesticides and metabolites are the primary contributors to observed biological responses. PMID:19399548

  7. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  8. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  9. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  10. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  11. Potential exposure and health risks of infants following indoor residential pesticide applications.

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, R A; Black, K G; Elkner, K P; Lee, C L; Methner, M M; Soto, R

    1990-01-01

    Air and surface chlorpyrifos residues were measured for 24 hours following a 0.5 percent Dursban broadcast application for fleas inside a residence. Two of the three treated rooms were ventilated following application. Maximum air concentrations were measured 3-7 hours post-application. Peak concentrations in the infant breathing zone were 94 micrograms/m3 in the nonventilated room and 61 micrograms/m3 in the ventilated room, and were substantially higher than concentrations in the sitting adult breathing zone. Concentrations of approximately 30 micrograms/m3 were detected in the infant breathing zone 24 hours post-application. Surface residues available through wipe sampling were 0.7-1.6 micrograms/cm2 of carpet on the day of application and 0.3-0.5 micrograms/cm2 24 hours post-application. Estimated total absorbed doses for infants were 0.08-0.16 mg/kg on the day of application and 0.04-0.06 mg/kg the day following application, with dermal absorption representing approximately 68 percent of the totals. These doses are 1.2-5.2 times the human No Observable Effect Level (NOEL). Exposures to cholinesterase inhibiting compounds following properly conducted broadcast applications could result in doses at or above the threshold of toxicological response in infants, and should be minimized through appropriate regulatory policy and public education. PMID:1693041

  12. [Application of a rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in drinking water and beverages using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Osakada, Masakazu; Nakatsuji, Naoto; Nakayama, Yukiko; Kakimoto, You; Obana, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple multi-residue method for determination of pesticides has been applied to drinking water and beverages. To a disposable polypropylene tube containing 10.0 g sample, 20 mL acetonitrile was added and the mixture was shaken vigorously for 1 min to extract pesticides. Then, 1 g sodium chloride and 4 g magnesium sulfate anhydrous were added, followed by vigorous shaking for 1 min and centrifugation to obtain the organic phase. The organic phase was processed with a graphite carbon black/PSA solid phase column. After concentration and reconstitution with 25% methanol containing aqueous solution, the test solution was analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 91 pesticides fortified (0.02 μg/g) in 35 kinds of drinking water and beverages were conducted. The decline of recoveries in alcoholic beverages is considered to be due to the increase of organic phase volume owing to ethanol included in the alcoholic beverages. A simulation study was carried out with simulated alcoholic beverages, which consisted of 50% grape juice, with various amounts of ethanol and water, to examine pesticides recoveries and volume of the organic phase. The results suggested this method would be applicable both to alcoholic beverages containing less than 10% ethanol and to alcoholic beverages containing over 10% ethanol after dilution with water to below 10% ethanol prior to the addition of acetonitrile. A sample could be processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within 2 h. Thus, this method should be useful for monitoring and screening pesticide residues in drinking water and various beverages.

  13. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    PubMed

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  14. Enantiomeric separation of organophosphorus pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and their applications to environmental fate and toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Lixia; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Weiping

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, the continuous evolution of the field of stereochemistry has produced a heightened awareness of the applications of pure enantiomers of agrochemicals. This review describes reports of the enantiomeric separation of commercial organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and the applications of these methods to research on the enantioselectivity of the toxicity and environmental fate of these compounds. Chiral OPs can be analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). These different separation techniques for OP enantiomers are briefly discussed, and their applications are presented.

  15. Estimation of human health risk associated with the consumption of pesticide-contaminated vegetables from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akoto, Osei; Gavor, Sandra; Appah, Martin K; Apau, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of pesticides consisting of 12 organophosphates (OPs), 10 organochlorines (OCs), and 6 pyrethroids in vegetables from Kumasi was conducted. Vegetable samples comprising 20 each of eggplants, okra, and tomatoes were analyzed. The method involves solvent extraction of pesticide residues followed by cleanup using silica gel. Residue analysis was carried out using a GC equipped with pulsed flame photometric detector for OP residues and electron capture detector for OC and pyrethroid residues. The results revealed that methamidophos exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in all vegetable commodities. Levels of malathion and dimethoate also exceeded the MRLs in eggplant and tomato samples. Endrin, α-endosulfan, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), γ-chlordane, and heptachlor exceeded their MRLs in okra samples whereas methoxychlor, allethrin, and deltamethrin exceeded in eggplant samples. Health risk estimation revealed that dimethoate in tomato and endrin, heptachlor, γ-HCH, and γ-chlordane in okra could not pose potential toxicity to the consumer. The combined risk index showed no health risk to consumers due to intake of pyrethroid OC and OP residue on these vegetables. The overall risk index for combined pesticides due to consumption of all the vegetables was higher than 1, which signifies potential health risk to consumers. OPs were the major risk contributor for both eggplant and tomatoes which accounted for 87.78 and 95.84%, respectively, of the combined risk of pesticides in the vegetables. However, OC with 97.94% of the combined risk index was the major risk contributor for the okra. The carcinogenic risk of the OCs in okra was of no concern since their carcinogenic rates were below the acceptable risk level. PMID:25864079

  16. Pesticide use and related health problems among greenhouse workers in Batinah Coastal Region of Oman.

    PubMed

    Esechie, Jovita O; Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O

    2011-07-01

    Pesticide practices and the health problems associated with pesticide exposure among 74 greenhouse workers in the Batinah Coastal Region of Oman were investigated. The workers were mostly migrant workers from India (37.8%), Bangladesh (28.4%), Nepal (14.9%), Sri Lanka (8.1%) and Pakistan (5.4%). Majority of the workers (44%) had some primary education, were between 31 and 40 years of age (50%), were married (85.1%) and had been applying pesticides for over 10 years (32.4%). Occupational and phytosanitary practices among the pesticide workers were poor, as most of the workers (59.5%) did not wash their hands after pesticide application, many (43.2%) did not shower and some (20.3%) did not change their clothes. Their methods of handling of partly used pesticides were questionable, with 81.1% storing them in other rooms in the house and 14.9% storing them in their bedrooms. Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as nose mask, overall and eye goggles were hardly used during pesticide application. Some of the reported health symptoms due to pesticide exposure were skin irritation (70.3%), burning sensation (39.2%), headache (33.8%), vomiting (29.7%) and salivation (21.6%). It was suggested that a provision be included in the Pesticide Laws of Oman that makes it mandatory for greenhouse owners to provide their workers with PPE. Also, regular training programs should be organized for the greenhouse pesticide workers to improve their ability to handle hazardous chemicals.

  17. An energy budget agent-based model of earthworm populations and its application to study the effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A.S.A.; Hodson, M.E.; Thorbek, P.; Alvarez, T.; Sibly, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and so are used as model organisms in environmental risk assessments of chemicals. However current risk assessments of soil invertebrates are based on short-term laboratory studies, of limited ecological relevance, supplemented if necessary by site-specific field trials, which sometimes are challenging to apply across the whole agricultural landscape. Here, we investigate whether population responses to environmental stressors and pesticide exposure can be accurately predicted by combining energy budget and agent-based models (ABMs), based on knowledge of how individuals respond to their local circumstances. A simple energy budget model was implemented within each earthworm Eisenia fetida in the ABM, based on a priori parameter estimates. From broadly accepted physiological principles, simple algorithms specify how energy acquisition and expenditure drive life cycle processes. Each individual allocates energy between maintenance, growth and/or reproduction under varying conditions of food density, soil temperature and soil moisture. When simulating published experiments, good model fits were obtained to experimental data on individual growth, reproduction and starvation. Using the energy budget model as a platform we developed methods to identify which of the physiological parameters in the energy budget model (rates of ingestion, maintenance, growth or reproduction) are primarily affected by pesticide applications, producing four hypotheses about how toxicity acts. We tested these hypotheses by comparing model outputs with published toxicity data on the effects of copper oxychloride and chlorpyrifos on E. fetida. Both growth and reproduction were directly affected in experiments in which sufficient food was provided, whilst maintenance was targeted under food limitation. Although we only incorporate toxic effects at the individual level we show how ABMs can readily extrapolate to larger scales by providing

  18. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review

  19. Synthesis of nanopesticides by encapsulating pesticide nanoparticles using functionalized carbon nanotubes and application of new nanocomposite for plant disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, Nahid; Taherifar, Asghar; Salehi, Fatemeh

    2014-05-28

    Polymerization of citric acid onto the surface of oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes led to MWCNT-graft-poly(citric acid) (MWCNT-g-PCA) hybrid materials. Because of the presence of conjugated citric acid branches, synthesized MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials were not only soluble in water but also able to trap water-soluble chemical species and metal ions. Trapping of pesticides such as zineb and mancozeb in aqueous solution by MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials led to encapsulated pesticide (EP) in the polycitric acid shell. Optimum conditions for encapsulation of zineb and mancozeb in hyperbranched polycitric acid such as pH, time of stirring, and temperature were investigated by the UV-vis spectroscopy method. Encapsulation of pesticides on CNT-g-PCA hybrid material was confirmed via TEM analysis. Experiments indicated that new the CNT-g-PCA-EP hybrid material in comparison with bulk pesticide had a superior toxic influence on Alternaria alternata fungi. PMID:24832389

  20. APPLICATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-MODIFIED MICELLAR ELECTRONKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATIONS OF SELECTED NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND THEIR ENANTIOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental chemistry of chiral pesticides is receiving increased attention - enantiomeric ratios are being measured and enantioselective degradation processes are being reported. The requisite analysis involves separation of the various enantiomers. Mixtures of three class...

  1. 78 FR 68837 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal governments.... The following sectors are represented on the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and trade associations; pesticide...

  2. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  3. 78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae strain SDS-502 at 85.0%. Proposed Use: For control of... February 29, 2012 (77 FR 12295)(FRL- 9332-8), EPA announced receipt of two other applications to...

  4. 77 FR 75153 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Wednesday, November 7, 2012 (77 FR 66833) (FRL-9367-3), as application number 4 under Unit II. Registration...: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Artichoke; Belgium endive; persimmon; bulb vegetable group 3-07;...

  5. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  6. Application of various methods to determine the lipophilicity parameters of the selected urea pesticides as predictors of their bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Dołowy, Małgorzata; Miszczyk, Marek; Pyka, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Different lipophilicity procedures including a newly developed (based on Ościk's equation) was applied in order to compare various urea pesticides with herbicidal and also insecticidal activity, such as monolinuron, chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon, linuron, dimefuron, diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron and lufenuron. Lipophilicity parameters (RMWS and RMW0) of nine examined pesticides were determined on the chromatographic plates RP-8F254 with the use of methanol-water as a mobile phase. Similarity analysis enabled to group all examined pesticides depending on their lipophilic character and allowed to perform a more objective comparison of different lipophilicity parameters obtained for investigated compounds by means of thin-layer chromatography and by the use of computational methods. It was stated that with the number of fluorine in examined pesticides, the lipophilic character of insecticides and also their tendency to bioaccumulation in the living systems increases noticeably. The results of this work confirmed that a new procedure for determining the lipophilicity parameter (RMW0) by Ościk's equation could be a suitable tool in the prediction of pesticide bioaccumulation in living system and may be used as an indicator in design of new urea pesticides, which will be safe for humans and the environment. PMID:25065824

  7. Simulating Human and Environmental Exposure from Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Application: Be-WetSpa-Pest, an Integrative, Spatially Explicit Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Binder, Claudia R; García-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-05-25

    This paper presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato-producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops, or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easily to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  8. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. The timing and frequencies of detection of CUPs related to their legal status, usage amounts and their environmental persistence, while OCPs were consistently detected throughout the year. Two different seasonal trends were noted: certain compounds had higher concentrations only during the growing season (April-September) and other compounds showed two peaks, first in the growing season and second in plowing season (October-November). In general, gas-particle partitioning of pesticides was governed by physicochemical properties, with higher vapor pressure leading to higher gas phase fractions, and associated seasonality in gas-particle partitioning was observed in nine pesticides. However, some anomalous partitioning was observed for fenpropimorph and chlorpyrifos suggesting the influence of current pesticide application on gas-particle distributions. Nine pesticides had highest particle phase concentrations on fine particles (< 0.95 μm) and four pesticides on coarser (> 1.5 μm) particles.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and nerve conduction studies among Korean farmers.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyeong; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Gyu Taek; Lee, Won Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with decreased nerve conduction studies among farmers. On 2 separate occasions, the authors performed a cross-sectional study of a group of 31 male farmers who periodically applied pesticides. The study included questionnaire interviews and nerve conduction studies on the median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. Although all mean values remained within laboratory normal limits, significant differences between the first and second tests were found in sensory conduction velocities on the median and sural nerves, and motor conduction velocities on the posterior tibial nerve. Lifetime days of pesticide application was negatively associated with nerve conduction velocities at most nerves after adjusting for potential confounders. These findings may reflect a link between occupational pesticide exposure and peripheral neurophysiologic abnormality that deserves further evaluation.

  10. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  11. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  12. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  13. DIETARY EXPOSURE FROM PESTICIDE APPLICATION ON FARMS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of total human exposure measurements performed on six farms in Iowa and North Carolina during the Agricultural Health Pilot Study, a household duplicate diet, several locally grown foods, an applicator meal, a child duplicate diet, and drinking water samples were collecte...

  14. 77 FR 64988 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... glyphosate and dicamba (M1751 Herbicide). The Agency has determined that the permit may be of regional and.../Product: Glyphosate and Dicamba/M1751 Herbicide. Summary of Request: Application for an EUP to conduct large trials during the 2013 crop season with a formulation based on dicamba and glyphosate....

  15. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  16. 76 FR 51027 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... applications. 1. Registration Number: 241-245. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2011- 0521. Company name and address.... Registration Number: 241-418. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2011- 0521. Company name and address: BASF...

  17. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  18. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  19. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  20. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  1. Application of low-pressure gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of pesticide residues in tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Fernández Moreno, José Luis; Arrebola Liébanas, Francisco Javier; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    A multiresidue method has been developed for determining pesticide residues in the tropical fruits kiwi, custard apple, and mango. The intended purpose of the method is for regulatory analyses of commodities for pesticides that have established maximum residue limits. A fast and simple extraction method with cyclohexane-ethyl acetate (1 + 1, v/v) and a high-speed homogenizer was optimized. Pressurized liquid extraction was evaluated as an alternative automated extraction technique. The pesticide residues were determined by using low-pressure gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed methodology was validated for each matrix. Pesticide recoveries ranged from 70 to 110%, with repeatability relative standard deviations of < or = 18% at spiking levels of 12 and 50 microg/kg. The limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.03-6.17 microg/kg, and the limits of detection were between 0.01 and 3.75 microg/kg. Mango can be selected as a representative matrix for calibration on the basis of the results of a potential matrix effect study. The method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in real samples in Spain.

  2. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  3. [Pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides em leader ) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts em leader ). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented. PMID:12813483

  4. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  5. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application

    PubMed Central

    Kesterson, Melissa A.; Luck, Joe D.; Sama, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array. PMID:26694417

  6. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  7. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  8. Historical pesticide applications coincided with an altered diet of aerially foraging insectivorous chimney swifts

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Joseph J.; Blais, Jules M.; Beresford, David V.; Finity, Leah K.; Grooms, Christopher; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Kyser, Kurt; Michelutti, Neal; Reudink, Matthew W.; Smol, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous environmental pressures have precipitated long-term population reductions of many insect species. Population declines in aerially foraging insectivorous birds have also been detected, but the cause remains unknown partly because of a dearth of long-term monitoring data on avian diets. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) are a model aerial insectivore to fill such information gaps because their roosting behaviour makes them easy to sample in large numbers over long time periods. We report a 48-year-long (1944–1992) dietary record for the chimney swift, determined from a well-preserved deposit of guano and egested insect remains in Ontario (Canada). This unique archive of palaeo-environmental data reflecting past chimney swift diets revealed a steep rise in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, which were correlated with a decrease in Coleoptera remains and an increase in Hemiptera remains, indicating a significant change in chimney swift prey. We argue that DDT applications decimated Coleoptera populations and dramatically altered insect community structure by the 1960s, triggering nutritional consequences for swifts and other aerial insectivores. PMID:22513860

  9. Worker illness related to newly marketed pesticides--Douglas County, Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Rodriguez, Luis; Prado, Joanne Bonnar

    2015-01-23

    On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Health, which investigated this incident by conducting a site visit, reviewing medical and applicator records, and interviewing affected farmworkers, pesticide applicators, and the farmworkers' employer. In addition, on April 11, WSDA collected swab, foliage, and clothing samples and tested them for residues of pyridaben, novaluron, and triflumizole. In this incident, all 20 farmworkers working in a cherry orchard became ill from off-target drift of a pesticide mixture that was being applied to a neighboring pear orchard. Sixteen sought medical treatment for neurologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, and respiratory symptoms. This event highlights the need for greater efforts to prevent off-target drift exposures and promote awareness about the toxicity of some recently marketed pesticides. Incidents such as this could be prevented if farm managers planning pesticide applications notify their neighbors of their plans.

  10. Worker illness related to newly marketed pesticides--Douglas County, Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Rodriguez, Luis; Prado, Joanne Bonnar

    2015-01-23

    On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Health, which investigated this incident by conducting a site visit, reviewing medical and applicator records, and interviewing affected farmworkers, pesticide applicators, and the farmworkers' employer. In addition, on April 11, WSDA collected swab, foliage, and clothing samples and tested them for residues of pyridaben, novaluron, and triflumizole. In this incident, all 20 farmworkers working in a cherry orchard became ill from off-target drift of a pesticide mixture that was being applied to a neighboring pear orchard. Sixteen sought medical treatment for neurologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, and respiratory symptoms. This event highlights the need for greater efforts to prevent off-target drift exposures and promote awareness about the toxicity of some recently marketed pesticides. Incidents such as this could be prevented if farm managers planning pesticide applications notify their neighbors of their plans. PMID:25611169

  11. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    PubMed

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  12. Conditions Optimizing and Application of Laccase-mediator System (LMS) for the Laccase-catalyzed Pesticide Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaoting; Yu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Guangyan; Zheng, Zuntao; Feng, Fayun; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity of laccase from Trametes versicolor capable of degrading pesticides has been revealed. The conditions for degrading of five selected pesticides including chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, pyrimethanil, atrazine and isoproturon with the purified laccases from Trametes versicolor were optimized. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest activity were pH at 5.0 and temperature at 25 °C. The best mediators were violuric acid for pyrimethanil and isoproturon, vanillin for chlorpyrifos, and acetosyringone and HBT for chlorothalonil and atrazine, respectively. The laccase was found to be stable at a pH range from 5.0 to 7.0 and temperature from 25 to 30 °C. It was observed that each pesticide required a different laccase mediator concentration typically between 4.0–6.0 mmol/L. In the experiment, the degradation rates of pyrimethanil and isoproturon were significantly faster than those of chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil and atrazine. For example, it was observed that pyrimethanil and isoproturon degraded up to nearly 100% after 24 hours while the other three pesticides just reached up 90% of degradation after 8 days of incubation. PMID:27775052

  13. Application of molecular target homology-based approaches to predict species sensitivities to two pesticides, permethrin and propiconozole

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S., registration of pesticide active ingredients requires a battery of intensive and costly in vivo toxicity tests which utilize large numbers of test animals. These tests use a limited array of model species from various aquatic and terrestrial taxa to represent all pla...

  14. Determinants of high pesticide exposure events in the agricultural health cohort study from enrollment (1993-1997) through phase II (1999-2003).

    PubMed

    Payne, K; Andreotti, G; Bell, E; Blair, A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an analysis of the determinants of high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs), which are defined as self-reported incidents of high exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals in the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of private applicators and their spouses residing in North Carolina or Iowa, and commercial applicators residing in Iowa. We examined the risk of HPEEs occurring between enrollment (phase 1: 1993-1997) and follow-up (phase II: 1999-2003) among participants who completed the phase II questionnaire (n=43,149) by calculating hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional-hazard regression. During the followup period, 1,582 HPEEs were reported (3.8%). HPEE risk was significantly higher among Iowa residents, younger participants, those with a hearing deficit, a risk-taking personality, and an HPEE prior to enrollment. Among private applicators (n=30,102), larger farm size, higher frequency and duration of pesticide use, spraying pesticides with open cab windows, using a tractor cab without a charcoal filter, repairing spray equipment, wearing work clothing more than two days without changing, not removing work boots before entering the home, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with significantly higher HPEE risk. Among commercial applicators (n=2326), higher frequency of pesticide use was associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Among spouses (n=10,721), higher frequency of pesticide use, using an application vehicle with a cab, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Our findings indicate that HPEEs were associated with several modifiable pesticide handling procedures that can be targeted in safety training and education. PMID:22900431

  15. Applications of Experimental Design to the Optimization of Microextraction Sample Preparation Parameters for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Sirhan, Ala Yahya; Tan, Guan Huat

    2015-01-01

    Sample preparation has been identified as the most important step in analytical chemistry and has been tagged as the bottleneck of analytical methodology. The current trend is aimed at developing cost-effective, miniaturized, simplified, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. The fundamentals and applications of multivariate statistical techniques for the optimization of microextraction sample preparation and chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues are described in this review. The use of Placket-Burman, Doehlert matrix, and Box-Behnken designs are discussed. As observed in this review, a number of analytical chemists have combined chemometrics and microextraction techniques, which has helped to streamline sample preparation and improve sample throughput. PMID:26525235

  16. Predicting wetland contamination from atmospheric deposition measurements of pesticides in the Canadian Prairie Pothole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, Paul G.; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Waite, Don T.; McQueen, D. A. Ross; Sproull, James F.; Humphries, David A.; Thompson, Laura L.

    2011-12-01

    Although it has been suggested that atmospheric deposition alone can result in detectable levels of pesticides in wetlands of the Pairie Pothole Region of Canada, this is the first field study to compare the masses of pesticides entering wetlands by atmospheric deposition with those concentrations of pesticides detected in the water-column of prairie wetlands. Weekly air and bulk deposition samples were collected from May 26th to Sept. 15th, 2008 at the Manitoba Zero Tillage Research Association (MZTRA) Farm, Brandon, Manitoba, with four on-site wetlands (approximate sizes 0.15-0.45 ha) monitored every second week. Twelve pesticides were detected in the air, with MCPA (one of the three pesticides applied on the farm in 2008 in addition to clopyralid and glyphosate), triallate, and γ-HCH being detected every week. Calculations were performed to predict wetland pesticide concentrations based on bulk deposits alone for those pesticides that had detectable concentrations in the bulk deposition samples (in order of the highest total seasonal deposition mass to the lowest): MCPA, glyphosate, 2,4-D, clopyralid, bromoxynil, atrazine, dicamba, metolachlor, and mecoprop. The estimated concentrations were closest to actual concentrations for MCPA (Pearson correlation coefficient's = 0.91 to 0.98; p-values < 0.001) and predictions were also reasonable for a range of other herbicides, but a source other than atmospheric deposition was clearly relevant to detections of clopyralid in the wetland water-column. Although the types and levels of pesticides detected in the wetlands of the current study suggest that regional pesticide applications can contribute to pesticide surface water contamination following atmospheric transport and deposition, the greater frequency and concentrations of clopyralid, MCPA, and glyphosate detections in wetlands confirm that on-farm pesticide applications have a greater impact on on-site water quality. Beneficial management practices that reduce

  17. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  18. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  19. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  20. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  1. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  2. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  3. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  4. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  5. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  6. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  7. Pesticide Fate in a Golf Course Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the fate of pesticides in a golf course environment was presented to science professionals and golf course personnel at the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents' Association March Mini-Seminar in Bloomington, MN, on 6 March 2007. Topics presented included: the definition of pesticide...

  8. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  9. Acute pesticide poisoning among cut-flower farmers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-09-01

    The study reported here looked at adverse health effects associated with pesticide exposure among cut-flower farmers in La Trinidad, Philippines. Survey questionnaires and detailed physical and laboratory examinations were administered to 114 and 102 respondents, respectively, to determine pesticide exposure, work and safety practices, individual and family illnesses, and cholinesterase levels. Results showed that pesticide application was the activity most frequently associated with pesticide exposure, and entry was mostly ocular and dermal. Involvement of the skin was noted, with 21 percent of farmers having integumentary abnormalities. Upon physical examination, 90 respondents, or 88.2 percent of those examined, were found to have abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Abnormal temperature was found in 81.3 percent, and the next most frequent finding was abnormal general-survey results, at 75.5 percent. In 51 percent, cholinesterase levels were below the mean value of 0.7 delta pH/hour. (The unit of measure A pH/hour refers to the change in cholinesterase activity as measured by the difference between the initial pH and the final pH when acetylcholine solution has been added to the red blood cell for 1 1/2 hours. A decrease in cholinesterase activity will produce a low delta pH/hour level) In 25.5 percent, a more than 10 percent depression in the level of RBC cholinesterase was found. Certain hematological parameters were also abnormal, namely hemoglobin, hematocrit, and eosinophil count. Using Pearson's r, the author found that factors strongly associated with illness due to pesticides include use of a contaminated piece of fabric to wipe off sweat (p = .01) and reuse of pesticide containers to store water (p = .01), Recycling of containers poses great health hazards and risks of contamination, and the current recommendation is that used containers should be buried. There was a moderate relationship between illness and average number of years of pesticide

  10. 12 CFR 926.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 926.5 Section 926.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.5 Housing associate application process....

  11. Changes in buccal micronucleus cytome parameters associated with smokeless tobacco and pesticide exposure among female tea garden workers of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha

    2014-03-01

    Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in genotoxic and cell death parameters was observed in tea garden workers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; p<0.001) as well as cell death parameters (r=0.588; p<0.001). Amount of chewing also had significant positive correlation with micronucleus frequency (r=0.243 or 5.9%; p<0.05) and cell death parameters (r=0.217; p<0.05). A statistically significant decrease in total RBC count, haemoglobin content as well as acetylcholine esterase in the blood of exposed individuals was observed. The average BMI among the tea garden workers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells.

  12. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Rosa, Islene Ferreira; Aguiar, Ada Cristina Pontes

    2013-09-01

    The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026) in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010). With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05) as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  13. Use of the dog as non-rodent test species in the safety testing schedule associated with the registration of crop and plant protection products (pesticides): present status.

    PubMed

    Box, Rainer J; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-11-01

    The results from a survey of the expert information that is publicly accessible on the use of the dog as test species during the regulatory evaluation of agricultural chemicals and pesticides are reported. Methods that are being used or considered in order to reduce the number of dogs used for this purpose are described. Regulatory evaluation aims at establishing threshold values for safe human exposure; it is based on no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOELs) determined in animal studies. Current regulations require testing in two species, a rodent species (usually rat or mouse), and a non-rodent species (usually the dog). Subchronic (90-day) and chronic (12-month) repeated-dose feeding studies must be routinely conducted in dogs. This report first focuses on the results from a retrospective study analysing data on 216 pesticides kept on record by the Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR (German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), the competent regulatory authority in Germany. The study was sponsored and coordinated by SET, the German Foundation for the Promotion of Research on Replacement and Complementary Methods to Reduce Animal Testing (Stiftung zur Förderung der Erforschung von Ersatz-und Ergänzungsmethoden zur Einschränkung von Tierversuchen, Mainz) and conducted by the BfR. Since the data submitted for registration of a product is the property of the manufacturer, the study could only proceed with the collaboration of the German Association of Manufacturers of Agricultural Chemicals (Industrieverband Agrar, IVA). To ensure confidentiality, designated codes were used instead of the compounds' proper names when the study was published. The results support two major conclusions. The use of the dog for the testing of pesticides is indeed necessary because the dog has proved to be the most sensitive species for about 15% of the compounds examined. However, chronic studies are only of limited value since they only provide essential information that

  14. Linking Pesticide Application at Local Scales to Population-Level Assessment Endpoints: a Case Study of an Endangered Songbird Population in the Willamette valley, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Threatened and endangered species are increasingly impacted by agricultural pesticides. Interest in developing regulatory approaches that address pesticide impacts on populations is creating a need for risk assessment tools that capture interactions between life histories and sp...

  15. Linking Pesticide Application at Local Scales to Population-Level Assessment Endpoints: a Case Study of an Endangered Songbird Population in the Willamette Valley, OR - SETAC 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Threatened and endangered species are increasingly impacted by agricultural pesticides. Interest in developing regulatory approaches that address pesticide impacts on populations is creating a need for risk assessment tools that capture interactions between life histories and sp...

  16. Application of Box-Behnken design for the removal of two organophosphorus pesticides by used Tea leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanis, Triantafyllos; Valileios, Sakkas; Islam, Azharul M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves

  17. The surveillance of work-related pesticide illness: an application of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Dervin, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In response to limitations in state-based occupational disease surveillance, the California Department of Health Services developed a model for surveillance of acute, work-related pesticide illness. The objectives were to enhance case reporting and link case reports to preventive interventions. METHODS. Elements from surveillance of communicable diseases and sentinel health events were used to integrate a model into the preexisting system in one agricultural country. RESULTS. Between 1988 and 1991, 45 Fresno County health care providers reported 230 suspected cases, of which 217 from 80 work sites met reporting guidelines. Risk factors were profiled from interviews of 81 prioritized case patients and 36 employers. Fifteen work sites were visited and 117 recommendations were made, of which 6% were identified in enforcement inspections. Pest management experts consulted with growers on reducing future pesticide use. CONCLUSIONS. Risk factors for pesticide illness were prevalent. Agricultural inspectors did not detect routine and serious hazards. Integrated pest management should be expanded and linked to occupational health. Agricultural enforcement personnel should be oriented and trained in occupational safety and health. PMID:7762714

  18. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  19. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed.

  20. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  1. Pesticide concentrations in water and sediment and associated invertebrate toxicity in Del Puerto and Orestimba Creeks, California, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, Michael; Bergin, Rick; Spurlock, Frank; Goh, Kean S

    2011-04-01

    The California's San Joaquin River and its tributaries including Orestimba (ORC) and Del Puerto (DPC) Creeks are listed on the 2006 US EPA Clean Water Act §303(d) list for pesticide impairment. From December 2007 through June 2008, water and sediment samples were collected from both creeks in Stanislaus County to determine concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides and to identify toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. OPs were detected in almost half (10 of 21) of the water samples, at concentrations from 0.005 to 0.912 μg L(-1). Diazinon was the most frequently detected OP, followed by chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Two water samples were toxic to C. dubia; based on median lethal concentrations (LC50), chlorpyrifos was likely the cause of this toxicity. Pyrethroids were detected more frequently in sediment samples (18 detections) than in water samples (three detections). Pyrethroid concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.021 μg L(-1). These concentrations were well below reported C. dubia LC50s, and toxicity was not observed in laboratory bioassays. Cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in sediment samples at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 74.4 ng g(-1), dry weight. At DPC, all but one sediment sample caused 100% toxicity to H. azteca. Based on estimated toxicity units (TUs), bifenthrin was likely responsible for this toxicity and λ-cyhalothrin also contributed. At ORC, survival of H. azteca was significantly reduced in four of the 11 sediment samples. However, pyrethroids were detected in only two of these samples. Based on TUs, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin likely contributed to the toxicity. PMID:20563640

  2. Guidelines for performance standards of pesticides for safe use

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Defang; Cheng, H.

    1983-02-20

    This article discusses the efforts to conduct more overall and systematic tests of the dynamics of pesticide residue on agricultural crops in China. A national cooperation group for scientific research on pesticide residue was organized and placed under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The ''National Standards for the Safe Use of Pesticides'' is applicable to 29 types of pesticides on 16 kinds of crops. Standards have also been established for the testing of pesticide residue on agricultural crops and in the soil. Topics considered include the selection of experimental pesticides and crops, the design of potted plants and field experiments, the design of simultaneous experiments, the design of test chemicals, the spot survey of residues, a design for testing the pesticide residue in soil, testing and measuring pesticide residue, and the method of gathering test samples.

  3. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  4. Pesticides and the Third World.

    PubMed

    Forget, G

    1991-01-01

    Many developing countries are importing industrial processes that make use of toxic chemicals. By the same token, pesticides, which are toxic by design, are also used increasingly in agriculture and in public health programs to control pests and vector-borne diseases. Recent estimates suggest that pesticides account for more than 20,000 fatalities yearly, and that most of these will have occurred in developing countries. This may actually be a gross underreporting. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are still responsible for many of those poisoning cases, herbicides such as paraquat are also increasingly being implicated in fatal poisoning cases. Newer pesticides such as the synthetic derivatives of pyrethrin, which were believed to be relatively safe to humans, now appear to be implicated in some serious cases of intoxication. Community-based pest control using locally available botanical pesticides could have severe consequences unless the toxicity of these compounds is carefully assessed relative to nontarget organisms. A high proportion of pesticide intoxications appear to be due to lack of knowledge, unsafe attitudes, and dangerous practices. The technology available to small farmers for pesticide application is often inappropriate: faulty sprayers, lack of protective equipment adapted to tropical conditions, nonexistent first-aid provisions. Agricultural extension is often not oriented to the transfer of information relative to the dangers inherent in the use of pesticides. The lack of information at all levels may be one of the most important causative factors of chemical intoxication in developing countries. Research should at this time concentrate on behaviors leading to chemical intoxication. This should be done concurrently with proper prospective and retrospective surveys of poisonings in developing country communities. More information should be sought relative to the decision processes of import, legislation, and licensing. Research

  5. Variations in pesticide leaching related to land use, pesticide properties, and unsaturated zone thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.M.T.; Wieczorek, M.E.; Nolan, B.T.; Hancock, T.C.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Bayless, E.R.; Healy, R.W.; Linard, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide leaching through variably thick soils beneath agricultural fields in Morgan Creek, Maryland was simulated for water years 1995 to 2004 using LEACHM (Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model). Fifteen individual models were constructed to simulate five depths and three crop rotations with associated pesticide applications. Unsaturated zone thickness averaged 4.7 m but reached a maximum of 18.7 m. Average annual recharge to ground water decreased from 15.9 to 11.1 cm as the unsaturated zone increased in thickness from 1 to 10 m. These point estimates of recharge are at the lower end of previously published values, which used methods that integrate over larger areas capturing focused recharge in the numerous detention ponds in the watershed. The total amount of applied and leached masses for five parent pesticide compounds and seven metabolites were estimated for the 32-km2 Morgan Creek watershed by associating each hectare to the closest one-dimensional model analog of model depth and crop rotation scenario as determined from land-use surveys. LEACHM parameters were set such that branched, serial, first-order decay of pesticides and metabolites was realistically simulated. Leaching is predicted to be greatest for shallow soils and for persistent compounds with low sorptivity. Based on simulation results, percent parent compounds leached within the watershed can be described by a regression model of the form e−depth (a ln t½−b ln KOC) where t 1/2 is the degradation half-life in aerobic soils, K OC is the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient, and a and b are fitted coefficients (R 2 = 0.86, p value = 7 × 10−9).

  6. Application of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry for target and non-target analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Cervera, M I; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2012-06-29

    In this work, the capability of gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) for quantitative analysis of pesticide residues has been evaluated. A multiclass method for rapid screening of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, herbicides and fungicides) in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed and validated, including detection, identification and quantification of the analytes. To this aim, several food matrices were selected: high water content (apples, tomatoes and carrots), high acid content (oranges) and high oil content (olives) samples. The well known QuEChERS procedure was applied for extraction of pesticides, and matrix-matched calibration using relative responses versus internal standard was used for quantification. The sample extracts were analyzed by GC-TOF MS. Up to five ions using narrow window (0.02 Da)-extracted ion chromatograms at the expected retention time were monitored using a target processing method. The most abundant ion was used for quantification while the remaining ones were used for confirmation of the analyte identity. Method validation was carried out for 55 analytes in the five sample matrices tested at three concentrations (0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg). Most recoveries were between 70% and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% at 0.05 and 0.5mg/kg. At 0.01 mg/kg, roughly half of the pesticides could be satisfactorily validated due to sensitivity limitations of GC-TOF MS, which probably affected the ion ratios used for confirmation of identity. In the case of olive samples, results were not satisfactory due to the high complexity of the matrix. An advantage of TOF MS is the possibility to perform a non-target investigation in the samples by application of a deconvolution software, without any additional injection being required. Accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition in TOF MS provides useful information for analytes identification, and has made feasible in this work the

  7. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer.

  8. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  9. Applications of phytochemical and in vitro techniques for reducing over-harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants and generating income for the rural poor.

    PubMed

    Sarasan, Viswambharan; Kite, Geoffrey C; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Stevenson, Philip C

    2011-07-01

    Plants provide medicine and pest control resources for millions of poor people world-wide. Widespread harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants puts pressure on natural populations, thus severely compromising their contribution to the income and well-being of traders and consumers. The development of in vitro propagation techniques appropriate for developing countries will provide a robust platform for effective propagation and cultivation of endangered plants. This review focuses on advances in the application of phytochemical and in vitro tools to identify and rapidly propagate medicinal and pesticidal plants. Problems of over-harvesting can be alleviated and ex situ cultivation in agroforestry systems can be facilitated through improving seed germination, in vitro cloning and the use of mycorrhizal fungi. We also present a case for effective use of phytochemical analyses for the accurate identification of elite materials from wild stands and validation of the desired quality in order to counter loss of efficacy in the long run through selection, propagation or ex situ management in agroforestry systems. Future prospects are discussed in the context of medicinal activity screening, sustainable propagation, on-farm planting, management and utilization.

  10. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  11. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  12. Applicability of a carbamate insecticide multiresidue method for determining additional types of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Krause, R T; August, E M

    1983-03-01

    Several fruits and vegetables were fortified at a low (0.02-0.5 ppm) and at a high (0.1-5 ppm) level with pesticides and with a synergist, and recoveries were determined. Analyses were performed by using 3 steps of a multiresidue method for determining N-methylcarbamates in crops: methanol extraction followed by removal of plant co-extractives by solvent partitioning and chromatography with a charcoal-silanized Celite column. Eleven compounds were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a reverse phase column and a fluorescence detector. Twelve additional compounds were determined by using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a nonpolar packed column and an electron capture or flame photometric detector. Recoveries of 10 pesticides (azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azinphos methyl oxygen analog, carbaryl, carbofuran, naphthalene acetamide, naphthalene acetic acid methyl ester, napropamide, phosalone, and phosalone oxygen analog) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide, which were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, averaged 100% (range 86-117) at the low fortification level and 102% (range 93-115) at the high fortification level. Quantitative recovery of naphthalene acetamide through the method required that an additional portion of eluting solution be passed through the charcoal column. Recoveries of 7 additional pesticides (dimethoate, malathion, methyl parathion, mevinphos, parathion, phorate oxygen analog, and pronamide), which were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), averaged 108% (range 100-120) at the low fortification level and 107% (range 99-122) at the high fortification level. DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, phorate, and pirimiphos ethyl, which were determined by GLC, were not quantitatively recovered. PMID:6853408

  13. Evaluation Of Odors Associated With Land Application Of Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    An odor study was performed at a biosolids application demonstration site using several different gas collection devices and analytical methods to determine changes in air concentration of several organic and inorganic compounds associated with biosolids application over various ...

  14. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  15. Knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farm workers in the West Bank, Palestine: safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Sawalha, Ansam F.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Khalil, Suleiman I.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Bsharat, Nihaia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge and practices associated with pesticide use in an agricultural community in Palestine, and to determine the prevalence of self-reported health symptoms related to pesticide exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, agricultural farm workers in Nablus district, Palestine, were interviewed on their knowledge and practices of pesticide use. Comparisons of knowledge and practices of pesticide use between various groups were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test or the Kruskal–Wallis rank test of variance. The program of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used for data analysis. Results The questionnaire was completed by 381 farm workers. The mean age ± SD of the participants was 38.8 ± 11.8 years. The majority (97.9%) of the participants were male. The mean participant scores for knowledge and safety procedures were 2.8 ± 3.2 out of 8 and 9.8 ± 2.4 out of 15, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323; P < 0.001) between the knowledge and safety procedure scores. Unsafe behaviors were identified as the storage of pesticide products at home, the preparation of pesticides in the kitchen, inadequate disposal of empty pesticide containers, eating and drinking during pesticide application, and using inadequate protective clothing. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were skin rash (37.5%), headache (37%), excessive sweating (24.9%), and diarrhea (21.3%). There was a strong significant negative correlation (r = −0.83; P < 0.001) between self-reported toxicity symptoms and scores for protective measures. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that most farm workers in this district need more educational programs regarding the safety and use of pesticides. Legislation promoting the use of safer pesticides is also needed. PMID:21432553

  16. Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Moses, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

  17. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  18. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in watermelon and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ercheng; Zhao, Wenting; Han, Lijun; Jiang, Shuren; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2007-12-14

    In this article, a new method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in cucumber and watermelon was developed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). Acetonitrile (MeCN) was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of OPPs from plant samples. When the extraction process was finished, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the MeCN extract to another small volume of organic solvent, chlorobenzene, using DLLME. Recovery tests were performed for concentrations between 0.5 and 20 microg/kg; recoveries for each target analyte were in the range between 67 and 111%. The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied between 2 and 9% (n=3). Limits of detection of the method for watermelon and cucumber were found ranging from 0.010 to 0.190 microg/kg for all the target pesticides. Compared with the conventional sample preparation method, the proposed method has the advantage of being quick and easy to operate, and having high-enrichment factors and low consumption of organic solvent. PMID:18001747

  19. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.