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Sample records for pesticide exposure reduction

  1. Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.E.; Freed, V.H.; Enos, H.F.; Duncan, R.C.; Barquet, A.; Morgade, C.; Peters, L.J.; Danauskas, J.X.

    1982-06-01

    Systemic pesticide illness in agricultural workers may result from excessive dermal exposure to pesticides. Workers who apply and mix pesticides (applicators and mixers) are not at special risk. Both acute and chronic exposures can occur from spillage or by environmental contamination of clothing. Two exposure assessment studies were conducted of Central Florida citrus grove workers who applied ethion daily. Measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (DEP) were the techniques used to assess the protection afforded by changing daily to freshly laundered 100% cotton coveralls. Coveralls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.

  2. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  3. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  4. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  5. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  6. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Implications include a need for improved risk assessment and health histories by clinicians, greater education at all levels, more common use of integrated pest management, and continued policy and regulatory strategies to mitigate the effects of and the need for pesticides. PMID:22587699

  7. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  8. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

  9. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

  10. Pesticide exposure seen in primary care.

    PubMed

    Henry, T K

    1997-06-01

    The focus of this article is on recognition of signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure and poisoning in primary care settings. Providers have little problem evaluating clients with an acute exposure to pesticides because the client usually presents with symptoms of poisoning and/or a history of known exposure. The information presented supports the need to consider a history of pesticide exposure in the evaluation of some neurological, dermatologic, reproductive, and other signs and symptoms presented to primary care providers.

  11. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  12. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  13. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  14. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  15. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  16. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  17. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar M; Abou Salem, Mahmoud E; Mechael, Atef A; Hendy, Olfat M; Rohlman, Diane S; Ismail, Ahmed A

    2008-09-01

    Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n=30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n=20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery; personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent.

  18. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action.

  19. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  20. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  1. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene–environment interaction studies. PMID:18940823

  2. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of approximately 600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies.

  3. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  5. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  6. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  7. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  8. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  9. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  10. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  11. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  12. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  13. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  14. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  15. Efficiency control of dietary pesticide intake reduction by human biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Schmidt, Lukas; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret

    2017-03-01

    In spite of food safety controls for pesticide residues, a conventional diet still leads to a noticeable exposure of the general population to several pesticides. In a pilot study the response of exposure reduction by organic diet intervention on the urinary levels of pesticide metabolites was investigated. In the study two adult individuals were kept on a conventional diet for 11days and morning urine voids were collected at the last four days of the period. Afterwards, the participants switched to exclusively organic food intake for 18days and likewise morning urine samples were collected at the last four days of this period. In the urine samples six pyrethroid metabolites, six dialkylphosphates, four phenolic parameter for organophosphate pesticides and carbamates, 6-chloronicotinic acid (ClNA) as parameter for neonicotinoid insecticides, seven phenoxy herbicides, glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA were quantified using gas chromatographic mass spectrometric methods. Generally, the comparative analyses revealed greater shares as well as higher levels of the parameters in the samples taken during the common diet period compared to the organic diet period. Considerable decrease of the levels was found for almost all pyrethroid metabolites, dialkyphosphates and phenoxy herbicids, as well as for the phenolic metabolites 4-nitrophenol and 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol. In contrast, higher values were found for the organic diet period for ClNA and the metabolite of coumaphos in one of the volunteers. The present study confirms the results of former studies which indicated that an organic diet intervention results in considerable lower exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroids. It also verifies the former experience that monitoring of urinary parameters for non-persistent pesticides permits a reliable efficiency control of short-time effects by dietary interventions. Additionally to former studies, the results of the present study highlight the need of an

  16. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  17. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  18. Pesticide exposure and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saldana, Tina M; Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D; Hoppin, Jane A; Weinberg, Clarice R; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE), complicate 2-8% of pregnancies. Few studies have examined environmental risk factors in relation to these conditions. Our goal was to examine whether pesticide exposure during pregnancy was associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We analyzed self-reported data from 11,274 wives of farmers enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) between 1993 and 1997. Using logistic regression models, we estimated the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for PIH and PE associated with pesticide-related activities during the first trimester of pregnancy. First-trimester residential and agricultural activities with potential exposure to pesticides were associated with both PIH [residential AOR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.60; agricultural AOR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.05-2.45] and PE (residential AOR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02-1.70; agricultural AOR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.34-3.21). Exposure to pesticides during pregnancy may increase the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Laboratory research may provide insights into relationships between pesticide exposure and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy.

  19. Landscape analysis of pesticide use patterns and ecological exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The pesticide exposure landscape in the US is spatially and temporally complex. Researchers studying ecological exposure and effects of pesticides must consider a number of dimensions when framing experiments and conducting assessments. These dimension...

  20. In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Wetmur, James G; Birman-Deych, Elena; Obel, Josephine; Lapinski, Robert H; Godbold, James H; Holzman, Ian R; Wolff, Mary S

    2004-03-01

    Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity.

  1. Comparison of exposure assessment guidelines for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Curry, P; Iyengar, S

    1992-01-01

    The field of exposure assessment of pesticides has become well established in the past decade. Consequently, government agencies and industry groups have identified the need for guidelines for conducting studies that assess mixer/loader/applicator exposure to pesticides, as well as the exposure of individuals to residues. This paper reviews guidelines on mixer/loader/applicator exposure studies issued by the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, the U.S. EPA, and the World Health Organization. Mention is also made of Canadian exposure guidelines in preparation. Also reviewed are two guidelines for conducting indoor occupant exposure studies, one by the National Agricultural Chemicals Association and one by Health and Welfare Canada. The only available guideline (EPA) on assessing pesticide exposure to workers upon reentry into treated fields is also reviewed. These guidelines are reviewed and compared as to criteria for requirements of exposure studies, methodologies recommended for dermal, inhalation, and biological monitoring, quality assurance and quality control, the use of surrogate data, data reporting, and exposure calculations. From this comparison, it is evident that there has been little significant progress in the area of methodologies used for dermal exposure monitoring. The use of patches as suggested by Durham and Wolfe (1962) is still accepted and widely used, despite its limitations. However, relatively recent research in this area has shown that the fluorescent tracer technique (Fenske et al. 1986a,b) and use of full-body dosimeters may help in overcoming some of these limitations. The tracer technique is mentioned in the EPA guidelines and full-body dosimeters are addressed by EPA, WHO, and NACA. Biological monitoring can also overcome many of the limitations of passive dosimetry, but all guidelines stress the need for extensive knowledge of the

  2. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  3. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  4. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  5. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  6. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agricultural pesticide exposure and birth defects. We linked singleton live birth records for 2003-2005 from the North Carolina (NC) State Center for Health Statistics to data from the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Included women had residence at delivery inside NC and infants with gestational ages from 20-44 weeks (n=304,906). Pesticide exposure was assigned using a previously constructed metric, estimating total chemical exposure (pounds of active ingredient) based on crops within 500 meters of maternal residence, specific dates of pregnancy, and chemical application dates based on the planting/harvesting dates of each crop. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for four categories of exposure (90th percentiles) compared to unexposed. Models were adjusted for maternal race, age at delivery, education, marital status, and smoking status. We observed elevated ORs for congenital heart defects and certain structural defects affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems (e.g., OR (95% CI) (highest exposure vs. unexposed) for tracheal esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia = 1.98 (0.69, 5.66), and OR for atr

  7. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agricultural pesticide exposure and birth defects. We linked singleton live birth records for 2003-2005 from the North Carolina (NC) State Center for Health Statistics to data from the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Included women had residence at delivery inside NC and infants with gestational ages from 20-44 weeks (n=304,906). Pesticide exposure was assigned using a previously constructed metric, estimating total chemical exposure (pounds of active ingredient) based on crops within 500 meters of maternal residence, specific dates of pregnancy, and chemical application dates based on the planting/harvesting dates of each crop. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for four categories of exposure (90th percentiles) compared to unexposed. Models were adjusted for maternal race, age at delivery, education, marital status, and smoking status. We observed elevated ORs for congenital heart defects and certain structural defects affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems (e.g., OR (95% CI) (highest exposure vs. unexposed) for tracheal esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia = 1.98 (0.69, 5.66), and OR for atr

  8. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint... affected by this notice if you register pesticide products intended for residential uses under the Federal... formed to develop information on the actual use patterns of residential pesticides that can be used by...

  9. MODELING OF MACROSCALE AGRICULTURAL ELEMENTS IN PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yuma County, Arizona, is the site of year around agriculture. To understand the role of agricultural pesticide exposures experienced by children, urinary metabolite concentrations were compared with agricultural use of pesticides. The urinary metabolite and household data wer...

  10. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  11. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  12. MODELING OF MACROSCALE AGRICULTURAL ELEMENTS IN PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yuma County, Arizona, is the site of year around agriculture. To understand the role of agricultural pesticide exposures experienced by children, urinary metabolite concentrations were compared with agricultural use of pesticides. The urinary metabolite and household data wer...

  13. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  14. Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Lead, mercury, solvents, and pesticide exposures are common in certain occupations and may cause nervous system dysfunction. Tremors may be the herald manifestation among a constellation of acute toxicity signs and symptoms. However, since tremors may also be the only sign on clinical presentation and since tremors also occur in other diseases, relating tremors to a specific occupational exposure can be challenging. Diagnosis of tremor etiology must be based on other findings on physical exam, laboratory results, and/or imaging. Discerning whether the tremor resulted from the occupational environment versus other etiologies requires knowledge of potential exposure sources, additional detail in history taking, and support of other health and industrial professionals. Reduction or removal from the exposure source remains the key first step in treating patients suffering from tremor that had resulted from occupational exposure toxicity.

  15. Organophosphorous pesticide exposures and sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Melissa J.; Venners, Scott A.; Chen, Xing; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Barr, Dana Boyd; Xu, Xiping

    2010-01-01

    Many Americans are exposed to low levels of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. In is unclear whether these exposures impact sperm production. We investigated whether there was an association between urinary OP insecticide metabolites and sperm concentration and motility in newly married men from a rural area of eastern People’s Republic of China. Ninety-four cases and 95 controls were included based on their median residual value of sperm concentration and motility after adjusting for relevant covariates. Their urine was analyzed for six dialkylphosphate (DAP) compounds. After adjustment for demographic and exposure variables, the odds of being a case were greater (Odds Ratio=1.30, 95% Confidence Interval 1.02-1.65) in men with higher urinary concentrations of dimethylphosphate (DMP) compared to men with lower levels. No significant differences between cases and controls were found among the other DAP concentrations. DMP exposure and sperm concentration and motility should be explored further in environmental exposure studies. PMID:20850521

  16. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  17. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  18. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  19. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  20. Pesticide Reduction Programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…

  1. Pesticide use, exposure, and risk: A joint Israeli-Palestinian perspective.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Safi, J

    1997-01-01

    The major predictors of health risk from pesticide exposure are quantity and toxicity of pesticides reaching end-users, field workers, and persons (including children) with casual and indirect exposures to field and food residues, drift, and contaminated groundwater. Past work in Israel and the Palestinian National Authority has documented risks for acute poisoning, daily illness, transient neurotoxic effects, and potential cancer hazards in workers, populations exposed to pesticide drift, and the general population. Risk assessment predicts that reduction in use of agents with high toxicity and pesticide substitution are desired strategies for achieving the largest reductions in risk, but successful implementation and program sustainability depend on maintaining crop yield and increasing farmer earnings. A joint pilot Israeli-Palestinian-NGO program aims to determine whether crop yields and profits can be sustained while reducing pesticide use, promoting integrated pest management, and restricting ecosystem damage. The project involves six components: (1) assessments of health risk and crop yield in relation to pesticide use and exposure; (2) training health-agricultural teams to introduce and evaluate crop growth and managements with reduced pesticide use; (3) tracing and stopping import and trade in banned or restricted pesticides; (4) restricting child labor; (5) promoting information delivery and worker and community right-to-know and right-to-act; and (6) establishing a uniform regional standard for protection of workers and the general public. Preliminary evidence (organochlorines and breast cancer, organophosphates and illness in field workers) indicates that (1) a reduction of use is the foremost determinant of a reduction in health risk; (2) cotton yield can be increased despite a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates); and (3) a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates and organochlorines) has to be part of a crop rotation program for food

  2. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review

  3. Pesticide Reduction Campaign: Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. Workplace, Household, and Personal Predictors of Pesticide Exposure for Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Hernández-Valero, María A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Hovey, Joseph D.; Gonzales, Melissa; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we identify factors potentially associated with pesticide exposure among farmworkers, grade the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature for such associations, and propose a minimum set of measures necessary to understand farmworker risk for pesticide exposure. Data sources we reviewed included Medline, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, and AGRI-COLA databases. Data extraction was restricted to those articles that reported primary data collection and analysis published in 1990 or later. We read and summarized evidence for pesticide exposure associations. For data synthesis, articles were graded by type of evidence for association of risk factor with pesticide exposure as follows: 1 = association demonstrated in farmworkers; 2 = association demonstrated in nonfarmworker sample; 3 = plausible association proposed for farmworkers; or 4 = association plausible but not published for farmworkers. Of more than 80 studies we identified, only a third used environmental or biomarker evidence to document farmworker exposure to pesticides. Summaries of articles were compiled by level of evidence and presented in tabular form. A minimum list of data to be collected in farmworker pesticide studies was derived from these evidence tables. Despite ongoing concern about pesticide exposure of farmworkers and their families, relatively few studies have tried to test directly the association of behavioral and environmental factors with pesticide exposure in this population. Future studies should attempt to use similar behavioral, environmental, and psychosocial measures to build a body of evidence with which to better understand the risk factors for pesticide exposure among farmworkers. PMID:16759999

  5. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  6. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  7. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families. PMID:16759997

  8. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  9. A review of nonoccupational pathways for pesticide exposure in women living in agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Deziel, Nicole C; Friesen, Melissa C; Hoppin, Jane A; Hines, Cynthia J; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E Beane

    2015-06-01

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Among 35 publications identified (published 1995-2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies.

  10. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  11. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  12. Trends of pesticide exposure and related cases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z; Del Mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies.

  13. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Pesticide exposure is recognized as an important environmental risk factor associated with cancer development. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer in humans has been studied globally in various settings. Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are associated with hemopoetic cancers, and cancers of the prostate, pancreas, liver, and other body systems. The involvement of pesticides in breast cancer has not yet been determined. In developing countries, sufficient epidemiologic research and evidence is lacking to link pesticide exposure with cancer development. Agricultural and industrial workers are high-risk groups for developing cancer following pesticide exposure. Children of farm workers can be exposed to pesticides through their parents. Maternal exposure to pesticides can pose a health risk to the fetus and the newborn. The organophosphates are most the commonly used compounds, but the organochlorines are still permitted for limited use in developing countries. Pesticide exposure, independently or in synergism with modifiable risk factors, is associated with several types of cancer.

  14. Pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2017-01-01

    Human exposures to pesticides can occur in the workplace, in the household and through the ambient environment. While several articles have reviewed the impact of pesticide exposures on human respiratory health in occupational settings, to the best of our knowledge, this article is the first one to review published studies on the association between pesticide exposures and human respiratory health in the general populations. In this article, we critically reviewed evidences up to date studying the associations between non-occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations. This article also highlighted questions arising from these studies, including our recent analyses using the data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), for future research. We found few studies have addressed the impact of environmental pesticide exposures on respiratory health, especially on lung function, in general populations. In the studies using the data from CHMS Cycle 1, exposures to OP insecticides, pyrethroid insecticides, and the organochlorine pesticide DDT were associated with impaired lung function in the Canadian general population, but no significant associations were observed for the herbicide 2,4-D. Future research should focus on the potential age-specific and pesticide-specific effect on respiratory health in the general population, and repeated longitudinal study design is critical for assessing the temporal variations in pesticide exposures. Research findings from current studies of non-occupational pesticide exposures and their health impact in general population will help to improve the role of regulatory policies in mitigating pesticide-related public health problems, and thereafter providing greater benefit to the general population.

  15. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Liess, Matthias; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2014-03-01

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern.

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides.

  17. Use-Exposure Relationships of Pesticides for Aquatic Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean

    2011-01-01

    Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO), organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC), and application rate (RATE). In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90–95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides. PMID:21483772

  18. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population.

  19. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  20. Pesticide exposure and genetic variation in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes interact to induce biochemical liver damage.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Requena, Mar; Parrón, Tesifón; Alarcón, Raquel

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic activation of pesticides in the liver may result in highly reactive intermediates capable of impairing various cellular functions. Nevertheless, the knowledge about the effect of pesticide exposure on liver function is still limited. This study assessed whether exposure to pesticides elicits early biochemical changes in biomarkers of liver function and looked for potential gene-environmental interactions between pesticide exposure and polymorphisms of pesticide-metabolizing genes. A longitudinal study was conducted in farm-workers from Andalusia (South Spain), during two periods of the same crop season with different degree of pesticide exposure. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities as well as for determining clinical chemistry parameters as biomarkers of liver function. Serum lipid levels were also measured as they may help to monitor the progress of toxic liver damage. A reduction in serum cholinesterase was associated with decreased levels of all clinical chemistry parameters studied except HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, a decreased erythrocyte cholinesterase (indicating long-term pesticide exposure) was associated with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and increased levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol. Changes in liver biomarkers were particularly associated with the PON155M/192R haplotype. The obtained results therefore support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure results in subtle biochemical liver toxicity and highlight the role of genetic polymorphisms in pesticide-metabolizing enzymes as biomarkers of susceptibility for developing adverse health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Job Demands & Pesticide Exposure among Immigrant Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Whalley, Lara E.; Chen, Haiying; Isom, Scott; Barr, Dana B.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the potential threat of job stressors to farmworker health. To accomplish this goal we studied pesticide exposure, an issue with immediate and long-term health consequences, and predictions from the demands-control model of occupational stress. Longitudinal, self-report data and urine samples were collected at monthly intervals from a cohort of Latino farmworkers (N=287) during the 2007 agricultural season. The primary hypothesis was that greater exposure to psychological demands, physical exertion, and hazardous work conditions are associated with greater odds of detecting DAP urinary pesticide metabolites, biomarkers indicating exposure to pesticides. Contrary to this hypothesis, results indicated that none of the elements of the Demands-Control model were independently associated with detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites. However, analyses produced several interaction effects, including evidence that high levels of control may buffer the effects of physical job demands on detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites. PMID:20604632

  2. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Cabella, Renato; Gherardi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities. GCC, in particular heat waves, may also potentially have impact on workers' susceptibility to pesticides absorption. Prevention policies of health in the workplace must be ready to address new risks from occupational exposure to pesticide, presumably different from current risks, since an increased use may be expected.

  3. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  4. Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment. PMID:21776202

  5. MODELING EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES APPROACHES AND MODELING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children to pesticides requires careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pesticides that may be present in different environmental media and in foods and beverages consumed by children, as well as the different routes and pathways of exp...

  6. MODELING EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES APPROACHES AND MODELING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children to pesticides requires careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pesticides that may be present in different environmental media and in foods and beverages consumed by children, as well as the different routes and pathways of exp...

  7. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  8. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Mort, Sandra Amiss

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in most homes, businesses, and farms to control a variety of pests, including insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and even microbial organisms. Inappropriate use of pesticides can lead to adverse effects to humans and the environment. This study provides updated information on the magnitude of adverse pesticide exposures in the United States. Data on pesticide exposure were obtained from calls to poison control centers (PCCs) reported by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Estimates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and health care costs were reported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and deaths from pesticide poisonings reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research). An average of 23 deaths occur each year with pesticides as the underlying cause of death, most due to suicidal ingestions. An average of 130,136 calls to poison control centers were reported from 2006 to 2010, with an average of 20,116 cases (17.8%) treated in health care facilities annually. AHQR reported an annual average of 7385 emergency room visits during 2006 to 2008, and 1419 annual hospitalizations during 2005 to 2009. Excluding cost from lost work time, hospital physician fees, and pesticide-induced cancers, the annual national cost associated with pesticide exposures was estimated as nearly $200 million USD based on data from emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and for deaths. Pesticide exposures remain a significant public health issue. Health care providers, cooperative extension agents, and pesticide manufactures can help prevent exposures by increasing education of parents and workers, encourage use of less toxic agents, and encourage the practice of integrated pest management.

  9. Silicone wristbands detect individuals' pesticide exposures in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Richard P.; Blaustein, Kathy L.; Halbleib, Mary L.; Sarr, Makhfousse; Jepson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes. This work provides the first report of individualized exposure profiles among smallholder farmers in West Africa, where logistical and practical constraints have prevented the use of more traditional approaches to exposure assessment in the past. The wristbands and associated analytical method enabled detection of a broad range of agricultural, domestic, legacy and current-use pesticides, including esfenvalerate, cypermethrin, lindane, DDT and chlorpyrifos. Participants reported the use of 13 pesticide active ingredients while wearing wristbands. All six of the pesticides that were both reportedly used and included in the analytical method were detected in at least one wristband. An additional 19 pesticide compounds were detected beyond those that were reported to be in use, highlighting the importance of measuring exposure in addition to collecting surveys and self-reported use records. The wristband method is a candidate for more widespread use in pesticide exposure and health monitoring, and in the development of evidence-based policies for human health protection in an area where food security concerns are likely to intensify agricultural production and pesticide use in the near future. PMID:27853621

  10. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  11. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Pesticides on Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Magdalena; Kruszewski, Marcin; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the current state of knowledge on pesticide-related fertility problems and disadventeges of childrens due to prenatal pesticides exposure. Available literature was analyzed. Due to the extent of the issue, the study focuses on epidemiological studies conducted in humans, despite evidence from in vitro and animal studies. It seems certain that exposure to harmful chemicals is one of the factors that may cause a decline in fertility and problems with conceiving, whereas exposure during pregnancy can impair foetal development. Prenatal exposure may also result in the occurrence of childhood cancer and neurobehavioral disorders. The meaning of the project is to summarize the role of pesticides in the process of reproduction. This applies especially to people working in agriculture, since they might be occupationally exposed to pesticides.

  12. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees1-5. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sub-lethal effects on bees affecting their foraging behaviour1,6,7, homing ability8,9 and reproductive success2,5. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants10-12, but until now research on pesticide impacts has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly these pesticide exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also suggest reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour but most likely due to impacts at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the function of natural ecosystems. PMID:26580009

  13. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Garratt, Michael P D; Wickens, Jennifer B; Wickens, Victoria J; Potts, Simon G; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-12-24

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  14. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  15. THE CHALLENGE OF ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In implementing the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has adopted a policy that the exposure factors and models used to assess and predict exposure to pesticides should generally be conservative. Some elements of exposure assess...

  16. Modeling flight attendants' exposures to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2013-12-17

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means ± standard devitions) of daily total exposure intakes were 0.24 (3.8 ± 10.0), 1.4 (4.2 ± 5.7), and 0.15 (2.1 ± 3.2) μg day(-1) kg(-1) of body weight for scenarios of residual application, preflight, and top-of-descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than top-of-descent spray and residual application, respectively.

  17. Modeling Flight Attendants’ Exposures to Pesticide in Disinsected Aircraft Cabins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means±standard devitions) of daily total exposures intakes were 0.24 (3.8±10.0), 1.4 (4.2±5.7) and 0.15 (2.1±3.2) μg/(day kg BW) for scenarios of Residual Application, Preflight and Top-of-Descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than Top-of-Descent spray and Residual Application, respectively. PMID:24251734

  18. Hazardous waste reduction checklist and assessment manual for pesticide formulators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, D.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The publication is a checklist and assessment manual for use by pesticide formulators in evaluating waste reduction opportunities at their facilities. A checklist is provided for use in conducting facility audits and the manual provides methods for evaluating the implementation potential and costs of the technologies. The Appendix contains tables to summarize the waste reduction options.

  19. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koifman, Sergio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Meyer, Armando

    2002-01-01

    The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  20. Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study 1993 – 2003

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, M. P.; Kame, F.; Saldana, T. M.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to certain environmental toxicants may be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between lifetime exposure to specific agricultural pesticides and diabetes incidence among pesticide applicators. The study included 33,457 licensed applicators, predominantly non-Hispanic white males, enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Incident diabetes was self-reported in a 5-year follow-up interview (1999–2003), giving 1,176 diabetics and 30,611 non-diabetics for analysis. Lifetime exposure to pesticides and covariate information was reported by participants at enrollment (1993–1997). Using logistic regression, we considered two primary measures of pesticide exposure: ever use and cumulative lifetime days of use. We found seven specific pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, alachlor, and cyanazine) for which the odds of diabetes incidence increased with both ever use and cumulative days of use. Applicators who had used the organochlorine insecticides aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor more than 100 lifetime days had 51%, 63%, and 94% increased odds of diabetes, respectively. The observed association of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes is consistent with previous human and animal studies. Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes. PMID:18343878

  1. Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are used widely to control weeds and insect infestation in agricultural fields and various pests and disease carriers (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, rats, and mice) in houses, offices, malls, and streets. As the modes of action for pesticides are not species-specific, concerns have been raised about environmental risks associated with their exposure through various routes (e.g., residues in food and drinking water). Although such hazards range from short-term (e.g., skin and eye irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea) to chronic impacts (e.g., cancer, asthma, and diabetes), their risks are difficult to elucidate due to the involvement of various factors (e.g., period and level of exposure, type of pesticide (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the affected areas). There are no groups in the human population that are completely unexposed to pesticides while most diseases are multi-causal to add considerable complexity to public health assessments. Hence, development of eco-friendly pesticide alternatives (e.g., EcoSMART) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques is desirable to reduce the impacts of pesticides. This paper was hence organized to present a comprehensive review on pesticides with respect to their types, environmental distribution, routes of exposure, and health impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Operative modalities and exposure to pesticides during open field treatments among a group of agricultural subcontractors.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Del Monte, Annalisa; Ensabella, Francesca; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a field study of occupational pesticide exposure (respiratory and dermal) among a group of Italian agricultural subcontractors. These workers consistently use pesticides during much of the year, thus resulting in a high exposure risk. Ten complete treatments were monitored during spring/summer. Pesticides that were applied included azinphos-methyl, dicamba, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, and alachlor. Several observations were made on worker operative modalities and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during work. Total potential and actual exposure ranged from 14 to 5700 microg and from 0.04 to 4600 microg, respectively. Dermal exposure contributed substantially more than inhalation to the total exposure (93.9-100%). Hand contamination ranged from 0.04 to 4600 microg and was the major contributor to dermal exposure. Penetration through specific protective garments was less than 2.4% in all cases, although penetration through general work clothing was as high as 26.8%. The risk evaluation, based on comparison between acceptable daily intake and total absorbed doses, demonstrates that it is presumable to expect possible health effects for workers regularly operating without PPE and improper tractors. Comparisons between exposure levels and operative modalities highlighted that complete PPE and properly equipped tractors contributed to a significant reduction in total exposure to pesticides during agricultural activities. In conclusion, monitored agricultural subcontractors presented very different levels of pesticide exposure due to the high variability of operative modalities and use of PPE. These results indicate the need to critically evaluate the efficacy of training programs required for obtaining a pesticide license in Italy.

  3. Albumin binding as a potential biomarker of exposure to moderately low levels of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tarhoni, Mabruka H; Lister, Timothy; Ray, David E; Carter, Wayne G

    2008-06-01

    We have evaluated the potential of plasma albumin to provide a sensitive biomarker of exposure to commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in order to complement the widely used measure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Rat or human plasma albumin binding by tritiated-diisopropylfluorophosphate ((3)H-DFP) was quantified by retention of albumin on glass microfibre filters. Preincubation with unlabelled pesticide in vitro or dosing of F344 rats with pesticide in vivo resulted in a reduction in subsequent albumin radiolabelling with (3)H-DFP, the decrease in which was used to quantify pesticide binding. At pesticide exposures producing approximately 30% inhibition of AChE, rat plasma albumin binding in vitro by azamethiphos (oxon), chlorfenvinphos (oxon), chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon and malaoxon was reduced from controls by 9+/-1%, 67+/-2%, 56+/-2%, 54+/-2% and 8+/-1%, respectively. After 1 h of incubation with 19 microM (3)H-DFP alone, the level of binding to rat or human plasma albumins reached 0.011 or 0.039 moles of DFP per mole of albumin, respectively. This level of binding could be further increased by raising the concentration of (3)H-DFP, increasing the (3)H-DFP incubation time, or by substitution of commercial albumins for native albumin. Pesticide binding to albumin was presumed covalent since it survived 24 h dialysis. After dosing rats with pirimiphos-methyl (dimethoxy) or chlorfenvinphos (oxon) (diethoxy) pesticides, the resultant albumin binding were still significant 7 days after dosing. As in vitro, dosing of rats with malathion did not result in significant albumin binding in vivo. Our results suggest albumin may be a useful additional biomonitor for moderately low-level exposures to several widely used pesticides, and that this binding differs markedly between pesticides.

  4. Repeated Pesticide Exposure among North Carolina Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Galvan, Leonardo; Barr, Dana B.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited data document the multiple and repeated pesticide absorption experienced by farmworkers in an agricultural season or their risk factors. Methods Data were collected from 196 farmworkers 4 times at monthly intervals in 2007. Urine samples were tested for 12 pesticide urinary metabolites. Questionnaire data provided measures of exposure risks. Results Farmworkers had at least one detection for many pesticide urinary metabolites; e.g. 84.2% had at least one detection for acephate, 88.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Most farmworkers had multiple detections for specific metabolites; e.g., 64.8% had 2 or more detections for acephate, 64.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 79.1% for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and 86.7% for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Housing type had a consistent significant association with metabolite detections. Conclusions Farmworkers are exposed to multiple pesticides across an agricultural season, and they experience repeated exposures to the same pesticides. Reducing farmworker pesticide exposure and delineating the health outcomes of this exposure require more detailed data. PMID:20623661

  5. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  6. Childhood and Adolescent Pesticide Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, Nicole M; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J; Parks, Christine G; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-05-01

    To date, epidemiologic studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Furthermore, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor subtype-specific associations. We examined the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N = 50,884 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0-18 before the ban of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane in the US, exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a hazard ratio = 1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.7). These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women.

  7. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  8. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  9. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURES - WHERE ARE THE HIGH RISK CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...

  10. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may have greater exposures than do older children or adults to some persistent organic pesticides, because of differences in their diet and activities. The physical impact of those exposures may also be increased by their small body size, immature body systems, ...

  11. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  12. DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several multimedia, multipathway exposure monitoring studies are currently being planned within EPA/NERL. The overall objectives of these studies are (1) to develop the data and models that can be used to estimate exposure and dose for young children to pesticides and (2) to i...

  13. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURES - WHERE ARE THE HIGH RISK CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...

  14. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  15. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  16. DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several multimedia, multipathway exposure monitoring studies are currently being planned within EPA/NERL. The overall objectives of these studies are (1) to develop the data and models that can be used to estimate exposure and dose for young children to pesticides and (2) to i...

  17. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS.

  18. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Hong, Tao; Cyterski, Mike; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active ingredients through contact with contaminated soil: imidacloprid (logKow = 0.57), atrazine (logKow = 2.5), triadimefon (logKow = 3.0), fipronil (logKow = 4.11) or pendimethalin (logKow = 5.18). All amphibians had measurable body burdens at the end of the exposure in concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 14.562 μg/g across the pesticides tested. Atrazine produced the greatest body burdens and bioconcentration factors, but fipronil was more permeable to amphibian skin when application rate was considered. Soil partition coefficient and water solubility were much better predictors of pesticide body burden, bioconcentration factor, and skin permeability than logKow. Dermal uptake data can be used to improve risk estimates of pesticide exposure among amphibians as non-target organisms.

  19. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

  20. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  2. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  3. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  4. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  5. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-09-18

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20-35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  6. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Soldin, Offie P; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala; Nsouly-Maktabi, Hala; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Loffredo, Christopher A; Ortega-Garcia, Juan Antonio; Colantino, Drew; Barr, Dana B; Luban, Naomi L; Shad, Aziza T; Nelson, David

    2009-08-01

    Organophosphates are pesticides ubiquitous in the environment and have been hypothesized as one of the risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we evaluated the associations of pesticide exposure in a residential environment with the risk for pediatric ALL. This is a case-control study of children newly diagnosed with ALL, and their mothers (n = 41 child-mother pairs) recruited from Georgetown University Medical Center and Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, between January 2005 and January 2008. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and county of residence. Environmental exposures were determined by questionnaire and by urinalysis of pesticide metabolites using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. We found that more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home (P < 0.02). Other environmental exposures to toxic substances were not significantly associated with the risk of ALL. Pesticide levels were higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between children with ALL and controls for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate (P < 0.03) and diethyldithiophosphate (P < 0.05). The association of ALL risk with pesticide exposure merits further studies to confirm the association.

  7. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed daily for 42 days. We found out that T. axei larvae are the most resistant ones to tolylfluanid exposure – there was no statistical significance in any concentration tested after 42 days of tolylfluanid exposure. 100% of dead larvae were found on 33rd day of experiment at higher concentration, resp. on 37th day at lower tested concentration of glyphosate. C. curticei, O. circumcincta and H. contortus showed similar statistical significance in both pesticides tested (there was high statistical significance (p<0.0001) at both concentrations of glyphosate and only at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid). C. curticei and H. contortus larvae were found dead, spiral shaped and without movement at all concentrations tested, spiral shape was not observed in other two tested larvae. O. circumcincta larvae reacted to pesticides exposure very quickly; rapid death was recorded on second day of experiment at both concentrations of glyphosate and at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid. From four tested small ruminant parasites (L3), O. circumcincta larvae seem to be the most sensitive ones and need further research. PMID:21217852

  8. Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Exposure to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Nsouly-Maktabi, Hala; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Ortega-Garcia, Juan Antonio; Colantino, Drew; Barr, Dana B.; Luban, Naomi L.; Shad, Aziza T.; Nelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates are pesticides ubiquitous in the environment and have been hypothesized as one of the risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we evaluated the associations of pesticide exposure in a residential environment with the risk for pediatric ALL. This is a case–control study of children newly diagnosed with ALL, and their mothers (n = 41 child–mother pairs) were recruited from Georgetown University Medical Center and Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, between January 2005 and January 2008. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and county of residence. Environmental exposures were determined by questionnaire and by urinalysis of pesticide metabolites using isotope dilution gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. We found that more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home (P < 0.02). Other environmental exposures to toxic substances were not significantly associated with the risk of ALL. Pesticide levels were higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between children with ALL and controls for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate (P < 0.03) and diethyldithiophosphate (P < 0.05). The association of ALL risk with pesticide exposure merits further studies to confirm the association. PMID:19571777

  9. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    PubMed Central

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  10. Job exposure matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Studies that report an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and occupational pesticide exposure often use self-reported exposure and none adjust for concomitant ambient pesticide exposure. For a population-based case-control study of PD conducted in California's heavily agricultural region, the authors developed a comprehensive job exposure matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to pesticides. Relying on 357 incident cases and 750 population controls enrolled between 2001 and 2011, the authors estimated more than a 2-fold risk increase for PD among men classified as highly occupationally exposed. The authors also observed an exposure-response pattern and farming tasks with direct and intense pesticide exposures such as spraying and handling of pesticides resulted in greater risks than indirect bystander exposures. Results did not change after adjustment for ambient pesticide exposure. The authors provide further evidence that occupational pesticide exposure increases the risk of PD.

  11. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  12. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  13. Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.

    PubMed

    Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Wylie, Philip; Cappozzo, Jack

    2013-03-01

    There is interest in reducing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in order to minimize human exposure. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the effect of various washing treatments with and without sonication on pesticide removal from tomatoes and (ii) assess the effectiveness of a water wash on select samples using a produce-washing flume. In the first set of experiments, tomatoes were contaminated with acephate, malathion, carbaryl, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, and imidacloprid and were dried overnight. Subsets of the tomatoes were then washed (10°C, 1 min) with one of the following: water, sodium hypochlorite (80 μg/ml, pH 7), peroxyacetic acid (80 μg/ml), or Tween 20 (0.1%) with and without sonication. In general, the effect of sonication depended on the washing treatment and on the pesticide. A separate experiment measured pesticide residues in contaminated samples before and after being washed in a flume (22°C, 1 min). Pesticide residues in contaminated produce were reduced from about 40 to 90% when washed for 1 min in the flume.

  14. New challenges: residential pesticide exposure assessment in the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, USA.

    PubMed

    Powell, S

    2001-04-01

    Residential exposure assessment is in an early stage of development within many of the regulatory agencies responsible for pesticides. Some of the impetus for residential assessment comes from the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), a federal law adopted in 1996 in the USA. The FQPA mandates that the aggregate and cumulative risks from all nonoccupational sources of exposure to similarly acting pesticides be assessed. The development of methods for residential exposure assessment is therefore proceeding in tandem with methods for aggregate risk assessment. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (Cal DPR) regulates pesticides in the state of California much as the US EPA does at the national level. While Cal DPR is not explicitly bound by the federal law, it recognizes the importance of residential exposure and of cumulative risk, and tries to harmonize its methods with those of US EPA. Accordingly, Cal DPR is developing guidance for residential exposure assessment. Some factors to consider are the following: (1) although the end goal may be total exposure from all sources, in order to regulate the use of products it is necessary to have separate estimates of exposure from individual sources and routes; (2) probabilistic approaches will be used increasingly, and they must separate variability and uncertainty; (3) there is a critical need for data on residential use of pesticides, including the frequency of mishaps and improper handling; (4) data are needed on long-term activity patterns of individuals, including residential and occupational history; (5) regulatory agencies need a way to identify and screen potential exposure scenarios, in order to streamline the risk assessment process.

  15. Pesticide and toxicity reduction using an integrated vegetated treatment system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Largay, Bryan; Shihadeh, Rami; Tjeerdema, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    The California, USA, central coast is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world, and numerous stakeholders are working there to implement conservation practices to reduce contaminated runoff. Practices include vegetated treatment systems (VTS) designed to promote contaminant reduction and breakdown. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a vegetated drainage ditch incorporating a sedimentation basin, a vegetated section, and a Landguard organophosphate-A (OP-A) enzyme dosing system. The VTS was constructed on a working farm and was designed to remove organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, the primary pesticides causing toxicity in Salinas Valley watersheds. The present study was conducted during five separate irrigation events on tailwater runoff containing mixtures of pesticides and suspended sediments. Water samples were collected at four stations within the system, and these were subjected to chemical analyses and tested for toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. All inflow samples were highly toxic to C. dubia, and this was largely because of diazinon. Treatment of diazinon-contaminated runoff was only partially effective using aquatic vegetation. All diazinon remaining after vegetated treatment was effectively removed after treatment with the Landguard OP-A enzyme. Chemical analysis of the VTS water samples showed that pyrethroid and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in water were greatly reduced in the sedimentation section of the ditch, and these pesticides were further reduced in the vegetated section of the ditch. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the VTS was effective at reducing the more hydrophobic organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides from water. The water-soluble pesticide diazinon was not sufficiently removed during the VTS residence times observed in this study; however, residual diazinon was effectively removed using Landguard OP-A.

  16. Analytical approaches for determining human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shafik, T M

    1980-01-01

    The presence of pesticides, both persistent and biodegradable, in the environment is a problem which is both significant and potentially dangerous to humans. An index of biodegradability is presented which is based on the correlation between environmental stability and fat solubility. Halogenated pesticides are, therefore, both more fat soluble and more resistant to biodegradation, while methylated pesticides are more water soluble and, therefore, more biodegradable. Three methods for detecting low-levels of halogenated pesticides are presented: the Macro, the Micro "Florisil," and the Micro "Silica." A method is also presented to detect these chemicals in blood. Two methods for the detection of nonpersistent, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, Cholinesterase inhibition and urinary metabolites, are described. Finally, methods of monitoring human exposure through the detection of phenols, phenoxy acids, alkyl phosphates, and anilines are presented.

  17. Pesticide exposure and low birth weight prevalence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Meyer, Armando; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Veríssimo, Gesiele

    2013-06-01

    Brazil is one of the major global consumers of pesticides and exposure to these substances can affect fetal growth. To estimate the correlation between pesticide sales in 1996 and the prevalence of low birth weight during the period 1996-1998 in Brazil. This ecological study employed secondary data aggregated at the level of Brazilian micro-regions (cluster of cities). Prevalence of low birth weight in 1996, 1997, and 1998 was obtained from the Brazilian health databases, and per capita pesticides sales in 1996 obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were utilized as an indirect measure of population exposure to these chemicals. Spearman correlation coefficient and Prevalence Ratio by quartiles were estimated, considering per capita pesticide sales and the prevalence of low birth weight. A total of 552 micro-regions were analyzed (446 non-urban and 106 urban). In rural areas, the per capita pesticide sales were directly associated with higher prevalence of children born with low birth weight (r=0.403), with birth weights between 1500 and 2500 grams (r=0.366), and very low birth weight birth (r=0.476). All correlations were statistically significant (p<0.001). On the other hand, in urban areas there was no significant correlation. There was a gradual increase in the prevalence of low birth weight according to the quartiles of pesticide consumption. Pesticide per capita sales may affect the prevalence of newborns with low birth weight in non-urban micro-regions of Brazil, indicating the need to strengthen policies and actions to protect the health of populations exposed to pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicidal ideation and occupational pesticide exposure among male farmers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    The occupation of farming has been reported to be associated with a high suicide rate, and suicidal ideation is an important risk factor for suicide. The objective of this study was to explore the association between occupational pesticide exposure or poisoning history and suicidal ideation among male farmers in South Korea. Through a nationwide sampling survey, a total of 1958 male farmers were interviewed in 2011 in South Korea. Detailed occupational pesticide exposure and pesticide poisoning information were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Suicidal ideation was defined as whether they had thought of harming themselves or trying to take their own lives over the preceding year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of pesticide poisoning on suicidal ideation. Among all farmers, 4.7% (n=92) reported suicidal ideation in 2010. After controlling for potential confounders, lifetime hospitalization due to pesticide poisoning showed a 2.48-fold increase in risk (95% CI: 1.26, 4.91). Those with multiple poisonings showed more significant associations with suicidal ideation (OR=2.33 for once, OR=3.02 for more than once). Moderate- or severe-symptom severity of acute pesticide poisoning cases (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.21-4.11) also showed increased risks of suicidal ideation than the milder classes did. However, no significant association was identified with cumulative lifetime pesticide application and suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that risk of suicidal ideation is related to occupational pesticide poisoning among male farmers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remote sensing images in California. The image classification method utilizes Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in a combined maximum likelihood classification and per-field (using segments) approach. Pesticide exposure is estimated according to pesticide-treated crop fields intersecting 500 m buffers around geocoded locations (e.g., residences) in a GIS. Study results demonstrate that the Landsat method can improve GIS-based pesticide exposure estimation by matching more pesticide applications to crops (especially temporary crops) classified using temporally concurrent Landsat images compared to the standard method that relies on infrequently updated land use survey (LUS) crop data. The Landsat method can be used in epidemiologic studies to reconstruct past individual-level exposure to specific pesticides according to where individuals are located.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  2. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), cherries (59.6%), pears (37.2%), grapes (27.1%), hops (22.9%), and peaches (12.4%). Crops were grouped into two main categories: pome fruits (apples and pears) and non-pome fruits. Farmworkers who worked in the pome fruits had significantly higher concentrations of dimethyl pesticide metabolites in their urine and elevated azinphos-methyl concentrations in their homes and vehicles than workers who did not work in these crops. Among pome-fruit workers, those who worked in both apples and pears had higher urinary metabolites concentrations and pesticide residue concentrations in dust than did those who worked in a single pome fruit. Children living in households with pome-fruit workers were found to have higher concentrations of urinary dimethyl metabolites than did children of non-pome-fruit workers. Adult urinary concentrations showed significant correlations with both the vehicle and house-dust azinphos-methyl concentrations, and child urinary concentrations were correlated significantly with adult urinary concentrations and with the house-dust azinphos-methyl concentration. The results provide support for the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure and show an association between measures of pesticide exposure and the number of pome-fruit crops worked by farmworkers. PMID:16835050

  3. Cholinesterase Depression and Its Association with Pesticide Exposure across the Agricultural Season among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Galvan, Leonardo; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Farmworkers can be exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Assessing cholinesterase activity over time can be used to monitor exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Objectives The goal of this study was to document patterns and variation in cholinesterase levels across the agricultural season (May–August) among field-workers, and to explore the association of cholinesterase depression with pesticide exposure across the agricultural season. Methods Dried blood samples collected from 231 migrant farmworkers sampled from camps in eastern North Carolina up to four times across a summer agricultural season were analyzed for cholinesterase activity, and urine samples were analyzed for metabolites of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Reductions of ≥ 15% from an individual’s highest value were identified and considered evidence of meaningful cholinesterase activity depression. Results The average cholinesterase activity levels were lowest in June, with significantly higher mean values in July and August. When adjusted for age, sex, minutes waited to shower, and days worked in the fields, the number of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides detected in urine predicted reductions in cholinesterase activity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that workers are experiencing pesticide exposure. Greater enforcement of existing safety regulations or strengthening of these regulations may be warranted. This study demonstrates that serial measurements of cholinesterase activity across an agricultural season can detect exposure to pesticides among field-workers. PMID:20085857

  4. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butinof, Mariana; Fernandez, Ricardo Antorio; Stimolo, María Inés; Lantieri, María Josefina; Blanco, Marcelo; Machado, Ana Lia; Franchini, Germán; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  5. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    PubMed

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  6. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos J T I; Egsmose, Mark; Gardi, Ciro; Klein, Michael; Vanderborght, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Standardised exposure scenarios play an important role in European pesticide authorisation procedures (a scenario is a combination of climate, weather and crop data to be used in exposure models). The European Food Safety Authority developed such scenarios for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms to pesticides. Scenarios were needed for both the concentration in total soil and for the concentration in the liquid phase. The goal of the exposure assessment is the 90th percentile of the exposure concentration in the area of agricultural use of a pesticide in each of three regulatory European zones (North, Centre and South). A statistical approach was adopted to find scenarios that are consistent with this exposure goal. Scenario development began with the simulation of the concentration distribution in the entire area of use by means of a simple analytical model. In the subsequent two steps, procedures were applied to account for parameter uncertainty and scenario uncertainty (i.e. the likelihood that a scenario that is derived for one pesticide is not conservative enough for another pesticide). In the final step, the six scenarios were selected by defining their average air temperature, soil organic-matter content and their soil textural class. Organic matter of the selected scenarios decreased in the order North-Centre-South. Because organic matter has a different effect on the concentration in total soil than it has on the concentration in the liquid phase, the concentration in total soil decreased in the order North-Centre-South whereas the concentration in the liquid phase decreased in the opposite order. The concentration differences between the three regulatory zones appeared to be no more than a factor of two. These differences were comparatively small in view of the considerable differences in climate and soil properties between the three zones.

  8. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Stevenson, David K; Carmichael, Suzan L; English, Paul B

    2017-09-18

    Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data. After exclusions, the analytic study base included 197,461 term control births and 27,913 preterm case births. Preterm cases were more narrowly defined as 20-23 weeks (n=515), 24-27 weeks (n=1792), 28-31 weeks (n=3098), or 32-36 weeks (n=22,508). The frequency of any (versus none) pesticide exposure was uniformly lower in each preterm case group relative to the frequency in term controls, irrespective of gestational month of exposure. All odds ratios were below 1.0 for these any vs no exposure comparisons. The majority of odds ratios were below 1.0, many of them statistically precise, for preterm birth and exposures to specific chemical groups or chemicals. This study showed a general lack of increased risk of preterm birth associated with a range of agriculture pesticide exposures near women's residences.

  9. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  10. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  11. Barrage fishponds: Reduction of pesticide concentration peaks and associated risk of adverse ecological effects in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Juliette; Thomas, Marielle; Iuretig, Alain; Pallez, Christelle; Feidt, Cyril; Dauchy, Xavier; Banas, Damien

    2016-03-15

    Constructed wetlands have been suggested as pesticide risk mitigation measures. Yet, in many agricultural areas, ponds or shallow lakes are already present and may contribute to the control of non-point source contamination by pesticides. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of extensively managed barrage fishponds (n = 3) on the dissolved concentrations of 100 pesticides in headwater streams over the course of a year. Among the 100 pesticides, 50 different substances were detected upstream and 48 downstream. Highest measured concentration upstream was 26.5 μg/L (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) and 5.19 μg/L (isoproturon) downstream. Fishponds were found to reduce peak exposure levels as high pesticide concentrations (defined here as ≥ 1 μg/L) generally decreased by more than 90% between upstream and downstream sampling sites. The measured concentrations in the investigated streams were compared to laboratory toxicity data for standard test organisms (algae, invertebrates and fish) using the toxic unit approach. When considering the threshold levels set by the European Union within the first tier risk assessment procedure for pesticide registration (commission regulation (EU) N° 546/2011), regulatory threshold exceedances were observed for 22 pesticides upstream from fishponds and for 9 pesticides downstream. Therefore, the investigated barrage fishponds contributed to the reduction of pesticide peak concentrations and potential risk of adverse effects for downstream ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of job-exposure matrices to estimate occupational exposure to pesticides: A review.

    PubMed

    Carles, Camille; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The health effects of pesticides have been extensively studied in epidemiology, mainly in agricultural populations. However, pesticide exposure assessment remains a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. Besides self-reported information, expert assessment or metrology, job-exposure matrices still appear to be an interesting tool. We reviewed all existing matrices assessing occupational exposure to pesticides in epidemiological studies and described the exposure parameters they included. We identified two types of matrices, (i) generic ones that are generally used in case-control studies and document broad categories of pesticides in a large range of jobs, and (ii) specific matrices, developed for use in agricultural cohorts, that generally provide exposure metrics at the active ingredient level. The various applications of these matrices in epidemiological studies have proven that they are valuable tools to assess pesticide exposure. Specific matrices are particularly promising for use in agricultural cohorts. However, results obtained with matrices have rarely been compared with those obtained with other tools. In addition, the external validity of the given estimates has not been adequately discussed. Yet, matrices would help in reducing misclassification and in quantifying cumulated exposures, to improve knowledge about the chronic health effects of pesticides.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN YUMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999-2000, researchers from US EPA's Office of Research and Development in collaboration with several government and academic institutions conducted pesticide exposure assessment studies in Yuma county. Results from these studies have been previously reported (Gordon SM, et a...

  14. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN YUMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999-2000, researchers from US EPA's Office of Research and Development in collaboration with several government and academic institutions conducted pesticide exposure assessment studies in Yuma county. Results from these studies have been previously reported (Gordon SM, et a...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  16. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850

  17. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  19. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  20. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic diet.

    PubMed

    Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc; Braun, Lesley; Schembri, Adrian; Taskova, Rilka

    2014-07-01

    Conventional food production commonly uses organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which can have negative health effects, while organic food is deemed healthier because it is produced without these pesticides. Studies suggest that organic food consumption may significantly reduce OP pesticide exposure in children who have relatively higher pesticide exposure than adults due to their different diets, body weight, behaviour and less efficient metabolism. A prospective, randomised, crossover study was conducted to determine if an organic food diet reduces organophosphate exposure in adults. Thirteen participants were randomly allocated to consume a diet of at least 80% organic or conventional food for 7 days and then crossed over to the alternate diet. Urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate metabolites were analysed in first-morning voids collected on day 8 of each phase using GC-MS/MS with detection limits of 0.11-0.51 μg/L. The mean total DAP results in the organic phase were 89% lower than in the conventional phase (M=0.032 [SD=0.038] and 0.294 [SD=0.435] respectively, p=0.013). For total dimethyl DAPs there was a 96% reduction (M=0.011 [SD=0.023] and 0.252 [SD=0.403] respectively, p=0.005). Mean total diethyl DAP levels in the organic phase were half those of the conventional phase (M=0.021 [SD=0.020] and 0.042 [SD=0.038] respectively), yet the wide variability and small sample size meant the difference was not statistically significant. The consumption of an organic diet for one week significantly reduced OP pesticide exposure in adults. Larger scale studies in different populations are required to confirm these findings and investigate their clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  3. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  4. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhilin; Xue, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups to acceptable daily intakes (ADI), characterize pesticide trends in exposures over different time periods, and determine commodities contributing to pesticide exposures. SHEDS was applied, using Pesticide Data Program (PDP) (1991-2011) and pesticide usage data on crops from USDA combined with NHANES dietary consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by age group. ADI data collected from EPA, WHO, and other sources were used to rank pesticides based on relativeness of the dietary exposure potential to ADI by age groups. Sensitivity analysis provided trends in pesticide exposures. Within SHEDS, commodities contributing the majority of pesticides with greatest exposure potential were determined. The results indicated that the highest ranking pesticides were methamidophos and diazinon which exceeded 100% of the ADI. Sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure to methamidophos, diazinon, malathion, ethion and formetanate hydrochloride had a marked decrease from 1991-1999 to 2000-2011. Contributions analysis indicated that apples, mushroom, carrots, and lettuce contributed to diazinon exposure. Beans and pepper contributed to methamidophos exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Erosion rills offset the efficacy of vegetated buffer strips to mitigate pesticide exposure in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Sebastian; Dabrowski, James Michael; Bangert, Uli; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1-12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R(2)=0.626; p<0.001) with runoff losses predicted by the modeling approach in which buffer strip width was set to zero at sites with erosion rills; in contrast, no relationship between predicted runoff losses and in-stream pesticide concentrations were detected in the modeling approach that neglected erosion rills and thus assumed efficient buffer strips. Overall, the results of our study show that erosion rills may substantially reduce buffer strip pesticide retention efficacies during runoff events and suggest that the capability of buffer strips as a risk mitigation tool for runoff is largely overestimated in current regulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between pesticide exposure and suicide rates in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke

    2014-12-01

    The association between pesticide use and an increased suicide risk is a controversial issue. Previous studies have shown higher rates of suicide among agricultural workers and people living in small municipalities, but have not identified the causes of these results. To investigate the association between pesticide exposure and suicide rates. Crude suicide rates of a 15-year time series (1996-2010) were examined, followed by an ecological study using age-standardized suicide rates for the period 2006-2010. The unit of analysis was all 558 Brazilian micro-regions. Pesticide exposure was evaluated according to the proportion of farms that used pesticides and had reported cases of pesticide poisonings. The statistics were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Among the age group that was analysed, the mean suicide rate was 6.4 cases/100,000 per year in the 2006-2010 period, with a male/female ratio of 4.2. The times series showed that there were higher suicide rates among people aged 35-64 years and among men aged 15-34 years. The ecological analysis showed that the suicide rates were higher in micro-regions with a higher proportion of farms run by 35-64 year olds, female workers and on farms with better economic indicators (higher farming income, level of mechanization and farm area). There was a positive association between the Catholic religion and suicide rates. Micro-regions with a greater use of pesticides, and with a high proportion of pesticide poisoning had the highest suicide rates for all three groups analysed: both genders, men, and women (p ranging from 0.01 to p<0.001). This study reinforces the hypothesis that pesticide use and pesticide poisoning increase the suicide rates. However, due to the limitations of the study's ecological design, such as ecological fallacy, further appropriately designed studies are needed to confirm the causal relationships. Copyright

  7. "Pesticides protect the fruit, but not the people": using community-based ethnography to understand farmworker pesticide-exposure risks.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Shedra Amy; Thompson, Beti; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina; King, Denae; Herrera, Angelica P; Navarro, Bridgette

    2009-11-01

    We used community-based ethnography and public health risk assessment to assess beliefs about pesticide exposure risks among farmworkers in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State. We used unstructured and semistructured interviews, work-site observation, and detailed field notes to gather data on pesticide exposure risks from 99 farmworkers. Farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs and attitudes could be grouped into 5 major themes: (1) dry pesticides are often perceived as a virtually harmless powder, (2) farmworkers who identify themselves as allergic to pesticides are more acutely affected by exposure, (3) the effect of pesticide exposure is more severe for those perceived as physically weak, (4) protective equipment is used selectively in response to financial pressure to work rapidly, and (5) some farmworkers delay decontamination until they find water deemed an appropriate temperature for handwashing. We elucidated farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs regarding perceived danger and susceptibility to pesticides, the need to put safety second to financial considerations, and reasons for delaying decontamination. Researchers and policymakers should incorporate these data in study designs and legislation concerned with farmworker exposure to pesticides.

  8. UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN'S TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that significant portion of total exposure of infants and children to environmental contaminants can result from contamination of food in the home. Children's foods become contaminated through handling and contact with surf...

  9. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure.

  10. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (03/17/2016 - ATLANTA)-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment cost

  11. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  12. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  13. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  14. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure. PMID:28690397

  15. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure.

  16. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment costs.

  17. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  18. Occupation, pesticide exposure and risk of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Baris, Dalsu; Silverman, Debra T; Brown, Linda Morris; Swanson, G Marie; Hayes, Richard B; Schwartz, Ann G; Liff, Jonathan M; Schoenberg, Janet B; Pottern, Linda M; Greenberg, Raymond S; Stewart, Patricia A

    2004-06-01

    This population-based case-control study examined the relationship between occupation, living or working on a farm, pesticide exposure, and the risk of multiple myeloma. The study included 573 persons newly diagnosed with myeloma and 2131 controls. Information was obtained on sociodemographic factors, occupational history, and history of living and working on a farm. Occupational and industrial titles were coded by standardized classification systems. A job-exposure matrix was developed for occupational pesticide exposure. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Farmers and farm workers had odds ratios of 1.9 (95% CI 0.8-4.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 0.8-2.3), respectively. An odds ratio of 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.7) was observed for sheep farm residents or workers, whereas no increased risks were found for cattle, beef, pig, or chicken farm residents or workers. A modestly increased risk was observed for pesticides (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.8). Significantly increased risks were found for pharmacists, dieticians and therapists (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.7-22.5), service occupations (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.02-1.7), roofers (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.8), precision printing occupations (OR 10.1, 95% CI 1.03-99.8), heating equipment operators (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.8), and hand molders and casters (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.4). A modest increased risk of multiple myeloma is suggested for occupational pesticide exposure. The increased risk for sheep farm residents or workers indicates that certain animal viruses may be involved in myeloma risk.

  19. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is performing research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This act requires that pesticide exposure assessments to be conducted for all potential sources, rou...

  20. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  2. Assessment of consumer exposure related to improper use of pesticides in the region of southeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Szpyrka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Plant protection products are widely used throughout the world in order to prevent a reduction in yield. Although the protection of plants brings many benefits, pesticides are toxic to the environment and to humans. To protect human health, pesticide residue risk assessment should be carried out. The aim of the study was to assess acute risk related to the improper use of pesticides. In 2010-2013, 878 crop samples: 382 fruits, 399 vegetables, 82 cereals and their products, 11 herbs and 4 seeds were tested. Pesticide residues were found in 240 samples (27.3%). Pesticide residues were found most frequently in: fruits (41.6% fruit samples), seed (25.0%), vegetables (19.3%) and herbs (9.1%), and least frequently in cereals and their products (2.4%). Improper pesticide use was determined for 49 samples, mainly for vegetables (24 samples) and fruits (22). Most irregularities associated with the use of plant protection products involved application of a substance not recommended for a given crop (36 samples). In nine samples, applications of plant protection products that were withdrawn from the market were found, and in seven samples, violations of maximum residue levels were determined. Despite there being cases of improper use of plant protection products, no hazard to consumer health was determined. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of blackcurrants with iprodione-a substance not recommended in Poland for protection of blackcurrants (4.3% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 6.8% ADI, children). Since potential consumer risk caused by pesticide residues could not be ruled out, inspections should be carried out continuously.

  3. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds.

    PubMed

    Etterson, Matthew A; Bennett, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide-use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg laying, incubation, nestling rearing), and results from avian toxicity tests are used to represent the types of effects possible in the field during each breeding phase. The expected exposure dose each day throughout the breeding season can be compared to the toxicity thresholds assigned to each breeding phase to determine whether the nest attempt is at risk. The primary output of the model is an estimate of the number of successful nest attempts per female per year, which is multiplied by the number of fledglings per successful nest to estimate the number of fledglings per female per breeding season (i.e., annual reproductive success). In this article, we present a series of MCnest simulations to demonstrate the extent to which the magnitude of change in annual reproductive success can be affected by considering life history attributes and the timing of pesticide applications relative to a species' typical breeding phenology. For a given pesticide-use scenario, MCnest can identify which species are at greatest risk. By allowing multiple species to be run under a single scenario, it can also help to identify the life-history traits that contribute to a species' vulnerability to a given pesticide-use scenario. It also can determine which application dates have the greatest impact and demonstrate the extent to which pesticide characteristics (e.g., residue half-life, mode of action) affect productivity. MCnest goes beyond the current qualitative screening-level assessments of risks to avian reproduction to provide an approach for quantifying the reduction in annual reproductive success by integrating species life history and timing of pesticide exposures, despite limitations in existing information

  4. Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Jaga, K; Brosius, D

    1999-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane, a halogenated hydrocarbon, was introduced as an insecticide in the 1940s. In her book "Silent Spring", Rachel Carson expressed her concern for the environment, plants, animals, and human health about the potential harmful effects of such chemicals. In 1972, the Environmental Protection Agency banned the chemical in the USA. DDT and its metabolite DDE are lipid soluble compounds that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body in adipose tissue at levels far higher than those in blood and breast milk. This paper evaluates the possibility of cancer occurring in humans from DDT exposure. Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue. On the basis of on epidemiological principles, human studies were deficient in adequate sample sizes and were not exempt from such confounding factors as multiple chemical exposure, lifestyle factors, genetic, and other environmental influences. Extrapolation of data on DDT toxicity from animals to humans has limitations. With the persistence of DDT and DDE in the environment, the potential risk to the health of man, animals, and the environment remains.

  5. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  6. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  7. Reducing Farmworker Residential Pesticide Exposure: Evaluation of a Lay Health Advisor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Marín, Antonio; Snively, Beverly M.; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of a promotora program for teaching women in Latino farmworker families about pesticide safety and increasing pesticide safety behaviors. Volunteer promotoras delivered a pesticide safety curriculum (intervention) and nutrition curriculum (control) to farmworker women residing in western North Carolina and Virginia. Pre- and post-intervention interviews assessed differences in delivery of the intervention, recognition of the intervention, pesticide knowledge, pesticide exposures behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly more receipt of pesticide education and greater recognition of the key messages. However, their knowledge, pesticide exposure behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors did not change. A more structured program is needed to be sure that the dose of interventions is large enough to overcome educational and cultural characteristics of immigrant communities. Policy changes are needed to address circumstances outside of farmworkers’ control that affect pesticide exposure. PMID:18287581

  8. Reducing farmworker residential pesticide exposure: evaluation of a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Marín, Antonio; Snively, Beverly M; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Quandt, Sara A

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of a promotora program for teaching women in Latino farmworker families about pesticide safety and increasing pesticide safety behaviors. Volunteer promotoras delivered a pesticide safety curriculum (intervention) and nutrition curriculum (control) to farmworker women residing in western North Carolina and Virginia. Pre-and postintervention interviews assessed differences in delivery of the intervention, recognition of the intervention, pesticide knowledge, pesticide exposures behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly more receipt of pesticide education and greater recognition of the key messages. However, their knowledge, pesticide exposure behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors did not change. A more structured program is needed to be sure that the dose of interventions is large enough to overcome educational and cultural characteristics of immigrant communities. Policy changes are needed to address circumstances outside of farmworkers' control that affect pesticide exposure.

  9. Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodologic Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Barr, Dana B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; McCauley, Linda; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Robson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families to agricultural and residential pesticides is a continuing public health concern. Pesticide exposure research has been spurred on by the development of sensitive and reliable laboratory techniques that allow the detection of minute amounts of pesticides or pesticide metabolites. The power of research on farmworker pesticide exposure has been limited because of variability in the collection of exposure data, the predictors of exposure considered, the laboratory procedures used in analyzing the exposure, and the measurement of exposure. The Farmworker Pesticide Exposure Comparable Data Conference assembled 25 scientists from diverse disciplinary and organizational backgrounds to develop methodologic consensus in four areas of farmworker pesticide exposure research: environmental exposure assessment, biomarkers, personal and occupational predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure. In this introduction to this mini-monograph, first, we present the rationale for the conference and its organization. Second, we discuss some of the important challenges in conducting farmworker pesticide research, including the definition and size of the farmworker population, problems in communication and access, and the organization of agricultural work. Third, we summarize major findings from each of the conference’s four foci—environmental exposure assessment, biomonitoring, predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure—as well as important laboratory and statistical analysis issues that cross-cut the four foci. PMID:16759996

  10. FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

  11. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  12. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  13. EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES BY MEDIUM AND ROUTE: THE 90TH PERCENTILE AND RELATED UNCERTAINTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates distributions of exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon using the database generated in the state of Arizona by the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS-AZ). Exposure to pesticide and associated uncertainties are estimated using probabilistic...

  14. FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

  15. EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES BY MEDIUM AND ROUTE: THE 90TH PERCENTILE AND RELATED UNCERTAINTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates distributions of exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon using the database generated in the state of Arizona by the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS-AZ). Exposure to pesticide and associated uncertainties are estimated using probabilistic...

  16. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  17. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  18. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  19. Prostate Cancer and Pesticide Exposure in Diverse Populations in California’s Central Valley

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    missing pesticide exposure data (1970-99 versus other times) • Consider specific impacts of missing data from migrant populations (we know where the...pesticide exposure and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Epidemiology., 1997. 146(12): p. 1025-36. 14. Garcia, A.M., Occupational exposure to

  20. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  1. Comparison of residents' pesticide exposure with predictions obtained using the UK regulatory exposure assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-11-01

    The UK regulatory methods currently used for estimating residents' potential pesticide exposure were assessed to determine whether they provide sufficiently conservative estimates. A non-random sample of 149 residents living within 100 m of fields where pesticides were sprayed provided first morning void urine samples one and/or two days after spraying. Using farmers' spray information, regulatory exposure assessment (REA) models were applied to estimate potential pesticide intake among residents, with a toxicokinetic (TK) model used to estimate urinary biomarker concentrations in the mornings of the two days following the spray. These were compared with actual measured urinary biomarker concentrations obtained following the spray applications. The study focused on five pesticides (cypermethrin, penconazole, captan, chlorpyrifos and chlormequat). All measured cypermethrin urinary biomarker levels were lower than the REA-predicted concentrations. Over 98% and 97% of the measured urinary biomarker concentrations for penconazole and captan respectively were lower than the REA-predicted exposures. Although a number of the chlorpyrifos and chlormequat spray-related urinary biomarker concentrations were greater than the predictions, investigation of the background urinary biomarker concentrations suggests these were not significantly different from the levels expected had no pesticide spraying occurred. The majority of measured concentrations being well below the REA-predicted concentrations indicate that, in these cases, the REA is sufficiently conservative.

  2. Exposure of Delta Smelt to dissolved pesticides in 1998 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, G. Edward; Kuivila, Kathryn; Ruhl, Catherine A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews delta smelt habitat and early life stages followed by an explanation of the study design for assessing pesticide exposure. Results show the co-occurrence of multiple pesticides and delta smelt in their native habitat; these results are presented within the context of possible toxic effects to delta smelt. Finally, the annual variability of pesticide distributions is discussed.

  3. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  4. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  5. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  6. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  7. Lifetime and Current Pesticide Exposure among Latino Farmworkers in Comparison to Other Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W.; Holbrook, Lourdes Carrillo; Walker, Francis O.; Chen, Haiying; Howard, Timothy D.; Galván, Leonardo; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure poses a health risk for farmworkers. This analysis documents lifetime and current pesticide exposure of North Carolina Latino migrant farmworkers, with comparison to non-farmworker Latino immigrants. Methods During May–October 2012, 235 Latino farmworkers and 212 Latino non-farmworkers completed interviews with items to construct measures of lifetime, current residential and occupational pesticide exposure. Results Farmworkers experience levels of lifetime and residential pesticide exposure that are consistently greater than among non-farmworkers. Farmworkers report a large number of occupational pesticide exposures. Lifetime exposure and current residential pesticide exposure are related to social determinants. Education is inversely related to lifetime pesticide exposure for farmworkers and non-farmworkers; farmworkers with H-2A visas report greater residential pesticide exposure than those without H-2A visas. Conclusions Occupational safety policy needs to consider these patterns of lifetime exposure when setting standards. Health care providers should be aware of the lifetime and current exposure of this vulnerable population. PMID:24737498

  8. Lifetime and current pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers in comparison to other Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W; Holbrook, Lourdes Carrillo; Walker, Francis O; Chen, Haiying; Howard, Timothy D; Galván, Leonardo; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-07-01

    Pesticide exposure poses a health risk for farmworkers. This analysis documents lifetime and current pesticide exposure of North Carolina Latino migrant farmworkers, with comparison to non-farmworker Latino immigrants. During May to October 2012, 235 Latino farmworkers and 212 Latino non-farmworkers completed interviews with items to construct measures of lifetime, current residential and occupational pesticide exposure. Farmworkers experience levels of lifetime and residential pesticide exposure that are consistently greater than among non-farmworkers. Farmworkers report a large number of occupational pesticide exposures. Lifetime exposure and current residential pesticide exposure are related to social determinants. Education is inversely related to lifetime pesticide exposure for farmworkers and non-farmworkers; farmworkers with H-2A visas report greater residential pesticide exposure than those without H-2A visas. Occupational safety policy needs to consider these patterns of lifetime exposure when setting standards. Health care providers should be aware of the lifetime and current exposure of this vulnerable population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Farm Family Exposure Study: methods and recruitment practices for a biomonitoring study of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth A; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jack S; Acquavella, John F; Honeycutt, Richard; Chapman, Pamela

    2005-11-01

    The Farm Family Exposure Study was initiated to characterize pesticide exposure to farm family members around the time of one pesticide application in a manner that will facilitate exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of pesticides. A sample of farm families with children was recruited by randomly selecting farmers from lists of licensed pesticide applicators in Minnesota and South Carolina. Eligible families were selected from among those who planned to apply one of three chemicals, glyphosate, 2,4-D, or chlorpyrifos, as part of their normal operations. The applicator, spouse, and all children in the family ages 4-17 years were included in the study. The applicator and spouse completed self-administered questionnaires addressing demographics, farming practices and potential exposures to them and their children. Field observers documented the application, recorded application practices, equipment, potential exposures, and the presence of children or spouses in the immediate vicinity of pesticide activities. All study participants were asked to collect each urine void for 5 days, 1 day before through 3 days after the application. Pesticides were measured in 24-h composite urine samples with a one part per billion limit of detection. Of 11,164 applicators screened, 994 families met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 95 families were enrolled. Enrollees were similar in most characteristics to their peers who were not participants in the study. In total, there were 106 applications, 10 of which involved more than one chemical. This resulted in urinary data for 48 farmers and spouses and their 79 children for glyphosate, 34 farmers and spouses and their 50 children for chlorpyrifos, and 34 farmers and spouses and their 53 children for 2,4-D. Compliance with the 24-h urine collection was particularly good for the adult participants. There were more missing samples for children than for adults, but overall compliance was high. The Farm Family Exposure Study should

  10. Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence about the influence of chemical exposures on specific molecular systems and mechanisms involved in cognitive and mental function. Evidence is also emerging about the negative impact of these chemical exposures on mental health, including depression, suicide, and other risks. Despite the growing appreciation of these factors, however, little attention has been paid to the ethical and social implications of their interactions. Drawing on recent work that argues for an environmental neuroethics approach that explicitly brings together ethics, environment, and conditions of the central nervous system, this article focuses on these critical issues for pesticides specifically.

  11. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  12. Inferring past pesticide exposures: a matrix of individual active ingredients in home and garden pesticides used in past decades.

    PubMed

    Colt, Joanne S; Cyr, Mancer J; Zahm, Shelia H; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Hartge, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    In retrospective studies of the health effects of home and garden pesticides, self-reported information typically forms the basis for exposure assessment. Study participants generally find it easier to remember the types of pests treated than the specific pesticides used. However, if the goal of the study is to assess disease risk from specific chemicals, the investigator must be able to link the pest type treated with specific chemicals or products. Our goal was to develop a "pesticide-exposure matrix" that would list active ingredients on the market for treating different types of pests in past years, and provide an estimate of the probability that each active ingredient was used. We used several different methods for deriving the active ingredient lists and estimating the probabilities. These methods are described in this article, along with a sample calculation and data sources for each. The pesticide-exposure matrix lists active ingredients and their probabilities of use for 96 distinct scenarios defined by year (1976, 1980, 1990, 2000), applicator type (consumer, professional), and pest type (12 categories). Calculations and data sources for all 96 scenarios are provided online. Although we are confident that the active ingredient lists are reasonably accurate for most scenarios, we acknowledge possible sources of error in the probability estimates. Despite these limitations, the pesticide-exposure matrix should provide valuable information to researchers interested in the chronic health effects of residential pesticide exposure.

  13. DESIGN STRATEGY FOR ASSESSING MULTI-PATHWAY EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN: THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a popu...

  14. DESIGN STRATEGY FOR ASSESSING MULTI-PATHWAY EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN: THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a popu...

  15. Pesticide exposure and screen-positive neuropsychiatric disease in British sheep farmers.

    PubMed

    Povey, Andrew C; McNamee, Roseanne; Alhamwi, Haytham; Stocks, S Jill; Watkins, Gillian; Burns, Alistair; Agius, Raymond

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence linking low dose pesticide exposure and chronic ill-health in UK sheep farmers is limited. Our aim was to examine whether neuropsychiatric disorders were associated with low dose chronic and/or more acute pesticide exposure in sheep farmers. A cohort of British farmers working in the 1970s was sent a screening questionnaire which asked about their health and work history. The prevalence of screen-positive depression, dementia, Parkinsonism and neuropathy was determined using a priori algorithms. Self-reported pesticide exposure was assessed by whether the participant had ever handled the pesticide concentrate (for low dose chronic exposure) or sought advice for pesticide poisoning (acute exposure) and participants categorised into those with only acute or chronic exposure, those with both acute and chronic exposure and those with neither acute nor chronic exposure. Associations between acute and chronic pesticide exposure, and screen-positive ill-health were determined after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, occupation and somatic severity scores and other variables. In those participants, who had never sought advice for pesticide poisoning, handling the pesticide concentrate for treating sheep was associated with elevated ORs for screen-positive neuropathy (ORadi 1.57 95%CI 0.97-2.54) and Parkinsonism (ORadj 1.56 95%CI 0.95-2.56) but not depression or dementia. In those participants who had handled the pesticide concentrate, seeking advice for pesticide poisoning was associated with screen-positive depression (Odds ratio, ORadj=9.97 95%CI 4.76-20.8 ), dementia (OR=6.94 95%CI 3.44-14.0), Parkinsonism (ORadj=4.77 95% 2.39-9.52), and neuropathy (ORadj=4.77 95%CI 2.39-9.52). Adjustment for somatic severity score modified little the associations with pesticide handling in those not acutely exposed but reduced the ORs for seeking advice for pesticide poisoning in those exposed chronically. Furthermore, stratification of results based upon

  16. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  17. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  18. Analysis of pesticide exposure and DNA damage in immigrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nazar Stewart, Valle; Kisby, Glen

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the Comet assay has been used increasingly in studies of workers potentially exposed to genotoxic substances in the workplace or environment. Significant increases in DNA damage measured with the Comet assay has been reported in lymphocytes of agricultural workers; however, less intrusive means of biomonitoring are needed in epidemiological investigations. This study was designed to use the Comet assay to describe the association of markers of DNA damage in oral leukocytes with biomarkers of pesticide exposure in 134 farmworkers working in berry crops in Oregon compared to control populations. The authors also examined the extent of DNA damage in young workers compared to adults and the effect of work histories, lifestyle factors, and diet on markers of DNA damage. Urinary levels of organophosphate pesticides were low at the time of sampling; however, mean levels of the Captan metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) were found to be shifted significantly higher in the farmworkers (0.14 microg/ml) compared to controls (0.078 microg/ml) (one-sided p value=.01). Likewise, the combined molar equivalent of all dialkylphosphate metabolites was marginally higher in farmworkers (p value=.05). The mean tail intensity was significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to controls (one-sided p value<.001), indicating more DNA damage in the oral leukocytes. On average, the mean tail intensity was 10.9 units greater for agricultural workers (95% CI: 6-16 units greater). Tail moment was also significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to nonagricultural workers (one-sided p value<.001). No Comet parameter was significantly associated with years spent working in agriculture, age, sex, body mass index, diet, and alcohol or tobacco use. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility for using the Comet assay in biomonitoring studies of farmworkers. Additional studies are needed to examine the effects of different pesticide types on

  19. Prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Settimi, Laura; Masina, Alceste; Andrion, Alberto; Axelson, Olav

    2003-04-20

    Our study evaluates the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings in Italy. The data were derived from a hospital-based multi-site case-control study carried out in 5 rural areas between 1990-92. In our study, 124 new cases of prostate cancer were ascertained and interviewed, along with 659 cancer controls. A team of agronomists assessed past exposure to pesticides by using a checklist of 100 chemical families and 217 compounds applied from 1950-85 in the areas considered. The association between prostate cancer and different occupational risk factors was measured by maximum likelihood estimation of the odds ratio, controlling for potential confounders. "Ever been employed in agriculture" was associated with a 40% increased risk (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9-2.0). Prostate cancer was also related positively to food and tobacco (OR= 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.1), and chemical products (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.7-7.2) industries. The analyses carried out to estimate the association between different types of pesticides and prostate cancer showed increased risks among farmers exposed to organochlorine insecticides and acaricides (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.2), more specifically to the often contemporary used compounds DDT (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8), and dicofol (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5-5.0), whose effects could not be well separated. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  1. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  2. Assessing potential exposure of birds to pesticide-treated seeds.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Phil; Hart, A D M

    2005-10-01

    Seed treatments are widely used for crop protection and present a particular risk to granivorous birds. UK risk assessment for seed treatments has tended to focus on highly granivorous species; however, under some conditions, non-granivorous birds will take seeds. Better data is needed on which species eat seeds for which pesticide treatments are used. To identify which species will take and eat a range of crop seeds in common usage in the UK, birds visiting bait stations at which untreated seed was presented were video recorded. Information was also obtained on how much seed is taken by individual birds. The seeds tested were wheat, barley, maize, oilseed rape, grass, peas and pelleted sugar beet. For many of the species observed at the bait stations, the amounts of seed consumed during single visits were sufficient to pose a potential risk (toxicity-exposure ratio < 10) if the seed had been treated with one of the more acutely toxic seed treatments. Previous studies have shown that de-husking of seeds can substantially reduce birds' exposure. This paper provides information on which of the species recorded de-husked which seeds, in field conditions. The use of these data in pesticide risk assessment is considered.

  3. A task-based assessment of parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gunier, Robert B; Kang, Alice; Hammond, S Katharine; Reinier, Kyndaron; Lea, C Suzanne; Chang, Jeffrey S; Does, Monique; Scelo, Ghislaine; Kirsch, Janice; Crouse, Vonda; Cooper, Robert; Quinlan, Patricia; Metayer, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators. We compared this method to (1) partial JM using job titles and a brief description, but without completing the task-based questionnaire, and (2) job exposure matrix (JEM) linking job titles to the International Standard Classifications of Occupation Codes. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ALL cancer risk and pesticide exposure adjusting for child's sex, age, race/ethnicity and household income. Compared to complete JMs, partial JMs and JEM led to 3.1% and 9.4% of parents with pesticide exposure misclassified, respectively. Misclassification was similar in cases and controls. Using complete JMs, we observed an increased risk of ALL for paternal occupational exposure to any pesticides (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2, 2.5), with higher risks reported for pesticides to treat nut crops (OR=4.5; 95% CI=0.9, 23.0), and for children diagnosed before five years of age (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Exposure misclassification from JEM attenuated these associations by about 57%. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure before and after birth was not associated with ALL. The risk of ALL was elevated in young children with paternal occupational pesticide exposure during the perinatal period, using more detailed occupational information for exposure classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of stage-specific acute pesticide exposure on predicted population structure of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S.; Chasse, J.; Butler, R.A.; Morrill, W.; Van Beneden, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A combined laboratory and modeling approach was used to assess the impact of selected pesticides on early life stages of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. Clams were exposed for 24 h as veligers or pediveligers to the broad-spectrum herbicide hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1h,3h)-dione; (Velpar®)], the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Agway® Super BK 32), or phosmet (Imidan®). In addition, juvenile clams were exposed for 24 h to 2,4-D and their growth monitored for 21 months. Laboratory experiments indicated veligers were more sensitive to acute pesticide exposure than pediveligers, with 2,4-D exposed veligers exhibiting the lowest survival among all treatments. Relative to controls, juvenile clams exposed to 0.5 ppm 2,4-D had enhanced survival following the initial 3 months of grow out. Juveniles exposed to 0.5 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm 2,4-D showed an initial growth delay relative to control clams, but at 21 months post exposure these clams were significantly larger than control clams. Data from the larval and juvenile exposures were used to generate a stage-specific matrix model to predict the effect of pesticide exposure on clam populations. Impacts on simulated clam populations varied with the pesticide and stage exposed. For example, 2,4-D exposure of veligers and pediveligers significantly reduced predicted recruitment as well as population growth rate compared to controls, but juvenile exposure to 2,4-D did not significantly reduce population growth rate. With the exception of veligers exposed to 10 ppm, hexazinone exposure at the both veliger and pediveliger stages significantly reduced predicted recruitment success compared to 0 ppm controls. Hexazinone exposure also reduced modeled population growth rates, but these reductions were only slight in the pediveliger exposure simulations. Veliger and pediveliger exposure to phosmet reduced modeled population growth rate in a dose

  5. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  6. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers (Review).

    PubMed

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  7. Mechanistic modeling of pesticide exposure: The missing keystone of honey bee toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sponsler, Douglas B; Johnson, Reed M

    2017-04-01

    The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. The authors submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: 1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees, and 2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers. The acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees must be understood as the spatiotemporal intersection between environmental contamination and honey bee foraging activity. This implies that exposure is distributional, not discrete, and that a subset of foragers may acquire harmful doses of pesticide while the mean colony exposure would appear safe. The in-hive distribution of pesticide is a complex process driven principally by food transfer interactions between colony members, and this process differs importantly between pollen and nectar. High priority should be placed on applying the extensive literature on honey bee biology to the development of more rigorously mechanistic models of honey bee pesticide exposure. In combination with mechanistic effects modeling, mechanistic exposure modeling has the potential to integrate the field of honey bee toxicology, advancing both risk assessment and basic research. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:871-881. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Prostate Cancer and Pesticide Exposure in Diverse Populations in California’s Central Valley

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Consider specific impacts of missing data from migrant populations (we know where the people missing pesticide exposure lived) E. CONCLUSION...et al., Male pesticide exposure and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Epidemiology., 1997. 146(12): p. 1025-36. 14. Garcia, A.M., Occupational

  9. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  10. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  11. Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Linda A.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Higgins, Gregory; Rothlein, Joan; Muniz, Juan; Ebbert, Caren; Phillips, Jacki

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of pesticide exposure in 96 homes of migrant Latino farmworkers with preschool children found the most frequent pesticide residue to be azinphos-methyl (AZM). AZM levels in farmworker homes were related to distance from fields and number of resident agricultural workers. Children's play areas had potential for disproportionate exposure.…

  12. Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Linda A.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Higgins, Gregory; Rothlein, Joan; Muniz, Juan; Ebbert, Caren; Phillips, Jacki

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of pesticide exposure in 96 homes of migrant Latino farmworkers with preschool children found the most frequent pesticide residue to be azinphos-methyl (AZM). AZM levels in farmworker homes were related to distance from fields and number of resident agricultural workers. Children's play areas had potential for disproportionate exposure.…

  13. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  14. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  15. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  16. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  17. High pesticide exposure events and DNA methylation among pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study.

    PubMed

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bonner, Matthew R; Alexander, Melannie; Chen, Ligong; Andreotti, Gabriella; Barry, Kathryn H; Moore, Lee E; Byun, Hyang-Min; Kamel, Freya; Alavanja, Michael; Hoppin, Jane A; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide exposure has been associated with acute and chronic adverse health effects. DNA methylation (DNAm) may mediate these effects. We evaluated the association between experiencing unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) and DNAm among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective study of applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. DNA was extracted from whole blood from male AHS pesticide applicators (n = 695). Questionnaire data were used to ascertain the occurrence of HPEEs over the participant's lifetime. Pyrosequencing was used to quantify DNAm in CDH1, GSTp1, and MGMT promoters, and in the repetitive element, LINE-1. Linear and robust regression analyses evaluated adjusted associations between HPEE and DNAm. Ever having an HPEE (n = 142; 24%) was associated with elevated DNAm in the GSTp1 promoter at CpG7 (chr11:67,351,134; P < 0.01) and for the mean across the CpGs measured in the GSTp1 promoter (P < 0.01). In stratified analyses, elevated GSTP1 promoter DNAm associated with HPEE was more pronounced among applicators >59 years and those with plasma folate levels ≤16.56 ng/mL (p-interaction <0.01); HPEE was associated with reduced MGMT promoter DNAm at CpG2 (chr10:131,265,803; P = 0.03), CpG3 (chr10:131,265,810; P = 0.05), and the mean across CpGs measured in the MGMT promoter (P = 0.03) among applicators >59 years and reduced LINE-1 DNAm (P = 0.05) among applicators with ≤16.56 ng/mL plasma folate. Non-specific HPEEs may contribute to increased DNAm in GSTp1, and in some groups, reduced DNAm in MGMT and LINE-1. The impacts of these alterations on disease development are unclear, but elevated GSTp1 promoter DNAm and subsequent gene inactivation has been consistently associated with prostate cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  19. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  20. RELIABILITY OF BIOMARKERS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN CTEPP OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarkers offer the potential for providing an efficient tool for exposure classification by reflecting the aggregate of all exposure routes. Substantial variability observed in urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations over short periods of time, however, has cast so...

  1. RELIABILITY OF BIOMARKERS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN CTEPP OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarkers offer the potential for providing an efficient tool for exposure classification by reflecting the aggregate of all exposure routes. Substantial variability observed in urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations over short periods of time, however, has cast so...

  2. Immediate and lag effects of pesticide exposure on parasite resistance in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-01-11

    Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. Northern leopard frogs exposed to 1 mg L-1 of carbaryl had 61% higher parasite loads compared with unexposed individuals, while there was no immediate effect of carbaryl on parasite encystment in American toads. However, when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl and moved to freshwater for 14 days before the parasite challenge, we recovered 37 and 63% more parasites from carbaryl-exposed northern leopard frogs and American toads, respectively, compared with the control. No effects on clearance were found for either species. Collectively, our results suggest that pesticide exposure can reduce the ability of amphibians to resist parasite infections and that these effects can persist weeks following exposure. It is critical for researchers to incorporate species interactions into toxicity studies to improve our understanding of how contaminants affect ecological communities.

  3. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  4. Determining the probability of pesticide exposures among migrant farmworkers: results from a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ward, M H; Prince, J R; Stewart, P A; Zahm, S H

    2001-11-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are exposed to pesticides through their work with crops and livestock. Because workers are usually unaware of the pesticides applied, specific pesticide exposures cannot be determined by interviews. We conducted a study to determine the feasibility of identifying probable pesticide exposures based on work histories. The study included 162 farm workers in seven states. Interviewers obtained a lifetime work history including the crops, tasks, months, and locations worked. We investigated the availability of survey data on pesticide use for crops and livestock in the seven pilot states. Probabilities of use for pesticide types (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) and specific chemicals were calculated from the available data for two farm workers. The work histories were chosen to illustrate how the quality of the pesticide use information varied across crops, states, and years. For most vegetable and fruit crops there were regional pesticide use data in the late 1970s, no data in the 1980s, and state-specific data every other year in the 1990s. Annual use surveys for cotton and potatoes began in the late 1980s. For a few crops, including asparagus, broccoli, lettuce, strawberries, plums, and Christmas trees, there were no federal data or data from the seven states before the 1990s. We conclude that identifying probable pesticide exposures is feasible in some locations. However, the lack of pesticide use data before the 1990s for many crops will limit the quality of historic exposure assessment for most workers. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST PLAN TO VERIFY PESTICIDE DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable research has taken place in recent years to determine the sources, pathways, and exposure to the environment from airborne pesticide spray which can often drift off target at the time of spray application. Verification of the effectiveness of pesticide spray drift r...

  6. Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Mukherjee, Sayali; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Siddique, Shabana; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The impact of long term exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) pesticides on the respiratory health of agricultural workers in India was investigated. Three hundred and seventy-six nonsmoking agricultural workers (median age 41 yr) from eastern India who sprayed OP and C pesticides in the field and 348 age- and sex-matched control subjects with non-agricultural occupations from the same locality were enrolled. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was obtained by questionnaire survey, and pulmonary function tests were carried out by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was diagnosed by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was measured by the Ellman method. Agricultural workers had greater prevalences of upper and lower respiratory symptoms, and appreciable reduction in spirometric measurements. Overall, lung function reduction was noted in 48.9% of agricultural workers compared with 22.7% of control, and a restrictive type of deficit was predominant. COPD was diagnosed in 10.9% of agricultural workers compared with 3.4% of controls (p<0.05 in chi(2) test), and the severity of the disease was greater in agricultural workers. Red blood cell (RBC) AChE was lowered by 34.2% in agricultural workers, and the fall in AChE level was positively associated with respiratory symptoms, lung function decrement and COPD after controlling for education and income as potential confounders. Long-term exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting agricultural pesticides currently in use in India is associated with a reduction in lung function, COPD and a rise in respiratory symptoms.

  7. The role of diet in children's exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Holme, Francesca; Thompson, Beti; Holte, Sarah; Vigoren, Eric M; Espinoza, Noah; Ulrich, Angela; Griffith, William; Faustman, Elaine M

    2016-05-01

    Studies suggest that some of the greatest exposure to OPs in children occurs in agricultural communities and various pathways of exposure including the take-home pathway, proximity to orchards, and diet have been explored. However, the importance of the dietary pathway of exposure for children in agricultural communities is not well understood. Our goal was to ascertain whether there were associations between measures of OP exposure and apple juice, fruit, and vegetable consumption across growing seasons by children of farmworkers and non-farmworkers in a rural agricultural setting. Study participants were children of farmworker (N=100) or non-farmworker (N=100) households from a longitudinal cohort study. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using a "5-A-Day" abbreviated food frequency questionnaire, and exposure to OPs was characterized using three urinary di-methyl and three di-ethyl metabolite measurements per child for each of three growing seasons. We used generalized estimating equations to examine data. Consumption frequency of fruits and vegetables was similar between children of farmworkers and non-farmworkers and across seasons. There were a few significant trends between dimethyl metabolites (DMAP) and fruit, vegetable or apple juice consumption; however, no clear pattern held across seasons or occupation. One difference was found in vegetable consumption during the harvest season, where the farmworker families showed a significant relationship between vegetable consumption and dimethyl metabolite levels (p=0.002). We also found a significant difference in this relationship between farmworkers and non-farmworkers (p=0.001). No significant trends between fruit and vegetable consumption and diethyl (DEAP) metabolites were found. Our study shows the importance of considering season and parents' occupation in understanding OP exposure routes among children in an agricultural community. The impact of these factors on dietary OP exposure

  8. The role of diet in children's exposure to organophosphate pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Francesca; Thompson, Beti; Holte, Sarah; Vigoren, Eric M.; Espinoza, Noah; Ulrich, Angela; Griffith, William; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    . The impact of these factors on dietary OP exposure requires a more thorough analysis of the availability and consumption of produce from different sources including farms using pesticides where parents worked. PMID:26870919

  9. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  10. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. Objective To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Methods Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Results Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual–spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Conclusions Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected. PMID:27128815

  11. Long- and short-term health effects of pesticide exposure: a cohort study from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifa; Huang, Xusheng; Huang, Jikun; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are extensively used by farmers in China. However, the effects of pesticides on farmers' health have not yet been systematically studied. This study evaluated the effects of pesticides exposure on hematological and neurological indicators over 3 years and 10 days respectively. A cohort of 246 farmers was randomly selected from 3 provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hebei) in China. Two rounds of health investigations, including blood tests and neurological examinations, were conducted by medical doctors before and after the crop season in 2012. The data on pesticide use in 2009-2011 were collected retrospectively via face-to-face interviews and the 2012 data were collected from personal records maintained by participants prospectively. Ordinary least square (OLS), Probit, and fixed effect models were used to evaluate the relationship between pesticides exposure frequency and the health indicators. Long-term pesticide exposure was found to be associated with increased abnormality of nerve conductions, especially in sensory nerves. It also affected a wide spectrum of health indicators based on blood tests and decreased the tibial nerve compound muscle action potential amplitudes. Short-term health effects included alterations in complete blood count, hepatic and renal functions, and nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes. However, these effects could not be detected after 3 days following pesticide exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure adversely affects blood cells, the liver, and the peripheral nervous system. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific effects of each pesticide and the mechanisms of these effects.

  12. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  13. Effect of Simultaneous Amphibian Exposure to Pesticides and an Emerging Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Devin K; Dang, Trang D; Urbina, Jenny; Bendis, Randall J; Buck, Julia C; Cothran, Rickey D; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-03

    Amphibian declines have been linked to numerous factors, including pesticide use and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Moreover, research has suggested a link between amphibian sensitivity to Bd and pesticide exposure. We simultaneously exposed postmetamorphic American toads (Anaxyrus americanus), western toads (A. boreas), spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), Pacific treefrogs (P. regilla), leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), and Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) to a factorial combination of two pathogen treatments (Bd(+), Bd(-)) and four pesticide treatments (control, ethanol vehicle, herbicide mixture, and insecticide mixture) for 14 d to quantify survival and infection load. We found no interactive effects of pesticides and Bd on anuran survival and no effects of pesticides on infection load. Mortality following Bd exposure increased in spring peepers and American toads and was dependent upon snout-vent length in western toads, American toads, and Pacific treefrogs. Previous studies reported effects of early sublethal pesticide exposure on amphibian Bd sensitivity and infection load at later life stages, but we found simultaneous exposure to sublethal pesticide concentrations and Bd had no such effect on postmetamorphic juvenile anurans. Future research investigating complex interactions between pesticides and Bd should employ a variety of pesticide formulations and Bd strains and follow the effects of exposure throughout ontogeny.

  14. Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) derived estimates of life-time occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Studies that report an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occupational pesticide exposure often use self-reported exposure and none adjust for concomitant ambient pesticide exposure. For a population-based case-control study of PD conducted in California’s heavily agricultural region we developed a comprehensive Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to pesticides. Relying on 357 incident cases and 750 population controls enrolled between 2001 to 2011 we estimated more than a two-fold risk increase for PD among men classified as highly occupationally exposed. We also observed an exposure-response pattern and farming tasks with direct and intense pesticide exposures such as spraying and handling of pesticides resulted in greater risks than indirect by-stander exposures. Results did not change after adjustment for ambient pesticide exposure. We provide further evidence that occupational pesticide exposure increases the risk of PD. PMID:24499252

  15. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  16. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  17. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover

  18. Human Oral Buccal Microbiomes Are Associated with Farmworker Status and Azinphos-Methyl Agricultural Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stanaway, Ian B.; Wallace, James C.; Shojaie, Ali; Griffith, William C.; Hong, Sungwoo; Wilder, Carly S.; Green, Foad H.; Tsai, Jesse; Knight, Misty; Workman, Tomomi; Vigoren, Eric M.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Beti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a longitudinal agricultural community cohort sampling of 65 adult farmworkers and 52 adult nonfarmworkers, we investigated agricultural pesticide exposure-associated changes in the oral buccal microbiota. We found a seasonally persistent association between the detected blood concentration of the insecticide azinphos-methyl and the taxonomic composition of the buccal swab oral microbiome. Blood and buccal samples were collected concurrently from individual subjects in two seasons, spring/summer 2005 and winter 2006. Mass spectrometry quantified blood concentrations of the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl. Buccal oral microbiome samples were 16S rRNA gene DNA sequenced, assigned to the bacterial taxonomy, and analyzed after “centered-log-ratio” transformation to handle the compositional nature of the proportional abundances of bacteria per sample. Nonparametric analysis of the transformed microbiome data for individuals with and without azinphos-methyl blood detection showed significant perturbations in seven common bacterial taxa (>0.5% of sample mean read depth), including significant reductions in members of the common oral bacterial genus Streptococcus. Diversity in centered-log-ratio composition between individuals' microbiomes was also investigated using principal-component analysis (PCA) to reveal two primary PCA clusters of microbiome types. The spring/summer “exposed” microbiome cluster with significantly less bacterial diversity was enriched for farmworkers and contained 27 of the 30 individuals who also had azinphos-methyl agricultural pesticide exposure detected in the blood. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show in human subjects that organophosphate pesticide exposure is associated with large-scale significant alterations of the oral buccal microbiota composition, with extinctions of whole taxa suggested in some individuals. The persistence of this association from the spring/summer to the winter also suggests that long

  19. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Antonio F.; Menéndez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides) include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations) may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation). Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events. PMID:27043530

  20. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Menéndez, Pablo

    2016-03-29

    Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides) include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations) may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation). Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events.

  1. [Exposure pathways to pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía

    2014-01-01

    To describe pesticide concentrations in distinct environmental matrices at two time points (low and high seasons in local agricultural production) and to estimate the association between the presence of pesticide residues in matrices and the use of pesticides in the home with the sociodemographic variables of schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 190 schoolchildren. Families were surveyed about their children's vegetable consumption in school and at home, the use of pesticides in the home, and other sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we measured pesticide residues in vegetables and water consumed by the schoolchildren and in the soil of 14 schools. At both time points, the vegetable matrix had the highest pesticide concentration, both in urban and rural schoolchildren. The most common pesticide residues in vegetables were chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole. In the home, pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were mainly used in summer. Dangerous pesticide residues such as azinphos methyl and dimethoate were found in vegetables consumed by the children in schools and households, and organochlorines were found in the soil in some schools. Pesticide exposure should be limited and the health effects related to pesticide exposure should be assessed in the school population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Pesticide exposure and occupational safety training of indigenous farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Samples, Julie; Bergstad, Elizabeth A; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Farquhar, Stephanie Ann; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2009-11-01

    This follow-up study assessed indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational health and safety needs and measured variables related to pesticide exposure and pesticide safety training among this population. Results yielded differences between indigenous workers and Latino workers related to language barriers, experiences of workplace discrimination, preferred modes of information dissemination, pesticide exposures, and sufficiency of pesticide training. Employing more people who speak indigenous languages as interpreters, community and organizational leaders, and health workers may remove some of the linguistic and cultural barriers to occupational safety training.

  3. Using GIS and historical records to reconstruct residential exposure to large-scale pesticide application.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Vorhees, Donna J; Melly, Steven J; Swedis, Susan R; Drivas, Peter J; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of pesticide impacts on human health depends on good measures of exposure. Historical exposure data are needed to study health outcomes, such as cancer, that involve long latency periods, and other outcomes that are a function of the timing of exposure. Environmental or biological samples collected at the time of epidemiologic study may not represent historical exposure levels. To study the relationship between residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, historical records of pesticide use were integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate exposures from large-scale pesticide applications between 1948 and 1995. Information on pesticide use for gypsy moth and other tree/vegetative pest control, cranberry bog cultivation, other agriculture, mosquito control, recreational turf management, and rights-of-way maintenance is included in the database. Residents living within or near pesticide use areas may be exposed through inhalation due to drift and volatilization and through dermal contact and ingestion at the time of application or in later years from pesticides that deposit on soil, accumulate in crops, or migrate to groundwater. Procedures were developed to use the GIS to estimate the relative intensity of past exposures at each study subject's Cape Cod addresses over the past 40 years, taking into account local meteorological data, distance and direction from a residence to a pesticide use source area, size of the source area, application by ground-based or aerial methods, and persistent or nonpersistent character of the pesticide applied. The resulting individual-level estimates of relative exposure intensity can be used in conjunction with interview data to obtain more complete exposure assessment in an epidemiologic study. While the database can improve environmental epidemiological studies involving pesticides, it simultaneously illustrates important data gaps that cannot be filled. Studies

  4. VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

  5. VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

  6. Assessment of residential environmental exposure to pesticides from agricultural fields in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Maartje; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Duyzer, Jan; Kramer, Henk; Hazeu, Gerard; de Snoo, Geert; Huss, Anke

    2017-03-22

    We developed a spatio-temporal model for the Netherlands to estimate environmental exposure to individual agricultural pesticides at the residential address for application in a national case-control study on Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on agricultural land use and pesticide use were combined to estimate environmental exposure to pesticides for the period 1961 onwards. Distance categories of 0-50 m, >50-100 m, >100-500 m and >500-1000 m around residences were considered. For illustration purposes, exposure was estimated for the control population (n=607) in the PD case-control study. In a small validation effort, model estimates were compared with pesticide measurements in air and precipitation collected at 17 stations in 2000-2001. Estimated exposure prevalence was higher for pesticides used on commonly cultivated (rotating) crops than for pesticides used on fruit and bulbs only. Prevalence increased with increasing distance considered. Moderate-to-high correlations were observed between model estimates (>100-500 m and >500-1000 m) and environmental pesticide concentrations measured in 2000-2001. Environmental exposure to individual pesticides can be estimated using relevant spatial and temporal data sets on agricultural land use and pesticide use. Our approach seems to result in accurate estimates of average environmental exposure, although it remains to be investigated to what extent this reflect personal exposure to agricultural pesticides.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 22 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.3.

  7. Children's exposure to pesticides used in homes and farms.

    PubMed

    Saller, Jeremy; Reyes, Priscilla; Maldonado, Pedro A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Byrd, Theresa L

    2007-03-01

    Commercial and residential use of pesticides is common in El Paso, Texas, especially in agricultural areas. Recently, concerns have arisen about the type of pesticides used by residents because of the ease with which methyl parathion can be obtained from the neighboring border city of Juarez in Chihuahua, Mexico. Survey data were collected regarding residents' perceptions about pesticide safety and use of pesticides, and their preferred source of health information. The authors assessed the number of respondents who were using the illegal pesticide methyl parathion, known locally as polvo de avion (airplane dust) as well as their beliefs concerning the safety and efficacy of pesticides. The study found that 88.7 percent (133 of 150) used some type of pesticide, and of these, 9.8 percent (13 of 133) reported using methyl parathion. Biological/environmental testing would be useful to assess use of methyl parathion and to determine the types of pesticides used by local farmers.

  8. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and residential proximity to nearby fields: evidence for the drift pathway.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Gloria D; Holte, Sarah; Vigoren, Eric; Griffith, William C; Barr, Dana Boyd; Faustman, Elaine; Thompson, Beti

    2011-08-01

    Residential proximity to pesticide-treated farmland is an important pesticide exposure pathway. In-person interviews and biological samples were collected from 100 farmworker and 100 non-farmworker adults and children living in Eastern Washington State. We examined the relationship of residential proximity to farmland to urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylphosphate (DMTP) and levels of pesticide residues in house dust. DMTP concentrations were higher in farmworkers than non-farmworkers (71 μg/L vs 6 μg/L) and in farmworker children than non-farmworker children (17 μg/L vs 8 μg/L). Compared to non-farmworker households, farmworker households had higher levels of azinphos-methyl (643 ng/g vs 121 ng/g) and phosmet (153 ng/g vs 50 ng/g). Overall, a 20% reduction in DMTP concentration was observed per mile increase in distance from farmland. Lower OP metabolite concentrations correlated with increasing distance from farmland.

  9. Urinary DAP metabolite levels in Thai farmers and their families and exposure to pesticides from agricultural pesticide spraying.

    PubMed

    Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Povey, Andrew; O'Brien, Sarah; de Vocht, Frank

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a biomarker study to characterise exposure to pesticides among farmers and their families in Thailand to assess the relative importance of the dermal exposure route and to identify important factors that determine exposure levels within farmers' families. Sixteen farmers' families (eight vegetable and eight fruit farmers) participated in the study. Three morning spot urine samples were collected during a pesticide spraying week. Spot samples were grouped by individual and analysed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites and creatinine. Additional information on exposure and lifestyle was collected by means of questionnaires. Dermal exposure was assessed using a semi-quantitative observational method (DREAM). Urinary DAP levels varied 20-fold between farmers, with average (geometric mean) levels of 51.1 μg/g for vegetable and 122.2 μg/g for fruit farmers. A moderate correlation (r(s)∼0.45) was found between log(e)-transformed DREAM scores and DAP levels. Farmers' urinary metabolite levels were not correlated with those of their spouses (r(s)∼-0.30) or children (r(s)∼-0.00) collected on the same days. Detectable spouses' DAP levels were on average (geometric mean) 13.0 μg/g and those of children 7.6 μg/g. Farmers in Thailand as well as their families are exposed to pesticides in the spraying season and dermal exposure is an important route. The main route of exposure for farmers' families seems to be through transfer from the farmer to family members or contamination of the home environment, rather than family members helping or playing on the farm. Showering or washing immediately after pesticide spraying greatly reduces the potential exposure of family members to pesticide residues.

  10. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  11. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ROW AND FIELD CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV program generic verification protocol was prepared and reviewed for the Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies project. The protocol provides a detailed methodology for conducting and reporting results from a verification test of pesticide drift reductio...

  12. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline?

    PubMed

    Brühl, Carsten A; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group.

  13. Pesticide exposures and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology: an epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Soares da Silva, Agnes; Wesseling, Catharina

    2017-05-23

    The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension but epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) occur in Central America, Sri Lanka, India and beyond. Althoug also being observed in women, CKDu concentrates among men in agricultural sectors. Therefore, suspicions fell initially on pesticide exposure, but currently chronic heat stress and dehydration are considered key etiologic factors. Responding to persistent community and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we performed a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that addressed associations between any indicator of pesticide exposure and any outcome measure of CKD. Of the 21 analytical studies we identified, seven were categorized as with low, ten with medium and four with relatively high explanation value. Thirteen (62%) studies reported one or more positive associations, but four had a low explanation value and three presented equivocal results. The main limitations of both positive and negative studies were unspecific and unquantified exposure measurement ('pesticides'), the cross-sectional nature of most studies, confounding and selection bias. The four studies with stronger designs and better exposure assessment (from Sri Lanka, India and USA) all showed exposure-responses or clear associations, but for different pesticides in each study, and three of these studies were conducted in areas without CKDu epidemics. No study investigated interactions between pesticides and other concommittant exposures in agricultural occupations, in particular heat stress and dehydration. In conclusion, existing studies provide scarce evidence for an association between pesticides and regional CKDu epidemics but, given the poor pesticide exposure assessment in the majority, a role of nephrotoxic agrochemicals cannot be conclusively discarded. Future research should procure assessment of lifetime exposures to relevant specific pesticides and enough power

  14. Biomonitoring of organophosphate exposure of pesticide sprayers and comparison of exposure levels with other population groups in Thessaly (Greece).

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the exposure of different population groups in Thessaly (Greece) to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and investigate the dependence of exposure levels on pesticide application practices, personal protective and hygienic measures taken. For the exposure assessment, four dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were quantified in spot urine samples of 77 pesticide sprayers, 75 residents of the studied agricultural area non-involved in agricultural activities and 112 urban residents who served as a control group. Structured questionnaires were used to record demographic characteristics, pesticide application parameters and protective measures taken. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the obtained cross-sectional data was performed to identify potential risk factors associated with biomarker levels. It was found that total DAP median level in the sprayers' group was 24.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 13.0-42.1), while the rural and urban residents had significantly lower (p<0.001) levels of 11.3 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 5.3-18.7) and 11.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 6.3-20.3), respectively. In sprayers who had recently applied an OP pesticide (n=28), the median levels of DAP metabolites were 31.8 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 22.3-117.2). Logistic regression analysis showed that the use of full body coveralls while handling and spraying pesticides was significantly associated with lower DAP levels (OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.22 to 13.46). Also, changing clothes immediately after accidental contamination of clothing with pesticide amounts was found to be significantly associated with lower exposure levels (OR 4.04, CI 1.05 to 15.57). Our study findings confirm the increased exposure to OPs in pesticide sprayers and underline the importance of protective measures especially those that focus on dermal exposure mitigation.

  15. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship of health outcomes in children living along the United States and Mexico border to repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. The present research program ...

  16. TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES FROM SURFACES TO FOODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since small children spend much of their time in contact with contaminated surfaces, residues of pesticides found on floors and other surfaces contribute to their aggregate exposures. Any dislodgeable pesticide residues on hands and surfaces may be transferred to foods while bei...

  17. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  18. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner-Crisp, P.

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  19. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  20. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  1. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship of health outcomes in children living along the United States and Mexico border to repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. The present research program ...

  2. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children's Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that im...

  3. A COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE TOXICITIES FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: NEUROTOXICITY, IMMUNOTOXICITY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NAS report (Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 1993) called for significant research effort into the long-term effects of perinatal pesticide exposure on the nervous, immune, and reproductive systems. In response, the US EPA and NIEHS collaborated on a series o...

  4. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  5. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children's Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that im...

  6. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  7. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  8. A COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE TOXICITIES FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: NEUROTOXICITY, IMMUNOTOXICITY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NAS report (Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 1993) called for significant research effort into the long-term effects of perinatal pesticide exposure on the nervous, immune, and reproductive systems. In response, the US EPA and NIEHS collaborated on a series o...

  9. Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Afonso, Noemia; Stengrevics, Aivars; Févotte, Joëlle; Sabroe, Svend; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Hardell, Lennart; Stang, Andreas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries. Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency-matched by country, 5-year age groups and sex. Self-reported exposure was quantified with respect to duration of exposure and pesticide application method. We calculated the exposure intensity level based on application method and use of personal protective equipment. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several potential confounders. 293 case and 3,198 control subjects were interviewed. We did not identify positive associations with activities in farming or forestry, pesticide application or pesticide mixing. No consistent positive associations were seen with exposure intensity level scores either. The only statistically significantly raised association in this study was for exposure to chemical fertilizers in forestry (OR = 8.93; 95% CI 1.73-42.13), but this observation was based on only six exposed subjects. Results did not change when we restricted analyses to morphologically verified cases and excluded proxy interviews as well as cancer controls. We did not observe effect modification by sex or eye color. Risk estimates for pesticide exposures and occupational activities in agriculture and forestry were not increased and did not indicate a hormonal mechanism due to these exposures.

  10. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  11. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Wilks, Martin F.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well-designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases. PMID:27600395

  12. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review).

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Wilks, Martin F; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well‑designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases.

  13. Review of take-home pesticide exposure pathway in children living in agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Carly; Laribi, Ouahiba

    2017-07-01

    Children of farmworkers may be chronically exposed to pesticides via the take-home exposure pathway. The goal of this review was to analyze scientific literature evaluating the role of the take-home pesticide exposure pathway in children of agricultural workers. A systematic review was undertaken and inclusion criteria were applied to identify original articles of interest. Of the 30 articles included in this review, some belonged to the same studies, resulting in a total of 23 studies. Eight studies assessed environmental samples, nine collected biological samples, and the remaining six analyzed both. Eleven studies compared pesticide levels between farm and non-farm families. There is convincing evidence that children of farmworkers are exposed to pesticides at higher levels than "non-agricultural" children, even when residing in the same agricultural communities. These levels were shown to depend on the season, occupation, number of farmworkers per home, and type of crops. Other factors such as age, gender and, sex seem to also influence this pathway. Some studies have shown that pesticides used solely in agriculture are found only in households of farmworkers spraying these pesticides. Moreover, intervention studies have shown that behaviors among farmworkers can significantly lower exposure of people living in the same households as farmworkers. The evidence presented here raises concerns regarding health effects associated with exposure to pesticides in children living in agricultural communities, and indicates that strategies should be developed to reduce exposures in these populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Multiple pesticide exposures and the risk of multiple myeloma in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Demers, Paul A; Blair, Aaron; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Manisha; McLaughlin, John R; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A; Harris, Shelley A

    2013-10-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has been linked to certain agricultural exposures, including pesticides. This analysis aimed to investigate the association between lifetime use of multiple pesticides and MM risk using two exposure metrics: number of pesticides used and days per year of pesticide use. A frequency-matched, population-based case-control study was conducted among men in six Canadian provinces between 1991 and 1994. Data from 342 MM cases and 1,357 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Pesticides were grouped by type, chemical class and carcinogenic potential, using a composite carcinogenic probability score. Selected individual pesticides were also examined. Regression models were adjusted for age, province of residence, use of proxy respondents, smoking and selected medical history variables. The overall pattern of results was complex. Positive trends in risk were observed for fungicides (ptrend=0.04) and pesticides classified as probably carcinogenic or higher (ptrend=0.03). Excess risks of MM were observed among men who reported using at least one carbamate pesticide (OR=1.94, 1.16-3.25), one phenoxy herbicide (OR=1.56, 1.09-2.25) and ≥3 organochlorines (OR=2.21, 1.05-4.66). Significantly higher odds of MM were seen for exposure to carbaryl (OR=2.71, 1.47-5.00) and captan (OR=2.96, 1.40-6.24). Use of mecoprop for >2 days per year was also significantly associated with MM (OR=2.15, 1.03-4.48). Focusing on multiple pesticide exposures is important because this more accurately reflects how exposures occur in occupational settings. Significant associations observed for certain chemical classes and individual pesticides suggest that these may be MM risk factors.

  15. Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis among Licensed Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Sandler, Dale P; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Parks, Christine G

    2017-07-14

    The occupation of farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); pesticides may account for this association, but there are few studies. We investigated associations between RA and use of pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study. The study sample was drawn from male pesticide applicators enrolled in 1993-1997 who provided questionnaire data at baseline and at least once during follow-up (over a median 18 y; interquartile range 16-19). Incident RA cases (), confirmed by physicians or by self-reported use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases () who did not report RA. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for enrollment age, state, smoking pack-years, and education. We evaluated the association of RA with the use of 46 pesticides and across 4 levels (never use and tertiles) of lifetime days of use for 16 pesticides with for ever use. Incident RA was associated with ever use of fonofos (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.37), carbaryl (OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.23), and chlorimuron ethyl (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.07) compared with never use. Statistically significant exposure-response trends in association with RA were observed for lifetime days of use of atrazine [ 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.40); ] and toxaphene [ 2.42 (95% CI: 1.03, 5.68); ]. Exposure-response was nonlinear for fonofos [ 2.27 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.57); 0.98 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.80); 2.10 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.36); ] and suggestive for carbaryl (). Our results provide novel evidence of associations between exposure to some pesticides and RA in male farmers. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1013.

  16. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  17. Methodologies for Estimating Cumulative Human Exposures to Current-Use Pyrethroid Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated cumulative residential pesticide exposures for a group of nine young children (4–6 years) using three different methodologies developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and compared the results with estimates derived from measured urinary metabolite concentr...

  18. Webinar Presentation: The Contribution of Diet to Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women and Children

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, The Contribution of Diet to Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women and Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  19. Organizational Statement for EPA-sponsored Public Meetings to Discuss Pesticide Exposure Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about EMPM meetings: Vision, Mission Statement, Organization, Meeting Administration and Public Meeting Attendance. Purpose is to discuss and exchange information regarding technical model-related pesticide exposure issues.

  20. Methodologies for Estimating Cumulative Human Exposures to Current-Use Pyrethroid Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated cumulative residential pesticide exposures for a group of nine young children (4–6 years) using three different methodologies developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and compared the results with estimates derived from measured urinary metabolite concentr...

  1. Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Rats After Exposure to Pesticides of Different Chemical Classes

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon...

  2. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  3. Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Rats After Exposure to Pesticides of Different Chemical Classes

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon...

  4. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli

    Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures.

  6. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... This agency determines how pesticides are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in ... al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  7. Exposure to pesticides and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Evangelos; Ntritsos, Georgios; Chondrogiorgi, Maria; Kavvoura, Fotini K; Hernández, Antonio F; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus has a multifactorial pathogenesis with a strong genetic component as well as many environmental and lifestyle influences. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental contaminants, including pesticides, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that assessed the association between exposure to pesticides and diabetes and we examined the presence of heterogeneity and biases across available studies. A comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed original research pertaining to pesticide exposure and diabetes, published until 30st May 2015, with no language restriction, was conducted. Eligible studies were those that investigated potential associations between pesticides and diabetes without restrictions on diabetes type. We included cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. We extracted information on study characteristics, type of pesticide assessed, exposure assessment, outcome definition, effect estimate and sample size. We identified 22 studies assessing the association between pesticides and diabetes. The summary OR for the association of top vs. bottom tertile of exposure to any type of pesticide and diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.32-1.90, p=1.21×10(-6)), with large heterogeneity (I(2)=66.8%). Studies evaluating Type 2 diabetes in particular (n=13 studies), showed a similar summary effect comparing top vs. bottom tertiles of exposure: 1.61 (95% CI 1.37-1.88, p=3.51×10(-9)) with no heterogeneity (I(2)=0%). Analysis by type of pesticide yielded an increased risk of diabetes for DDE, heptachlor, HCB, DDT, and trans-nonachlor or chlordane. The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests an association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  9. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Vandever, Mark W.; Smalling, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado from two land cover types: grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >10% of the samples included the insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), and imidacloprid (13%), the fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), and pyraclostrobin (11%), and the herbicide atrazine (19%). Concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 312 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m buffer influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in both grasslands and wheat fields are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  11. Comparison of International Guidelines of Dermal Absorption Tests Used in Pesticides Exposure Assessment for Operators

    PubMed Central

    So, Jaehwan; Ahn, Junyoung; Lee, Tae-Hee; Park, Kyung-Hun; Paik, Min-Kyoung; Jeong, Mihye; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    The number of farmers who have suffered from non-fatal acute pesticide poisoning has been reported to vary from 5.7% to 86.7% in South Korea since 1975. Absorption through the skin is the main route of exposure to pesticides for farmers who operate with them. Several in vitro tests using the skins of humans or animal and in vivo tests using laboratory animals are introduced for the assessment of human dermal absorption level of pesticides. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare international guidelines and strategies of dermal absorption assessments and to propose unique approaches for applications into pesticide registration process in our situation. Until present in our situation, pesticide exposure level to operator is determined just using default value of 10 as for skin absorption ratio because of data shortage. Dermal absorption tests are requested to get exposure level of pesticides and to ultimately know the safety of pesticides for operators through the comparison with the value of AOEL. When the exposure level is higher than AOEL, the pesticide cannot be approved. We reviewed the skin absorption test guidelines recommended by OECD, EFSA and EPA. The EPA recommends assessment of skin absorption of pesticides for humans through the TPA which includes all the results of in vitro human and animal and animal in vivo skin absorption studies. OECD and EFSA, employ a tiered approach, which the requirement of further study depends on the results of the former stage study. OECD guidelines accept the analysis of pesticide level absorbed through skin without radioisotope when the recovery using the non-labeled method is within 80~120%. Various factors are reviewed in this study, including the origin of skin (gender, animal species and sites of skin), thickness, temperature and, etc., which can influence the integrity of results. PMID:25584144

  12. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's exposures to pesticides and chemicals in consumer products may be different, and in some cases, higher than exposures for adults. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to gain a better understanding of children's exposures and the fac...

  13. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's exposures to pesticides and chemicals in consumer products may be different, and in some cases, higher than exposures for adults. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to gain a better understanding of children's exposures and the fac...

  14. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the app...

  15. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the app...

  16. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  17. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  18. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  19. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  20. Sampling and Analysis for Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are used extensively in the United States to control a variety of pests. Commercial agriculture and non-agricultural industries account for about 80% of the total pesticide use in the United States, while the remaining 20% is used for pest control associated with home,...

  1. Sampling and Analysis for Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are used extensively in the United States to control a variety of pests. Commercial agriculture and non-agricultural industries account for about 80% of the total pesticide use in the United States, while the remaining 20% is used for pest control associated with home,...

  2. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region.

    PubMed

    Amizadeh, Maryam; Safari-Kamalabadi, Mohammad; Askari-Saryazdi, Ghasem; Amizadeh, Marzieh; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs) are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-9.43) after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78-3.07) and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65-52.68). A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06) and larynx cancer (P=0.01). In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9-0.16.9). HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  3. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pesticides Protect the Fruit, but Not the People”: Using Community-Based Ethnography to Understand Farmworker Pesticide-Exposure Risks

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Beti; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina; King, Denae; Herrera, Angelica P.; Navarro, Bridgette

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used community-based ethnography and public health risk assessment to assess beliefs about pesticide exposure risks among farmworkers in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State. Methods. We used unstructured and semistructured interviews, work-site observation, and detailed field notes to gather data on pesticide exposure risks from 99 farmworkers. Results. Farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs and attitudes could be grouped into 5 major themes: (1) dry pesticides are often perceived as a virtually harmless powder, (2) farmworkers who identify themselves as allergic to pesticides are more acutely affected by exposure, (3) the effect of pesticide exposure is more severe for those perceived as physically weak, (4) protective equipment is used selectively in response to financial pressure to work rapidly, and (5) some farmworkers delay decontamination until they find water deemed an appropriate temperature for handwashing. Conclusions. We elucidated farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs regarding perceived danger and susceptibility to pesticides, the need to put safety second to financial considerations, and reasons for delaying decontamination. Researchers and policymakers should incorporate these data in study designs and legislation concerned with farmworker exposure to pesticides. PMID:19890166

  5. Pesticide risk perception and biomarkers of exposure in Florida female farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Jennifer D; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Economos, Eugenia; Flocks, Joan; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; McCauley, Linda

    2013-11-01

    To compare workplace characteristics, workplace behaviors, and the health beliefs of female farmworkers of childbearing age with actual biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate pesticides and to the fungicide mancozeb. Hispanic and Haitian farmworkers between the ages of 18 and 40 years working in nursery or fernery operations were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, examining demographics, work practices, work-related hygiene, and pesticide exposure beliefs. Single-void (spot) urine samples were analyzed for organophosphate and ethylenethiourea metabolites. Women in nurseries worried less frequently about the effects of pesticides on their health than those in fernery operations. In summary, organophosphate and ethylenethiourea levels in nursery workers were significantly higher than levels in fernery workers and the control group. Results showed that perceived pesticide exposure did not correspond to actual metabolite levels within differing agricultural subpopulations.

  6. Pesticide exposure and thyroid function in an agricultural population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Camila; Cremonese, Cleber; Koifman, Rosalina J; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Although numerous pesticides may interfere with thyroid function, however, epidemiological evidence supporting this relationship is limited, particularly regarding modern non-persistent pesticides. We sought to evaluate the association of agricultural work practices, use of contemporary-use pesticides, and OC pesticides residue levels in serum with circulating thyroid hormone levels in an agricultural population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 275 male and female farm residents in Farroupilha, South of Brazil. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyle and agricultural work was obtained through questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on all participants and analyzed for cholinesterase activity, serum residues of OC pesticides, and levels of free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and TSH. Non-persistent pesticides exposure assessment was based on questionnaire information on current use of pesticides, and frequency and duration of use, among others. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression models. Total lifetime years of use of fungicides, herbicides and dithiocarbamates in men was associated with increased TSH accompanied by decrease in FT4, with evidence of a linear trend. In addition, there was an association between being sampled in the high pesticide-use season and increased TSH levels. Conversely, farm work and lifetime use of all pesticides were related with slight decrease in TSH and increased TT3 and FT4, respectively. In general, pesticide use was not associated with thyroid hormones in women. Subjects with detected serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide B, γ-chlordane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethane and endosulfan II experienced slight changes in TT3; however, associations were weak and inconsistent. These findings suggest that both cumulative and recent occupational exposure to agricultural pesticides may affect the thyroid function

  7. Multiple pesticide residues in live and poisoned honeybees - Preliminary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Gaweł, Marta; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej; Pohorecka, Krystyna

    2017-02-08

    Study combines data about the exposure of honeybees to pesticides from plant protection products and veterinary medicinal products. Residues of 200 pesticide and pesticide metabolites in 343 live and 74 poisoned honeybee samples, obtained during the years of 2014-2015, were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. In 44% of live honeybee 48 different pesticide residues were found, mainly amitraz metabolites (DMF, DMPF) and chlorpyrifos. In 98% of poisoned honeybee 57 pesticides and metabolites were detected, mainly chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and clothianidin. In total 84 different pesticides were detected both in live and poisoned honeybees, they indicate 30 various modes of action. Differences between mean number of pesticide residues detected in live and poisoned honeybees clearly indicate the impact of multiple pesticides on honeybee health. Possible impact of systemic fungicides on the health of honeybees was studied. Applicability of hazard quotient counted as ratio between concentration of pesticides in honeybees and lethal dose in the interpretation whether detected concentration indicates acute toxic effects was shown.

  8. Parental exposure to pesticides and poor clutch viability in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Wiebe, Jon J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Scarborough, Janet E; Gross, Timothy S

    2007-08-01

    In central Florida, alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) produce eggs that have high OCP concentrations and low clutch viability (proportion of eggs in a clutch that yield a live hatchling) compared to those from less contaminated lakes (reference lakes). However, a clear dose-response relationship has not been established between OCPs and poor clutch viability. In order to better elucidate a cause and effect relationship between OCP exposure and clutch viability, we conducted concurrent field and laboratory studies. Our field study reaffirmed that eggs of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated lakes and wetlands continue to have lower clutch viability and higher OCP burdens than eggs from reference lakes. Our field study also demonstrated that OCP egg burdens were strongly correlated with clutch viability for some of the OCP-contaminated sites, but not all. To better test causal relationships, a parental exposure study was conducted using captive adult alligators. Our laboratory study demonstrated that dietary exposure of captive alligators to an ecologically relevant OCP mixture caused alligators to produce eggs with higher OCP burdens and reduced clutch viability, as compared to the captive-control population. The experimentally induced egg burdens and clutch viability reductions were similar to those of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated sites. Our field and laboratory results suggest parental OCP exposure may be contributing to low clutch viability in wild alligators inhabiting OCP-contaminated habitats, raising some concern for endangered crocodilians living in OCP-contaminated habitats.

  9. [Relationship between pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes among reproductive couples in rural areas of China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Y M; Chen, S; Li, J J; Jin, R R; Pan, H; Jiang, Y

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To analyze the association between pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women from the rural areas of China. Methods: Data of "National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP)" from January 2010 to December 2012 was used for analysis. A total of 248 501 families that were planning to deliver a baby in the next 6 months were enrolled. Data on paternal exposure to pesticides before or during pregnancy was collected through questionnaires, with related outcomes on pregnancy recorded by doctors. Results: Among all the 248 501 participants, 1 806 (0.74%) women and 2 653 (1.09%) men reported to have been exposed to pesticide before pregnancy, with 505 (0.21%) reported of having been exposed to pesticide during the period of pregnancy. Maternal exposure to pesticide was found a risk factor related to stillbirth (OR=3.37, 95%CI: 2.05-5.55), peculiar smell pregnancy (OR=3.17, 95%CI:1.18-8.55) and low birth weight (OR=7.56, 95% CI: 5.36-10.66). Paternal exposure to pesticide was also found related to miscarriage (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.80), low birth weight (OR=3.65, 95% CI:1.51-8.84), or giant infant (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.44-0.93). Maternal exposure to pesticide during pregnancy appeared a risk factor on miscarriage (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 3.47-6.24). Other adverse outcomes on pregnancy would include premature birth and high birth weight. Conclusion: Parental pesticide exposure appeared a risk factor on stillbirth, peculiar smell pregnancy, low birth weight and miscarriage.

  10. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes.

  11. Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Kogan, Vladimir; Shelton, Janie F; Delwiche, Lora; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Ma, Claudia C; McCanlies, Erin C; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Tancredi, Daniel J; Volk, Heather E

    2017-09-08

    Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures. Maternal supplemental FA and household pesticide product use were retrospectively collected in telephone interviews from 2003-2011. High vs. low daily FA intake was dichotomized at 800μg (median). Mothers' addresses were linked to a statewide database of commercial applications to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure. High FA intake (≥800μg) during the first pregnancy month and no known pesticide exposure was the reference group for all analyses. Compared with this group, ASD was increased in association with <800μg FA and any indoor pesticide exposure {adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.7]} compared with low FA [OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.2)] or indoor pesticides [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)] alone. ORs for the combination of low FA and regular pregnancy exposure (≥6 mo) to pet pesticides or to outdoor sprays and foggers were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4, 11.5) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.1), respectively. ORs for low maternal FA and agricultural pesticide exposure 3 mo before or after conception were 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 6.5) for chlorpyrifos, 2.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 5.3) for organophosphates, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) for pyrethroids, and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8) for carbamates. Except for carbamates, these ORs were approximately two times greater than those for either exposure alone or for the expected ORs for combined exposures under multiplicative or additive models. In this study population, associations between

  12. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities.

    PubMed

    Bradman, Asa; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Aguilar Schall, Raul; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-10-01

    Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3-6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young children.

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides, nicotine and minor psychiatric disorders among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fiori, Nadia Spada; Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been associated with psychiatric problems among farm workers, although there is still controversy as to chemical types, intensity and forms of exposure that represent risk factors for neuropsychological problems. Furthermore, tobacco workers are exposed to dermal absorption of nicotine, although its effect on mental health has not yet been studied. To identify the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among tobacco farmers and associated factors, paying special attention to pesticide and nicotine exposure. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of tobacco growers, characterizing economic indicators of the farms, socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits and occupational exposures. Multivariate analysis was performed using a hierarchical Poisson regression model. A total of 2400 tobacco farmers were assessed and MPD prevalence was 12%. MPD was higher among women (PR 1.4), workers aged 40 or over, tenants/employees (PR 1.8) and those who reported having difficulty in paying debts (PR 2.0). Low socioeconomic status was inversely associated with MPD prevalence. Tasks involving dermal exposure to pesticides showed risk varying between 35% and 71%, whereas tobacco growers on farms using organophosphates had 50% more risk of MPD than those not exposed to this kind of pesticide. The number of pesticide poisoning and green tobacco sickness episodes showed linear association with MPD. The study reinforces the evidence of the association between pesticide poisoning and mental health disorders. It also points to increased risk of MPD from low socioeconomic status, dermal pesticide exposure as well as from exposure to organophosphates. Furthermore, the study reveals intense nicotine exposure as a risk for tobacco farmers' mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of long-term exposure to pesticides on plasma esterases from plastic greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio; Gómez, M Amparo; Pena, Gloria; Gil, Fernando; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique; Pla, Antonio

    2004-07-23

    Previous reports in animals considered beta-glucuronidase activity as a novel biomarker of anticholinesterase (organophosphates and carbamates) pesticides exposure. Acid phosphatase activity was also shown to increase after organophosphates exposure. In addition, there is evidence that the paraoxonase status influences sensitivity to specific pesticides. In this study, activities of beta-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase, cholinesterase, and paraoxonase were measured in plasma from plastic greenhouse workers exposed over the long term to different pesticides, including organophosphates and carbamates, in order to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity of pesticides at occupational level. Our results show that activities of paraoxonase and cholinesterase were decreased in applicators of pesticides compared to non-applicators. Likewise, it was found that activities of beta-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase were associated with pesticide exposure in humans, and that both biochemical parameters were related to each other. Interestingly, the paraoxonase B allele (phenotyped in plasma) was associated with a higher risk of inhibition of cholinesterase activity above a 25% level, which supports the hypothesis that paraoxonase phenotypes are associated with susceptibility of humans to anticholinesterase pesticides toxicity. Copyright Taylor and Francis Inc.

  15. Reciprocal effects of pesticides and pathogens on amphibian hosts: The importance of exposure order and timing.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-02-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors. While the effects of individual stressors have been broadly investigated, there is growing evidence that multiple stressors are frequently encountered underscoring the need to examine interactive effects. Pesticides and infectious diseases are two common stressors that regularly occur together in nature. Given the documented lethal and sublethal effects of each stressor on individuals, there is the potential for interactive effects that alter disease outcomes and pesticide toxicity. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we examined the reciprocal interaction between insecticides (carbaryl and thiamethoxam) and the viral pathogen ranavirus by testing whether: (1) prior ranavirus infection influences pesticide toxicity and (2) sublethal pesticide exposure increases susceptibility to and transmission of ranavirus. We found that prior infection with ranavirus increased pesticide toxicity; median lethal concentration (LC50) estimates were reduced by 72 and 55% for carbaryl and thiamethoxam, respectively. Importantly, LC50 estimates were reduced to concentrations found in natural systems. This is the first demonstration that an infection can alter pesticide toxicity. We also found that prior pesticide exposure exacerbated disease-induced mortality by increasing mortality rates, but effects on infection prevalence and transmission of the pathogen were minimal. Collectively, our results underscore the importance of incorporating complexity (i.e. order and timing of exposures) into research examining the interactions between natural and anthropogenic stressors. Given the environmental heterogeneity present in nature, such research will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how stressors affect wildlife.

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and resultant health problems among cotton farmers of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides and resultant health problems were assessed among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from the two districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Heavy dependence of farmers on pesticides for pest control was reported. A large part (23.3%) of the pesticides belonged to the category highly hazardous, whereas the largest part (54.7%) belonged to the category moderately hazardous. Some of them (8%) were reported to be used on vegetables. Common working practices of high exposure risk were: the confrontation of pesticide spills in the stage of spray solution preparation (76.4%), the use of low-technology and faulty sprayers (67.9%), and spraying under inappropriate weather (46.5%). A large proportion (34%) of the farmers reported multiple intoxication symptoms by pesticide use; the most common were irritation of skin and eyes, headache, and dizziness. Nevertheless, most farmers thought these symptoms were usual; only few reported visiting the doctor. Findings clearly indicated a high level of risk exposure to pesticides among farmers of the study area, calling upon immediate interventions toward increasing awareness about alternative pest control practices with less pesticide use.

  17. Relative pesticide and exposure route contribution to aggregate and cumulative dose in young farmworker children.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Canales, Robert A; Ferguson, Alesia C; Leckie, James O; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    The Child-Specific Aggregate Cumulative Human Exposure and Dose (CACHED) framework integrates micro-level activity time series with mechanistic exposure equations, environmental concentration distributions, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic components to estimate exposure for multiple routes and chemicals. CACHED was utilized to quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates for a population of young farmworker children and to evaluate the model for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Micro-activities of farmworker children collected concurrently with residential measurements of pesticides were used in the CACHED framework to simulate 115,000 exposure scenarios and quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates. Modeled metabolite urine concentrations were not statistically different than concentrations measured in the urine of children, indicating that CACHED can provide realistic biomarker estimates. Analysis of the relative contribution of exposure route and pesticide indicates that in general, chlorpyrifos non-dietary ingestion exposure accounts for the largest dose, confirming the importance of the micro-activity approach. The risk metrics computed from the 115,000 simulations, indicate that greater than 95% of these scenarios might pose a risk to children's health from aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure. The variability observed in the route and pesticide contributions to urine biomarker levels demonstrate the importance of accounting for aggregate and cumulative exposure in establishing pesticide residue tolerances in food.

  18. Maternal hair--an appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Bielawski, Dawn M; Posecion, Norberto C; Corrion, Melissa L; Jin, Yan; Janisse, James J; Ager, Joel W

    2006-07-01

    The detection of exposure of pregnant women to toxicants in the environment is important because these compounds can be harmful to the health of the woman and her fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze for pesticides/herbicides in paired maternal hair and blood samples to determine the most appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to these compounds. A total of 449 pregnant women were prospectively recruited at midgestation from an agricultural site in the Philippines where a preliminary survey indicated significant use at home and on the farm of the following compounds: propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon, and transfluthrin. Paired maternal hair and blood samples were obtained from each subject upon recruitment into the study (midgestation) and at birth and were analyzed for the above compounds, as well as lindane and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], and some of their known metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The highest exposure rate was seen for propoxur and bioallethrin and maternal hair analysis provided the highest detection rate for these two compounds, compared to blood, at both time periods: (1) At midgestation, 10.5% positive for propoxur in hair compared to 0.7% in blood (P<0.001) and for bioallethrin, 11.9% positive in hair compared to 0% in blood (P < or = 0.001), and (2) at birth, 11.8% positive for propoxur in hair compared to 4% in blood (P < or = 0.001) and for bioallethrin, 7.8% in hair compared to 0% in blood (P < or = 0.001). A small number of maternal hair samples were also positive for malathion, chlorpyrifos, pretilachlor, and DDT. Only a few of the pesticide metabolites were detected, principally 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, malathion monocarboxylic acid, and DDE [1,1,dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and they were mostly found in maternal blood. There was a significant association between the use of the home spray pesticide

  19. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    PubMed

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  20. Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming

    PubMed Central

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  1. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    PubMed

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  2. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne J; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-11-10

    There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers 1. However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms) that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over) and children (aged 4-12 years)) will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in addition for a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012), covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are anticipated for the 2012 spray season although the pesticides

  3. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers [1]. However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. Methods/design The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms) that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over) and children (aged 4-12 years)) will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in addition for a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012), covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. Discussion The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are anticipated for the

  4. Assessment of uncertainty in a probabilistic model of consumer exposure to pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Helen; Shaw, George; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Boobis, Alan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-06-01

    The assessment of consumer exposure to pesticides is an important part of pesticide regulation. Probabilistic modelling allows analysis of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments. The output of any assessment will be influenced by the characteristics and uncertainty of the inputs, model structure and assumptions. While the use of probabilistic models is well established in the United States, in Europe problems of low acceptance, sparse data and lack of guidelines are slowing the development. The analyses in the current paper focused on the dietary pathway and the exposure of UK toddlers. Three single food, single pesticide case studies were used to parameterize a simple probabilistic model built in Crystal Ball. Data on dietary consumption patterns were extracted from National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, and levels of pesticide active ingredients in foods were collected from Pesticide Residues Committee monitoring. The effect of uncertainty on the exposure estimate was analysed using scenarios, reflecting different assumptions related to sources of uncertainty. The most influential uncertainty issue was the distribution type used to represent input variables. Other sources that most affected model output were non-detects, unit-to-unit variability and processing. Specifying correlation between variables was found to have little effect on exposure estimates. The findings have important implications for how probabilistic modelling should be conducted, communicated and used by policy and decision makers as part of consumer risk assessment of pesticides.

  5. Pesticides and prostate cancer: a review of epidemiologic studies with specific agricultural exposure information.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Adami, Hans-Olov; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Britton, Nicole L; Mandel, Jack S

    2008-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in US men, and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. Although pesticides have been implicated in studies of prostate cancer among farmers, meta-analyses have found heterogeneity across studies, and a number of exposures and lifestyle factors may be unique to farmers. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic literature to evaluate the hypothesis that agricultural exposure to pesticides is causally associated with prostate cancer risk. We analyzed the eight cohort studies and five case-control studies that quantified and/or evaluated agricultural exposure to particular pesticide classes or chemicals. Despite sporadic positive findings, these studies did not show consistently increased risks to support a causal association between agricultural pesticide use and prostate cancer. Studies using an 'external' comparison group must be interpreted in the context of confounding by differences in prostate-specific antigen screening intensity. Furthermore, most studies did not adjust for potential confounders other than age and time period. It is clearly not possible to exonerate any particular pesticide as a putative cause of prostate cancer - to do so would require an inverse empirical association with an upper confidence limit below the null value. Existing evidence does not point to any pesticide as satisfying widely used guidelines for establishing causation: a strong, exposure-dependent and demonstrably unconfounded, unbiased association, documented in several studies.

  6. The exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera; Hymenoptera: Apidae) to pesticides: Room for improvement in research.

    PubMed

    Benuszak, Johanna; Laurent, Marion; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Losses of honey bees have been repeatedly reported from many places worldwide. The widespread use of synthetic pesticides has led to concerns regarding their environmental fate and their effects on pollinators. Based on a standardised review, we report the use of a wide variety of honey bee matrices and sampling methods in the scientific papers studying pesticide exposure. Matrices such as beeswax and beebread were very little analysed despite their capacities for long-term pesticide storage. Moreover, bioavailability and transfer between in-hive matrices were poorly understood and explored. Many pesticides were studied but interactions between molecules or with other stressors were lacking. Sampling methods, targeted matrices and units of measure should have been, to some extent, standardised between publications to ease comparison and cross checking. Data on honey bee exposure to pesticides would have also benefit from the use of commercial formulations in experiments instead of active ingredients, with a special assessment of co-formulants (quantitative exposure and effects). Finally, the air matrix within the colony must be explored in order to complete current knowledge on honey bee pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parameter importance and uncertainty in predicting runoff pesticide reduction with filter strips.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates ( approximately 100-150 mm equivalent depths) and approximately 50% for the higher loading rate ( approximately 280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%) . Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly

  8. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  9. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  10. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

  11. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides.

  12. Predicting children's short-term exposure to pesticides: results of a questionnaire screening approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Eberly, Lynn E; Clayton, C Andrew; Whitmore, Roy W; Pellizzari, Edo D; Lioy, Paul J; Quackenboss, James J

    2003-01-01

    The ability of questionnaires to predict children's exposure to pesticides was examined as part of the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). The MNCPES focused on a probability sample of 102 children between the ages of 3 and 13 years living in either urban (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) or nonurban (Rice and Goodhue Counties in Minnesota) households. Samples were collected in a variety of relevant media (air, food, beverages, tap water, house dust, soil, urine), and chemical analyses emphasized three organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion) and a herbicide (atrazine). Results indicate that the residential pesticide-use questions and overall screening approach used in the MNCPES were ineffective for identifying and oversampling children/households with higher levels of individual target pesticides. PMID:12515690

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  14. Pesticides exposure as etiological factors of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases--a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-10-15

    The etiology of most neurodegenerative disorders is multifactorial and consists of an interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. The role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative disease has long been suspected, but the specific causative agents and the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. For the main neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis there are evidences linking their etiology with long-term/low-dose exposure to pesticides such as paraquat, maneb, dieldrin, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Most of these pesticides share common features, namely the ability to induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein fibrillization and neuronal cell loss. This review aims to clarify the role of pesticides as environmental risk factors in genesis of idiopathic PD and other neurological syndromes. For this purpose, the most relevant epidemiological and experimental data is highlighted in order to discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides and nerve conduction studies among Korean farmers.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyeong; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Gyu Taek; Lee, Won Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with decreased nerve conduction studies among farmers. On 2 separate occasions, the authors performed a cross-sectional study of a group of 31 male farmers who periodically applied pesticides. The study included questionnaire interviews and nerve conduction studies on the median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. Although all mean values remained within laboratory normal limits, significant differences between the first and second tests were found in sensory conduction velocities on the median and sural nerves, and motor conduction velocities on the posterior tibial nerve. Lifetime days of pesticide application was negatively associated with nerve conduction velocities at most nerves after adjusting for potential confounders. These findings may reflect a link between occupational pesticide exposure and peripheral neurophysiologic abnormality that deserves further evaluation.

  16. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parkinson's disease in relation to pesticide exposure and nuclear encoded mitochondrial complex I gene variants.

    PubMed

    Corder, Elizabeth H; Mellick, George D

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder thought to result from the integrated effects of genetic background and exposure to neuronal toxins. Certain individual nuclear-encoded mitochondrial complex I gene polymorphisms were found to be associated with approximately 2-fold risk variation in an Australian case-control sample. We further characterized this sample of 306 cases and 321 controls to determine the mutual information contained in the 22 SNPs and, additionally, level of pesticide exposure: five distinct risk sets were identified using grade-of-membership analysis. Of these, one was robust to pesticide exposure (I), three were vulnerable (II, III, IV), and another (V) denoted low risk for unexposed persons. Risk for individual subjects varied > 16-fold according to level of membership in the vulnerable groups. We conclude that inherited variation in mitochondrial complex I genes and pesticide exposure together modulate risk for PD.

  18. Multidrug resistance 1 gene variants, pesticide exposure, and increased risk of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage.

  19. Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Variants, Pesticide Exposure, and Increased Risk of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage. PMID:24791009

  20. Genetic Variability in ABCB1, Occupational Pesticide Exposure, and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson’s Disease (PD) risk. Objectives To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. Methods In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. Results For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. Conclusions This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. PMID:26457621

  1. Genetic variability in ABCB1, occupational pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2015-11-01

    Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson's Disease (PD) risk. To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  3. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  4. Decreased reelin expression and organophosphate pesticide exposure alters mouse behaviour and brain morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Brian R.; Khialeeva, Elvira; Hoffman, Daniel B.; Ghiani, Cristina A.; Carpenter, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders). In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon). Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes. PMID:23298182

  5. Decreased reelin expression and organophosphate pesticide exposure alters mouse behaviour and brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Brian R; Khialeeva, Elvira; Hoffman, Daniel B; Ghiani, Cristina A; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2012-02-18

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders). In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism--reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon). Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  6. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    PubMed

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides among Thai children

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Suttiwan, Panrapee; Strickland, Pam Ohman; Ryan, P. Barry; Rohlman, Diane S.; Panuwet, Parinya; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of pesticides for crop production has grown rapidly in Thailand during the last decade, resulting in significantly greater potential for exposure among children living on farms. Although some previous studies assessed exposures to pesticides in this population, no studies have been conducted to evaluate corresponding health effects. Twenty-four children from a rice farming community (exposed) and 29 from an aquaculture (shrimp) community (control) completed the study. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery three times at 6 month intervals: Session I: preliminary orientation; Session II: high pesticide use season; Session III: low pesticide-use season. Only sessions II and III were used in the analyses. High and low pesticide use seasons were determined by pesticide use on rice farms. Urinary metabolites of organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYR) were analyzed from first morning void samples collected the day of neurobehavioral testing. Rice farm participants had significantly higher concentrations of dialkylphosphates (DAPs) (common metabolites of OPs) and TCPy (a specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos) than aquaculture farm children regardless of season. But, TCPy was significantly higher during the low rather than the high pesticide use season for both participant groups. Rice farm children had significantly higher DCCA, a metabolite of PYR, than aquaculture participants only during the high exposure season. Otherwise, no significant differences in PYR metabolites were noted between the participant groups or seasons. No significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were observed between participant groups during either the high or low pesticide use season. After controlling for differences in age and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores, DAPs, TCPy, and PYR were not significant predictors of adverse neurobehavioral performance during either season. Increasing DAP and PYR metabolites predicted some relatively

  8. Characterization of pesticide exposure in a sample of pregnant women in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Handal, Alexis J.; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Methods Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 non-agricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites (ethylene thiourea [ETU] and propylene thiourea [PTU]), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy], malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). Results We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, though the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. Conclusions The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  9. Characterization of Pesticide Exposure in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Handal, Alexis J; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 nonagricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphatedialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites [ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU)], 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, although the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region.

  10. Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaomei; Buffler, Patricia A; Gunier, Robert B; Dahl, Gary; Smith, Martyn T; Reinier, Kyndaron; Reynolds, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The potential etiologic role of household pesticide exposures was examined in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. A total of 162 patients (0-14 years old) with newly diagnosed leukemia were rapidly ascertained during 1995-1999, and 162 matched control subjects were randomly selected from the birth registry. The use of professional pest control services at any time from 1 year before birth to 3 years after was associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood leukemia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-5.7], and the exposure during year 2 was associated with the highest risk (OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.3). The ORs for exposure to insecticides during the 3 months before pregnancy, pregnancy, and years 1, 2, and 3 were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.1), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.5), 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0-2.9), 1.6 (95% CI, 1.0-2.7), and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7-2.1), respectively. Insecticide exposures early in life appear to be more significant than later exposures, and the highest risk was observed for exposure during pregnancy. Additionally, more frequent exposure to insecticides was associated with a higher risk. In contrast to insecticides, the association between herbicides and leukemia was weak and nonsignificant. Pesticides were also grouped based on where they were applied. Exposure to indoor pesticides was associated with an increased risk, whereas no significant association was observed for exposure to outdoor pesticides. The findings suggest that exposure to household pesticides is associated with an elevated risk of childhood leukemia and further indicate the importance of the timing and location of exposure. PMID:12204832

  11. Exposure reduction of 96% in intraoral radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Vandre, R.H.; Lorton, L.

    1986-11-01

    This study compared the diagnostic quality of E-speed film, xeroradiographic cassettes, and a screen-film imaging system used in medical radiology. The surfaces of defects simulating caries were scored for the presence and depth of the defects under ideal viewing conditions by independent observers. Receiver Operator Characteristics analysis of the data showed no significant differences regarding diagnostic potential among the three systems. The true-positive fraction was 1.00 for all systems and all operators, and the false-positive fraction was .011, .011, and .007, respectively. An exposure of 5.5 mR was used to produce images with the screen-film combination, and 150 mR was used for standard dental systems. This study showed that an exposure reduction of 96% is possible while maintaining high-quality radiographs for the diagnosis of caries.

  12. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  13. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana E; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2014-04-23

    Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects.The aim of this study was to describe farmers' pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%).Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers' knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge

  14. Wings as a new route of exposure to pesticides in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Yannick; Kairo, Guillaume; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2015-09-01

    In pesticide risk assessment, estimating the routes and levels of exposure is critical. For honey bees subjected to pesticide spray, toxicity is assessed by thorax contact to account for all possible contact exposures. In the present study, the authors tested 6 active substances with different hydrophobicity. For the first time, the authors demonstrated that it is possible to induce mortality by pesticide contact with only the wings of the honey bee. The toxicities induced by contact with the wings and thorax were similar, with the wing median lethal dose (LD50) being 0.99 to 2.23 times higher than that of the thorax. This finding demonstrates that the wings represent a relevant route of exposure in the honey bee. In a second approach, the authors estimated the air volume displaced by the wings during 1 beating cycle to be 0.51 ± 0.03 cm(3), which corresponds to a volume of 116.8 ± 5.8 cm(3)  s(-1) at a wing beat frequency of 230 Hz. The authors then tested realistic scenarios of exposure for bees flying through a pesticide cloud at different concentrations. In the worst-case scenario, the dose accumulated during the flight reached 525 ng bee(-1)  s(-1). These results show that the procedure used to assess the risk posed by contact with pesticides could be improved by accounting for wing exposure.

  15. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer.

  16. Pesticide exposure and risk of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Zhu, Yi; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Ji, Alin; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and the risk of bladder cancer by summarizing the results of published case-control and cohort studies. Methods A systematic literature search of articles update to February 2015 was conducted via Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, and the references of the retrieved articles. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of OR with 95% CIs for the highest versus the lowest exposure of pesticide. Results The pooled OR estimates indicated that pesticide exposure was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR=1.649, 95% CI 1.223-2.223). In subgroup analysis, we detected pesticide exposure demonstrated as a significant risk factor on bladder cancer in America (OR=1.741, 95% CI 1.270-2.388). Similar results were discovered in both case-control group and cohort group (OR=2.075, 95% CI 1.183-3.638, OR=1.146, 95% CI 1.074-1.223, respectively). No evidence of publication bias was found by Begg's or Egger's test (P = 0.210, P = 0.358, respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated that pesticide exposure was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm the findings in our study and better clarify the potential biological mechanisms. PMID:27557494

  17. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  18. Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendón von Osten, Jaime; Epomex, Centro; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2004-08-01

    The authors surveyed agricultural production methods and pesticide use among subsistence farmers (campesinos) in 4 rural communities of Campeche, Mexico. Self-reports of symptoms of poisoning resulting from occupational pesticide exposure were elicited by questionnaire (N = 121), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during insecticide use was evaluated from blood samples (N = 127). In individuals from 2 of the 4 communities, AChE activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the mean of activity determined for individuals in a reference group. Results of this study show that erythrocyte AChE inhibition provides a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in field studies with human populations. Carbamates, particularly carbofuran, seem to be more associated with exuberant and diversified symptomatology of pesticide exposure than organophosphates. Studies in field communities where both carbamates and organophosphates are suspected to exist should include blood AChE determinations, symptomatology surveys, and socioeconomic questionnaires. The authors recommend that the Mexican National Health Ministry authorities specify additional provisions regarding the use of protective equipment and the adoption of other safety practices during field work, increase information campaigns about the risks of pesticide use and the value of safety practices, and increase programs of medical monitoring and assistance for rural communities dealing with pesticides.

  19. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: impacts of field exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Mazellier, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on how Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) work in real environmental conditions. A selection of 23 polar pesticides and 8 metabolites were investigated by exposure of triplicates of integrative samplers in two rivers in France for successive 14-day periods. The pesticides and metabolites were trapped not only in Oasis HLB sorbent but also in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane of the POCIS. The distribution of pesticides depended on the molecular structure. The use of the Performance Reference Compound (PRC) is also discussed here. The impact of some environmental parameters and exposure setup on the transfer of pesticides in POCIS sorbent was studied: river flow rate, biofouling on membranes, sampler holding design and position in the stream. Results show a significant impact of river flow velocity on PRC desorption, especially for values higher than 4 cm·s(-1). Some fouling was observed on the PES membrane which could potentially have an impact on molecule accumulation in the POCIS. Finally, the positioning of the sampler in the river did not have significant effects on pesticide accumulation, when perpendicular exposures were used (sampler positioning in front of the water flow). The POCIS with PRC correction seems to be a suitable tool for estimating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, for all the molecules except for one of the nine pesticides analyzed in these two French rivers.

  20. Health perspective of pesticide exposure and dietary management.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rathinam; Rekha, K; Bairy, Kl

    2004-03-01

    Among the chemicals, pesticides which are mainly used in agriculture pose major health problems to human beings. Indiscriminate use of pesticides belonging to the class organophosphate, organochlorine, carbomate, and pyrethroid leads to various health problems affecting the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune systems. The toxicity of pesticide in human beings is influenced by various factors such as age, gender and health status of the individual in addition to the intensity and frequency of pesticide used. Comparatively, children are at greater risk than the adults. The human detoxification system plays a vital role in reducing the harmful effects of the pesticides. However, when the toxic level is increased beyond the capacity of the detoxification system, health condition deteriorates. Human diet plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall health of a person. Vitamins such as Vitamin C and E are effective in preventing DNA damage because of their antioxidant properties. Intake of fruits and vegetables improves the antioxidants level in the blood. Phenolic substances present in certain spices possess potent anticarcinogenic activities. Organic farming may be a viable solution to reduce the toxic effects of chemicals.

  1. Development of a fieldable rapid pesticide exposure analysis sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Sylvia, James M.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recent interest in organically grown foods, most agricultural crops use multiple pesticides to optimize yield. There are many persons whose health may be affected by the spraying; there is the active applicator and the passive neighbors. In between these extremes are the farm workers who pick the crops anywhere from days to weeks after application. How much pesticide residue are these workers exposed to during a workday and how much is transferred back to the residence? Despite the low vapor pressures, what is the true concentration of pesticides surrounding a person when pesticides adsorbed to particulate matter are included? What is the relationship between the concentration around an individual and the amount adsorbed/ingested? To answer these questions on a statistically significant scale in actual field conditions, a portable, fast, inexpensive measurement device is required. We present herein results obtained using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that demonstrate the capability to detect < 100 organophosphate, organochlorine and carbamate-based pesticides in the vapor phase as well as the ability of SERS sensors to detect a particular analyte in a synthetic urine matrix. We will also present data collected from CDC quantified urine samples and will present results obtained in a field test wherein SERS sensors wore worn as dosimeters in the field and real-time vapor sampling of the farm workers barracks was performed. The issue of potential interferences will also be discussed.

  2. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Bretveld, Reini; Schinkel, Jody; Van Wendel De Joode, Berna; Kromhout, Hans; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Roeleveld, Nel; Preller, Liesbeth

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and subsequent workplace surveys. Questionnaires were filled in for a whole year. Dermal exposure rankings were developed for each task using the observational method Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM). Exposure scores were calculated for each worker for each month during the year, taking into account frequency, duration and exposure intensity for each task. A total number of 116 different active ingredients were used in the population, whereas a mean number of 15 active ingredients were applied per greenhouse. DREAM observations provided insight into the exposure intensity of 12 application techniques and three mixing and loading activities. Relatively high DREAM scores were obtained for scattering, fogging, dusting, and mixing and loading of powders. Observations with DREAM indicated that application with a horizontal ground-boom, motor driven boom, and bulb shower resulted in low dermal exposure. Exposure scores showed substantial variation between workers and over the year. It can be concluded that exposure variation between- and within greenhouses is very large, both in terms of chemical composition and exposure intensity. This may be a significant contributor to the inconsistent results of studies evaluating health effects of pesticide exposure.

  3. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  5. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 1.55) (using (2,785 cases, 3635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases, 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases, 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases, 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases, 2,655 controls) respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukaemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants’ exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukaemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood. PMID:26061779

  6. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  7. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-06-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away.

  8. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Th Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.

  9. Lateralized Basal Ganglia Vulnerability to Pesticide Exposure in Asymptomatic Agricultural Workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Sterling, Nicholas W; Du, Guangwei; Lee, Eun-Young; Shyu, Grace; Goldenberg, Michael; Allen, Thomas; Stetter, Christy; Kong, Lan; Amy Snipes, Shedra; Jones, Byron C; Chen, Honglei; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-01

    Pesticide exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder marked by dopamine cell loss in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia (BG) that often presents asymmetrically. We previously reported that pesticide-exposed agricultural workers (AW) have nigral diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes. The current study sought to confirm this finding, and explore its hemisphere and regional specificity within BG structures using an independent sample population. Pesticide exposure history, standard neurological exam, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (T1/T2-weighted and DTI), and [123I]ioflupane SPECT images (to quantify striatal dopamine transporters) were obtained from 20 AW with chronic pesticide exposure and 11 controls. Based on median cumulative days of pesticide exposure, AW were subdivided into high (AWHi, n = 10) and low (AWLo, n = 10) exposure groups. BG (nigra, putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus [GP]) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and striatal [123I]ioflupane binding in each hemisphere were quantified, and compared across exposure groups using analysis of variance. Left, but not right, nigral and GP FA were significantly lower in AW compared with controls (p's < .029). None of the striatal (putamen and caudate) DTI or [123I]ioflupane binding measurements differed between AW and controls. Subgroup analyses indicated that significant left nigral and GP DTI changes were present only in the AWHi (p ≤ .037) but not the AWLo subgroup. AW, especially those with higher pesticide exposure history, demonstrate lateralized microstructural changes in the nigra and GP, whereas striatal areas appear relatively unaffected. Future studies should elucidate how environmental toxicants cause differential lateralized- and regionally specific brain vulnerability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  10. Dietary intake and its contribution to longitudinal organophosphorus pesticide exposure in urban/suburban children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Barr, Dana B; Pearson, Melanie A; Waller, Lance A

    2008-04-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has led to frequent exposure in adults and children. Because such exposure may cause adverse health effects, particularly in children, the sources and patterns of exposure need to be studied further. We assessed young urban/suburban children's longitudinal exposure to OP pesticides in the Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES) conducted in the greater Seattle, Washington, area, and used a novel study design that allowed us to determine the contribution of dietary intake to the overall OP pesticide exposure. Twenty-three children 3-11 years of age who consumed only conventional diets were recruited for this 1-year study conducted in 2003-2004. Children switched to organic diets for 5 consecutive days in the summer and fall sampling seasons. We measured specific urinary metabolites for malathion, chlorpyrifos, and other OP pesticides in urine samples collected twice daily for a period of 7, 12, or 15 consecutive days during each of the four seasons. By substituting organic fresh fruits and vegetables for corresponding conventional food items, the median urinary metabolite concentrations were reduced to nondetected or close to non-detected levels for malathion and chlorpyrifos at the end of the 5-day organic diet intervention period in both summer and fall seasons. We also observed a seasonal effect on the OP urinary metabolite concentrations, and this seasonality corresponds to the consumption of fresh produce throughout the year. The findings from this study demonstrate that dietary intake of OP pesticides represents the major source of exposure in young children.

  11. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young

  12. Exposure to pesticides and metal contaminants of fertilizer among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Davies, Hugh W

    2011-08-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, harvested forests are manually replanted by seasonal workers. The work is known to be physically demanding and ergonomically difficult, and recently, there have been concerns over chemical exposures due to pesticide residues on seedlings, fertilizers (often applied alongside seedlings), and potential metal contamination of these fertilizers. This study aimed to characterize metal and pesticide exposure among a sample of British Columbia tree planters. Between May 2006 and April 2007, exposure measurements were taken from 54 tree planters at five geographically disperse worksites throughout British Columbia. Four worksites were using fertilizer and one was not. Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on post-shift hand wipes, full-shift personal air sample, bulk soil, seedling root balls, and fertilizer samples. Pesticides were measured on post-shift hand wipes and on bulk seedling samples. Seedling nursery pesticide application records were used to focus pesticide analyses on pesticides known to have been applied to the seedlings used at the study sites. Carbamate pesticides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and all other pesticides by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No evidence was found that tree planters who worked with fertilizer were at an elevated risk of exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel relative to tree planters who did not. Pesticide residues were found on seedlings taken from work sites early in the tree planting season in April 2007. At these worksites, the fungicides chlorothalonil and iprodione were found on the skin of workers at low levels (range 0.37-106.3 ng cm(-2) and 0.48-15.9 ng cm(-2), respectively), providing evidence for exposure potential. Very poor hygiene conditions were observed at all tree planting work sites. Hand washing facilities were not available at work sites and only 5.6% of subjects

  13. Editor's Highlight: Base Excision Repair Variants and Pesticide Exposure Increase Parkinson's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laurie H; Paul, Kimberly C; Howlett, Evan H; Lawal, Hakeem; Boppana, Sridhar; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to certain pesticides induces oxidative stress and increases Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is found in dopaminergic neurons in idiopathic PD and following pesticide exposure in experimental models thereof. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway responsible for repairing oxidative DNA damage in cells. Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BER genes alone or in combination with pesticide exposure influence PD risk is unknown. We investigated the contributions of functional SNPs in 2 BER genes (APEX1 and OGG1) and mitochondrial dysfunction- or oxidative stress-related pesticide exposure, including paraquat, to PD risk. We also studied the effect of paraquat on levels of mtDNA damage and mitochondrial bioenergetics. 619 PD patients and 854 population-based controls were analyzed for the 2 SNPs, APEX1 rs1130409 and OGG1 rs1052133. Ambient pesticide exposures were assessed with a geographic information system. Individually, or in combination, the BER SNPs did not influence PD risk. Mitochondrial-inhibiting (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.32, 2.42]), oxidative stress-inducing pesticides (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.22, 2.11]), and paraquat (OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.23, 1.93]) were associated with PD. Statistical interactions were detected, including for a genetic risk score based on rs1130409 and rs1052133 and oxidative stress inducing pesticides, where highly exposed carriers of both risk genotypes were at the highest risk of PD (OR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.25, 3.86]); similar interactions were estimated for mitochondrial-inhibiting pesticides and paraquat alone. Additionally, paraquat exposure was found to impair mitochondrial respiration and increase mtDNA damage in in vivo and in vitro systems. Our findings provide insight into possible mechanisms involved in increased PD risk due to pesticide exposure in the context of BER genotype variants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  14. Effects of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure on postural control among farmworkers and non-farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Methods Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Results Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Conclusions Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control. PMID:26849257

  15. A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risk from pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Juárez, Patricia M; Leyva, Claudia; Corona, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews a successful community-based education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., trained lay health educators, or promotoras de salud, from local agencies in southern New Mexico in pesticide safety and in ways to successfully promote safety information in the farmworker community. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information, emphasizing the health effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure and steps to protect farmworker children from pesticide exposure. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures. Additionally, the project showed improved behaviors aimed at minimizing pesticide exposure through accidental poisonings in the home. This pilot project proved the efficacy of an in-home, one-on-one approach with a culturally appropriate educational comic book as an instrument to help transfer education to the community. Moreover, the educational method involving promotoras offers a training-of- trainer approach that is easy to implement and potentially replicate.

  16. Exposure to pesticides and mental disorders in a rural population of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ÿlida; Dos Santos Pinto da Silva, Valéria; Sarpa Campos de Mello, Márcia; Barros Otero, Ubirani

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been associated with mental disorders, especially in occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. This effect has been attributed to the neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activity of pesticides, as suggested by experimental studies. To determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and self-reported depression, and analyze their association with the exposure to pesticides in a rural population resident in the municipality of Dom Feliciano, Rio Grande do Sul, where tobacco farming is the main economic activity. A cross-sectional study evaluating the prevalence of common mental disorders and self-reported depression in a sample of 869 adult individuals resident in Dom Feliciano, between October 2011 and March 2012 was performed. The evaluation of common mental disorders was performed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), setting a cutoff point of 8 for both genders. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on self-reported depression upon prior diagnosis by a health professional, and self-reported exposure to pesticide. In order to evaluate the association between exposure to pesticides and mental disorders, a non-conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of common mental disorders and self-reported depression in the sample population were 23% and 21%, respectively. Among individuals who reported depression, an increase of 73% was observed in the odds of pesticide exposure at an age equal to or less than 15 years. There was a positive association between self-reported pesticide poisoning and common mental disorders (OR=2.63; 95% CI, 1.62-4.25) as well as self-reported depression (OR=2.62; 95% CI, 1.63-4.21). Individuals who reported depression had a greater odds of exposure to pyrethroids (OR=1.80; 95% CI, 1.01-3.21) and aliphatic alcohol (OR=1.99; 95% CI, 1.04-3.83). An SRQ-20≥8 was associated with an approximately seven times higher odds of exposure

  17. Passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia in an Italian community.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Costanzini, Sofia; Heck, Julia E; Malavolti, Marcella; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Oleari, Paola; Palazzi, Giovanni; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, but definitive evidence on this relation and the specific pesticides involved is still not clear. We carried out a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community to assess the possible relation between passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of acute childhood leukemia. We assessed passive pesticide exposure of 111 childhood leukemia cases and 444 matched controls by determining density and type of agricultural land use within a 100-m radius buffer around children's homes. We focused on four common crop types, arable, orchard, vineyard and vegetable, characterized by the use of specific pesticides that are potentially involved in childhood induced leukemia. The use of these pesticides was validated within the present study. We computed the odds ratios (OR) of the disease and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to type and density of crops around the children's homes, also taking into account traffic pollution and high-voltage power line magnetic field exposure. Childhood leukemia risk did not increase in relation with any of the crop types with the exception of arable crops, characterized by the use of 2.4-D, MCPA, glyphosate, dicamba, triazine and cypermethrin. The very few children (n=11) residing close to arable crops had an OR for childhood leukemia of 2.04 (95% CI 0.50-8.35), and such excess risk was further enhanced among children aged <5 years. Despite the null association with most crop types and the statistical imprecision of the estimates, the increased leukemia risk among children residing close to arable crops indicates the need to further investigate the involvement in disease etiology of passive exposure to herbicides and pyrethroids, though such exposure is unlikely to play a role in the vast majority of cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  19. Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes: review of the epidemiologic and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol J; McIntosh, Laura J; Mink, Pamela J; Jurek, Anne M; Li, Abby A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  20. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Smith, Karen E.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness. PMID:26568480

  1. Realistic pesticide exposure through water and food amplifies long-term effects in a Limnephilid caddisfly.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Reiber, Lena; Holmstrup, Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2017-02-15

    Pesticides are increasingly recognized as relevant stressors in stream ecosystems. Stream biota is exposed to pesticides with low water solubility, e.g. pyrethroid insecticides, via water, habitat, and food. However, long-term effects of simultaneous exposure pathways are unknown. In this context, we conducted a microcosm experiment with the caddisfly Anabolia nervosa exposing the larvae to the pyrethroid insecticide esfenvalerate (EFV) at 0.1 and 1.0μgL(-1) via (i) water, (ii) food or a (iii) combination of water and food. Combined exposure through water and food significantly reduced emergence by 60% and significantly postponed emergence timing at the highest EFV level, whereas none of the single-phase exposures showed significant effects. Moreover, our study revealed that successfully emerged females from the highest biphasic treatment level were characterised by altered composition of storage lipids indicative of reduced energy reserves. Consequently, a realistic test scenario that represents simultaneous exposure of organisms and their food may reveal substantially increased long term effects of pyrethroids when compared with current ecological risk assessment applying only single phase exposure. We recommend that relevant concurrent exposure routes of pesticides should be considered in order to derive realistic regulatory acceptable concentrations of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-11-16

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness.

  3. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  4. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention. PMID:11401767

  5. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study.

    PubMed

    Allpress, Justine L E; Curry, Ross J; Hanchette, Carol L; Phillips, Michael J; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2008-04-30

    Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and confirmation of final participant household

  6. Pesticide exposure among pregnant women in Jerusalem, Israel: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Berman, Tamar; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Barr, Dana Boyd; Needham, Larry L; Amitai, Yona; Wormser, Uri; Richter, Elihu

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides have been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in laboratory animals and in human populations. To date, there have been no studies on exposure to pesticides in pregnant women in Israel, despite reports of widespread exposure in other populations of pregnant women and the importance of evaluating exposure in this susceptible sub-population. We measured urinary concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide metabolites and plasma concentrations of OP and other pesticides in 20 pregnant women, recruited in Jerusalem, Israel in 2006, and collected questionnaire data on demographic factors and consumer habits from these women. We compared geometric mean concentrations in subgroups using the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. We compared creatinine-adjusted OP pesticide metabolite concentrations, as well as plasma pesticide concentrations, with other populations of pregnant women. Creatinine-adjusted total dimethyl (DM) metabolite concentrations were between 4 and 6 times higher in this population compared to other populations of pregnant women in the United States while total diethyl (DE) metabolite concentrations were lower. Dimethylphosphate (DMP) was detected in 74% of the urine samples whereas dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was detected in 90% of the urine samples. The carbamate bendiocarb was detected in 89% of the plasma samples, while the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos was detected in 42% of the samples. Mean plasma concentrations of bendiocarb and chlorpyrifos in our sample were 4.4 and 3.9 times higher, respectively, than that of an urban minority cohort from New York City. Twelve women (63%) reported using some form of household pest control during their pregnancy and five (26%) reported using household pest control during the past month. Women with a graduate degree had significantly higher geometric mean concentrations of total urinary DM metabolite concentrations compared to other women (P=0.006). Finally, one woman in the study had

  7. Integrating Landsat and California pesticide exposure estimation at aggregated analysis scales: Accuracy assessment of rurality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopham, Trang Minh

    Pesticide exposure estimation in epidemiologic studies can be constrained to analysis scales commonly available for cancer data - census tracts and ZIP codes. Research goals included (1) demonstrating the feasibility of modifying an existing geographic information system (GIS) pesticide exposure method using California Pesticide Use Reports (PURs) and land use surveys to incorporate Landsat remote sensing and to accommodate aggregated analysis scales, and (2) assessing the accuracy of two rurality metrics (quality of geographic area being rural), Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes and the U.S. Census Bureau urban-rural system, as surrogates for pesticide exposure when compared to the GIS gold standard. Segments, derived from 1985 Landsat NDVI images, were classified using a crop signature library (CSL) created from 1990 Landsat NDVI images via a sum of squared differences (SSD) measure. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate Kern County PUR applications (1974-1990) were matched to crop fields using a modified three-tier approach. Annual pesticide application rates (lb/ac), and sensitivity and specificity of each rurality metric were calculated. The CSL (75 land use classes) classified 19,752 segments [median SSD 0.06 NDVI]. Of the 148,671 PUR records included in the analysis, Landsat contributed 3,750 (2.5%) additional tier matches. ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) rates ranged between 0 and 1.36 lb/ac and census tract rates between 0 and 1.57 lb/ac. Rurality was a mediocre pesticide exposure surrogate; higher rates were observed among urban areal units. ZCTA-level RUCA codes offered greater specificity (39.1-60%) and sensitivity (25-42.9%). The U.S. Census Bureau metric offered greater specificity (92.9-97.5%) at the census tract level; sensitivity was low (≤6%). The feasibility of incorporating Landsat into a modified three-tier GIS approach was demonstrated. Rurality accuracy is affected by rurality metric, areal aggregation, pesticide chemical

  8. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  9. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  10. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  11. Historical pesticide exposure in California using pesticide use reports and land-use surveys: an assessment of misclassification error and bias.

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Rudolph P; Ritz, Beate

    2003-01-01

    We used California's Pesticide Use Report (PUR) and land-use survey data to conduct a simulation study evaluating the potential consequences of misclassifying residential exposure from proximity to agricultural pesticide application in health effect studies. We developed a geographic model linking the PUR with crop location data from land-use surveys to assess the impact of exposure misclassification from simpler exposure models based solely on PUR or land-use data. We simulated the random selection of population controls recruited into a hypothetical case-control study within an agricultural region. Using residential parcel data, we derived annual exposure prevalences, sensitivity, and specificity for five pesticides and relied on the PUR plus land-use model as the "gold standard." Based on these estimates, we calculated the attenuation of prespecified true odds ratios (ORs), assuming nondifferential exposure misclassification. True ORs were severely attenuated a) when residential exposure status was based on a larger geographic area yielding higher sensitivity but low specificity for exposure, in contrast to relying on a smaller area and increasing specificity; b) for less frequently applied pesticides; and c) with increasing mobility of residents among the study population. Considerable effect estimate attenuation also occurred when we used residential distance to crops as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Finally, exposure classifications based on annual instead of seasonal summaries of PUR resulted in highly attenuated ORs, especially during seasons when applications of specific pesticides were unlikely to occur. These results underscore the importance of increasing the spatiotemporal resolution of pesticide exposure models to minimize misclassification. PMID:14527836

  12. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  13. SIP Version 1.0 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure of Birds and Mammals through Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model provides an upper bound estimate of exposure of birds and mammals to pesticides through drinking water alone. Intended for use in problem formulation to determine whether or not drinking water exposure alone is a potential pathway of concern.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Matthew R; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Hoppin, Jane A; Koutros, Stella; Sandler, Dale P; Lynch, Charles F; Hines, Cynthia J; Thomas, Kent; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2017-04-01

    Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. We evaluated use of 43 pesticides and 654 lung cancer cases after 10 years of additional follow-up in the AHS, a prospective cohort study comprising 57,310 pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. Information about lifetime pesticide use and other factors was ascertained at enrollment (1993-1997) and updated with a follow-up questionnaire (1999-2005). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking (smoking status and pack-years), sex, and lifetime days of use of any pesticides. Hazard ratios were elevated in the highest exposure category of lifetime days of use for pendimethalin (1.50; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31), dieldrin (1.93; 95% CI: 0.70, 5.30), and chlorimuron ethyl (1.74; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.96), although monotonic exposure-response gradients were not evident. The HRs for intensity-weighted lifetime days of use of these pesticides were similar. For parathion, the trend was statistically significant for intensity-weighted lifetime days (p = 0.049) and borderline for lifetime days (p = 0.073). None of the remaining pesticides evaluated was associated with lung cancer incidence. These analyses provide additional evidence for an association between pendimethalin, dieldrin, and parathion use and lung cancer risk. We found an association between chlorimuron ethyl, a herbicide introduced in 1986, and lung cancer that has not been previously reported. Continued follow-up is warranted.

  15. Preformed biomarkers including dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in produce may confound biomonitoring in pesticide exposure and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Taifeng; Pan, Canping; Ross, John H; Krieger, Robert I

    2012-09-12

    Low levels of pesticides and their metabolites/degradates occur in produce when pesticides are used in conventional or organic crop protection. Human dietary and nonoccupational urine biomonitoring studies may be confounded by preformed pesticide biomarkers in the diet. The extent of formation of putative urine biomarkers, including malathion specific (MMA, MDA; malathion mono- and diacids), organophosphorus generic (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP; dimethyl-, dimethylthio-, and dimethydithiophosphate), pyrethroid generic (3-PBA; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid), and captan-specific metabolites (THPI; tetrahydrophthalimide), was measured in produce samples containing the parent pesticide. Every produce sample of 19 types of fruits and vegetables contained biomarkers of potential human exposure. A total of 134 of 157 (85%) samples contained more molar equivalent biomarkers than parent pesticide. Malathion and fenpropathrin were sprayed (1 lb/A), and the time-dependent formation of pesticide biomarkers in strawberries was investigated under field conditions typical of commercial production in California. Malathion and fenpropathrin residues were always below established residue tolerances. Malathion, MMA, and MDA dissipated, while DMP, DMTP, and DMDTP increased, during a 20 day study period following the preharvest interval. The mole ratios of biomarkers/(malathion + malaoxon) were always greater than 1 and increased from day 4 to day 23 postapplication. Fenpropathrin and 3-PBA also dissipated in strawberries during each monitoring period. The mole ratios of 3-PBA/fenpropathrin were always less than 1 and decreased from day 4 to day 14. The absorption of pesticide biomarkers in produce and excretion in urine would falsely indicate consumer pesticide exposure if used to reconstruct dose for risk characterization.

  16. Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-07-01

    Insect pollinators are essential for both the production of a large proportion of world crops and the health of natural ecosystems. As important pollinators, bumblebees must learn to forage on flowers to feed both themselves and provision their colonies.Increased use of pesticides has caused concern over sublethal effects on bees, such as impacts on reproduction or learning ability. However, little is known about how sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide might affect the ability of bees to visit and manipulate flowers.We observed the behaviour of individual bumblebees from colonies chronically exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide (10 ppb thiamethoxam) or control solutions foraging for the first time on an array of morphologically complex wildflowers (Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens) in an outdoor flight arena.We found that more bees released from pesticide-treated colonies became foragers, and that they visited more L. corniculatus flowers than controls. Interestingly, bees exposed to pesticide collected pollen more often than controls, but control bees learnt to handle flowers efficiently after fewer learning visits than bees exposed to pesticide. There were also different initial floral preferences of our treatment groups; control bees visited a higher proportion of T. repens flowers, and bees exposed to pesticide were more likely to choose L. corniculatus on their first visit.Our results suggest that the foraging behaviour of bumblebees on real flowers can be altered by sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide. This has implications for the foraging success and persistence of bumblebee colonies, but perhaps more importantly for the interactions between wild plants and flower-visiting insects and ability of bees to deliver the crucial pollination services to plants necessary for ecosystem functioning.

  17. Exposure assessment of pesticides in German river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, B.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2003-04-01

    To assure the quality of surface water-bodies in integrated catchment management, the input and fate of agriculturally used plant protection products are essential factors to take into consideration. In the context of authorizing pesticides by governmental bodies within the European Union, modeling their environmental fate grew to be the focus of research activity being a rather inexpensive and effective alternative to monitoring campaigns. User-friendly Decision Support Systems (DSS) offer decision makers easy access to these models generally providing powerful tools for regional risk-assessment. DRIPS (Drainage Runoff Input of Pesticides in Surface Water), a GIS-DSS based on model algorithms describing the major pathways of pesticide entry into surface waters, was developed on behalf of the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA). The tool estimates the quantity of pesticide input from non-point sources via surface runoff, tile drainage and spraydrift. Furthermore, the resulting predicted environmental concentration (PEC surface water) of active ingredients (a.i.) can be retrieved considering the mean daily input of an a.i. into various types of river-basins characterized by their daily discharge. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was created to enable potential users of the DSS to interact with the model algorithms. Model parameters like dose rate, DT50, Koc of a.i., date of pesticides application et cetera can be modified by the user in order to generate customized scenarios for a choice of 11 field crops, orchards and vineyards. For river basin management purposes the probability of a set quantity of surface water pollution by a selected a.i. passing a defined threshold for selected months can be simulated after setting the parameters in the GUI. In order to calculate PEC spatial information, such as river-morphology, land-use, soil, precipitation et cetera is associated with the estimated input via the known pathways of entry. Daily

  18. Effects of pesticide exposure and the amphibian chytrid fungus on gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Gaietto, Kristina M; Rumschlag, Samantha L; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides are detectable in most aquatic habitats and have the potential to alter host-pathogen interactions. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with amphibian declines around the world. However, Bd-associated declines are more prominent in some areas, despite nearly global distribution of Bd, suggesting other factors contribute to disease outbreaks. In a laboratory study, the authors examined the effects of 6 different isolates of Bd in the presence or absence of a pesticide (the insecticide carbaryl or the fungicide copper sulfate) to recently hatched Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) tadpoles reared through metamorphosis. The authors found the presence or absence of pesticides differentially altered the mass at metamorphosis of tadpoles exposed to different Bd isolates, suggesting that isolate could influence metamorphosis but not in ways expected based on origin of the isolate. Pesticide exposure had the strongest impact on metamorphosis of all treatment combinations. Whereas copper sulfate exposure reduced the length of the larval period, carbaryl exposure had apparent positive effects by increasing mass at metamorphosis and lengthening larval period, which adds to evidence that carbaryl can stimulate development in counterintuitive ways. The present study provides limited support to the hypothesis that pesticides can alter the response of tadpoles to isolates of Bd and that the insecticide carbaryl can alter developmental decisions. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children’s Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chensheng; Toepel, Kathryn; Irish, Rene; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana B.; Bravo, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We used a novel study design to measure dietary organophosphorus pesticide exposure in a group of 23 elementary school-age children through urinary biomonitoring. We substituted most of children’s conventional diets with organic food items for 5 consecutive days and collected two spot daily urine samples, first-morning and before-bedtime voids, throughout the 15-day study period. We found that the median urinary concentrations of the specific metabolites for malathion and chlorpyrifos decreased to the nondetect levels immediately after the introduction of organic diets and remained nondetectable until the conventional diets were reintroduced. The median concentrations for other organophosphorus pesticide metabolites were also lower in the organic diet consumption days; however, the detection of those metabolites was not frequent enough to show any statistical significance. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that an organic diet provides a dramatic and immediate protective effect against exposures to organophosphorus pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural production. We also concluded that these children were most likely exposed to these organophosphorus pesticides exclusively through their diet. To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ a longitudinal design with a dietary intervention to assess children’s exposure to pesticides. It provides new and persuasive evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:16451864

  20. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Murínová, L’ubica Palkovičová; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A Multivariate General Linear Model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p′-DDT or p,p′-DDE at the different ages (at birth, 6, 16 and 45 months) and the DPOAEs were treated as multivariate outcome variables. PCB congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated BMCs relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticides alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits. PMID:25989860

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christine G; Hoppin, Jane A; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Costenbader, Karen H; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-11-01

    Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728-1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129.

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288

  3. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides among Thai children.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Nancy; Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Suttiwan, Panrapee; Ohman Strickland, Pam; Ryan, P Barry; Rohlman, Diane S; Panuwet, Parinya; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G

    2015-05-01

    The use of pesticides for crop production has grown rapidly in Thailand during the last decade, resulting in significantly greater potential for exposure among children living on farms. Although some previous studies assessed exposures to pesticides in this population, no studies have been conducted to evaluate corresponding health effects. Twenty-four children from a rice farming community (exposed) and 29 from an aquaculture (shrimp) community (control) completed the study. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery three times at 6 month intervals: Session I: preliminary orientation; Session II: high pesticide use season; Session III: low pesticide-use season. Only sessions II and III were used in the analyses. High and low pesticide use seasons were determined by pesticide use on rice farms. Urinary metabolites of organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYR) were analyzed from first morning void samples collected the day of neurobehavioral testing. Rice farm participants had significantly higher concentrations of dialkylphosphates (DAPs) (common metabolites of OPs) and TCPy (a specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos) than aquaculture farm children during both seasons. But, TCPy was significantly higher during the low rather than the high pesticide use season for both participant groups. Rice farm children had significantly higher DCCA, a metabolite of PYR, than aquaculture participants only during the high exposure season. Otherwise, no significant differences in PYR metabolites were noted between the participant groups or seasons. No significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were observed between participant groups during either the high or low pesticide use season. After controlling for differences in age and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores, DAPs, TCPy, and PYR were not significant predictors of adverse neurobehavioral performance during either season. Increasing DAP and PYR metabolites predicted some relatively

  4. Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature?

    PubMed

    Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2002-07-23

    The apparently rapid increase in the prevalence of amphibian limb deformities has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. Hypotheses proposed to explain the deformities fall into two broad categories: chemical contaminants and trematode infection. Although there are convincing experimental demonstrations that certain factors can lead to some deformities, the causes for recent increases in amphibian malformation remain controversial. Moreover, no experimental studies on amphibian deformities have been conducted in the field, and no studies have attempted to examine the synergistic effects of trematode infection and exposure to chemical contaminants. Here, I present the results of field and laboratory experiments that link increased trematode infection, and increased limb deformities, to pesticide exposure. Field experiments conclusively demonstrated that exposure to trematode infection was required for the development of limb deformities in wood frogs, Rana sylvatica. However, deformities were more common at sites adjacent to agricultural runoff. Laboratory experiments corroborated the association between pesticide exposure and increased infection with pesticide-mediated immunocompetency as the apparent mechanism. Given the conservative contaminant exposure levels used [Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards] and the widespread use of many pesticides, these negative impacts may help to explain pathogen-mediated amphibian declines in many regions.

  5. Monitoring health implications of pesticide exposure in factory workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Hashmi, Imran; Mahjabeen, Wajiha; Naqvi, Tatheer A

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the hazardous health effects of pesticides exposure in the factory workers by measuring plasma cholinesterase (PChE), pesticides residues, and renal and hepatic biochemical markers. In addition, we also assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices adopted by the industrial workers. The study was conducted in three different sizes of factories located in Lahore (large), Multan (medium), and Karachi (small) in Pakistan. Total 238 adult males consisting of 184 pesticide industrial workers (exposed group) from large-sized (67), medium-sized (61), small-sized (56) industrial formulation factories, and 54 controls (unexposed) were included in the study. All the participants were male of aged 18 to 58 years. PChE levels were estimated by Ellmann's method. Plasma pesticides residue analysis was performed by using reverse phase C-18 on high-performance liquid chromatograph and GC with NPD detector. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured on Selectra E auto analyzer. Plasma and C-reactive protein was analyzed by Immulite 1000. The results revealed a significant decrease in plasma post exposure PChE levels (<30%) as compared to baseline in the workers of small (29%) and medium (8%) industrial units (p < 0.001). Plasma cypermethrin, endosulfan, imidacloprid, thiodicarb, carbofuran, and methamidophos levels were found to be higher than allowable daily intake. Serum AST, ALT, creatinine GGT, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant, and CRP were significantly raised among the workers of small and medium pesticide formulation factories as compared to large industrial unit and controls (p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that unsafe practices among small- and medium-sized pesticides industrial workers cause significant increase in pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and derangement of hepatic and renal function.

  6. Genetic variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Sandler, Dale P.; Burdette, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, human biomonitoring studies indicate increased genetic damage (e.g. chromosomal aberrations) with pesticide exposure. Given that the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway repairs a broad range of DNA damage, we evaluated interactions between pesticide exposure and 324 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 27 NER genes among 776 prostate cancer cases and 1444 male controls in a nested case–control study of white Agricultural Health Study pesticide applicators. We determined interaction P values using likelihood ratio tests from logistic regression models and three-level pesticide variables (none/low/high) based on lifetime days of use weighted to an intensity score. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR) method. Of the 17 interactions that met FDR <0.2, 3 displayed a monotonic increase in prostate cancer risk with increasing exposure in one genotype group and no significant association in the other group. Men carrying the variant A allele at ERCC1 rs2298881 exhibited increased prostate cancer risk with high versus no fonofos use [odds ratio (OR) 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65–5.39; Pinteract = 3.6 × 10−4; FDR-adjusted P = 0.11]. Men carrying the homozygous wild-type TT genotype at two correlated CDK7 SNPs, rs11744596 and rs2932778 (r2 = 1.0), exhibited increased risk with high versus no carbofuran use (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.31–3.10 for rs11744596; Pinteract = 7.2 × 10−4; FDR-adjusted P = 0.09). In contrast, we did not observe associations among men with other genotypes at these loci. While requiring replication, our findings suggest a role for NER genetic variation in pesticide-associated prostate cancer risk. PMID:22102698

  7. Residential Exposure to Pesticide During Childhood and Childhood Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Tao, Lin; Lu, Chensheng

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing concern about chronic low-level pesticide exposure during childhood and its influence on childhood cancers. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to examine associations between residential childhood pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. We searched all observational studies published in PubMed before February 2014 and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches. The literature search yielded 277 studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. We found that childhood exposure to indoor but not outdoor residential insecticides was associated with a significant increase in risk of childhood leukemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.72; I(2) = 30%) and childhood lymphomas (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.15-1.78; I(2) = 0%). A significant increase in risk of leukemia was also associated with herbicide exposure (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.44; I(2) = 0%). Also observed was a positive but not statistically significant association between childhood home pesticide or herbicide exposure and childhood brain tumors. The small number of studies included in the analysis represents a major limitation of the current analysis. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that children exposed to indoor insecticides would have a higher risk of childhood hematopoietic cancers. Additional research is needed to confirm the association between residential indoor pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. Meanwhile, preventive measures should be considered to reduce children's exposure to pesticides at home. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Developments in pesticide packaging and management of bulk herbicides as elements in a container reduction strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Pesticide packaging plays an important role in a broader area that can be called {open_quotes}Delivery Systems.{close_quotes} Delivery Systems can include all of the physical elements that enable a technical active ingredient or combination of ingredients to move from the manufacturing plant through the channels of distribution to the pesticide applicator, who generally further dilutes the product for use on a registered target pest or crop site. This article describes developments relating to three goals in pesticide packaging. Those goals are: reduction in the number of empty containers through the use of reusable containers, formulation modifications, and other container minimization approaches; recyling of empty containers for their material or energy value; and disposal of empty containers in accordance with environmentally sound and cost effective practices.

  9. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives.

  10. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  11. Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wuyundalai; Liu, Haijie; Chen, Tianpeng; Zhou, Yanxin; Su, Yi-Cheng; Li, Lite

    2011-05-01

    Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

  12. Reduction of point contamination sources of pesticide from a vineyard farm.

    PubMed

    Fait, Gabriella; Nicelli, Marco; Fragoulis, George; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore

    2007-05-01

    Although plant protection products are already regulated in Europe under Directive 91/414/EEC, there is increasing concern about the pollution of ground and surface water caused by point sources of pesticides, such as tank filling, spillages, faulty equipment, washing, waste disposal, and direct contamination. One tool for the reduction of pesticide point source contamination is a biological system where chemicals are bound and biologically degraded. This paper presents an offset lined system where wastewaters containing pesticide residues leach through a biomix. A pump system is provided to pump the water onto the surface of the biomix and allow it to drain under gravity, keeping the biomix wet. The analysis of residues of nine pesticides in the water, biomix, and sediment inside the tank showed the biobed to function well, with a water decontamination greater than 90%. The use of this system mitigated the potential for pollution (pesticide concentrations higher than 0.1 microg/L) of 1 km of the river system surrounding the farm.

  13. Source reduction in Florida's salt marshes: management to reduce pesticide use and enhance the resource.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Douglas B

    2006-09-01

    Source reduction as part of an integrated pest management program is a cornerstone of the American Mosquito Control Association's Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program Strategy Document to reduce pesticide risk. Since the early 1980s, Florida has made important strides in implementing environmentally sound source reduction strategies in salt marshes while managing them for both mosquito control and natural resource enhancement. The political mechanism for this progress has been interagency cooperation through the Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control and its Subcommittee on Managed Marshes. Challenges in accomplishing source reduction continue because both public and private lands are involved. Public lands include those owned by federal (e.g., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service), state (Florida Department of Environmental Protection), and local governments, and they have a diversity of management objectives. This diversity adds to the challenge facing mosquito control agencies in providing mosquito control services while protecting and enhancing the environment.

  14. Effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure during pregnancy on the growth and development of infants.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhanyou; Li, Xiaoqiong; Su, Qian; Xu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Kong, Zhenyu; Xu, Jianhui; Teng, Junfang

    2013-07-01

    Antenatal urine of 497 pregnant women was collected in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of a county hospital in Jiaozuo, Henan. The content of the main metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in urine were determined. After 1 year, physical development indices of 1-year old infants, such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference, were measured. The neural and mental development of the infants was assessed by the Development Screen Test (DST) scale. We observed that the level of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure was negatively related to the neural and mental development of infants (β = -0.1527, P < 0.05). Therefore, direct or indirect exposure to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides should be avoided during pregnancy.

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  16. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls). Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home), who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional) and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73), respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to further explore this

  17. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Joshi, Monika; Nookala, Vinod; Cheriyath, Pramil; Fischman, Daniel; Graber, Nora J; Stellman, Steven D; Muscat, Joshua

    2010-06-25

    Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls). Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home), who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional) and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73), respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to further explore this question.

  18. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

    1997-01-01

    Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329

  19. Cutaneous changes in rats induced by chronic skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation and organophosphate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; Santos, Itamar; Korinsfky, Juliana Pedrosa; Lima e Silva, Benedyto Sávio; Carvalho, Luis Otávio; Plapler, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    To study the possible potentiation of the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation associated with an organophosphate pesticide. Forty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (n=10 each) randomized according to the procedures: group A received only UVR-B radiation; group B, UVR-B for eight weeks followed by a seven week period of pesticide exposure; group C, UVR-B + pesticide concomitantly: group D, only pesticide application. At the end of the fifth, tenth and fifteenth weeks the animals were photographed. Skin biopsy and histopathological study with Hematoxylin-Eosin were done on the fifteenth week. Statistical analysis with Fisher's and Sign (unilateral) tests, 5% value for significance. Macroscopic lesions in the group A evolved from the erythema to erythema + desquamation. The groups B and C, with the association of two carcinogens, and group D presented evolution to keratosis, with higher incidence in group D. The histology showed a significant increase in the severity of injuries when the UVR-B and the pesticide were applied simultaneously, leading to cellular atypia. Concurrent association of UVR-B to organophosphate pesticide produced more severe lesions microscopically, although this has not been so apparent macroscopically. In daily practice the clinical evaluation should be complemented with laboratory evaluation.

  20. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  1. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  2. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K; Hedge, Joan M; Wood, Charles E; McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Herr, David W

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long-Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fiproni