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Sample records for pestis outer membrane

  1. Effect of natural polymorphism on structure and function of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane porin F (OmpF protein): a computational study.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Hiba; Na, Insing; Kislichkina, Angelina A; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Anisimov, Andrey P; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-09-03

    The Yersinia pestis outer membrane porin F (OmpF) is a transmembrane protein located in the outer membrane of this Gram-negative bacterium which is the causative agent of plague, where it plays a significant role in controlling the selective permeability of the membrane. The amino acid sequences of OmpF proteins from 48 Y. pestis strains representing all currently available phylogenetic groups of this Gram-negative bacterium were recently deduced. Comparison of these amino acid sequences revealed that the OmpF can be present in four isoforms, the pestis-pestis type, and the pestis-microtus types I, II, and III. OmpF of the most recent pestis-pestis type has an alanine residue at the position 148, where all the pestis-microtus types have threonine there (T148A polymorphism). The variability of different pestis-microtus types is caused by an additional polymorphism at the 193rd position, where the OmpFs of the pestis-microtus type II and type III have isoleucine-glycine (IG(+)193) or isoleucine-glycine-isoleucine-glycine (IGIG(+)193) insertions, respectively (IG(+)193 and IGIG(+)193 polymorphism). To investigate potential effects of these sequence polymorphisms on the structural properties of the OmpF protein, we conducted multi-level computational analysis of its isoforms. Analysis of the I-TASSER-generated 3D-models revealed that the Yersinia OmpF is very similar to other non-specific enterobacterial porins. The T148A polymorphism affected a loop located in the external vestibule of the OmpF channel, whereas IG(+)193 and IGIG(+)193 polymorphisms affected one of its β-strands. Our analysis also suggested that polymorphism has moderate effect on the predicted local intrinsic disorder predisposition of OmpF, but might have some functional implementations.

  2. Influence of the lipid membrane environment on structure and activity of the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Plano, Gregory V.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2014-01-01

    The surrounding environment has significant consequences for the structural and functional properties of membrane proteins. While native structure and function can be reconstituted in lipid bilayer membranes, the detergents used for protein solubilization are not always compatible with biological activity and, hence, not always appropriate for direct detection of ligand binding by NMR spectroscopy. Here we describe how the sample environment affects the activity of the outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) from Yersinia pestis. Although Ail adopts the correct β-barrel fold in micelles, the high detergent concentrations required for NMR structural studies are not compatible with the ligand binding functionality of the protein. We also describe preparations of Ail embedded in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs, optimized for NMR studies and ligand binding activity assays. Ail in nanodiscs is capable of binding its human ligand fibronectin and also yields high quality NMR spectra that reflect the proper fold. Binding activity assays, developed to be performed directly with the NMR samples, show that ligand binding involves the extracellular loops of Ail. The data show that even when detergent micelles support the protein fold, detergents can interfere with activity in subtle ways. PMID:25433311

  3. Production of Recombinant Injectosome and Outer Membrane Proteins from Yersinia Pestis KIM5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    7 2.2 Threat Assessment from WMD ............................................................ 7 2.3 Bacterial Based Biological Weapons (BBBW...Introduction 1.1 Chapter Overview Yersinia pestis, formerly Pasteurella pestis, has long been a blight upon the human species. As the causative agent of...Centers for Disease Control has classified Y. pestis as a Category A Agent (CDC 2009). This bacterial disease is endemic in a large portion of the

  4. Identification of Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli strains by whole cell and outer membrane protein extracts with mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Rabih E; Wade, Mary Margaret; Deshpande, Samir V; Stanford, Michael F; Wick, Charles H; Zulich, Alan W; Snyder, A Peter

    2010-07-02

    Whole cell protein and outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts were compared for their ability to differentiate and delineate the correct database organism to an experimental sample and for the degree of dissimilarity to the nearest neighbor database organism strains. These extracts were isolated from pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli using ultracentrifugation and a sarkosyl extraction method followed by protein digestion and analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Whole cell protein extracts contain many different types of proteins resident in an organism at a given phase in its growth cycle. OMPs, however, are often associated with virulence in Gram-negative pathogens and could prove to be model biomarkers for strain differentiation among bacteria. The mass spectra of bacterial peptides were searched, using the SEQUEST algorithm, against a constructed proteome database of microorganisms in order to determine the identity and number of unique peptides for each bacterial sample. Data analysis was performed with the in-house BACid software. It calculated the probabilities that a peptide sequence assignment to a product ion mass spectrum was correct and used accepted spectrum-to-sequence matches to generate a sequence-to-bacterium (STB) binary matrix of assignments. Validated peptide sequences, either present or absent in various strains (STB matrices), were visualized as assignment bitmaps and analyzed by the BACid module that used phylogenetic relationships among bacterial species as part of a decision tree process. The bacterial classification and identification algorithm used assignments of organisms to taxonomic groups (phylogenetic classification) based on an organized scheme that begins at the phylum level and follows through the class, order, family, genus, and species to the strain level. For both Gram-negative organisms, the number of unique distinguishing proteins arrived at by the whole

  5. Backbone structure of Yersinia pestis Ail determined in micelles by NMR-restrained simulated annealing with implicit membrane solvation

    PubMed Central

    Marassi, Francesca M.; Ding, Yi; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tian, Ye; Yao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) is a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis that mediates cell invasion, cell attachment and complement resistance. Here we describe its three-dimensional backbone structure determined in decyl-phosphocholine (DePC) micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure was calculated using the membrane function of the implicit solvation potential, eefxPot, which we have developed to facilitate NMR structure calculations in a physically realistic environment. We show that the eefxPot force field guides the protein towards its native fold. The resulting structures provide information about the membrane-embedded global position of Ail, and have higher accuracy, higher precision and improved conformational properties, compared to the structures calculated with the standard repulsive potential. PMID:26143069

  6. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis. PMID:15449605

  7. The outer mitochondrial membrane in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Owen; van der Merwe, Margaretha J; Daley, Daniel O; Whelan, James

    2013-04-01

    The acquisition and integration of intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria and plastids, were important steps in the emergence of complex multicellular life. Although the outer membranes of these organelles have lost many of the functions of their free-living bacterial ancestor, others were acquired during organellogenesis. To date, the biological roles of these proteins have not been systematically characterized. In this review, we discuss the evolutionary origins and functions of outer membrane mitochondrial (OMM) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our analysis, using phylogenetic inference, indicates that several OMM proteins either acquired novel functional roles or were recruited from other subcellular localizations during evolution in Arabidopsis. These observations suggest the existence of novel communication routes and functions between organelles within plant cells.

  8. Yersinia pestis halotolerance illuminates plague reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Levasseur, Anthony; Terras, Jérôme; Gaudart, Jean; Azza, Said; Flaudrops, Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen. Core genome SNP analysis placed this isolate within the Y. pestis branch 1, Orientalis biovar. Culturing Y. pestis in broth steadily enriched in NaCl indicated survival up to 150 g/L NaCl as L-form variants exhibiting a distinctive matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide profile. Further transcriptomic analyses found the upregulation of several outer-membrane proteins including TolC efflux pump and OmpF porin implied in osmotic pressure regulation. Salt tolerance of Y. pestis L-form may play a role in the maintenance of natural plague foci in North Africa and beyond, as these geographical correlations could be extended to 31 plague foci in the northern hemisphere (from 15°N to 50°N). PMID:28054667

  9. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  10. Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane protein A modulates the biogenesis of outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Jung Hwa; Choi, Chi-Won; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Park, Jeong Soon; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during both in vitro and in vivo growth, but the biogenesis mechanism by which A. baumannii produces OMVs remains undefined. Outer membrane protein A of A. baumannii (AbOmpA) is a major protein in the outer membrane and the C-terminus of AbOmpA interacts with diaminopimelate of peptidoglycan. This study investigated the role of AbOmpA in the biogenesis of A. baumannii OMVs. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyze OMV biogenesis in A. baumannii ATCC 19606T and an isogenic ΔAbOmpA mutant. OMV production was significantly increased in the ΔAbOmpA mutant compared to wild-type bacteria as demonstrated by quantitation of proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) packaged in OMVs. LPS profiles prepared from OMVs from wild-type bacteria and the ΔAbOmpA mutant had identical patterns, but proteomic analysis showed different protein constituents in OMVs from wild-type bacteria compared to the ΔAbOmpA mutant. In conclusion, AbOmpA influences OMV biogenesis by controlling OMV production and protein composition.

  11. Biochemical characteristics of the outer membranes of plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mannella, C A; Bonner, W D

    1975-12-01

    Like the outer membranes of liver mitochondria, those of plant mitochondria are impermeable to cytochrome c when intact and can be ruptured by osmotic shock. Isolated plant outer mitochondrial membranes are also similar to the corresponding liver membranes in terms of phospholipid and sterol content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis experiments indicate that a single class of proteins (apparent molecular weight 30 000) comprises the bulk of the plant outer membrane protein. There are also considerable amounts of polysaccharide associated with these membranes, which may contribute to their osmotic stability.

  12. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kieselbach, Thomas; Zijnge, Vincent; Granström, Elisabeth; Oscarsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA) into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  13. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and vaccine applications.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.

  14. Outer membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram‐negative bacteria. They present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self‐adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. In particular with Neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an OMV‐containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved by regulatory agencies. Genetic engineering of the OMV‐producing bacteria can be used to improve and expand their usefulness as vaccines. Recent work on meningitis B vaccines shows that OMVs can be modified, such as for lipopolysaccharide reactogenicity, to yield an OMV product that is safe and effective. The overexpression of crucial antigens or simultaneous expression of multiple antigenic variants as well as the expression of heterologous antigens enable expansion of their range of applications. In addition, modifications may increase the yield of OMV production and can be combined with specific production processes to obtain high amounts of well‐defined, stable and uniform OMV particle vaccine products. Further improvement can facilitate the development of OMVs as platform vaccine product for multiple applications. PMID:26912077

  15. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles and Vaccine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A.; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  16. Assembly of outer-membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tommassen, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria consists of two membranes separated by the periplasm. In contrast with most integral membrane proteins, which span the membrane in the form of hydrophobic alpha-helices, integral outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) form beta-barrels. Similar beta-barrel proteins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, probably reflecting the endosymbiont origin of these eukaryotic cell organelles. How these beta-barrel proteins are assembled into the outer membrane has remained enigmatic for a long time. In recent years, much progress has been reached in this field by the identification of the components of the OMP assembly machinery. The central component of this machinery, called Omp85 or BamA, is an essential and highly conserved bacterial protein that recognizes a signature sequence at the C terminus of its substrate OMPs. A homologue of this protein is also found in mitochondria, where it is required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins into the outer membrane as well. Although accessory components of the machineries are different between bacteria and mitochondria, a mitochondrial beta-barrel OMP can be assembled into the bacterial outer membrane and, vice versa, bacterial OMPs expressed in yeast are assembled into the mitochondrial outer membrane. These observations indicate that the basic mechanism of OMP assembly is evolutionarily highly conserved.

  17. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    PubMed

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of the Outer Membrane of Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ellen S.; Skare, Jonathan T.; Exner, Maurice M.; Blanco, David R.; Kagan, Bruce L.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    The outer membrane of Borrelia hermsii has been shown by freeze-fracture analysis to contain a low density of membrane-spanning outer membrane proteins which have not yet been isolated or identified. In this study, we report the purification of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from B. hermsii HS-1 and the subsequent identification of their constituent outer membrane proteins. The B. hermsii outer membranes were released by vigorous vortexing of whole organisms in low-pH, hypotonic citrate buffer and isolated by isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation. The isolated OMV exhibited porin activities ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 nS, consistent with their outer membrane origin. Purified OMV were shown to be relatively free of inner membrane contamination by the absence of measurable β-NADH oxidase activity and the absence of protoplasmic cylinder-associated proteins observed by Coomassie blue staining. Approximately 60 protein spots (some of which are putative isoelectric isomers) with 25 distinct molecular weights were identified as constituents of the OMV enrichment. The majority of these proteins were also shown to be antigenic with sera from B. hermsii-infected mice. Seven of these antigenic proteins were labeled with [3H]palmitate, including the surface-exposed glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, the variable major proteins 7 and 33, and proteins of 15, 17, 38, 42, and 67 kDa, indicating that they are lipoprotein constituents of the outer membrane. In addition, immunoblot analysis of the OMV probed with antiserum to the Borrelia garinii surface-exposed p66/Oms66 porin protein demonstrated the presence of a p66 (Oms66) outer membrane homolog. Treatment of intact B. hermsii with proteinase K resulted in the partial proteolysis of the Oms66/p66 homolog, indicating that it is surface exposed. This identification and characterization of the OMV proteins should aid in further studies of pathogenesis and immunity of tick-borne relapsing fever. PMID:9488399

  19. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. PMID:26627837

  20. Utilization of Nitrophenylphosphates and Oxime-Based Ligation for the Development of Nanomolar Affinity Inhibitors of the Yersinia pestis Outer Protein H (YopH) Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Bahta, Medhanit; Lountos, George T.; Dyas, Beverly; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ulrich, Robert G.; Waugh, David S.; Burke, Jr., Terrence R.

    2012-08-10

    Our current study reports the first K{sub M} optimization of a library of nitrophenylphosphate-containing substrates for generating an inhibitor lead against the Yersinia pestis outer protein phosphatase (YopH). A high activity substrate identified by this method (K{sub M} = 80 {micro}M) was converted from a substrate into an inhibitor by replacement of its phosphate group with difluoromethylphosphonic acid and by attachment of an aminooxy handle for further structural optimization by oxime ligation. A cocrystal structure of this aminooxy-containing platform in complex with YopH allowed the identification of a conserved water molecule proximal to the aminooxy group that was subsequently employed for the design of furanyl-based oxime derivatives. By this process, a potent (IC{sub 50} = 190 nM) and nonpromiscuous inhibitor was developed with good YopH selectivity relative to a panel of phosphatases. The inhibitor showed significant inhibition of intracellular Y. pestis replication at a noncytotoxic concentration. The current work presents general approaches to PTP inhibitor development that may be useful beyond YopH.

  1. Decreasing Outer Hair Cell Membrane Cholesterol Increases Cochlear Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, William E.; Jacob, Stefan; Hakizimana, Pierre; Ulfendahl, Mats; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    The effect of decreasing membrane cholesterol on the mechanical response of the cochlea to acoustic and/or electrical stimulation was monitored using laser interferometry. In contrast to pharmacological interventions that typically decrease cochlear electromechanics, reducing membrane cholesterol increased the response. The electromechanical response in untreated preparations was asymmetric with greater displacements in response to positive currents and cholesterol depletion increased the asymmetry. The results confirm that outer hair cell electromotility is enhanced by low membrane cholesterol. The asymmetry of the response indicates the outer hair cell resting membrane potential is hyperpolarized relative to the voltage of maximum gain for the outer hair cell voltage-displacement function. The magnitude of the response increase suggests a non-uniform distribution of cholesterol along the lateral wall of normal adult outer hair cells.

  2. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  3. Proteome analysis of mitochondrial outer membrane from Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Simone; Prokisch, Holger; Schlunk, Tilman; Camp, David G.; Ahting, Uwe; Waizenegger, Thomas; Scharfe, Curt M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Imhof, Axel; Neupert, Walter; Oefner, Peter J.; Rapaport, Doron

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane mediates numerous interactions between the metabolic and genetic systems of mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. We performed a proteomic study to discover novel functions of components of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Proteins of highly pure outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Neurospora crassa were identified by a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide digests and gel electrophoresis of solubilized OMV proteins, followed by their identification using MALDI-MS peptide fingerprinting. Among the 30 proteins found in at least three of four separate analyses were 23 proteins with known functions in the outer membrane. These included components of the import machinery (the TOM and TOB complexes), a pore-forming component (Porin), and proteins that control fusion and fission of the organelle. In addition, proteins playing a role in various biosynthetic pathways, whose intracellular location had not been established previously, could be localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Thus, the proteome of the outer membrane can help in identifying new mitochondria-related functions.

  4. Localization of phosphatidylcholine in outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the effects of phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus on the extent of phospholipid hydrolysis in envelope membrane vesicles and in intact chloroplasts. When isolated envelope vesicles were incubated in presence of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol, but not phosphatidylinositol, were totally converted into diacylglycerol if they were available to the enzyme (i.e., when the vesicles were sonicated in presence of phospholipase C). These experiments demonstrate that phospholipase C can be used to probe the availability of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in the cytosolic leaflet of the outer envelope membrane from spinach chloroplasts. When isolated, purified, intact chloroplasts were incubated with low amounts of phospholipase C (0.3 U/mg chlorophyll) under very mild conditions (12 degrees C for 1 min), greater than 80% of phosphatidylcholine molecules and almost none of phosphatidylglycerol molecules were hydrolyzed. Since we have also demonstrated, by using several different methods (phase-contrast and electron microscopy, immunochemical and electrophoretic analyses) that isolated spinach chloroplasts, and especially their outer envelope membrane, remained intact after mild treatment with phospholipase C, we can conclude that there is a marked asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts. Phosphatidylcholine, the major polar lipid of the outer envelope membrane, is almost entirely accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane and therefore is probably localized in the outer leaflet of the outer envelope bilayer. On the contrary, phosphatidylglycerol, the major polar lipid in the inner envelope membrane and the thylakoids, is probably not accessible to phospholipase C from the cytosol and therefore is probably localized mostly in the inner leaflet of the outer envelope membrane and in the other chloroplast membranes. PMID:3988805

  5. Agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, M

    1992-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria provides the cell with an effective permeability barrier against external noxious agents, including antibiotics, but is itself a target for antibacterial agents such as polycations and chelators. Both groups of agents weaken the molecular interactions of the lipopolysaccharide constituent of the outer membrane. Various polycations are able, at least under certain conditions, to bind to the anionic sites of lipopolysaccharide. Many of these disorganize and cross the outer membrane and render it permeable to drugs which permeate the intact membrane very poorly. These polycations include polymyxins and their derivatives, protamine, polymers of basic amino acids, compound 48/80, insect cecropins, reptilian magainins, various cationic leukocyte peptides (defensins, bactenecins, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and others), aminoglycosides, and many more. However, the cationic character is not the sole determinant required for the permeabilizing activity, and therefore some of the agents are much more effective permeabilizers than others. They are useful tools in studies in which the poor permeability of the outer membrane poses problems. Some of them undoubtedly have a role as natural antibiotic substances, and they or their derivatives might have some potential as pharmaceutical agents in antibacterial therapy as well. Also, chelators (such as EDTA, nitrilotriacetic acid, and sodium hexametaphosphate), which disintegrate the outer membrane by removing Mg2+ and Ca2+, are effective and valuable permeabilizers. PMID:1406489

  6. An efficient depyrogenation method for recombinant bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Basto, Afonso P; Morais, Joana; Marcelino, Eduardo; Leitão, Alexandre; Santos, Dulce M

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins are anchored in the outer membrane lipid layer in close association with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and with other hydrophobic membrane proteins, making their purification technically challenging. We have previously shown that a thorough delipidation of outer membrane preparations from the Escherichia coli expression host is an important step to eliminate contaminant proteins when purifying recombinant antigens expressed in fusion with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprI lipoprotein. Here we report the cloning and expression of three antigens in fusion with OprI (ovalbumin, eGFP and BbPDI) and our efforts to deal with the variable LPS contamination levels observed in different batches of purified lipoproteins. The use of polymyxin B columns or endotoxin removal polycationic magnetic beads for depyrogenation of purified lipoproteins resulted in high protein losses and the use of Triton X-114 or sodium deoxycholate during the course of affinity chromatography showed to be ineffective to reduce LPS contamination. Instead, performing a hot phenol/water LPS extraction from outer membrane preparations prior to metal affinity chromatography allowed the purification of the recombinant fusion lipoproteins with LPS contents below 0.02EU/μg of protein. The purified recombinant lipoproteins retain their capacity to stimulate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells allowing for the study of their immunomodulatory properties through TLR2/1. This is a simple and easy to scale up method that can also be considered for the purification of other outer membrane lipoproteins.

  7. Substrate Specificity within a Family of Outer Membrane Carboxylate Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Vijayaraghavan, Jagamya; Liu, Jiaming; Cheneke, Belete R.; Touw, Debra S.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Indic, Mridhu; Movileanu, Liviu; van den Berg, Bert; Dutzler, Raimund

    2012-01-17

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM) that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  8. Membrane protein architects: the role of the BAM complex in outer membrane protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Timothy J; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Overduin, Michael; Henderson, Ian R

    2009-03-01

    The folding of transmembrane proteins into the outer membrane presents formidable challenges to Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins must migrate from the cytoplasm, through the inner membrane and into the periplasm, before being recognized by the beta-barrel assembly machinery, which mediates efficient insertion of folded beta-barrels into the outer membrane. Recent discoveries of component structures and accessory interactions of this complex are yielding insights into how cells fold membrane proteins. Here, we discuss how these structures illuminate the mechanisms responsible for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

  9. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  10. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Outer Membrane Permeability Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria characteristically are surrounded by an additional membrane layer, the outer membrane. Although outer membrane components often play important roles in the interaction of symbiotic or pathogenic bacteria with their host organisms, the major role of this membrane must usually be to serve as a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of noxious compounds and at the same time to allow the influx of nutrient molecules. This review summarizes the development in the field since our previous review (H. Nikaido and M. Vaara, Microbiol. Rev. 49:1-32, 1985) was published. With the discovery of protein channels, structural knowledge enables us to understand in molecular detail how porins, specific channels, TonB-linked receptors, and other proteins function. We are now beginning to see how the export of large proteins occurs across the outer membrane. With our knowledge of the lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid asymmetric bilayer of the outer membrane, we are finally beginning to understand how this bilayer can retard the entry of lipophilic compounds, owing to our increasing knowledge about the chemistry of lipopolysaccharide from diverse organisms and the way in which lipopolysaccharide structure is modified by environmental conditions. PMID:14665678

  11. Heterogeneity in Lipid Composition of the Outer Membrane and Cytoplasmic Membrane of Pseudomonas BAL-31

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, D. L.; Cota-Robles, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The outer membranes and cytoplasmic membranes of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas BAL-31 were separated by washing the cells three times in 0.5 M NaCl and twice in 0.5 M sucrose. Electron microscopy during the removal of membranes revealed that the outer membranes fragmented in a regular manner to give rise to fairly uniform vesicles measuring approximately 140 nm in diameter. Isolated outer membranes had a buoyant density in sucrose of 1.230 g per cm3, whereas the cytoplasmic membranes had a density of 1.194 g per cm3. The removal of the outer membrane during the application of this procedure was monitored by measuring the release of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and phospholipid. The cells lost 85.5% of their 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and 47.3% of their phospholipid during this treatment. Complete recovery of outer membrane material could be achieved. The removal of 25.5% of the 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and 0.9% of the phospholipid rendered the cells sensitive to lysis with Triton X-100. The phospholipid composition of the outer membrane was calculated to be 78.9% phosphatidylethanolamine and 16.1% phosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipid composition of the cytoplasmic membrane proved to be 71.5% phosphatidylethanolamine and 23.5% phosphatidylglycerol. The fatty acid composition was also found to be quantitatively heterogeneous between the two membranes. Images PMID:4852262

  12. Outer Membrane Vesicle Production Facilitates LPS Remodeling and Outer Membrane Maintenance in Salmonella during Environmental Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of Gram-negative bacteria to carefully modulate outer membrane (OM) composition is essential to their survival. However, the asymmetric and heterogeneous structure of the Gram-negative OM poses unique challenges to the cell’s successful adaption to rapid environmental transitions. Although mechanisms to recycle and degrade OM phospholipid material exist, there is no known mechanism by which to remove unfavorable lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms, except slow dilution through cell growth. As all Gram-negative bacteria constitutively shed OM vesicles (OMVs), we propose that cells may utilize OMV formation as a way to selectively remove environmentally disadvantageous LPS species. We examined the native kinetics of OM composition during physiologically relevant environmental changes in Salmonella enterica, a well-characterized model system for activation of PhoP/Q and PmrA/B two-component systems (TCSs). In response to acidic pH, toxic metals, antimicrobial peptides, and lack of divalent cations, these TCSs modify the LPS lipid A and core, lengthen the O antigen, and upregulate specific OM proteins. An environmental change to PhoP/Q- and PmrA/B-activating conditions simultaneously induced the addition of modified species of LPS to the OM, downregulation of previously dominant species of LPS, greater OMV production, and increased OMV diameter. Comparison of the relative abundance of lipid A species present in the OM and the newly budded OMVs following two sets of rapid environmental shifts revealed the retention of lipid A species with modified phosphate moieties in the OM concomitant with the selective loss of palmitoylated species via vesiculation following exposure to moderately acidic environmental conditions. PMID:27795394

  13. Inhibition of outer membrane proteases of the omptin family by aprotinin.

    PubMed

    Brannon, John R; Burk, David L; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Portt, Andrea; Berghuis, Albert M; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial proteases are important virulence factors that inactivate host defense proteins and contribute to tissue destruction and bacterial dissemination. Outer membrane proteases of the omptin family, exemplified by Escherichia coli OmpT, are found in some Gram-negative bacteria. Omptins cleave a variety of substrates at the host-pathogen interface, including plasminogen and antimicrobial peptides. Multiple omptin substrates relevant to infection have been identified; nonetheless, an effective omptin inhibitor remains to be found. Here, we purified native CroP, the OmpT ortholog in the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Purified CroP was found to readily cleave both a synthetic fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrate and the murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. In contrast, CroP was found to poorly activate plasminogen into active plasmin. Although classical protease inhibitors were ineffective against CroP activity, we found that the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin displays inhibitory potency in the micromolar range. Aprotinin was shown to act as a competitive inhibitor of CroP activity and to interfere with the cleavage of the murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. Importantly, aprotinin was able to inhibit not only CroP but also Yersinia pestis Pla and, to a lesser extent, E. coli OmpT. We propose a structural model of the aprotinin-omptin complex in which Lys15 of aprotinin forms salt bridges with conserved negatively charged residues of the omptin active site.

  14. Contribution of bacterial outer membrane vesicles to innate bacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria throughout growth and have proposed roles in virulence, inflammation, and the response to envelope stress. Here we investigate outer membrane vesiculation as a bacterial mechanism for immediate short-term protection against outer membrane acting stressors. Antimicrobial peptides as well as bacteriophage were used to examine the effectiveness of OMV protection. Results We found that a hyper-vesiculating mutant of Escherichia coli survived treatment by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) polymyxin B and colistin better than the wild-type. Supplementation of E. coli cultures with purified outer membrane vesicles provided substantial protection against AMPs, and AMPs significantly induced vesiculation. Vesicle-mediated protection and induction of vesiculation were also observed for a human pathogen, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), challenged with polymyxin B. When ETEC with was incubated with low concentrations of vesicles concomitant with polymyxin B treatment, bacterial survival increased immediately, and the culture gained resistance to polymyxin B. By contrast, high levels of vesicles also provided immediate protection but prevented acquisition of resistance. Co-incubation of T4 bacteriophage and OMVs showed fast, irreversible binding. The efficiency of T4 infection was significantly reduced by the formation of complexes with the OMVs. Conclusions These data reveal a role for OMVs in contributing to innate bacterial defense by adsorption of antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophage. Given the increase in vesiculation in response to the antimicrobial peptides, and loss in efficiency of infection with the T4-OMV complex, we conclude that OMV production may be an important factor in neutralizing environmental agents that target the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22133164

  15. LPS Remodeling Triggers Formation of Outer Membrane Vesicles in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Elhenawy, Wael; Bording-Jorgensen, Michael; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Haurat, M. Florencia; Wine, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are proposed to mediate multiple functions during pathogenesis and symbiosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for OMV formation remain poorly understood. It has been shown in eukaryotic membranes that lipids with an inverted-cone shape favor the formation of positive membrane curvatures. Based on these studies, we formulated the hypothesis that lipid A deacylation might impose shape modifications that result in the curvature of the outer membrane (OM) and subsequent OMV formation. We tested the effect of lipid A remodeling on OMV biogenesis employing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism. Expression of the lipid A deacylase PagL resulted in increased vesiculation, without inducing an envelope stress response. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed profound differences in the patterns of lipid A in OM and OMV, with accumulation of deacylated lipid A forms exclusively in OMV. OMV biogenesis by intracellular bacteria upon macrophage infection was drastically reduced in a pagL mutant strain. We propose a novel mechanism for OMV biogenesis requiring lipid A deacylation in the context of a multifactorial process that involves the orchestrated remodeling of the outer membrane. PMID:27406567

  16. DNA Inversion Regulates Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Yoneda, Saori; Nariya, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Motoo; Secher, Thomas; Miyake, Yoichiro; Oswald, Eric; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Phase changes in Bacteroides fragilis, a member of the human colonic microbiota, mediate variations in a vast array of cell surface molecules, such as capsular polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins through DNA inversion. The results of the present study show that outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation in this anaerobe is also controlled by DNA inversions at two distantly localized promoters, IVp-I and IVp-II that are associated with extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis and the expression of outer membrane proteins. These promoter inversions are mediated by a single tyrosine recombinase encoded by BF2766 (orthologous to tsr19 in strain NCTC9343) in B. fragilis YCH46, which is located near IVp-I. A series of BF2766 mutants were constructed in which the two promoters were locked in different configurations (IVp-I/IVp-II = ON/ON, OFF/OFF, ON/OFF or OFF/ON). ON/ON B. fragilis mutants exhibited hypervesiculating, whereas the other mutants formed only a trace amount of OMVs. The hypervesiculating ON/ON mutants showed higher resistance to treatment with bile, LL-37, and human β-defensin 2. Incubation of wild-type cells with 5% bile increased the population of cells with the ON/ON genotype. These results indicate that B. fragilis regulates the formation of OMVs through DNA inversions at two distantly related promoter regions in response to membrane stress, although the mechanism underlying the interplay between the two regions controlled by the invertible promoters remains unknown. PMID:26859882

  17. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  18. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  19. A membrane bending model of outer hair cell electromotility.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, R M; Popel, A S; Brownell, W E

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for outer hair cell electromotility based on electrically induced localized changes in the curvature of the plasma membrane (flexoelectricity). Electromechanical coupling in the cell's lateral wall is modeled in terms of linear constitutive equations for a flexoelectric membrane and then extended to nonlinear coupling based on the Langevin function. The Langevin function, which describes the fraction of dipoles aligned with an applied electric field, is shown to be capable of predicting the electromotility voltage displacement function. We calculate the electrical and mechanical contributions to the force balance and show that the model is consistent with experimentally measured values for electromechanical properties. The model rationalizes several experimental observations associated with outer hair cell electromotility and provides for constant surface area of the plasma membrane. The model accounts for the isometric force generated by the cell and explains the observation that the disruption of spectrin by diamide reduces force generation in the cell. We discuss the relation of this mechanism to other proposed models of outer hair cell electromotility. Our analysis suggests that rotation of membrane dipoles and the accompanying mechanical deformation may be the molecular mechanism of electromotility. PMID:10827967

  20. Outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rollauer, Sarah E.; Sooreshjani, Moloud A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria contain a double membrane which serves for both protection and for providing nutrients for viability. The outermost of these membranes is called the outer membrane (OM), and it contains a host of fully integrated membrane proteins which serve essential functions for the cell, including nutrient uptake, cell adhesion, cell signalling and waste export. For pathogenic strains, many of these outer membrane proteins (OMPs) also serve as virulence factors for nutrient scavenging and evasion of host defence mechanisms. OMPs are unique membrane proteins in that they have a β-barrel fold and can range in size from 8 to 26 strands, yet can still serve many different functions for the cell. Despite their essential roles in cell survival and virulence, the exact mechanism for the biogenesis of these OMPs into the OM has remained largely unknown. However, the past decade has witnessed significant progress towards unravelling the pathways and mechanisms necessary for moulding a nascent polypeptide into a functional OMP within the OM. Here, we will review some of these recent discoveries that have advanced our understanding of the biogenesis of OMPs in Gram-negative bacteria, starting with synthesis in the cytoplasm to folding and insertion into the OM. PMID:26370935

  1. Mitochondria and cell death: outer membrane permeabilization and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tait, Stephen W G; Green, Douglas R

    2010-09-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is often required for activation of the caspase proteases that cause apoptotic cell death. Various intermembrane space (IMS) proteins, such as cytochrome c, promote caspase activation following their mitochondrial release. As a consequence, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity is highly controlled, primarily through interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein family. Following MOMP by pro-apoptotic BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) or BCL-2 antagonist or killer (BAK), additional regulatory mechanisms govern the mitochondrial release of IMS proteins and caspase activity. MOMP typically leads to cell death irrespective of caspase activity by causing a progressive decline in mitochondrial function, although cells can survive this under certain circumstances, which may have pathophysiological consequences.

  2. Outer membrane vesicles of Tannerella forsythia: biogenesis, composition, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, V; Gruber, C; Nimeth, I; Pabinger, S; Sekot, G; Posch, G; Altmann, F; Messner, P; Andrukhov, O; Schäffer, C

    2015-12-01

    Tannerella forsythia is the only 'red-complex' bacterium covered by an S-layer, which has been shown to affect virulence. Here, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) enriched with putative glycoproteins are described as a new addition to the virulence repertoire of T. forsythia. Investigations of this bacterium are hampered by its fastidious growth requirements and the recently discovered mismatch of the available genome sequence (92A2 = ATCC BAA-2717) and the widely used T. forsythia strain (ATCC 43037). T. forsythia was grown anaerobically in serum-free medium and biogenesis of OMVs was analyzed by electron and atomic force microscopy. This revealed OMVs with a mean diameter of ~100 nm budding off from the outer membrane while retaining the S-layer. An LC-ESI-TOF/TOF proteomic analysis of OMVs from three independent biological replicates identified 175 proteins. Of these, 14 exhibited a C-terminal outer membrane translocation signal that directs them to the cell/vesicle surface, 61 and 53 were localized to the outer membrane and periplasm, respectively, 22 were predicted to be extracellular, and 39 to originate from the cytoplasm. Eighty proteins contained the Bacteroidales O-glycosylation motif, 18 of which were confirmed as glycoproteins. Release of pro-inflammatory mediators from the human monocytic cell line U937 and periodontal ligament fibroblasts upon stimulation with OMVs followed a concentration-dependent increase that was more pronounced in the presence of soluble CD14 in conditioned media. The inflammatory response was significantly higher than that caused by whole T. forsythia cells. Our study represents the first characterization of T. forsythia OMVs, their proteomic composition and immunogenic potential.

  3. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics.

  4. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence

  5. Gibbs motif sampling: detection of bacterial outer membrane protein repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Neuwald, A. F.; Liu, J. S.; Lawrence, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and alignment of locally conserved regions (motifs) in multiple sequences can provide insight into protein structure, function, and evolution. A new Gibbs sampling algorithm is described that detects motif-encoding regions in sequences and optimally partitions them into distinct motif models; this is illustrated using a set of immunoglobulin fold proteins. When applied to sequences sharing a single motif, the sampler can be used to classify motif regions into related submodels, as is illustrated using helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Other statistically based procedures are described for searching a database for sequences matching motifs found by the sampler. When applied to a set of 32 very distantly related bacterial integral outer membrane proteins, the sampler revealed that they share a subtle, repetitive motif. Although BLAST (Altschul SF et al., 1990, J Mol Biol 215:403-410) fails to detect significant pairwise similarity between any of the sequences, the repeats present in these outer membrane proteins, taken as a whole, are highly significant (based on a generally applicable statistical test for motifs described here). Analysis of bacterial porins with known trimeric beta-barrel structure and related proteins reveals a similar repetitive motif corresponding to alternating membrane-spanning beta-strands. These beta-strands occur on the membrane interface (as opposed to the trimeric interface) of the beta-barrel. The broad conservation and structural location of these repeats suggests that they play important functional roles. PMID:8520488

  6. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  7. Adhesive Properties of YapV and Paralogous Autotransporter Proteins of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manoj K. M.; De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Galván, Estela M.; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. This bacterium evolved from an ancestral enteroinvasive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain by gene loss and acquisition of new genes, allowing it to use fleas as transmission vectors. Infection frequently leads to a rapidly lethal outcome in humans, a variety of rodents, and cats. This study focuses on the Y. pestis KIM yapV gene and its product, recognized as an autotransporter protein by its typical sequence, outer membrane localization, and amino-terminal surface exposure. Comparison of Yersinia genomes revealed that DNA encoding YapV or each of three individual paralogous proteins (YapK, YapJ, and YapX) was present as a gene or pseudogene in a strain-specific manner and only in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. YapV acted as an adhesin for alveolar epithelial cells and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as shown with recombinant Escherichia coli, Y. pestis, or purified passenger domains. Like YapV, YapK and YapJ demonstrated adhesive properties, suggesting that their previously related in vivo activity is due to their capacity to modulate binding properties of Y. pestis in its hosts, in conjunction with other adhesins. A differential host-specific type of binding to ECM proteins by YapV, YapK, and YapJ suggested that these proteins participate in broadening the host range of Y. pestis. A phylogenic tree including 36 Y. pestis strains highlighted an association between the gene profile for the four paralogous proteins and the geographic location of the corresponding isolated strains, suggesting an evolutionary adaption of Y. pestis to specific local animal hosts or reservoirs. PMID:25690102

  8. TonB-dependent outer membrane transport: going for Baroque?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Michael C

    2005-08-01

    The import of essential organometallic micronutrients (such as iron-siderophores and vitamin B(12)) across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria proceeds via TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs). The TBDT couples to the TonB protein, which is part of a multiprotein complex in the plasma (inner) membrane. Five crystal structures of TBDTs illustrate clearly the architecture of the protein in energy-independent substrate-free and substrate-bound states. In each of the TBDT structures, an N-terminal hatch (or plug or cork) domain occludes the lumen of a 22-stranded beta barrel. The manner by which substrate passes through the transporter (the "hatch-barrel problem") is currently unknown. Solution NMR and X-ray crystallographic structures of various TonB domains indicate a striking structural plasticity of this protein. Thermodynamic, biochemical and bacteriological studies of TonB and TBDTs indicate further that existing structures do not yet capture critical energy-dependent and in vivo conformations of the transport cycle. The reconciliation of structural and non-structural experimental data, and the unambiguous experimental elucidation of a detailed molecular mechanism of transport are current challenges for this field.

  9. Detection of outer membrane vesicles in Synechocystis PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Yehudah A.; Florez, Catalina; Baker, Kristopher M.; Schertzer, Jeffrey W.; Mahler, Gretchen J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that many species of Gram-negative bacteria release nanoscale outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during normal growth. Furthermore, the roles of these structures in heterotrophic bacteria have been extensively characterized. However, little is known about the existence or function of OMVs in photoautotrophs. In the present study, we report for the first time the production of OMVs by the model photosynthetic organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a species of biotechnological importance. We detected extracellular proteins and lipids in cell-free supernatants derived from Synechocystis culture, yet the cytoplasmic and thylakoid membrane markers NADH oxidase and chlorophyll were absent. This indicated that the extracellular proteins and lipids derived from the outer membrane, and not from cell lysis. Furthermore, we identified spherical structures within the expected size range of OMVs in Synechocystis culture using scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that the repertoire of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to produce OMVs may be expanded to include Synechocystis PCC6803. Because of the considerable genetic characterization of Synechocystis in particular, our discovery has the potential to support novel biotechnological applications as well. PMID:26363014

  10. Characterization of Francisella tularensis Outer Membrane Proteins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Jason F.; Conley, Patrick G.; Hagman, Kayla E.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative coccobacillus that is capable of causing severe, fatal disease in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Little is known about the proteins that are surface exposed on the outer membrane (OM) of F. tularensis, yet identification of such proteins is potentially fundamental to understanding the initial infection process, intracellular survival, virulence, immune evasion and, ultimately, vaccine development. To facilitate the identification of putative F. tularensis outer membrane proteins (OMPs), the genomes of both the type A strain (Schu S4) and type B strain (LVS) were subjected to six bioinformatic analyses for OMP signatures. Compilation of the bioinformatic predictions highlighted 16 putative OMPs, which were cloned and expressed for the generation of polyclonal antisera. Total membranes were extracted from both Schu S4 and LVS by spheroplasting and osmotic lysis, followed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, which separated OMs from cytoplasmic (inner) membrane and other cellular compartments. Validation of OM separation and enrichment was confirmed by probing sucrose gradient fractions with antibodies to putative OMPs and inner membrane proteins. F. tularensis OMs typically migrated in sucrose gradients between densities of 1.17 and 1.20 g/ml, which differed from densities typically observed for other gram-negative bacteria (1.21 to 1.24 g/ml). Finally, the identities of immunogenic proteins were determined by separation on two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. This is the first report of a direct method for F. tularensis OM isolation that, in combination with computational predictions, offers a more comprehensive approach for the characterization of F. tularensis OMPs. PMID:17114266

  11. Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

  12. Iron-Associated Outer Membrane Proteins of Magnetic Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-16

    AD-A210 088 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Form Approved WrMN PAGE0MB No ()704-0188 la RPORTSECQ!TY -AssF.(L; i RES’C it MA %CS ()NA 14 J 1 ILL 2a SECURITY...NUMBERS 800N. uicy t.PROGRAM PROiECT rASK P T’O ~80NQunyS.EiLEVE T NO NO NO jACCES ON NO Arlington, VA 22217-5000 61153N IRR 4106 4413-009 1 1 TITLE...include Security Classification) (u) Iron Associated Outer Membrane Proteins of Magnetic Bacteria 12 PERSONAL AuTHOR(S) Blakemore, Richard Peter 1 3a

  13. Dynamic periplasmic chaperone reservoir facilitates biogenesis of outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Shawn M.; Plummer, Ashlee M.; Fleming, Patrick J.; Fleming, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is critical to bacterial physiology because the cellular envelope is vital to bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. The process of OMP biogenesis has been studied in vivo, and each of its components has been studied in isolation in vitro. This work integrates parameters and observations from both in vivo and in vitro experiments into a holistic computational model termed “Outer Membrane Protein Biogenesis Model” (OMPBioM). We use OMPBioM to assess OMP biogenesis mathematically in a global manner. Using deterministic and stochastic methods, we are able to simulate OMP biogenesis under varying genetic conditions, each of which successfully replicates experimental observations. We observe that OMPs have a prolonged lifetime in the periplasm where an unfolded OMP makes, on average, hundreds of short-lived interactions with chaperones before folding into its native state. We find that some periplasmic chaperones function primarily as quality-control factors; this function complements the folding catalysis function of other chaperones. Additionally, the effective rate for the β-barrel assembly machinery complex necessary for physiological folding was found to be higher than has currently been observed in vitro. Overall, we find a finely tuned balance between thermodynamic and kinetic parameters maximizes OMP folding flux and minimizes aggregation and unnecessary degradation. In sum, OMPBioM provides a global view of OMP biogenesis that yields unique insights into this essential pathway. PMID:27482090

  14. Outer membrane proteome and antigens of Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Veith, Paul D; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Tan, Yan; Djatmiko, Deasy C; Dashper, Stuart G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2009-09-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative, anaerobic, fusiform bacterium implicated as a periodontal pathogen. With use of 2D PAGE, SDS PAGE, and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, 221 proteins of T. forsythia outer membrane preparations were identified, of which 197 were predicted to be localized to the cell envelope. Fifty-six proteins were reproducibly mapped by 2D PAGE and included several highly abundant proteins in the MW range 140-250 kDa that exhibited C-terminal sequence similarity to the CTD family of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Two-dimensional Western blot analyses revealed that these CTD family proteins together with several other outer membrane proteins were antigenic. The CTD family proteins exhibited a higher than expected MW, and were strongly reactive with the fluorescent glycoprotein stain, ProQ Emerald. This group included BspA and surface layer proteins A and B. TonB-dependent receptors (TDRs) (46) were identified together with 28 putative lipoproteins whose genes are immediately downstream of a TDR gene. The major OmpA-like protein was found to be TF1331. Uniquely, it was found to exist as a homodimer held together by up to three disulfide bridges as demonstrated by MS/MS of a tryptic peptide derived from unreduced TF1331.

  15. HHomp—prediction and classification of outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Remmert, Michael; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N.; Söding, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the transmembrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and plastids. Most prediction methods have focused on analogous features, such as alternating hydrophobicity patterns. Here, we start from the observation that almost all β-barrel OMPs are related by common ancestry. We identify proteins as OMPs by detecting their homologous relationships to known OMPs using sequence similarity. Given an input sequence, HHomp builds a profile hidden Markov model (HMM) and compares it with an OMP database by pairwise HMM comparison, integrating OMP predictions by PROFtmb. A crucial ingredient is the OMP database, which contains profile HMMs for over 20 000 putative OMP sequences. These were collected with the exhaustive, transitive homology detection method HHsenser, starting from 23 representative OMPs in the PDB database. In a benchmark on TransportDB, HHomp detects 63.5% of the true positives before including the first false positive. This is 70% more than PROFtmb, four times more than BOMP and 10 times more than TMB-Hunt. In Escherichia coli, HHomp identifies 57 out of 59 known OMPs and correctly assigns them to their functional subgroups. HHomp can be accessed at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/hhomp. PMID:19429691

  16. HHomp--prediction and classification of outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Michael; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N; Söding, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the transmembrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and plastids. Most prediction methods have focused on analogous features, such as alternating hydrophobicity patterns. Here, we start from the observation that almost all beta-barrel OMPs are related by common ancestry. We identify proteins as OMPs by detecting their homologous relationships to known OMPs using sequence similarity. Given an input sequence, HHomp builds a profile hidden Markov model (HMM) and compares it with an OMP database by pairwise HMM comparison, integrating OMP predictions by PROFtmb. A crucial ingredient is the OMP database, which contains profile HMMs for over 20,000 putative OMP sequences. These were collected with the exhaustive, transitive homology detection method HHsenser, starting from 23 representative OMPs in the PDB database. In a benchmark on TransportDB, HHomp detects 63.5% of the true positives before including the first false positive. This is 70% more than PROFtmb, four times more than BOMP and 10 times more than TMB-Hunt. In Escherichia coli, HHomp identifies 57 out of 59 known OMPs and correctly assigns them to their functional subgroups. HHomp can be accessed at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/hhomp.

  17. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50–300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Ampr (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25065983

  18. Major outer membrane proteins unique to reproductive cells of Hyphomonas jannaschiana.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, N; Dagasan, L; Sledjeski, D; Weiner, R M

    1989-01-01

    Separation on the basis of molecular weight resolved three proteins specific to the swarmer cell of Hyphomonas jannaschiana. In the reproductive cell, 4 major proteins were identified as cytoplasmic and 10 were identified as envelope. Of these envelope proteins, one was common to both the inner and outer membranes, four were common to the inner membrane, and five were common to the outer membrane. Four of these outer membrane proteins were specific to the reproductive cell, and two of these proteins, with apparent molecular weights of 116,000 and 29,000, constituted 19% of the total cell protein and 54% of the outer membrane protein. Images PMID:2703471

  19. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  20. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  1. Role of outer-membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide in conjugation between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria cinerea.

    PubMed

    Genco, C A; Clark, V L

    1988-12-01

    Little is known concerning the mechanism involved in cell contact between the donor and recipient during conjugation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The formation of stable mating pairs during conjugation in Escherichia coli appears to require a specific protein as well as LPS in the outer membrane of the recipient cell. To attempt to identify the cell surface components necessary for conjugation in the neisseriae, we began a comparison of the outer membrane of Neisseria cinerea strains that can (Con+) and cannot (Con-) serve as recipients in conjugation with N. gonorrhoeae. There were no differences in outer-membrane protein profiles on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis between Con+ and Con- strains that could be correlated with the ability to conjugate. However, whole outer membrane isolated from Con+ strains specifically inhibited conjugation while those from Con- strains did not. Proteolytic cleavage of outer-membrane proteins by trypsin, pronase or alpha-chymotrypsin abolished the inhibitory effect of Con+ outer membranes, suggesting that these outer membranes contained a protease-sensitive protein(s) involved in conjugation. Although periodate oxidation of Con+ outer-membrane carbohydrates did not abolish the inhibitory action of these membranes, purified LPS from both Con+ and Con- strains inhibited conjugation when added at low concentrations. These results suggest that conjugation requires the presence of a specific conjugal receptor that consists of both LPS and one or more outer-membrane proteins. Both Con+ and Con- strains contain the necessary LPS, but only Con+ strains contain the required protein(s).

  2. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-03-11

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system.

  3. Characterization and immunogenicity of Kingella kingae outer-membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Yagupsky, Pablo; Slonim, Ariela

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, Kingella kingae has emerged as an important pediatric pathogen but the antigenicity of the organism and the host immune response have not been studied. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of 57 K. kingae isolates were characterized and the immune response of 19 children with invasive infections was studied by immunoblotting. Kingella kingae OMPs were remarkably similar disregarding place and time of isolation and associated clinical condition (asymptomatic carriage, bacteremia, endocarditis, septic arthritis or osteomyelitis). Most OMPs were immunogenic but the specific bands that reacted in each strain and the intensity of the reactions varied substantially. When convalescent sera were reacted with heterologous strains, bands that either were not recognized by the homologous serum or were not present in the homologous strain were visualized. These results demonstrate that OMPs of K. kingae are highly conserved but suggest that some epitopes are polymorphic, resulting in a variable pattern of immune response.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system. PMID:28287480

  5. The lethal cargo of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Berleman, James E.; Allen, Simon; Danielewicz, Megan A.; Remis, Jonathan P.; Gorur, Amita; Cunha, Jack; Hadi, Masood Z.; Zusman, David R.; Northen, Trent R.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including the protein encoded by MXAN_3564 (mepA), an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is part of the long-predicted (yet to date undetermined) extracellular protease suite of M. xanthus. PMID:25250022

  6. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-05

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology.

  7. The presequence pathway is involved in protein sorting to the mitochondrial outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Opaliński, Łukasz; Schuler, Max-Hinderk; Ellenrieder, Lars; Ieva, Raffaele; Böttinger, Lena; Qiu, Jian; van der Laan, Martin; Wiedemann, Nils; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains integral α-helical and β-barrel proteins that are imported from the cytosol. The machineries importing β-barrel proteins have been identified, however, different views exist on the import of α-helical proteins. It has been reported that the biogenesis of Om45, the most abundant signal-anchored protein, does not depend on proteinaceous components, but involves direct insertion into the outer membrane. We show that import of Om45 occurs via the translocase of the outer membrane and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane. Assembly of Om45 in the outer membrane involves the MIM machinery. Om45 thus follows a new mitochondrial biogenesis pathway that uses elements of the presequence import pathway to direct a protein to the outer membrane. PMID:24781695

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae O antigen loss alters the outer membrane protein composition and the selective packaging of proteins into secreted outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Bethaney K; Seeley, Kent W; Gutel, Dedra; Ellis, Terri N

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen which naturally secretes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cell envelope associated proteins into the environment through the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The loss of the LPS O antigen has been demonstrated in other bacterial species to significantly alter the composition of OMVs. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively analyze the impact of O antigen loss on the sub-proteomes of both the outer membrane and secreted OMVs from K. pneumoniae. As determined by LC-MS/MS, OMVs were highly enriched with outer membrane proteins involved in cell wall, membrane, and envelope biogenesis as compared to the source cellular outer membrane. Deletion of wbbO, the enzyme responsible for O antigen attachment to LPS, decreased but did not eliminate this enrichment effect. Additionally, loss of O antigen resulted in OMVs with increased numbers of proteins involved in post-translational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones as compared to secreted vesicles from the wild type. This alteration of OMV composition may be a compensatory mechanism to deal with envelope stress. This comprehensive analysis confirms the highly distinct protein composition of OMVs as compared to their source membrane, and provides evidence for a selective sorting mechanism that involves LPS polysaccharides. These data support the hypothesis that modifications to LPS alters both the mechanics of protein sorting and the contents of secreted OMVs and significantly impacts the protein composition of the outer membrane.

  9. Outer Membrane Proteins form Specific Patterns in Antibiotic-Resistant Edwardsiella tarda

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Chao; Li, Hui; Su, Yu-bin; Ye, Jin-zhou; Yang, Man-jun; Jiang, Ming; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2017-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria play key roles in antibiotic resistance. However, it is unknown whether outer membrane proteins that respond to antibiotics behave in a specific manner. The present study specifically investigated the differentially expressed outer membrane proteins of an antibiotic-resistant bacterium, Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to unnecessary mass medication of antimicrobials and consequently resistance development in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans. The comparison of a clinically isolated strain to the laboratory derived kanamycin-, tetracycline-, or chloramphenicol-resistant strains identified their respective outer membrane proteins expression patterns, which are distinct to each other. Similarly, the same approach was utilized to profile the patterns in double antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Surprisingly, one pattern is always dominant over the other as to these three antibiotics; the pattern of chloramphenicol is over tetracycline, which is over kanamycin. This type of pattern was also confirmed in clinically relevant multidrug-resistant bacteria. In addition, the presence of plasmid encoding antibiotic-resistant genes also alters the outer membrane protein profile in a similar manner. Our results demonstrate that bacteria adapt the antibiotic stress through the regulation of outer membrane proteins expression. And more importantly, different outer membrane protein profiles were required to cope with different antibiotics. This type of specific pattern provides the rationale for the development of novel strategy to design outer membrane protein arrays to identify diverse multidrug resistance profiles as biomarkers for clinical medication. PMID:28210241

  10. Outer Membrane Proteins form Specific Patterns in Antibiotic-Resistant Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Chao; Li, Hui; Su, Yu-Bin; Ye, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Man-Jun; Jiang, Ming; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria play key roles in antibiotic resistance. However, it is unknown whether outer membrane proteins that respond to antibiotics behave in a specific manner. The present study specifically investigated the differentially expressed outer membrane proteins of an antibiotic-resistant bacterium, Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to unnecessary mass medication of antimicrobials and consequently resistance development in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans. The comparison of a clinically isolated strain to the laboratory derived kanamycin-, tetracycline-, or chloramphenicol-resistant strains identified their respective outer membrane proteins expression patterns, which are distinct to each other. Similarly, the same approach was utilized to profile the patterns in double antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Surprisingly, one pattern is always dominant over the other as to these three antibiotics; the pattern of chloramphenicol is over tetracycline, which is over kanamycin. This type of pattern was also confirmed in clinically relevant multidrug-resistant bacteria. In addition, the presence of plasmid encoding antibiotic-resistant genes also alters the outer membrane protein profile in a similar manner. Our results demonstrate that bacteria adapt the antibiotic stress through the regulation of outer membrane proteins expression. And more importantly, different outer membrane protein profiles were required to cope with different antibiotics. This type of specific pattern provides the rationale for the development of novel strategy to design outer membrane protein arrays to identify diverse multidrug resistance profiles as biomarkers for clinical medication.

  11. Interactions between magainin 2 and Salmonella typhimurium outer membranes: Effect of lipopolysaccharide structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, F.R.; Macias, E.A.; Sultany, C.M.; Modzrakowski, M.C.; Blazyk, J. )

    1991-06-18

    The role of the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the interaction between the small cationic antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 and the Gram-negative cell envelope was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Magainin 2 alters the thermotropic properties of the outer membrane-peptidoglycan complexes from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and a series of LPS mutants which display differential susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of cationic antibiotics. These results are correlated with the LPS phosphorylation pattern and charge (characterized by high-resolution {sup 31}P NMR) and outer membrane lipid composition, and are compared to the bactericidal susceptibility. LPS mutants show a progressive loss of resistance to killing by magainin 2 as the length of the LPS polysaccharide moiety decreases. Disordering of the outer membrane lipid fatty acyl chains by magainin 2, however, depends primarily upon the magnitude of PLS charge rather than the length of the LPS polysaccharide. While disruption of outer membrane structure most likely is not the primary factor leading to cell death, the susceptibility of Gram-negative cells to magainin 2 is associated with factors that facilitate the transport of the peptide across the outer membrane, such as the magnitude and location of LPS charge, and concentration of LPS in the outer membrane, outer membrane molecular architecture, and the presence or absence of the O-antigen side chain.

  12. Mechanisms of outer membrane vesicle entry into host cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, Eloise J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano‐sized compartments consisting of a lipid bilayer that encapsulates periplasm‐derived, luminal content. OMVs, which pinch off of Gram‐negative bacteria, are now recognized as a generalized secretion pathway which provides a means to transfer cargo to other bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Compared with other secretion systems, OMVs can transfer a chemically extremely diverse range of cargo, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to proximal cells. Although it is well recognized that OMVs can enter and release cargo inside host cells during infection, the mechanisms of host association and uptake are not well understood. This review highlights existing studies focusing on OMV‐host cell interactions and entry mechanisms, and how these entry routes affect cargo processing within the host. It further compares the wide range of methods currently used to dissect uptake mechanisms, and discusses potential sources of discrepancy regarding the mechanism of OMV uptake across different studies. PMID:27529760

  13. Outer membrane vesicles – offensive weapons or good Samaritans?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Amano, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Gram-negative bacteria were first considered as artifacts and were followed with disbelief and bad reputation. Later, their existence was accepted and they became characterized as bacterial bombs, virulence bullets, and even decoys. Today, we know that OMVs also can be involved in cell–cell signaling/communication and be mediators of immune regulation and cause disease protection. Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host. The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense. The broad spectrum of usability does not stop with that, as it now seems that OMVs can be used as vaccines and adjuvants or vehicles engineered for drug treatment of emerging and new diseases not only caused by bacteria but also by virus. They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment. PMID:25840612

  14. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  15. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Emrah; Fu, Yang; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria provide an interesting research material for defining cell-envelope proteins without experimental cell disruption. OMVs are also promising immunogenic platforms and may play important roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis. We used in-solution trypsin digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify 90 proteins present in OMVs of Vibrio cholerae when grown under conditions that activate the TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein (ToxT) virulence regulon. The ToxT expression profile and potential contribution to virulence of these proteins were assessed using ToxT and in vivo RNA-seq, Tn-seq, and cholera stool proteomic and other genome-wide data sets. Thirteen OMV-associated proteins appear to be essential for cell growth, and therefore may represent antibacterial drug targets. Another 12 nonessential OMV proteins, including DegP protease, were required for intestinal colonization in rabbits. Comparative proteomics of a degP mutant revealed the importance of DegP in the incorporation of nine proteins into OMVs, including ones involved in biofilm matrix formation and various substrates of the type II secretion system. Taken together, these results suggest that DegP plays an important role in determining the content of OMVs and also affects phenotypes such as intestinal colonization, proper function of the type II secretion system, and formation of biofilm matrix. PMID:24706774

  16. Function of the mitochondrial outer membrane as a diffusion barrier in health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Gellerich, F N; Trumbeckaite, S; Opalka, J R; Seppet, E; Rasmussen, H N; Neuhoff, C; Zierz, S

    2000-02-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane separates the intermembrane space from the cytosol. The whole exchange of metabolites, cations and information between mitochondria and the cell occurs through the outer membrane. Experimental evidence is reviewed supporting the hypothesis of dynamic ADP compartmentation within the intermembrane space. The outer membrane creates a diffusion barrier for small molecules (adenine nucleotides, creatine phosphate, creatine etc.) causing rate-dependent concentration gradients as a prerequisite for the action of ADP shuttles via creatine kinases or adenylate kinases. If the outer membrane becomes leaky, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor can be released, leading to apoptosis, and as a bioenergetic consequence the cytosolic phosphorylation potential decreases. Leaky outer membranes can be detected in saponin-skinned fibres with spectrophotometric and oxygraphic methods. This is of special interest in respect to acute impairment of mitochondria during ischaemia/reperfusion.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Outer Membrane Proteins from Salmonella Enteritidis Strains with Different Sensitivity to Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Bartłomiej; Krzyżewska, Eva; Kapczyńska, Katarzyna; Rybka, Jacek; Pawlak, Aleksandra; Korzekwa, Kamila; Klausa, Elżbieta; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Differential analysis of outer membrane composition of S. Enteritidis strains, resistant to 50% normal human serum (NHS) was performed in order to find factors influencing the resistance to higher concentrations of NHS. Ten S. Enteritidis clinical strains, resistant to 50% NHS, all producing very long lipopolysaccharide, were subjected to the challenge of 75% NHS. Five extreme strains: two resistant and three sensitive to 75% NHS, were chosen for the further analysis of outer membrane proteins composition. Substantial differences were found in the levels of particular outer membrane proteins between resistant and sensitive strains, i.e. outer membrane protease E (PgtE) was present mainly in resistant strains, while sensitive strains possessed a high level of flagellar hook-associated protein 2 (FliD) and significantly higher levels of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). PMID:27695090

  18. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia.

  19. Voltage- and Tension-Dependent Lipid Mobility in the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Zhao, Hong-Bo; Kutz, J. Walter; Brownell, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for electromotility of outer hair cells in the ear is unknown but is thought to reside within the plasma membrane. Lipid lateral diffusion in the outer hair cell plasma membrane is a sigmoidal function of transmembrane potential and bathing media osmolality. Cell depolarization or hyposmotic challenge shorten the cell and reduce membrane fluidity by half. Changing the membrane tension with amphipathic drugs results in similar reductions. These dynamic changes in membrane fluidity represent the modulation of membrane tension by lipid-protein interactions. The voltage dependence may be associated with the force-generating motors that contribute to the exquisite sensitivity of mammalian hearing.

  20. Analytical study of microsomes and isolated subcellular membranes from rat liver VIII. Subfractionation of preparations enriched with plasma membranes, outer mitochondrial membranes, or Golgi complex membranes

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Preparations enriched with plasmalemmal, outer mitochondrial, or Golgi complex membranes from rat liver were subfractionated by isopycnic centrifugation, without or after treatment with digitonin, to establish the subcellular distribution of a variety of enzymes. The typical plasmalemmal enzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and alkaline phosphatase were markedly shifted by digitonin toward higher densities in all three preparations. Three glycosyltransferases, highly purified in the Golgi fraction, were moderately shifted by digitonin in both this Golgi complex preparation and the microsomal fraction. The outer mitochondrial membrane marker, monoamine oxidase, was not affected by digitonin in the outer mitochondrial membrane marker, monoamine oxidase, was not affected by digitonin in the out mitochondrial membrane preparation, in agreement wit its behavior in microsomes. With the exception of NADH cytochrome c reductase (which was concentrated in the outer mitochondrial membrane preparation), typical microsomal enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, esterase, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase) displayed low specific activities in the three preparations; except for part of the glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the plasma membrane preparation, their density distributions were insensitive to digitonin, as they were in microsomes. The influence of digitonin on equilibrium densities was correlated with its morphological effects. Digitonin induced pseudofenestrations in plasma membranes. In Golgi and outer mitochondrial membrane preparations, a few similarly altered membranes were detected in subfractions enriched with 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I. The alterations of Golgi membranes were less obvious and seemingly restricted to some elements in the Golgi preparation. No morphological modification was detected in digitonin-treated outer mitochondrial membranes. These results indicate that each enzyme is associated with the same membrane

  1. Outer membrane vesicles displaying engineered glycotopes elicit protective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Jenny L.; Huang, Chung-Jr; Endicott, Christine E.; Moeller, Tyler D.; Rasmussen, Jed A.; Fletcher, Joshua R.; Boll, Joseph M.; Rosenthal, Joseph A.; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Azadi, Parastoo; Putnam, David; Trent, M. Stephen; Jones, Bradley D.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    The O-antigen polysaccharide (O-PS) component of lipopolysaccharides on the surface of gram-negative bacteria is both a virulence factor and a B-cell antigen. Antibodies elicited by O-PS often confer protection against infection; therefore, O-PS glycoconjugate vaccines have proven useful against a number of different pathogenic bacteria. However, conventional methods for natural extraction or chemical synthesis of O-PS are technically demanding, inefficient, and expensive. Here, we describe an alternative methodology for producing glycoconjugate vaccines whereby recombinant O-PS biosynthesis is coordinated with vesiculation in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli to yield glycosylated outer membrane vesicles (glycOMVs) decorated with pathogen-mimetic glycotopes. Using this approach, glycOMVs corresponding to eight different pathogenic bacteria were generated. For example, expression of a 17-kb O-PS gene cluster from the highly virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) strain Schu S4 in hypervesiculating E. coli cells yielded glycOMVs that displayed F. tularensis O-PS. Immunization of BALB/c mice with glycOMVs elicited significant titers of O-PS–specific serum IgG antibodies as well as vaginal and bronchoalveolar IgA antibodies. Importantly, glycOMVs significantly prolonged survival upon subsequent challenge with F. tularensis Schu S4 and provided complete protection against challenge with two different F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B) live vaccine strains, thereby demonstrating the vaccine potential of glycOMVs. Given the ease with which recombinant glycotopes can be expressed on OMVs, the strategy described here could be readily adapted for developing vaccines against many other bacterial pathogens. PMID:27274048

  2. Salmonellae PhoPQ regulation of the outer membrane to resist innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Miller, Samuel I

    2014-02-01

    Salmonellae sense host cues to regulate properties important for bacterial survival and replication within host tissues. The PhoPQ two-component regulatory system senses phagosome acidification and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) to regulate the protein and lipid contents of the bacterial envelope that comprises an inner and outer membrane. PhoPQ-regulated lipid components of the outer membrane include lipopolysaccharides and glycerophospholipids. Envelope proteins regulated by PhoPQ, include: components of virulence associated secretion systems, the flagellar apparatus, membrane transport systems, and proteins that are likely structural components of the outer membrane. PhoPQ alteration of the bacterial surface results in increased bacterial resistance to CAMP and decreased detection by the innate immune system. This review details the molecular complexity of the bacterial cell envelope and highlights the outer membrane lipid bilayer as an environmentally regulated bacterial organelle.

  3. Protein–protein interactions and the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kleanthous, Colin; Rassam, Patrice; Baumann, Christoph G

    2015-01-01

    It has until recently been unclear whether outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria are organized or distributed randomly. Studies now suggest promiscuous protein–protein interactions (PPIs) between β-barrel OMPs in Escherichia coli govern their local and global dynamics, engender spatiotemporal patterning of the outer membrane into micro-domains and are the basis of β-barrel protein turnover. We contextualize these latest advances, speculate on areas of bacterial cell biology that might be influenced by the organization of OMPs into supramolecular assemblies, and highlight the new questions and controversies this revised view of the bacterial outer membrane raises. PMID:26629934

  4. Interaction between Polyamines and Bacterial Outer Membranes as Investigated with Ion-Selective Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hideki; Yasuda, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the interaction between polyamines and the outer membrane of Escherichia coli cells using potentiometric measurements with Ca2+, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+), and K+ electrodes. The Ca2+ electrode was used to examine the ability of the polyamines to release Ca2+ from the outer membrane. The TPP+ electrode was used to examine the ability to permeabilize the outer membrane, since the uptake of TPP+ was enhanced when the permeability barrier of the outer membrane was disrupted. The K+ electrode was used to examine permeabilization in the cytoplasmic membrane by monitoring the efflux of K+ in cytosol. Although Ca2+ release was remarkably enhanced by increasing the number of amino groups in polyamines, no TPP+ uptake was observed with polyamines of a simple structure, such as ethylenediamine, spermidine, and spermine. TPP+ uptake was observed when appropriate lipophilic moieties were further attached to the polyamines with three or four amino groups, indicating that the existence of bulky moieties as well as the number of amino groups is important to induce outer membrane permeabilization. Thus, 1-naphthylacetylspermine and N,N′-bis[6-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]hexyl]-1,8-octanediamine (methoctramine) were especially effective in increasing the permeability of the outer membrane of E. coli cells, being comparable to polymyxin B nonapeptide, a well-known cationic peptide showing such action. PMID:11897592

  5. Carbohydrate-reactive, pore-forming outer membrane proteins of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, D M; Atkinson, H M; Bretag, A H; Tester, M; Trust, T J; Wong, C Y; Flower, R L

    1994-01-01

    Two outer membrane proteins of Aeromonas hydrophila A6, isolated in a one-step affinity chromatography process based on carbohydrate reactivity, were found to be pore-forming molecules in artificial planar bilayer membranes. These carbohydrate-reactive outer membrane proteins (CROMPs; M(r)s, 40,000 and 43,000) were subjected to amino acid analysis. The amino acid profiles for these two outer membrane proteins were almost identical. A partial protein sequence of a 14-amino-acid fragment of the 40,000-Da protein revealed homology with outer membrane porins of Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila. CROMPs were compared with carbohydrate-reactive porins also extracted from outer membranes of A. hydrophila A6. These porins were isolated by using standard porin purification techniques (insolubility in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, solubility in 0.4 M NaCl, and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration), and then Synsorb H type 2 affinity chromatography was done. The physical and functional properties of the carbohydrate-reactive porins and CROMPs were found to be identical. On the basis of pore-forming properties in planar lipid bilayers and channel inhibition with maltotriose solutions, a nonspecific, general diffusion porin and a LamB-like maltoporin were identified in both CROMP and carbohydrate-reactive porin preparations. To our knowledge, the use of carbohydrate reactivity to isolate channel-forming proteins from bacterial outer membranes has not been reported previously. Images PMID:7520425

  6. Using a bacteriocin structure to engineer a phage lysin that targets Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2012-12-01

    Purified phage lysins present an alternative to traditional antibiotics and work by hydrolysing peptidoglycan. Phage lysins have been developed against Gram-positive pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, where the peptidoglycan layer is exposed on the cell surface. Addition of the lysin to a bacterial culture results in rapid death of the organism. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to phage lysins because they contain an outer membrane that protects the peptidoglycan from degradation. We solved crystal structures of a Yersinia pestis outer-membrane protein and the bacteriocin that targets it, which informed engineering of a bacterial-phage hybrid lysin that can be transported across the outer membrane to kill specific Gram-negative bacteria. This work provides a template for engineering phage lysins against a wide variety of bacterial pathogens.

  7. Presence of methyl sterol and bacteriohopanepolyol in an outer-membrane preparation from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Kato, Katharine; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic/intracytoplasmic and outer membrane preparations of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of a total membrane fraction prepared by disruption using a French pressure cell. The cytoplasmic and/or intracytoplasmic membrane fraction consisted of two distinct bands, Ia and Ib (buoyant densities 1.16 and 1.18 g ml (exp -1), respectively) that together contained 57% of the protein, 68% of the phospholipid, 73% of the ubiquinone and 89% of the CN-sensitive NADH oxidase activity. The only apparent difference between these two cytoplasmic bands was a much higher phospholipid content for Ia. The outer membrane fraction (buoyant density 1.23-1.24 g ml (exp -1)) contained 60% of the lipopolysaccharide-associated, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, 74% of the methylsterol, and 66% of the bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP); phospholipid to methyl sterol or BHP ratios were 6:1. Methanol dehydrogenase activity and a c-type cytochrome were also present in this outer membrane fraction. Phospholipase A activity was present in borh the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane fractions. The unique distribution of cyclic triterpenes may reflect a specific role in conferring outer membrane stability in this methanotrophic bacterium.

  8. Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peptidoglycan-Associated Outer Membrane Proteins in Vesicle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Aimee K.; Liew, Jean; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that package and deliver proteins, small molecules, and DNA to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The molecular details of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated, but peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins that tether the outer membrane to the underlying peptidoglycan have been shown to be critical for OMV formation in multiple Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, we demonstrate that the peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins OprF and OprI, but not OprL, impact production of OMVs by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OprF does not appear to be important for tethering the outer membrane to peptidoglycan but instead impacts OMV formation through modulation of the levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a quorum signal previously shown by our laboratory to be critical for OMV formation. Thus, the mechanism by which OprF impacts OMV formation is distinct from that for other peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins, including OprI. PMID:23123904

  9. Membrane Composition Tunes the Outer Hair Cell Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, L.; Sfondouris, J.; Oghalai, J. S.; Pereira, F. A.; Brownell, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid, affect membrane mechanical properties in different ways and modulate the function of membrane proteins. We have probed the functional consequence of altering cholesterol and DHA levels in the membranes of OHCs and prestin expressing HEK cells. Large, dynamic and reversible changes in prestin-associated charge movement and OHC motor activity result from altering the concentration of membrane cholesterol. Increasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, possibly a response related to increases in membrane stiffness. The voltage shift is linearly related to total membrane cholesterol. Increasing cholesterol also decreases the total charge moved in a linear fashion. Decreasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the depolarizing direction with little or no effect on the amount of charge moved. In vivo increases in membrane cholesterol transiently increase but ultimately lead to decreases in DPOAE. Docosahexaenoic acid shifts the q/V function in the hyperpolarizing direction < 15 mV and increases total charge moved. Tuning of cochlear function by membrane cholesterol contributes to the exquisite temporal and frequency processing of mammalian hearing by optimizing the cochlear amplifier.

  10. Acinetobacter baumannii Outer Membrane Vesicles Elicit a Potent Innate Immune Response via Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jun, So Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Tae In

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly becoming a major nosocomial pathogen. This opportunistic pathogen secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that interact with host cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of A. baumannii OMVs to elicit a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and the immunopathology in response to A. baumannii OMVs in vivo. OMVs derived from A. baumannii ATCC 19606T induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and chemokine genes, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Disintegration of OMV membrane with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, as compared with the response to intact OMVs. In addition, proteinase K-treated A. baumannii OMVs did not induce significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes above the basal level, suggesting that the surface-exposed membrane proteins in intact OMVs are responsible for pro-inflammatory response. Early inflammatory processes, such as vacuolization and detachment of epithelial cells and neutrophilic infiltration, were clearly observed in lungs of mice injected with A. baumannii OMVs. Our data demonstrate that OMVs produced by A. baumannii elicit a potent innate immune response, which may contribute to immunopathology of the infected host. PMID:23977136

  11. Genomic Analysis Indicates the Presence of an Asymmetric Bilayer Outer Membrane in Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Daan R.; van Teeseling, Muriel C. F.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes are of special interest for the study of compartmental cellular organization. Members of this phylum share a very unusual prokaryotic cell plan, featuring several membrane-bound compartments. Recently, it was shown that this cellular organization might extend to certain members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. The Planctomycete cell plan has been defined as featuring a proteinaceous cell wall, a cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the paryphoplasm, and an intracytoplasmic membrane defining the riboplasm. So far it was presumed that Planctomycetes did not have an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane as observed in Gram-negative bacteria. However, recent work on outer membrane biogenesis has provided several marker genes in the outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) insertion complexes. Additionally, advances in computational prediction of OMPs provided new tools to perform more accurate genomic screening for such proteins. Here we searched all 22 Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia genomes available in GenBank, plus the recently published genome of “Candidatus Scalindua profunda,” for markers of outer membrane biogenesis and OMPs. We were able to identify the key components of LPS insertion, OMP assembly and at least eight OMPs in all genomes tested. Additionally, we have analyzed the transcriptome and proteome data of the Planctomycetes “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and “Ca. S. profunda” and could confirm high expression of several predicted OMPs, including the biomarkers of outer membrane biogenesis. These analyses provide a strong indication that an asymmetrical outer membrane may be present in bacteria of both phyla. However, previous experiments have made obvious that the cell envelope of Planctomycetes is clearly divergent from both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell types. Thus, the functional implications of the presence of an outer membrane for the Planctomycete cell plan

  12. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C). Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu) and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850) were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C), there was little evidence for

  13. Bax assembles into large ring-like structures remodeling the mitochondrial outer membrane in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Große, Lena; Wurm, Christian A; Brüser, Christian; Neumann, Daniel; Jans, Daniel C; Jakobs, Stefan

    2016-02-15

    The Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are essential for the execution of many apoptotic programs. During apoptosis, Bax translocates to the mitochondria and mediates the permeabilization of the outer membrane, thereby facilitating the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. Yet the mechanistic details of the Bax-induced membrane permeabilization have so far remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that activated Bax molecules, besides forming large and compact clusters, also assemble, potentially with other proteins including Bak, into ring-like structures in the mitochondrial outer membrane. STED nanoscopy indicates that the area enclosed by a Bax ring is devoid of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins such as Tom20, Tom22, and Sam50. This strongly supports the view that the Bax rings surround an opening required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Even though these Bax assemblies may be necessary for MOMP, we demonstrate that at least in Drp1 knockdown cells, these assemblies are not sufficient for full cytochrome c release. Together, our super-resolution data provide direct evidence in support of large Bax-delineated pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane as being crucial for Bax-mediated MOMP in cells.

  14. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  15. Insights into the Structure and Assembly of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protein A

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, Rosetta N.

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli is a paradigm for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins; however, the structure and assembly of OmpA have remained controversial. A review of studies to date supports the hypothesis that native OmpA is a single-domain large pore, while a two-domain narrow pore structure is a folding intermediate or minor conformer. The in vitro refolding of OmpA to the large pore conformation requires that the protein be isolated from outer membranes with an intact disulfide bond and then adequately incubated in lipids at temperatures ≥ 26 °C to overcome the high energy of activation for refolding. The in vivo maturation of the protein involves covalent modification of serines in the eighth β-barrel of the N-terminal domain by oligo-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrates as the protein is escorted across the cytoplasm by SecB for post-translational secretion across the SEC translocase in the inner membrane. After cleavage of the signal sequence, protein chaperones, such a Skp, DegP and SurA, guide OmpA across the periplasm to the BAM complex in the outer membrane. During this passage, a disulfide bond is formed between C290 and C302 by DsbA, and the hydrophobicity of segments of the C-terminal domain which are destined for incorporation as β-barrels in the outer membrane bilayer is increased by covalent attachment of oligo-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrates. With the aid of the BAM complex, OmpA is then assembled into the outer membrane as a single-domain large pore. PMID:22251410

  16. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Tatini; Senapati, Subhadip; Sinha, Satyabrata; Whited, A M; Park, Paul S-H

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains) in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  17. Structure, function and binding selectivity and stereoselectivity of siderophore-iron outer membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Isabelle J; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Brillet, Karl

    2012-01-01

    To get access to iron, microorganisms produce and release into their environment small organic metal chelators called siderophores. In parallel, they produce siderophore-iron outer membrane transporters (also called TonB-Dependent Transporters or TBDT) embedded in the outer membrane; these proteins actively reabsorb the siderophore loaded with iron from the extracellular medium. This active uptake requires energy in the form of the proton motive force transferred from the inner membrane to the outer membrane transporter via the inner membrane TonB complex. Siderophores produced by microorganisms are structurally very diverse with molecular weights of 150 up to 2000Da. Siderophore-iron uptake from the extracellular medium by TBDTs is a highly selective and sometimes even stereoselective process, with each siderophore having a specific TBDT. Unlike the siderophores, all TBDTs have similar structures and belong to the outer membrane β-barrel protein superfamily. The way in which the siderophore-iron complex passes through the TBDT is still unclear. In some bacteria, TBDTs are also partners of signaling cascades regulating the expression of proteins involved in siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-iron acquisition.

  18. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  19. High-throughput isolation and characterization of untagged membrane protein complexes: outer membrane complexes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Walian, Peter J; Allen, Simon; Shatsky, Maxim; Zeng, Lucy; Szakal, Evelin D; Liu, Haichuan; Hall, Steven C; Fisher, Susan J; Lam, Bonita R; Singer, Mary E; Geller, Jil T; Brenner, Steven E; Chandonia, John-Marc; Hazen, Terry C; Witkowska, H Ewa; Biggin, Mark D; Jap, Bing K

    2012-12-07

    Cell membranes represent the "front line" of cellular defense and the interface between a cell and its environment. To determine the range of proteins and protein complexes that are present in the cell membranes of a target organism, we have utilized a "tagless" process for the system-wide isolation and identification of native membrane protein complexes. As an initial subject for study, we have chosen the Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. With this tagless methodology, we have identified about two-thirds of the outer membrane- associated proteins anticipated. Approximately three-fourths of these appear to form homomeric complexes. Statistical and machine-learning methods used to analyze data compiled over multiple experiments revealed networks of additional protein-protein interactions providing insight into heteromeric contacts made between proteins across this region of the cell. Taken together, these results establish a D. vulgaris outer membrane protein data set that will be essential for the detection and characterization of environment-driven changes in the outer membrane proteome and in the modeling of stress response pathways. The workflow utilized here should be effective for the global characterization of membrane protein complexes in a wide range of organisms.

  20. High-throughput Isolation and Characterization of Untagged Membrane Protein Complexes: Outer Membrane Complexes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes represent the “front line” of cellular defense and the interface between a cell and its environment. To determine the range of proteins and protein complexes that are present in the cell membranes of a target organism, we have utilized a “tagless” process for the system-wide isolation and identification of native membrane protein complexes. As an initial subject for study, we have chosen the Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. With this tagless methodology, we have identified about two-thirds of the outer membrane- associated proteins anticipated. Approximately three-fourths of these appear to form homomeric complexes. Statistical and machine-learning methods used to analyze data compiled over multiple experiments revealed networks of additional protein–protein interactions providing insight into heteromeric contacts made between proteins across this region of the cell. Taken together, these results establish a D. vulgaris outer membrane protein data set that will be essential for the detection and characterization of environment-driven changes in the outer membrane proteome and in the modeling of stress response pathways. The workflow utilized here should be effective for the global characterization of membrane protein complexes in a wide range of organisms. PMID:23098413

  1. Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Valeru, Soni Priya; Shanan, Salah; Alossimi, Haifa; Sandström, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment. PMID:24799908

  2. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae.

  3. Genome-Wide Assessment of Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Adam J.; Sun, Bo; Ai, Teresa; Manning, Andrew J.; Orench-Rivera, Nichole

    2015-01-01

    The production of outer membrane vesicles by Gram-negative bacteria has been well documented; however, the mechanism behind the biogenesis of these vesicles remains unclear. Here a high-throughput experimental method and systems-scale analysis was conducted to determine vesiculation values for the whole genome knockout library of Escherichia coli mutant strains (Keio collection). The resultant dataset quantitatively recapitulates previously observed phenotypes and implicates nearly 150 new genes in the process of vesiculation. Gene functional and biochemical pathway analyses suggest that mutations that truncate outer membrane structures such as lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen lead to hypervesiculation, whereas mutants in oxidative stress response pathways result in lower levels. This study expands and refines the current knowledge regarding the cellular pathways required for outer membrane vesiculation in E. coli. PMID:26406465

  4. The heat-modifiable outer membrane protein of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: relationship to OmpA proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M E

    1991-01-01

    The outer membrane of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans contains a 29-kDa protein which exhibits heat modifiability on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and represents a major target for immunoglobulin G antibody in sera of periodontitis patients colonized by this organism. In the present study, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 29-kDa outer membrane protein was determined and compared with reported sequences for other known proteins. The heat-modifiable outer membrane protein of A. actinomycetemcomitans was found to exhibit significant N-terminal homology with the OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this protein reacted with antiserum raised against the purified OmpA protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Whether the heat-modifiable OMP of A. actinomycetemcomitans also shares functional properties of OmpA proteins, particularly with respect to bacteriophage receptor activity, is presently under investigation. Images PMID:2050416

  5. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  6. Cold Stress Makes Escherichia coli Susceptible to Glycopeptide Antibiotics by Altering Outer Membrane Integrity.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jonathan M; French, Shawn; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Bouwman, Catrien; Whitfield, Chris; Brown, Eric D

    2016-02-18

    A poor understanding of the mechanisms by which antibiotics traverse the outer membrane remains a considerable obstacle to the development of novel Gram-negative antibiotics. Herein, we demonstrate that the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli becomes susceptible to the narrow-spectrum antibiotic vancomycin during growth at low temperatures. Heterologous expression of an Enterococcus vanHBX vancomycin resistance cluster in E. coli confirmed that the mechanism of action was through inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. To understand the nature of vancomycin permeability, we screened for strains of E. coli that displayed resistance to vancomycin at low temperature. Surprisingly, we observed that mutations in outer membrane biosynthesis suppressed vancomycin activity. Subsequent chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide from vancomycin-sensitive and -resistant strains confirmed that suppression was correlated with truncations in the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. These unexpected observations challenge the current understanding of outer membrane permeability, and provide new chemical insights into the susceptibility of E. coli to glycopeptide antibiotics.

  7. Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel.

  8. Mitochondrial outer membrane proteome of Trypanosoma brucei reveals novel factors required to maintain mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei.

  9. Outer-membrane vesicles from Gram-negative bacteria: biogenesis and functions

    PubMed Central

    Schwechheimer, Carmen; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2017-01-01

    Outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical buds of the outer membrane filled with periplasmic content and are commonly produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The production of OMVs allows bacteria to interact with their environment, and OMVs have been found to mediate diverse functions, including promoting pathogenesis, enabling bacterial survival during stress conditions and regulating microbial interactions within bacterial communities. Additionally, because of this functional versatility, researchers have begun to explore OMVs as a platform for bioengineering applications. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the study of OMVs, focusing on new insights into the mechanisms of biogenesis and the functions of these vesicles. PMID:26373371

  10. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eleanor; Sherry, Aileen; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Yaga, Raja; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Everest, Paul; Smith, David G E

    2014-09-01

    Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith-Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  11. Formation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Derived Protrusions and Vesicles in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Masaru; Katayama, Kenta; Yamaoka, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Arimura, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have inner and outer membranes. In plants, the inner membrane has been well studied but relatively little is known about the outer membrane. Here we report that Arabidopsis cells have mitochondrial outer membrane-derived structures, some of which protrude from the main body of mitochondria (mitochondrial outer-membrane protrusions; MOPs), while others form vesicle-like structures without a matrix marker. The latter vesicle-like structures are similar to some mammalian MDVs (mitochondrial-derived vesicles). Live imaging demonstrated that a plant MDV budded off from the tip of a MOP. MDVs were also observed in the drp3a drp3b double mutant, indicating that they could be formed without the mitochondrial fission factors DRP3A and DRP3B. Double staining studies showed that the MDVs were not peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN). The numbers of MDVs and MOPs increased in senescent leaves and after dark treatment. Together, these results suggest that MDVs and MOPs are related to leaf senescence. PMID:26752045

  12. Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, H.D.; Kromhout, J.; Schachter, J.

    1981-03-01

    Elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes C, E, and L2 were extrinsically radioiodinated, and whole-cell lysates of these serotypes were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Autoradiography of the polypeptide profiles identified a major surface protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 39,500 that was common to each C. trachomatis serotype. The abilities of nonionic (Triton X-100), dipolar ionic (Zwittergent TM-314), mild (sodium deoxycholate and sodium N-lauroyl sarcosine), and strongly anionic (SDS) detergents to extract this protein from intact EB of the L2 serotype were investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions obtained after each detergent treatment. Only SDS readily extracted this protein from intact EB. Sarkosyl treatment selectively solubilized the majority of other EB proteins, leaving the 39,500-dalton protein associated with the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction. Ultrastructural studies of the Sarkosyl-insoluble EB pellet showed it to consist of empty EB particles possessing an apparently intact outer membrane. No structural evidence for a peptidoglycan-like cell wall was found. Morphologically these chlamydial outer membrane complexes (COMC) resembled intact chlamydial EB outer membranes. The 39,500-dalton outer membrane protein was quantitatively extracted from COMC by treating them with 2% SDS at 60 degrees C. This protein accounted for 61% of the total COMC-associated protein, and its extraction resulted in a concomitant loss of the COMC membrane structure and morphology. The 39,500-dalton major outer membrane protein is a serogroup antigen of C. trachomatis organisms.

  13. Bacterial social networks: structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains.

    PubMed

    Remis, Jonathan P; Wei, Dongguang; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H Ewa; Costerton, J William; Berleman, James E; Auer, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviours, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of outer membrane vesicle chains and membrane tubes that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains, and increased abundance in biofilms compared with planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including three-dimensional (3D) focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, we determined these structures to range between 30 and 60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactoseamine carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl outer membrane proteins known to be transferable between cells in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and therefore could provide a mechanism for the coordination of social activities.

  14. Rapid detection of Yersinia pestis recombinant fraction 1 capsular antigen.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Pei-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Chiao, Der-Jiang; Liu, Cheng-Che; Shyu, Rong-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, an infectious bacterium that is a causative agent of plague, a disease which has been shown to be one of the most feared in history and which has caused millions of deaths. The capsule-like fraction 1 (F1) antigen expressed by Y. pestis is a known specific marker for the identification of the bacteria; therefore, the detection of F1 is important for Y. pestis recognition. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, and specific technique, the lateral flow assay (LFA), was successfully developed to detect Y. pestis by the recombinant F1 antigen. The assay that utilized an anti-F1 polyclonal antibody (Pab) to identify the bacteria was based on a double-antibody sandwich format on a nitrocellulose membrane. With the LFA method, 50 ng/ml of recombinant F1 protein and 10(5) CFU/mL of Y. pestis could be detected in less than 10 min. This assay also showed no cross-reaction with other Yersinia spp. or with some selected capsule-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. Furthermore, detection of Y. pestis in simulated samples has been evaluated. The detection sensitivity of Y. pestis in various matrices was 10(5) CFU/mL, which was identical to that in PBS buffer. The results obtained suggest that LFA is an excellent tool for detection of Y. pestis contamination in an environment and hence can be used to monitor plague diseases when they emerge.

  15. The outer membrane phospholipase A is essential for membrane integrity and type III secretion in Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Jianhua; Chen, Lihong; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) is an enzyme located in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. OMPLA exhibits broad substrate specificity, and some of its substrates are located in the cellular envelope. Generally, the enzymatic activity can only be induced by perturbation of the cell envelope integrity through diverse methods. Although OMPLA has been thoroughly studied as a membrane protein in Escherichia coli and is constitutively expressed in many other bacterial pathogens, little is known regarding the functions of OMPLA during the process of bacterial infection. In this study, the proteomic and transcriptomic data indicated that OMPLA in Shigella flexneri, termed PldA, both stabilizes the bacterial membrane and is involved in bacterial infection under ordinary culture conditions. A series of physiological assays substantiated the disorganization of the bacterial outer membrane and the periplasmic space in the ΔpldA mutant strain. Furthermore, the ΔpldA mutant strain showed decreased levels of type III secretion system expression, contributing to the reduced internalization efficiency in host cells. The results of this study support that PldA, which is widespread across Gram-negative bacteria, is an important factor for the bacterial life cycle, particularly in human pathogens.

  16. Salmonella typhimurium contains an anion-selective outer membrane porin induced by phosphate starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K; Benz, R; Brass, J; Boos, W

    1985-01-01

    A mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was selected that is constitutive for the pho regulon. It exhibited constitutive glycerol-3-phosphate transport activity and synthesized a new outer membrane porin. Upon measurement of porin activity in black lipid films, it exhibited anion selectivity. It therefore appears analogous to the Escherichia coli PhoE porin. Images PMID:2981826

  17. Porin Loss Impacts the Host Inflammatory Response to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kelli L.; Cahill, Bethaney K.; Dilello, Sarah K.; Gutel, Dedra; Brunson, Debra N.; Albertí, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae often exhibit porin loss. In this study, we investigated how porin loss impacted the composition of secreted outer membrane vesicles as well as their ability to trigger proinflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages. We hypothesize that porin loss associated with antibiotic resistance will directly impact both the composition of outer membrane vesicles and their interactions with phagocytic cells. Using clonally related clinical isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae with different patterns of porin expression, we demonstrated that altered expression of OmpK35 and OmpK36 results in broad alterations to the protein profile of secreted vesicles. Additionally, the level of OmpA incorporation was elevated in strains lacking a single porin. Porin loss significantly impacted macrophage inflammatory responses to purified vesicles. Outer membrane vesicles lacking both OmpK35 and OmpK36 elicited significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine secretion than vesicles from strains expressing one or both porins. These data demonstrate that antibiotic resistance-associated porin loss has a broad and significant effect on both the composition of outer membrane vesicles and their interactions with phagocytic cells, which may impact bacterial survival and inflammatory reactions in the host. PMID:26666932

  18. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  19. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  20. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  1. TonB-Dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and other substrates from the environment. The 45 proteins share the ...

  2. Molecular Structure of the Outer Bacterial Membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Classical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shroll, Robert M.; Straatsma, TP

    2002-10-23

    A detailed structural analysis has been performed of the outer bacterial membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a parameterized classical simulation model [R. D. Lins and T. P. Straatsma, Biophys. J. 81:1037-1046, (2001)] with modest modifications. The structural analysis of the membrane is presented and newly discovered characteristics of the membrane are discussed. Simulations indicate that the relative contribution of different ligands to calcium ion coordination varies across the membrane, while maintaining a constant average coordination number of 6.1. Water penetrates the surface of the membrane to a depth of about 30?. The hydration of ions and phosphate groups is shown to depend on location within the membrane. A measure of saccharide residue orientation is defined and average orientations are presented. Saccharide residues possess varying degrees of motion with a trend of greater mobility at the membrane surface. However, their motion is limited and even in the membrane outer core region the average structure appears fairly rigid over a period of 1 ns.

  3. Ceramide forms channels in mitochondrial outer membranes at physiologically relevant concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Siskind, Leah J.; Kolesnick, Richard N.; Colombini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the ability of ceramides to induce apoptosis is due to a direct action on mitochondria. Mitochondria are known to contain enzymes responsible for ceramide synthesis and hydrolysis and mitochondrial ceramide levels have been shown to be elevated prior to the mitochondrial phase of apoptosis. Ceramides have been reported to induce the release of intermembrane space proteins from mitochondria, which has been linked to their ability to form large channels in membranes. The aim of this study was to determine if the membrane concentration of ceramide required for the formation of protein permeable channels is within the range that is present in mitochondria during the induction phase of apoptosis. Only a very small percentage of the ceramide actually inserts into the mitochondrial membranes. The permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane correlates directly with the level of ceramide in the membrane. Importantly, the concentration of ceramide at which significant channel formation occurs is consistent with the level of mitochondrial ceramide that occurs during the induction phase of apoptosis (4 pmol ceramide/nanomole phospholipid). Similar results were obtained with short- and long-chain ceramide. Ceramide channel formation is specific to mitochondrial membranes in that no channel formation occurs in the plasma membranes of erythrocytes even at concentrations 20 times higher than those required for channel formation in mitochondrial outer membranes. Thus, ceramide channels are good candidates for the pathway by which proapoptotic proteins are released from mitochondria during the induction phase of apoptosis. PMID:16713754

  4. OmpW of Caulobacter crescentus Functions as an Outer Membrane Channel for Cations

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Roland; Jones, Michael D.; Younas, Farhan; Maier, Elke; Modi, Niraj; Mentele, Reinhard; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Smit, John

    2015-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic bacterium that lives in dilute organic environments such as soil and freshwater. This bacterium represents an interesting model for cellular differentiation and regulation because daughter cells after division have different forms: one is motile while the other is non-motile and can adhere to surfaces. Interestingly, the known genome of C. crescentus does not contain genes predicted to code for outer membrane porins of the OmpF/C general diffusion type present in enteric bacteria or those coding for specific porins selective for classes of substrates. Instead, genes coding for 67 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors have been identified, suggesting that active transport of specific nutrients may be the norm. Here, we report that high channel-forming activity was observed with crude outer membrane extracts of C. crescentus in lipid bilayer experiments, indicating that the outer membrane of C. crescentus contained an ion-permeable channel with a single-channel conductance of about 120 pS in 1M KCl. The channel-forming protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 20 kDa was purified to homogeneity. Partial protein sequencing of the protein indicated it was a member of the OmpW family of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. This channel was not observed in reconstitution experiments with crude outer membrane extracts of an OmpW deficient C. crescentus mutant. Biophysical analysis of the C. crescentus OmpW suggested that it has features that are special for general diffusion porins of Gram-negative outer membranes because it was not a wide aqueous channel. Furthermore, OmpW of C. crescentus seems to be different to known OmpW porins and has a preference for ions, in particular cations. A putative model for OmpW of C. crescentus was built on the basis of the known 3D-structures of OmpW of Escherichia coli and OprG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using homology modeling. A comparison of the two known structures

  5. The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, Raimund; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Stevanovic, Mara; Bredemeier, Rolf; Schleiff, Enrico

    2010-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall including the outer membrane. The outer membrane is composed of two distinct monolayers where the outer layer contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the non-phospholipid Lipid A as the core. The synthesis of Lipid A is initiated in the cytosol and thereby the molecule has to be transported across the inner and outer membranes. The β-barrel lipopolysaccharide-assembly protein D (LptD) was discovered to be involved in the transfer of Lipid A into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. At present the molecular procedure of lipid transfer across the outer membrane remains unknown. Here we approached the functionality of the transfer system by an electrophysiological analysis of the outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli named ecLptD. In vitro the protein shows cation selectivity and has an estimated pore diameter of about 1.8 nm. Addition of Lipid A induces a transition of the open state to a sub-conductance state with two independent off-rates, which might suggest that LptD is able to bind and transport the molecule in vitro. To generalize our findings with respect to the Lipid A transport system of other Gram-negative bacteria we have explored the existence of the proteins involved in this pathway by bioinformatic means. We were able to identify the membrane-inserted components of the Lipid A transport system in all Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the periplasmic components appear to be species-specific. The LptD proteins of different bacteria are characterized by their periplasmic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal barrel region. The latter shows distinct sequence properties, particularly in LptD proteins of cyanobacteria, and this specific domain can be found in plant proteins as well. By electrophysiological experiments on LptD from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 we are able to confirm the functional relation of anaLptD to Lipid A transport.

  6. Cross-linking analysis of antigenic outer membrane protein complexes of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Arenas, Jesús; Criado, María Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2006-03-01

    Polysaccharide-based approaches have not enabled the development of effective vaccines against meningococci of serogroup B, and the most promising current research is focused on the use of outer membrane vesicles. Due to the toxicity of the outer membrane oligosaccharides, new vaccines based on purified proteins are being sought, but despite the application of advanced techniques, they remain elusive, perhaps due to the fact that standard techniques for analysis of antigens overlook conformational epitopes located in membrane complexes. Membrane complex antigens have been analyzed in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and a study published on Neisseria meningitidis has reported the in vitro formation of 800-kD complexes by deposition of a purified protein (MSP63) onto synthetic lipid layers; however, no studies to date have attempted to identify membrane complexes present in vivo in N. meningitidis. In the present study, cross-linking with formaldehyde was used to identify outer membrane protein associations in various N. meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica strains. In N. meningitides, complexes of about 450 kD (also present in N. lactamica), 165 and 95 kD were detected and shown to be made up of the proteins MSP63, PorA/PorB/RmpM/FetA, and PorA/PorB/RmpM, respectively. In western blots, the 450-kD complex was identified by mouse antibodies raised against outer membrane vesicles, but not by antibodies raised against the purified complex, demonstrating the importance of conformational epitopes, and thus suggesting that the analysis of antigens in their native conformation may be useful or even essential for the design of effective vaccines against meningococci.

  7. Efficient quantification and characterization of bacterial outer membrane derived nano-particles with flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Andreas; Storz, Enno; Liegl, Gabriele; Peter, Annabell; Pritsch, Michael; Shock, Jonathan; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Schubert, Sören

    2014-11-01

    There currently exists no efficient and easy method for size profiling and counting of membranous nano-scale particles, such as bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We present here a cost-effective and fast method capable of profiling and counting small sample volumes of nano-scale membranous vesicles with standard laboratory equipment without the need for any washing steps. OMV populations of different bacterial species are compared and even subpopulations of OMVs can be identified after a simple labelling procedure. Counting is possible over three orders of magnitude without any changes to the protocol. Protein contaminations do not alter the described measurements.

  8. Single-point single-molecule FRAP distinguishes inner and outer nuclear membrane protein distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbi, Krishna C; Schirmer, Eric C; Yang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The normal distribution of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) is disrupted in several human diseases. NETs are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported from the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Quantitative determination of the distribution of NETs on the ONM and INM is limited in available approaches, which moreover provide no information about translocation rates in the two membranes. Here we demonstrate a single-point single-molecule FRAP microscopy technique that enables determination of distribution and translocation rates for NETs in vivo. PMID:27558844

  9. Outer Membrane Protein Folding and Topology from a Computational Transfer Free Energy Scale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meishan; Gessmann, Dennis; Naveed, Hammad; Liang, Jie

    2016-03-02

    Knowledge of the transfer free energy of amino acids from aqueous solution to a lipid bilayer is essential for understanding membrane protein folding and for predicting membrane protein structure. Here we report a computational approach that can calculate the folding free energy of the transmembrane region of outer membrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) by combining an empirical energy function with a reduced discrete state space model. We quantitatively analyzed the transfer free energies of 20 amino acid residues at the center of the lipid bilayer of OmpLA. Our results are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived hydrophobicity scales. We further exhaustively calculated the transfer free energies of 20 amino acids at all positions in the TM region of OmpLA. We found that the asymmetry of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane as well as the TM residues of an OMP determine its functional fold in vivo. Our results suggest that the folding process of an OMP is driven by the lipid-facing residues in its hydrophobic core, and its NC-IN topology is determined by the differential stabilities of OMPs in the asymmetrical outer membrane. The folding free energy is further reduced by lipid A and assisted by general depth-dependent cooperativities that exist between polar and ionizable residues. Moreover, context-dependency of transfer free energies at specific positions in OmpLA predict regions important for protein function as well as structural anomalies. Our computational approach is fast, efficient and applicable to any OMP.

  10. RND transporters protect Corynebacterium glutamicum from antibiotics by assembling the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Belardinelli, Juan; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Jones, Victoria; Jackson, Mary; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2014-08-01

    Corynebacterium-Mycobacterium-Nocardia (CMN) group are the causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases in humans. A distinctive feature of these Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of an outer membrane of unique structure and composition. Recently, resistance-nodulation-division (RND) transporters (nicknamed MmpLs, Mycobacterial membrane protein Large) have emerged as major contributors to the biogenesis of the outer membranes in mycobacteria and as promising drug targets. In this study, we investigated the role of RND transporters in the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum and analyzed properties of these proteins. Our results show that in contrast to Gram-negative species, in which RND transporters actively extrude antibiotics from cells, in C. glutamicum and relatives these transporters protect cells from antibiotics by playing essential roles in the biogenesis of the low-permeability barrier of the outer membrane. Conditional C. glutamicum mutants lacking RND proteins and with the controlled expression of either NCgl2769 (CmpL1) or NCgl0228 (CmpL4) are hypersusceptible to multiple antibiotics, have growth deficiencies in minimal medium and accumulate intracellularly trehalose monocorynomycolates, free corynomycolates, and the previously uncharacterized corynomycolate-containing lipid. Our results also suggest that similar to other RND transporters, Corynebacterial membrane proteins Large (CmpLs) functions are dependent on a proton-motive force.

  11. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    PubMed

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, <0.9). For the first time, we have demonstrated that mitochondrial MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

  12. Both phototropin 1 and 2 localize on the chloroplast outer membrane with distinct localization activity.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Kikuchi, Shingo; Nakai, Masato; Nagatani, Akira; Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplasts change their position to adapt cellular activities to fluctuating environmental light conditions. Phototropins (phot1 and phot2 in Arabidopsis) are plant-specific blue light photoreceptors that perceive changes in light intensity and direction, and mediate actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movements. Both phot1 and phot2 regulate the chloroplast accumulation response, while phot2 is mostly responsible for the regulation of the avoidance response. Although it has been widely accepted that distinct intracellular localizations of phototropins are implicated in the specificity, the mechanism underlying the phot2-specific avoidance response has remained elusive. In this study, we examined the relationship of the phot2 localization pattern to the chloroplast photorelocation movement. First, the fusion of a nuclear localization signal with phot2, which effectively reduced the amount of phot2 in the cytoplasm, retained the activity for both the accumulation and avoidance responses, indicating that membrane-localized phot2 but not cytoplasmic phot2 is functional to mediate the responses. Importantly, some fractions of phot2, and of phot1 to a lesser extent, were localized on the chloroplast outer membrane. Moreover, the deletion of the C-terminal region of phot2, which was previously shown to be defective in blue light-induced Golgi localization and avoidance response, affected the localization pattern on the chloroplast outer membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that dynamic phot2 trafficking from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus and the chloroplast outer membrane might be involved in the avoidance response.

  13. The protein import channel in the outer mitosomal membrane of Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Dagley, Michael J; Dolezal, Pavel; Likic, Vladimir A; Smid, Ondrej; Purcell, Anthony W; Buchanan, Susan K; Tachezy, Jan; Lithgow, Trevor

    2009-09-01

    The identification of mitosomes in Giardia generated significant debate on the evolutionary origin of these organelles, whether they were highly reduced mitochondria or the product of a unique endosymbiotic event in an amitochondrial organism. As the protein import pathway is a defining characteristic of mitochondria, we sought to discover a TOM (translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex in Giardia. A Hidden Markov model search of the Giardia genome identified a Tom40 homologous sequence (GiTom40), where Tom40 is the protein translocation channel of the TOM complex. The GiTom40 protein is located in the membrane of mitosomes in a approximately 200-kDa TOM complex. As Tom40 was derived in the development of mitochondria to serve as the protein import channel in the outer membrane, its presence in Giardia evidences the mitochondrial ancestry of mitosomes.

  14. Major outer membrane protein of Legionella pneumophila carries a species-specific epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, F S; Conlin, C A

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LP3IIG2) directed against a species-specific epitope of Legionella pneumophila is available from Genetic Systems Corp., Seattle, Wash., for use as a diagnostic reagent. Outer membrane protein-rich fractions were prepared from L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 8 by treatment of cell envelopes with 2% Triton X-100. Immunoblots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels demonstrated that each membrane fraction contained two bands that reacted with LP3IIG2. The monoclonal antibody bound preferentially to a 26,000-molecular-weight band that appears to result from modification of the 29,000-molecular-weight major outer membrane protein. Images PMID:2420824

  15. Structure and properties of the outer membranes of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Moriyón, I; López-Goñi, I

    1998-03-01

    The brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria characteristically able to multiply facultatively within phagocytic cells and which cause a zoonosis of world-wide importance. This article reviews the structure and topology of the main components (lipopolysaccharide, native hapten polysaccharide, free lipids and proteins) of the outer membranes of Brucella abortus and B. melitensis, as well as some distinctive properties (permeability and interactions with cationic peptides) of these membranes. On these data, an outer membrane model is proposed in which, as compared to other Gram-negatives, there is a stronger hydrophobic anchorage for the lipopolysaccharide, free lipids, porin proteins and lipoproteins, and a reduced surface density of anionic groups, which could be partially or totally neutralized by ornithine lipids. This model accounts for the permeability of Brucella to hydrophobic permeants and for its resistance to the bactericidal oxygen-independent systems of phagocytes.

  16. Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II is associated with the outer membrane when overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Abdeljabbar, Diya M; Song, Hank J; Link, A James

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose degradation is essential for the future production of many advanced biofuels. Cellulases from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei are among the most efficient enzymes for the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. One of the cellulases from T. reesei, cellobiohydrolase II (CBH2), was studied because of its industrial relevance and proven enzymatic activity. Using both crude and rigorous membrane fractionation methods we show that full length T. reesei CBH2 is exclusively localized to the outer membrane when expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli. Even fusing signal sequence-free maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of CBH2, which has been shown to increase solubility of other proteins, did not prevent the outer membrane localization of CBH2. These results highlight the difficulties in producing fungal cellulases in bacterial hosts and provide a stepping stone for future cellulase engineering efforts.

  17. Outer membrane proteins can be simply identified using secondary structure element alignment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are frequently found in the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts and have been found to play diverse functional roles. Computational discrimination of OMPs from globular proteins and other types of membrane proteins is helpful to accelerate new genome annotation and drug discovery. Results Based on the observation that almost all OMPs consist of antiparallel β-strands in a barrel shape and that their secondary structure arrangements differ from those of other types of proteins, we propose a simple method called SSEA-OMP to identify OMPs using secondary structure element alignment. Through intensive benchmark experiments, the proposed SSEA-OMP method is better than some well-established OMP detection methods. Conclusions The major advantage of SSEA-OMP is its good prediction performance considering its simplicity. The web server implements the method is freely accessible at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/SSEA-OMP/index.html. PMID:21414186

  18. Structure of TonB in Complex with FhuA, E. Coli Outer Membrane Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelek,P.; Croteau, N.; Ng-Thow-Hing, C.; Khursigara, C.; Moiseeva, N.; Allaire, M.; Coulton, J.

    2006-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane protein TonB spans the periplasm of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope, contacts cognate outer membrane receptors, and facilitates siderophore transport. The outer membrane receptor FhuA from Escherichia coli mediates TonB-dependent import of ferrichrome. We report the 3.3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the TonB carboxyl-terminal domain in complex with FhuA. TonB contacts stabilize FhuA's amino-terminal residues, including those of the consensus Ton box sequence that form an interprotein {beta} sheet with TonB through strand exchange. The highly conserved TonB residue arginine-166 is oriented to form multiple contacts with the FhuA cork, the globular domain enclosed by the {beta} barrel.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Plate–gap Biosensors with an Outer Porous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas; Kaunietis, Irmantas; Laurinavicius, Valdas

    2006-01-01

    A plate–gap model of a porous enzyme doped electrode covered by a porous inert membrane has been proposed and analyzed. The two–dimensional–in–space mathematical model of the plate–gap biosensors is based on the reaction–diffusion equations containing a nonlinear term related to the Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Using numerical simulation of the biosensor action, the influence of the geometry of the outer membrane on the biosensor response was investigated at wide range of analyte concentrations as well as of the reaction rates. The numerical simulation was carried out using finite–difference technique. The behavior of the plate–gap biosensors was compared with that of a flat electrode deposited with a layer of enzyme and covered with the same outer membrane.

  20. Conserved outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis involved in capsule expression.

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, M; Müller, D; Bousset, K; Müller, A

    1992-01-01

    In Neisseria meningitidis, translocation of capsular polysaccharides to the cell surface is mediated by a transport system that fits the characteristics of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. One protein of this transport system, termed CtrA, is located in the outer membrane. By use of a CtrA-specific monoclonal antibody, we could demonstrate that CtrA occurs exclusively in N. meningitidis and not in other pathogenic or nonpathogenic Neisseria species. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the ctrA gene from different meningococcal serogroups indicated that CtrA is strongly conserved in all meningococcal serogroups, independent of the chemical composition of the capsular polysaccharide. Secondary structure analysis revealed that CtrA is anchored in the outer membrane by eight membrane-spanning amphipathic beta strands, a structure of proteins that function as porins. Images PMID:1371768

  1. Surface-Localized Spermidine Protects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane from Antibiotic Treatment and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lori; Mulcahy, Heidi; Kanevets, Uliana; Shi, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular DNA acts as a cation chelator and induces the expression of antibiotic resistance genes regulated by Mg2+ levels. Here we report the characterization of novel DNA-induced genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are annotated as homologs of the spermidine synthesis genes speD (PA4773) and speE (PA4774). The addition of sublethal concentrations of DNA and membrane-damaging antibiotics induced expression of the genes PA4773 to PA4775, as shown using transcriptional lux fusions and quantitative RT-PCR. Exogenous polyamine addition prevented DNA- and peptide-mediated gene induction. Mutation of PA4774 resulted in an increased outer membrane (OM) susceptibility phenotype upon polymyxin B, CP10A, and gentamicin treatment. When the membrane-localized fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY581/591 was used as an indicator of peroxidation of membrane lipids, the PA4774::lux mutant demonstrated an increased susceptibility to oxidative membrane damage from H2O2 treatment. Addition of exogenous polyamines protected the membranes of the PA4774::lux mutant from polymyxin B and H2O2 treatment. Polyamines from the outer surface were isolated and shown to contain putrescine and spermidine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The PA4774::lux mutant did not produce spermidine on the cell surface, but genetic complementation restored surface spermidine production as well as the antibiotic and oxidative stress resistance phenotypes of the membrane. We have identified new functions for spermidine on the cell surface and propose that polyamines are produced under Mg2+-limiting conditions as an organic polycation to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to stabilize and protect the outer membrane against antibiotic and oxidative damage. PMID:22155771

  2. Destabilization of the Outer and Inner Mitochondrial Membranes by Core and Linker Histones

    PubMed Central

    Cascone, Annunziata; Bruelle, Celine; Lindholm, Dan; Bernardi, Paolo; Eriksson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive DNA damage leads to apoptosis. Histones play a central role in DNA damage sensing and may mediate signals of genotoxic damage to cytosolic effectors including mitochondria. Methodology/Principal Findings We have investigated the effects of histones on mitochondrial function and membrane integrity. We demonstrate that both linker histone H1 and core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 bind strongly to isolated mitochondria. All histones caused a rapid and massive release of the pro-apoptotic intermembrane space proteins cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, indicating that they permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. In addition, linker histone H1, but not core histones, permeabilized the inner membrane with a collapse of the membrane potential, release of pyridine nucleotides, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions We conclude that histones destabilize the mitochondrial membranes, a mechanism that may convey genotoxic signals to mitochondria and promote apoptosis following DNA damage. PMID:22523586

  3. Release of outer membrane vesicles by Gram-negative bacteria is a novel envelope stress response

    PubMed Central

    McBroom, Amanda J; Kuehn, Meta J

    2007-01-01

    Conditions that impair protein folding in the Gram-negative bacterial envelope cause stress. The destabilizing effects of stress in this compartment are recognized and countered by a number of signal transduction mechanisms. Data presented here reveal another facet of the complex bacterial stress response, release of outer membrane vesicles. Native vesicles are composed of outer membrane and periplasmic material, and they are released from the bacterial surface without loss of membrane integrity. Here we demonstrate that the quantity of vesicle release correlates directly with the level of protein accumulation in the cell envelope. Accumulation of material occurs under stress, and is exacerbated upon impairment of the normal housekeeping and stress-responsive mechanisms of the cell. Mutations that cause increased vesiculation enhance bacterial survival upon challenge with stressing agents or accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins. Preferential packaging of a misfolded protein mimic into vesicles for removal indicates that the vesiculation process can act to selectively eliminate unwanted material. Our results demonstrate that production of bacterial outer membrane vesicles is a fully independent, general envelope stress response. In addition to identifying a novel mechanism for alleviating stress, this work provides physiological relevance for vesicle production as a protective mechanism. PMID:17163978

  4. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaY and ΔwaaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG and ΔwaaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaQ and ΔwaaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaU, ΔwaaP and ΔwaaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  5. Expression and Association of the Yersinia pestis Translocon Proteins, YopB and YopD, Are Facilitated by Nanolipoprotein Particles

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Matthew A.; Cappuccio, Jenny A.; Blanchette, Craig D.; ...

    2016-03-25

    Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion of the injectisome that interacts directly with host cell membranes is referred to as the translocon. The translocon is believed to form a pore allowing effector molecules to enter host cells. To facilitate mechanistic studies of the translocon, we have developed a cell-free approach for expressing translocon pore proteinsmore » as a complex supported in a bilayer membrane mimetic nano-scaffold known as a nanolipoprotein particle (NLP) Initial results show cell-free expression of Yersinia pestis outer membrane proteins YopB and YopD was enhanced in the presence of liposomes. However, these complexes tended to aggregate and precipitate. With the addition of co-expressed (NLP) forming components, the YopB and/or YopD complex was rendered soluble, increasing the yield of protein for biophysical studies. Biophysical methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy were used to confirm that the soluble YopB/D complex was associated with NLPs. An interaction between the YopB/D complex and NLP was validated by immunoprecipitation. The YopB/D translocon complex embedded in a NLP provides a platform for protein interaction studies between pathogen and host proteins. Ultimately, these studies will help elucidate the poorly understood mechanism which enables this pathogen to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus evading host defenses.« less

  6. Expression and Association of the Yersinia pestis Translocon Proteins, YopB and YopD, Are Facilitated by Nanolipoprotein Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Matthew A.; Cappuccio, Jenny A.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Gao, Tingjuan; Arroyo, Erin S.; Hinz, Angela K.; Bourguet, Feliza A.; Segelke, Brent; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Huser, Thomas; Laurence, Ted A.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Chromy, Brett A.

    2016-03-25

    Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion of the injectisome that interacts directly with host cell membranes is referred to as the translocon. The translocon is believed to form a pore allowing effector molecules to enter host cells. To facilitate mechanistic studies of the translocon, we have developed a cell-free approach for expressing translocon pore proteins as a complex supported in a bilayer membrane mimetic nano-scaffold known as a nanolipoprotein particle (NLP) Initial results show cell-free expression of Yersinia pestis outer membrane proteins YopB and YopD was enhanced in the presence of liposomes. However, these complexes tended to aggregate and precipitate. With the addition of co-expressed (NLP) forming components, the YopB and/or YopD complex was rendered soluble, increasing the yield of protein for biophysical studies. Biophysical methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy were used to confirm that the soluble YopB/D complex was associated with NLPs. An interaction between the YopB/D complex and NLP was validated by immunoprecipitation. The YopB/D translocon complex embedded in a NLP provides a platform for protein interaction studies between pathogen and host proteins. Ultimately, these studies will help elucidate the poorly understood mechanism which enables this pathogen to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus evading host defenses.

  7. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE PAGES

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; ...

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  8. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  9. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-08-01

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops.

  10. The Design and Structure of Outer Membrane Receptors from Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Whelan, James; Vrielink, Alice

    2015-10-06

    The eukaryotic cell is defined by compartments that allow specialization of function. This compartmental structure generates a new concept in cell biology compared with the simpler prokaryotic cell structure, namely the specific targeting of proteins to intracellular compartments. Protein targeting is achieved by the action of specialized signals on proteins destined for organelles that are recognized by cognate receptors. An understanding of the specificity of targeting signal recognition leading to import requires an understanding of the receptor structures. Here, we focus on the structures of receptors of different import machineries located on the outer membrane of three organelles: peroxisomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. This review provides an overview of the structural features of outer membrane import receptors that recognize targeting signals. Finally, we briefly discuss combinatorial approaches that might aid in understanding the structural factors mediating receptor targeting signal recognition.

  11. Escherichia coli pleiotropic mutant that reduces amounts of several periplasmic and outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, B L; Sarthy, A; Beckwith, J

    1979-01-01

    We have isolated a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 that is reduced from 6- to 10-fold in the amount of alkaline phosphatase found in the periplasmic space. The reduced synthesis is not due to effects at the level of transcription regulation of the phoA gene, the structural gene for the enzyme. In addition, the mutation (termed perA) responsible for this phenotype results in reduced amounts of possibly six or more other periplasmic proteins and at least three outer membrane proteins. One of the outer membrane proteins affected is protein IA (D. L. Diedrich, A. O. Summers, and C. A. Schnaitman, J. Bacteriol. 131:598-607, 1977). Although other possibilities exist, one explanation for the phenotype of the perA mutation is that it affects the cell's secretory apparatus. Images PMID:387722

  12. The major anaerobically induced outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pan 1, is a lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, G T; Clark, V L

    1992-01-01

    Pan 1 is an acidic outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that is expressed only when gonococci are grown anaerobically. On silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, Pan 1 migrates as an intense but diffuse 54-kDa protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pan 1 from the aniA (anaerobically induced protein) open reading frame reveals a lipoprotein consensus sequence, Ala-Leu-Ala-Ala-Cys, and a processed molecular mass of 39 kDa. Furthermore, there is strong homology at the N terminus and C terminus of Pan 1 to the termini of the gonococcal outer membrane lipoproteins Lip and Laz. [3H]palmitic acid labeling of gonococci grown under oxygen-limited conditions demonstrated specific incorporation of label into Pan 1, suggesting further that Pan 1 is a lipoprotein. Images PMID:1398981

  13. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD

    PubMed Central

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-01-01

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops. PMID:26282243

  14. The role of outer membrane in Serratia marcescens intrinsic resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; Ruiz, N; Leranoz, S; Viñas, M; Puig, M

    1997-09-01

    Three different porins from Serratia marcescens were described. They were named Omp1, Omp2 and Omp3 and their molecular weights were 42, 40 and 39 kDa respectively. Omp2 and Omp3 showed osmoregulation and thermoregulation in a similar way to OmpC and OmpF of Escherichia coli. Permeability coefficients of the outer membrane of this species were calculated following the Zimmermann and Rosselet method. P values were similar to those obtained in Escherichia coli, which suggests that the chromosomal beta-lactamase would play a major role in the resistance of Serratia marcescens to beta-lactam antibiotics. Both MIC values and permeabilities were modified by salycilates and acetylsalycilate. Synergism between the outer membrane and the beta-lactamase was also evaluated. When bacteria grew in the presence of a beta-lactam in the medium, the beta-lactamase accounted for most of the resistance.

  15. Analysis of Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane antigens cross-reactive with Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Gemma; Sánchez, Sandra; Criado, María Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos

    2004-01-15

    Mouse sera against outer membrane proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica, and human sera from both healthy individuals and patients convalescing from meningococcal meningitis were used to identify cross-reactive antigens. Mouse anti-N. meningitidis and anti-N. lactamica sera recognized 77, 62 and 32 kDa outer membrane antigens in M. catarrhalis strains; on the contrary, the meningococcal porin PorB (38-42 kDa) was recognized by one of the two anti-M. catarrhalis sera. Human sera from both healthy individuals and patients convalescing from meningococcal meningitis also showed cross-reactive antibodies against these proteins. The existence of cross-reactive antigens in M. catarrhalis and N. meningitidis (as well as in N. lactamica) could favor the development of natural immunization against both pathogens.

  16. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD.

    PubMed

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-08-18

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops.

  17. Studies of cochlear outer hair cell membrane mechanics using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of outer hair cell (OHC) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell plasma membranes. The effect of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the equilibrium tethering force, (Feq) force relaxation time constant,(τ) and effective membrane viscosity (ηeff) was measured. The Feq for the OHC lateral wall plasma membrane was ~60 pN and was unchanged by addition of CPZ. A significantly greater τ value was observed in CPZ-treated OHCs (30.5 +/- 12.6 s) than in control OHCs (19.0 +/- 13.2 s). The Feq and τ values for control HEK cells were >60% lower than the respective OHC values but increased by ~3 times following CPZ addition. Effective viscosity ranged between 1.49-1.81 pN•s/μm for CPZ-treated OHCs. This represents a decrease from reported control OHC membrane viscosities.

  18. Optical tweezers study of viscoelastic properties in the outer hair cell plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of the outer hair cell (OHC) lateral wall by forming plasma membrane tethers. A 2nd order generalized Kelvin model was applied to describe the viscoelastic behavior of OHC membrane tethers. The measured parameters included equilibrium tethering force, (Feq), force relaxation times (τ), stiffness values (κ), and coefficients of friction (μ). An analysis of force relaxation in membrane tethers indicated that the force decay is a biphasic process containing both an elastic and a viscous phase. In general, we observed an overall negative trend in the measured parameters upon application of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ). CPZ was found to cause up to a 40 pN reduction in Feq in OHCs. A statistically significant reduction in relaxation times and coefficients of friction was also observed, suggesting an increase in rate of force decay and a decrease in plasma membrane viscosity.

  19. Membrane recycling at the infranuclear pole of the outer hair cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Harasztosi, Emese; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid endocytic activity of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the guinea-pig cochlea has been already studied using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43. It was demonstrated that vesicles were endocytosed at the apical pole of OHCs and transcytosed to the basolateral membrane and through a central strand towards the nucleus. The significance of endocytic activity in the infranuclear region is still not clear. Therefore, in this study endocytic activity at the synaptic pole of OHCs was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize dye uptake of OHCs isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea. Signal intensity changes were quantified in the apical and basal poles relative to the signal at the membrane. Data showed no significant difference in fluorescent signal intensity changes between the opposite poles of the OHC. These results suggest that endocytic activities in both the basal and the apical poles contribute equally to the membrane recycling of OHCs.

  20. Thermotropic phase transitions in model membranes of the outer skin layer based on ceramide 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzinov, A. Yu.; Kiselev, M. A.; Ermakova, E. V.; Zabelin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The lipid intercellular matrix stratum corneum of the outer skin layer is a multilayer membrane consisting of a complex mixture of different lipids: ceramides, fatty acids, cholesterol, and its derivatives. The basis of the multilayer membrane is the lipid bilayer, i.e., a two-dimensional liquid crystal. Currently, it is known that the main way of substance penetration through the skin is the lipid matrix. The complexity of the actual biological system does not allow reliable direct study of its properties; therefore, system modeling is often used. Phase transitions in the lipid system whose composition simulates the native lipid matrix are studied by the X-ray synchrotron radiation diffraction method.

  1. Analysis of Surface-Exposed Outer Membrane Proteins in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Bradley J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; McDonald, W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    More than 50 Helicobacter pylori genes are predicted to encode outer membrane proteins (OMPs), but there has been relatively little experimental investigation of the H. pylori cell surface proteome. In this study, we used selective biotinylation to label proteins localized to the surface of H. pylori, along with differential detergent extraction procedures to isolate proteins localized to the outer membrane. Proteins that met multiple criteria for surface-exposed outer membrane localization included known adhesins, as well as Cag proteins required for activity of the cag type IV secretion system, putative lipoproteins, and other proteins not previously recognized as cell surface components. We identified sites of nontryptic cleavage consistent with signal sequence cleavage, as well as C-terminal motifs that may be important for protein localization. A subset of surface-exposed proteins were highly susceptible to proteolysis when intact bacteria were treated with proteinase K. Most Hop and Hom OMPs were susceptible to proteolysis, whereas Hor and Hof proteins were relatively resistant. Most of the protease-susceptible OMPs contain a large protease-susceptible extracellular domain exported beyond the outer membrane and a protease-resistant domain at the C terminus with a predicted β-barrel structure. These features suggest that, similar to the secretion of the VacA passenger domain, the N-terminal domains of protease-susceptible OMPs are exported through an autotransporter pathway. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the repertoire of surface-exposed H. pylori proteins that may mediate bacterium-host interactions, as well as the cell surface topology of these proteins. PMID:24769695

  2. Direct Visualization of the Outer Membrane of Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria in Their Native State▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Benoît; Chami, Mohamed; Houssin, Christine; Dubochet, Jacques; Griffiths, Gareth; Daffé, Mamadou

    2008-01-01

    The cell envelope of mycobacteria, which include the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, is crucial for their success as pathogens. Despite a continued strong emphasis on identifying the multiple chemical components of this envelope, it has proven difficult to combine its components into a comprehensive structural model, primarily because the available ultrastructural data rely on conventional electron microscopy embedding and sectioning, which are known to induce artifacts. The existence of an outer membrane bilayer has long been postulated but has never been directly observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. Here we have used cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) to perform a detailed ultrastructural analysis of three species belonging to the Corynebacterineae suborder, namely, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Corynebacterium glutamicum, in their native state. We provide new information that accurately describes the different layers of the mycobacterial cell envelope and challenges current models of the organization of its components. We show a direct visualization of an outer membrane, analogous to that found in gram-negative bacteria, in the three bacterial species examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mycolic acids, the hallmark of mycobacteria and related genera, are essential for the formation of this outer membrane. In addition, a granular layer and a low-density zone typifying the periplasmic space of gram-positive bacteria are apparent in CEMOVIS images of mycobacteria and corynebacteria. Based on our observations, a model of the organization of the lipids in the outer membrane is proposed. The architecture we describe should serve as a reference for future studies to relate the structure of the mycobacterial cell envelope to its function. PMID:18567661

  3. Outer Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their Role in Antibiotic Susceptibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    is the X phage receptor which has been implicated in the maltose and maltodextrin transport system by overcoming the diffusion barrier for these...accomodate small molecules other than maltodextrins . It is significant, however, that the X receptor is used for maltose transport only when substrate...and maltodextrins (23). -4- Physiological roles of outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria other than those just discussed are: peptidoglycan

  4. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  5. SurA Is Involved in the Targeting to the Outer Membrane of a Tat Signal Sequence-Anchored Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rondelet, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway exports folded proteins from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of bacteria. The targeting of the exported proteins to the Tat pathway relies on a specific amino-terminal signal sequence, which is cleaved after exportation. In the phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii, the pectin lyase homologue PnlH is exported by the Tat pathway without cleavage of its signal sequence, which anchors PnlH into the outer membrane. In proteobacteria, the vast majority of outer membrane proteins consists of β-barrel proteins and lipoproteins. Thus, PnlH represents a new kind of outer membrane protein. In Escherichia coli, periplasmic chaperones SurA, Skp, and DegP work together with the β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) to target and insert β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane. In this work, we showed that SurA is required for an efficient targeting of PnlH to the outer membrane. Moreover, we were able to detect an in vitro interaction between SurA and the PnlH signal sequence. Since the PnlH signal sequence contains a highly hydrophobic region, we propose that SurA protects it from the hydrophobic periplasm during targeting of PnlH to the outer membrane. We also studied the nature of the information carried by the PnlH signal sequence responsible for its targeting to the outer membrane after exportation by the Tat system. PMID:22961852

  6. Permeability barrier of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane with special reference to nisin.

    PubMed

    Helander, I M; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    2000-09-25

    The effect of nisin pretreatment on organic acid-induced permeability increase in strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. marginalis, and Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium was investigated, using assays based on the uptake of a fluorescent dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) and on the bacterial susceptibility to detergent-induced bacteriolysis. The outer membrane of bacteria which had been pretreated with nisin was shown to be less stable against 1 mM EDTA, as indicated by their significantly higher NPN uptake levels as compared to untreated bacteria. Upon challenge with a tenfold lower concentration of EDTA (0.1 mM) some nisin-treated strains (Typhimurium, P. marginalis) exhibited, however, NPN uptake levels which were lower than those seen in control bacteria, suggesting that nisin had stabilized their outer membrane. Nisin pretreatment also decreased the NPN uptake induced by citric or lactic acid or both in E. coli, P. marginalis, and Typhimurium, whereas in P. aeruginosa the pretreatment resulted in increased NPN uptake in response to citric and lactic acid. These results suggest that, with the exception of P. aeruginosa, nisin could protect bacteria from the outer membrane-disrupting effect caused by the acids. P. aeruginosa was, however, shown to be protected against bacteriolysis induced by the detergents sodium dodecylsulfate and Triton X-100. With a pair of isogenic mutants of Typhimurium differing in their cell surface charge it was shown that the NPN uptake response to I mM EDTA of the abnormally cationic strain was not significantly affected by nisin, whereas in the normal anionic strain nisin strongly strengthened the uptake. Our hypothesis based on these findings is that the normally anionic cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria has a tendency to bind the cationic nisin. The binding of nisin to the surface does not proceed to the cytoplasmic membrane, but in the outer membrane the bound nisin actually stabilizes its structure

  7. Two Isoforms of Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Pla: Intraspecies Distribution, Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, and Contribution to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Svetoch, Tat’yana E.; Kopylov, Pavel Kh.; Kombarova, Tat’yana I.; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z.; Kolombet, Lyubov’ V.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Ablamunits, Vitaly G.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the endemic strains providing a convictive evidence of more ancestral origin of this isoform. Analysis of the effects of the I259T polymorphism on the intrinsic disorder propensity of Pla revealed that the I259T mutation slightly increases the intrinsic disorder propensity of the C-terminal tail of Pla and makes this protein slightly more prone for disorder-based protein-protein interactions, suggesting that the T259 Pla could be functionally more active than the I259 Pla. This assumption was proven experimentally by assessing the coagulase and fibrinolytic activities of the two Pla isoforms in human plasma, as well as in a direct fluorometric assay with the Pla peptide substrate. The virulence testing of Pla-negative or expressing the I259 and T259 Pla isoforms Y. pestis subsp. microtus and subsp. pestis strains did not reveal any significant difference in LD50 values and dose-dependent survival assays between them by using a subcutaneous route of challenge of mice and guinea pigs or intradermal challenge of mice. However, a significant decrease in time-to-death was observed in animals infected with the epidemic T259 Pla-producing strains as compared to the parent Pla-negative variants. Survival curves of the endemic I259 Pla+ strains fit between them, but significant difference in mean time to death post infection between the Pla−strains and their I259 Pla+ variants could be seen only in the isogenic set of subsp. pestis strains. These findings suggest an essential role for the outer membrane protease Pla evolution in Y. pestis bubonic infection exacerbation that is necessary for

  8. Use of gene fusions to study outer membrane protein localization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, T J; Shuman, H A; Beckwith, J; Schwartz, M

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains have been isolated that produce hybrid proteins comprised of an NH2-terminal sequence from the lamB gene product (an outer membrane protein) and a major portion of the COOH-terminal sequence of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23; a cytoplasmic protein). These proteins exhibit beta-galactosidase activity. One such strain, pop 3105, produces a hybrid protein containing very little of the lamB gene protein; the protein is found in the cytoplasm. The protein found in a second strain, pop 3186, contains much more of the lamB gene protein; a substantial fraction of the beta-galactosidase activity is found in the outer membrane, probably facing outward. These results indicate that information necessary to direct the lamB gene product to its outer membrane location is located within the lamB gene itself. The properties of such fusion strains open up the prospect of a precise genetic analysis of the genetic components involved in protein transport. Images PMID:414221

  9. Role of the mar-sox-rob Regulon in Regulating Outer Membrane Porin Expression▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chubiz, Lon M.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple factors control the expression of the outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. In this work, we investigated the role of the mar-sox-rob regulon in regulating outer membrane porin expression in response to salicylate. We provide both genetic and physiological evidence that MarA and Rob can independently activate micF transcription in response to salicylate, leading to reduced OmpF expression. MarA was also found to repress OmpF expression through a MicF-independent pathway. In the case of OmpC, we found that its transcription was moderately increased in response to salicylate. However, this increase was independent of MarA and Rob. Finally, we found that the reduction in OmpF expression in a tolC mutant is due primarily to Rob. Collectively, this work further clarifies the coordinated role of MarA and Rob in regulating the expression of the outer membrane porins. PMID:21398557

  10. Prediction of structural features and application to outer membrane protein identification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Renxiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Lanqing; Yan, Feidi; Xue, Xiaoyu; Cai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Protein three-dimensional (3D) structures provide insightful information in many fields of biology. One-dimensional properties derived from 3D structures such as secondary structure, residue solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles are helpful to protein function prediction, fold recognition and ab initio folding. Here, we predict various structural features with the assistance of neural network learning. Based on an independent test dataset, protein secondary structure prediction generates an overall Q3 accuracy of ~80%. Meanwhile, the prediction of relative solvent accessibility obtains the highest mean absolute error of 0.164, and prediction of residue depth achieves the lowest mean absolute error of 0.062. We further improve the outer membrane protein identification by including the predicted structural features in a scoring function using a simple profile-to-profile alignment. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of outer membrane protein identification can be improved by ~3% at a 1% false positive level when structural features are incorporated. Finally, our methods are available as two convenient and easy-to-use programs. One is PSSM-2-Features for predicting secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles, the other is PPA-OMP for identifying outer membrane proteins from proteomes. PMID:26104144

  11. Detection of apoptosis through the lipid order of the outer plasma membrane leaflet.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Zeinab; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Richert, Ludovic; Mély, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Cell plasma membranes of living cells maintain their asymmetry, so that the outer leaflet presents a large quantity of sphingomyelin, which is critical for formation of ordered lipid domains. Here, a recently developed probe based on Nile Red (NR12S) was applied to monitor changes in the lipid order specifically at the outer leaflet of cell membranes. Important key features of NR12S are its ratiometric response exclusively to lipid order (liquid ordered vs. liquid disordered phase) and not to surface charge, the possibility of using it at very low concentrations (10-20nM) and the very simple staining protocol. Cholesterol extraction, oxidation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis were found to red shift the emission spectrum of NR12S, indicating a decrease in the lipid order at the outer plasma membrane leaflet. Remarkably, apoptosis induced by three different agents (actinomycin D, camptothecin, staurosporine) produced very similar spectroscopic effects, suggesting that apoptosis also significantly decreases the lipid order at this leaflet. The applicability of NR12S to detect apoptosis was further validated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, using the ratio between the blue and red parts of its emission band. Thus, for the first time, an environment-sensitive probe, sensitive to lipid order, is shown to detect apoptosis, suggesting a new concept in apoptosis sensing.

  12. The participation of outer membrane proteins in the bacterial sensitivity to nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Kędziora, Anna; Krzyżewska, Eva; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-06-13

    The presented study is to analyze the participation of outer membrane proteins of Gram- negative bacteria in sensitivity to silver nanomaterials. The mechanism of interaction of silver with the bacterial cell is best described in this group of microorganisms. There are several theories regarding the effectiveness of antimicrobial ions and nanosilver, and at the indicated differences in the way they work. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the procurement of silver from the environment and contribute to the development mechanisms of resistance to nanometals. They are measurable parameter in the field of cell phenotypic response to the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in the environment silver nanoforms: its properties, chemical composition, content or times of action. Proteomic methods (including two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI‑TOF MS) are therefore relevant techniques for determining the susceptibility of bacteria to silver and the changes taking place in the outer membrane under the influence: uptime/exposure and physical and chemical parameters of silver nanomaterials. Many products containing nanosilver is still in the research phase in terms of physico‑chemical characteristics and biological activity, others have been already implemented in many industries. During the very fast nanotechnology developing and introduction to the market products based on the nanosilver the bacterial answer to nanosilver is needed.

  13. Epidemiology of virulence-associated plasmids and outer membrane protein patterns within seven common Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed

    Helmuth, R; Stephan, R; Bunge, C; Hoog, B; Steinbeck, A; Bulling, E

    1985-04-01

    Antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella isolates belonging to seven common serotypes and originating from 29 different countries from all continents were investigated for their plasmid DNA content (337 isolates) and their outer membrane protein profiles (216 isolates). Of the S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, and S. choleraesuis isolates, 90% or more carried a serotype-specific plasmid. The molecular sizes of the plasmids were 60 megadaltons (Md) for S. typhimurium, 37 Md for S. enteritidis, 56 Md for S. dublin, and 30 Md for S. choleraesuis. The outer membrane protein profiles were homogeneous within each of the seven serotypes, except that a minority of S. enteritidis and S. dublin strains were lacking one major outer membrane protein. Virulence studies were performed with 39 representative strains by measuring the 50% lethal doses (LD50S) after oral infection of mice. The LD50 values obtained for plasmid-positive strains of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. dublin were up to 10(6)-fold lower than the values obtained for the plasmid-free strains of the same serotype. Only the plasmid-positive strains could invade the livers of orally infected mice, and only they were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 90% guinea pig serum. Strains of S. infantis were generally plasmid free, whereas S. panama and S. heidelberg isolates carried heterogeneous plasmid populations. The virulence properties of the latter three serotypes could not be correlated with the predominant plasmids found in these strains.

  14. Analysis and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Outer Membrane Vesicles Secreted by Cronobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kothary, Mahendra H.; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Rallabhandi, Prasad V.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Yan, Qiong Q.; Chase, Hannah R.; Lee, Boram; Park, Eunbi; Yoo, YeonJoo; Chung, Taejung; Finkelstein, Samantha B.; Negrete, Flavia J.; Patel, Isha R.; Carter, Laurenda; Sathyamoorthy, Venugopal; Fanning, Séamus; Tall, Ben D.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by Cronobacter. In this study, OMVs isolated from Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter turicensis, and Cronobacter malonaticus were examined by electron microscopy (EM) and their associated outer membrane proteins (OMP) and genes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, protein sequencing, BLAST, PCR, and DNA microarray. EM of stained cells revealed that the OMVs are secreted as pleomorphic micro-vesicles which cascade from the cell's surface. SDS-PAGE analysis identified protein bands with molecular weights of 18 kDa to >100 kDa which had homologies to OMPs such as GroEL; OmpA, C, E, F, and X; MipA proteins; conjugative plasmid transfer protein; and an outer membrane auto-transporter protein (OMATP). PCR analyses showed that most of the OMP genes were present in all seven Cronobacter species while a few genes (OMATP gene, groEL, ompC, mipA, ctp, and ompX) were absent in some phylogenetically-related species. Microarray analysis demonstrated sequence divergence among the OMP genes that was not captured by PCR. These results support previous findings that OmpA and OmpX may be involved in virulence of Cronobacter, and are packaged within secreted OMVs. These results also suggest that other OMV-packaged OMPs may be involved in roles such as stress response, cell wall and plasmid maintenance, and extracellular transport. PMID:28232819

  15. Prediction of structural features and application to outer membrane protein identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renxiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Lanqing; Yan, Feidi; Xue, Xiaoyu; Cai, Weiwen

    2015-06-01

    Protein three-dimensional (3D) structures provide insightful information in many fields of biology. One-dimensional properties derived from 3D structures such as secondary structure, residue solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles are helpful to protein function prediction, fold recognition and ab initio folding. Here, we predict various structural features with the assistance of neural network learning. Based on an independent test dataset, protein secondary structure prediction generates an overall Q3 accuracy of ~80%. Meanwhile, the prediction of relative solvent accessibility obtains the highest mean absolute error of 0.164, and prediction of residue depth achieves the lowest mean absolute error of 0.062. We further improve the outer membrane protein identification by including the predicted structural features in a scoring function using a simple profile-to-profile alignment. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of outer membrane protein identification can be improved by ~3% at a 1% false positive level when structural features are incorporated. Finally, our methods are available as two convenient and easy-to-use programs. One is PSSM-2-Features for predicting secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, residue depth and backbone torsion angles, the other is PPA-OMP for identifying outer membrane proteins from proteomes.

  16. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins Assist Bid in Bax-mediated Lipidic Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Blanca; Quispe, Joel; Choudhary, Vineet; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Ajero, Teddy G.; Du, Han; Schneiter, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical step in apoptosis and is regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins. In vitro systems using cardiolipin-containing liposomes have demonstrated the key features of MOMP induced by Bax and cleaved Bid; however, the nature of the “pores” and how they are formed remain obscure. We found that mitochondrial outer membranes contained very little cardiolipin, far less than that required for liposome permeabilization, despite their responsiveness to Bcl-2 family proteins. Strikingly, the incorporation of isolated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins into liposomes lacking cardiolipin conferred responsiveness to cleaved Bid and Bax. Cardiolipin dependence was observed only when permeabilization was induced with cleaved Bid but not with Bid or Bim BH3 peptide or oligomerized Bax. Therefore, we conclude that MOM proteins specifically assist cleaved Bid in Bax-mediated permeabilization. Cryoelectron microscopy of cardiolipin-liposomes revealed that cleaved Bid and Bax produced large round holes with diameters of 25–100 nm, suggestive of lipidic pores. In sum, we propose that activated Bax induces lipidic pore formation and that MOM proteins assist cleaved Bid in this process in the absence of cardiolipin. PMID:19244344

  17. Regulation of the inner membrane mitochondrial permeability transition by the outer membrane translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor).

    PubMed

    Sileikyte, Justina; Petronilli, Valeria; Zulian, Alessandra; Dabbeni-Sala, Federica; Tognon, Giuseppe; Nikolov, Peter; Bernardi, Paolo; Ricchelli, Fernanda

    2011-01-14

    We studied the properties of the permeability transition pore (PTP) in rat liver mitochondria and in mitoplasts retaining inner membrane ultrastructure and energy-linked functions. Like mitochondria, mitoplasts readily underwent a permeability transition following Ca(2+) uptake in a process that maintained sensitivity to cyclosporin A. On the other hand, major differences between mitochondria and mitoplasts emerged in PTP regulation by ligands of the outer membrane translocator protein of 18 kDa, TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. Indeed, (i) in mitoplasts, the PTP could not be activated by photo-oxidation after treatment with dicarboxylic porphyrins endowed with protoporphyrin IX configuration, which bind TSPO in intact mitochondria; and (ii) mitoplasts became resistant to the PTP-inducing effects of N,N-dihexyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide and of other selective ligands of TSPO. Thus, the permeability transition is an inner membrane event that is regulated by the outer membrane through specific interactions with TSPO.

  18. Rotation of Vibrio fischeri Flagella Produces Outer Membrane Vesicles That Induce Host Development

    PubMed Central

    Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie; Lynch, Jonathan B.; Koch, Eric; Schwartzman, Julia; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using the squid-vibrio association, we aimed to characterize the mechanism through which Vibrio fischeri cells signal morphogenesis of the symbiotic light-emitting organ. The symbiont releases two cell envelope molecules, peptidoglycan (PG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that, within 12 h of light organ colonization, act in synergy to trigger normal tissue development. Recent work has shown that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by V. fischeri are sufficient to induce PG-dependent morphogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) of OMV release by these bacteria has not been described. Like several genera of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, V. fischeri cells elaborate polar flagella that are enclosed by an extension of the outer membrane, whose function remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that along with the well-recognized phenomenon of blebbing from the cell's surface, rotation of this sheathed flagellum also results in the release of OMVs. In addition, we demonstrate that most of the development-inducing LPS is associated with these OMVs and that the presence of the outer membrane protein OmpU but not the LPS O antigen on these OMVs is important in triggering normal host development. These results also present insights into a possible new mechanism of LPS release by pathogens with sheathed flagella. IMPORTANCE Determining the function(s) of sheathed flagella in bacteria has been challenging, because no known mutation results only in the loss of this outer membrane-derived casing. Nevertheless, the presence of a sheathed flagellum in such host-associated genera as Vibrio, Helicobacter, and Brucella has led to several proposed functions, including physical protection of the flagella and masking of their immunogenic flagellins. Using the squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis, we demonstrate another role, that of V. fischeri cells require rotating flagella to induce apoptotic cell death within surface epithelium, which is a normal step in the organ

  19. Antibody Responses to Recombinant Protein Fragments of the Major Outer Membrane Protein and Polymorphic Outer Membrane Protein POMP90 in Chlamydophila abortus-Infected Pregnant Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Morag; Entrican, Gary; Wattegedera, Sean; Buxton, David; McKendrick, Iain J.; Longbottom, David

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydophila abortus is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in pregnant sheep (enzootic abortion of ewes or EAE) worldwide. Organisms shed in infected placentas and uterine discharges at lambing time are the main sources of environmental contamination, responsible for transmission to susceptible animals and possible human contacts. In the present study, a recently developed test, based on a recombinant fragment of the polymorphic outer membrane protein POMP90 (rOMP90-4 indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [iELISA]) and one based on the variable segment 2 (VS2) region of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (MOMP VS2 iELISA) were compared using sera from C. abortus-infected ewes at different stages throughout pregnancy. The rOMP90 iELISA detected antibody much earlier in pregnancy than the MOMP iELISA, which, like the complement fixation test, detected antibody only at the time of abortion or lambing. No anti-MOMP antibody response could be detected in three of seven experimentally infected ewes. Furthermore, the rOMP90 iELISA detected antibody in an animal that seroconverted during the course of the study, which the MOMP iELISA failed to detect. Overall, the results show that the rOMP90-4 iELISA is considerably more sensitive than the MOMP VS2 iELISA for identifying animals infected with C. abortus. Earlier detection of infection will allow appropriate control measures to be taken to reduce environmental contamination, thus limiting the spread of infection, financial losses, and the possible risks of zoonotic transmission to humans. PMID:15939753

  20. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E.; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nature’s fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5’s active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  1. Translocation of Vibrio harveyi N,N'-diacetylchitobiase to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jannatipour, M; Soto-Gil, R W; Childers, L C; Zyskind, J W

    1987-01-01

    The gene encoding N,N'-diacetylchitobiase (chitobiase) of the chitinolytic marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been isolated. While expression of the chitobiase gene (chb) was inducible by N,N'-diacetylchitobiose in V. harveyi, it was expressed constitutively when cloned in Escherichia coli, suggesting that controlling elements are not closely linked to chb. Chitobiase was found in the membrane fraction of E. coli cells containing plasmids with the cloned V. harveyi chb gene. When membranes of such cells were separated on Osborn gradients, chitobiase activity was found mainly in the outer membrane band. Translocation of the enzyme to the outer membrane was accompanied by cleavage of a signal peptide. A fusion protein, in which 22 amino acids from the amino terminus of prechitobiase were replaced with 21 amino acids from the pUC19 lacZ amino terminus, was not processed, and 99% of the activity was located in the cytoplasmic fraction. A homology to six amino acids surrounding the lipoprotein processing and modification site was found near the amino terminus of prechitobiase. Images PMID:3301816

  2. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhou, Zehua; Zheng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Guiying; Bu, Guojun; Fraser, Paul E; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by fusion and fission machinery. Impaired mitochondria dynamics cause various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Appoptosin (encoded by SLC25A38) is a mitochondrial carrier protein that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Appoptosin overexpression causes overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas appoptosin downregulation abolishes β-amyloid-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal death during Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we found that overexpression of appoptosin resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in a manner independent of its carrier function, ROS production or caspase activation. Although appoptosin did not affect levels of mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion (MFN1 and MFN2), inner-membrane fusion (OPA1) and fission [DRP1 (also known as DNM1L) and FIS1] proteins, appoptosin interacted with MFN1 and MFN2, as well as with the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCH5) but not OPA1, FIS1 or DRP1. Appoptosin overexpression impaired the interaction between MFN1 and MFN2, and mitochondrial fusion. By contrast, co-expression of MFN1, MITOL and a dominant-negative form of DRP1, DRP1(K38A), partially rescued appoptosin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, whereas co-expression of FIS1 aggravated appoptosin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that appoptosin can interact with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

  3. A Novel Mitosomal β-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein in Entamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Herbert J.; Imai, Kenichiro; Makiuchi, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul; Nozawa, Akira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba possesses a highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelle known as the mitosome. Here, we report the discovery of a novel protein in Entamoeba, which we name Mitosomal β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein of 30 kDa (MBOMP30). Initially identified through in silico analysis, we experimentally confirmed that MBOMP30 is indeed a β-barrel protein. Circular dichroism analysis showed MBOMP30 has a predominant β-sheet structure. Localization to Entamoeba histolytica mitosomes was observed through Percoll-gradient fractionation and immunofluorescence assay. Mitosomal membrane integration was demonstrated by carbonate fractionation, proteinase K digestion, and immunoelectron microscopy. Interestingly, the deletion of the putative β-signal, a sequence believed to guide β-barrel outer membrane protein (BOMP) assembly, did not affect membrane integration, but abolished the formation of a ~240 kDa complex. MBOMP30 represents only the seventh subclass of eukaryotic BOMPs discovered to date and lacks detectable homologs outside Entamoeba, suggesting that it may be unique to Entamoeba mitosomes. PMID:25711150

  4. Synthetic Effect between Envelope Stress and Lack of Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schwechheimer, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are composed of outer membrane and periplasmic components and are ubiquitously secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs can disseminate virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria as well as serve as an envelope stress response. From a transposon mutant screen for OMV phenotypes, it was discovered that an nlpA mutant of Escherichia coli produces fewer OMVs than the wild type, whereas a degP mutant produces higher levels of OMVs. NlpA is an inner-membrane-anchored lipoprotein that has a minor role in methionine import. DegP is a periplasmic chaperone/protease for misfolded envelope proteins that is critical when cells are heat shocked. To reveal how these proteins contribute to OMV production, the mutations were combined and the double mutant analyzed. The ΔnlpA ΔdegP strain displayed a high-temperature growth defect that corresponded to the production of fewer OMVs than produced by the ΔdegP strain. This phenotype also pertained to other undervesiculation mutations in a ΔdegP background. The hypovesiculation phenotype of ΔnlpA in the wild-type strain as well as in the degP deletion strain was found to be a stationary-phase phenomenon. The periplasm of the ΔnlpA ΔdegP strain was determined to contain significantly more protein in stationary phase than the wild type. Additionally, misfolded DegP substrate outer membrane porins were detected in ΔdegP mutant-derived OMVs. These data suggest that an accumulation of envelope proteins resulting from decreased vesiculation was toxic and contributed to the growth defect. We conclude that OMV production contributes to relieve the envelope of accumulated toxic proteins and that NlpA plays an important role in the production of vesicles in stationary phase. PMID:23852867

  5. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted as monolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, as well as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region, but was prevented from this penetration into the modified lipopolysaccharides. Results correlate with behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains. PMID:26682812

  6. A novel mechanism for the biogenesis of outer membrane vesicles in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Zingl, Franz G.; Cakar, Fatih; Durakovic, Sanel; Kohl, Paul; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Klug, Lisa; Gadermaier, Bernhard; Weinzerl, Katharina; Prassl, Ruth; Lass, Achim; Daum, Günther; Reidl, Joachim; Feldman, Mario F.; Schild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have important biological roles in pathogenesis and intercellular interactions, but a general mechanism of OMV formation is lacking. Here we show that the VacJ/Yrb ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system, a proposed phospholipid transporter, is involved in OMV formation. Deletion or repression of VacJ/Yrb increases OMV production in two distantly related Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae. Lipidome analyses demonstrate that OMVs from VacJ/Yrb-defective mutants in H. influenzae are enriched in phospholipids and certain fatty acids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that OMV production and regulation of the VacJ/Yrb ABC transport system respond to iron starvation. Our results suggest a new general mechanism of OMV biogenesis based on phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. This mechanism is highly conserved among Gram-negative bacteria, provides a means for regulation, can account for OMV formation under all growth conditions, and might have important pathophysiological roles in vivo. PMID:26806181

  7. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Thatyane M; Martynowycz, Michael W; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-15

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted as monolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, as well as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region, but was prevented from this penetration into the modified lipopolysaccharides. Results correlate with behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  8. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an outer membrane protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27

    PubMed Central

    Brosig, Alexander; Nesper, Jutta; Welte, Wolfram; Diederichs, Kay

    2008-01-01

    The cell envelope of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus is multilayered and includes an outer membrane with integral outer membrane proteins that are not well characterized. The hypothetical protein TTC0834 from T. thermophilus HB27 was identified as a 22 kDa outer membrane protein containing eight predicted β-strands. TTC0834 was expressed with an N-­terminal His tag in T. thermophilus HB8 and detected in the S-layer/outer membrane envelope fraction. His-TTC0834 was purified and crystallized under various conditions. Native data sets were collected to 3.2 Å resolution and the best diffracting crystals belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.67, c = 97.53 Å. PMID:18540069

  9. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an outer membrane protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Alexander; Nesper, Jutta; Welte, Wolfram; Diederichs, Kay

    2008-06-01

    The cell envelope of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus is multilayered and includes an outer membrane with integral outer membrane proteins that are not well characterized. The hypothetical protein TTC0834 from T. thermophilus HB27 was identified as a 22 kDa outer membrane protein containing eight predicted beta-strands. TTC0834 was expressed with an N-terminal His tag in T. thermophilus HB8 and detected in the S-layer/outer membrane envelope fraction. His-TTC0834 was purified and crystallized under various conditions. Native data sets were collected to 3.2 A resolution and the best diffracting crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.67, c = 97.53 A.

  10. Linkage between anaplasma marginale outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity, but is not required for protection from challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention of bacterial infections via immunization presents particular challenges. While outer membrane extracts are often protective; they are difficult and expensive to isolate and standardize, and thus often impractical for development and implementation in vaccination programs. In contrast, ind...

  11. Resistance of Escherichia coli to nourseothricin (streptothricin): sensitization of resistant strains by abolition of its outer membrane resistance.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, G

    1992-01-01

    The polycationic antibiotic, nourseothricin, represents a mixture of several streptothricins, mainly D and F. The molecular weight of the latter compound amounts to 486. Obviously, although very slowly, it can pass the outer membrane via the porin pores. It has been shown earlier that nourseothricin is able to generate some kind of channels into the outer membrane through which it can pass the cell wall. On the other hand, there were indications that resistant strains containing a streptothricin-inactivating acetyl transferase possess an additional protecting system, namely a reduced penetrability of the outer membrane. In this study, it could be shown that such strains indeed could be rendered sensitive by damaging the barrier function of the outer membrane.

  12. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Heather E; McClafferty, Heather; Ashley, Richard H

    2005-01-01

    Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP) with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells) after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded) β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS) domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP's topology, could provide

  13. Allosteric signalling in the outer membrane translocation domain of PapC usher

    PubMed Central

    Farabella, Irene; Pham, Thieng; Henderson, Nadine S; Geibel, Sebastian; Phan, Gilles; Thanassi, David G; Delcour, Anne H; Waksman, Gabriel; Topf, Maya

    2014-01-01

    PapC ushers are outer-membrane proteins enabling assembly and secretion of P pili in uropathogenic E. coli. Their translocation domain is a large β-barrel occluded by a plug domain, which is displaced to allow the translocation of pilus subunits across the membrane. Previous studies suggested that this gating mechanism is controlled by a β-hairpin and an α-helix. To investigate the role of these elements in allosteric signal communication, we developed a method combining evolutionary and molecular dynamics studies of the native translocation domain and mutants lacking the β-hairpin and/or the α-helix. Analysis of a hybrid residue interaction network suggests distinct regions (residue ‘communities’) within the translocation domain (especially around β12–β14) linking these elements, thereby modulating PapC gating. Antibiotic sensitivity and electrophysiology experiments on a set of alanine-substitution mutants confirmed functional roles for four of these communities. This study illuminates the gating mechanism of PapC ushers and its importance in maintaining outer-membrane permeability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03532.001 PMID:25271373

  14. Cytotoxic effects of Kingella kingae outer membrane vesicles on human cells

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, R; Wei, R; Kachlany, SC; Kazi, M; Balashova, NV

    2011-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging pathogen causing osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients. Electron microscopy of K. kingae clinical isolates revealed the heterogeneously-sized membranous structures blebbing from the outer membrane that were classified as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs purified from the secreted fraction of a septic arthritis K. kingae isolate were characterized. Among several major proteins, K. kingae OMVs contained virulence factors RtxA toxin and PilC2 pilus adhesin. RtxA was also found secreted as a soluble protein in the extracellular environment indicating that the bacterium may utilize different mechanisms for the toxin delivery. OMVs were shown to be hemolytic and possess some leukotoxic activity while high leukotoxicity was detected in the non-hemolytic OMV-free component of the secreted fraction. OMVs were internalized by human osteoblasts and synovial cells. Upon interaction with OMVs, the cells produced increased levels of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleuskin 6 (IL-6) suggesting that these cytokines might be involved in the signaling response of infected joint and bone tissues during natural K. kingae infection. This study is the first report of OMV production by K. kingae and demonstrates that OMVs are a complex virulence factor of the organism causing cytolytic and inflammatory effects on host cells. PMID:21443941

  15. Cytotoxic effects of Kingella kingae outer membrane vesicles on human cells.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, R; Wei, R; Kachlany, S C; Kazi, M; Balashova, N V

    2011-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging pathogen causing osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients. Electron microscopy of K. kingae clinical isolates revealed the heterogeneously-sized membranous structures blebbing from the outer membrane that were classified as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs purified from the secreted fraction of a septic arthritis K. kingae isolate were characterized. Among several major proteins, K. kingae OMVs contained virulence factors RtxA toxin and PilC2 pilus adhesin. RtxA was also found secreted as a soluble protein in the extracellular environment indicating that the bacterium may utilize different mechanisms for the toxin delivery. OMVs were shown to be hemolytic and possess some leukotoxic activity while high leukotoxicity was detected in the non-hemolytic OMV-free component of the secreted fraction. OMVs were internalized by human osteoblasts and synovial cells. Upon interaction with OMVs, the cells produced increased levels of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) suggesting that these cytokines might be involved in the signaling response of infected joint and bone tissues during natural K. kingae infection. This study is the first report of OMV production by K. kingae and demonstrates that OMVs are a complex virulence factor of the organism causing cytolytic and inflammatory effects on host cells.

  16. Crystal structure of a major outer membrane protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Alexander; Nesper, Jutta; Boos, Winfried; Welte, Wolfram; Diederichs, Kay

    2009-02-06

    The thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus belongs to one of the oldest branches of evolution and has a multilayered cell envelope that differs from that of modern Gram-negative bacteria. Its outer membrane contains integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs), of which only a few are characterized. TtoA, a new beta-barrel OMP, was identified by searching the genome sequence of strain HB27 for the presence of a C-terminal signature sequence. The structure of TtoA was determined to a resolution of 2.8 A, representing the first crystal structure of an OMP from a thermophilic bacterium. TtoA consists of an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a large extracellular part to which a divalent cation is bound. A five-stranded extracellular beta-sheet protrudes out of the membrane-embedded transmembrane barrel and is stabilized by a disulfide bridge. The edge of this beta-sheet forms crystal contacts that could mimic interactions with other proteins. In modern Gram-negative bacteria, the C-terminal signature sequence of OMPs is required for binding to an Omp85 family protein as a prerequisite for its assembly. We present hints that a similar assembly pathway exists in T. thermophilus by an in vitro binding assay, where unfolded TtoA binds to the Thermus Omp85 family protein TtOmp85, while a mutant without the signature sequence does not.

  17. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    PubMed

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  18. The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael; Taskin, Asli A.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Guan, Xue Li; Prinz, Claudia; Opalińska, Magdalena; Zorzin, Carina; van der Laan, Martin; Wenk, Markus R.; Schubert, Rolf; Wiedemann, Nils; Holzer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein. PMID:26347140

  19. Long circulating micelles of an amphiphilic random copolymer bearing cell outer membrane phosphorylcholine zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Chai, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Peng-Fei; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Polymeric micelles with cell outer membrane mimetic structure were prepared in water from amphiphilic random copolymers bearing both the hydrophilic phosphorylcholine zwitterions and hydrophobic octadecyl side chains of cell outer membrane. The polymeric micelles showed sizes ranging from 80 nm to 120 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and zeta-potentials from -6.4 mV to -2.4 mV by dynamic light scattering measurements. The micelles loaded with 6-coumarin as a fluorescence probe were stable to investigate their blood circulation and biodistribution. The in vitro phagocytosis results using murine peritoneal macrophages showed 10-fold reduction compared with a reference micelle. The in vivo blood circulation half-life of the polymeric micelles following intravenous administration in New Zealand Rabbits was increased from 0.55 h to 90.5h. More interestingly, tissue distribution results showed that the concentration of the micelles in the kidney is 4-fold higher than that in the liver and other organs 48 h after administration. The results of this work show great promise for designing more effective stealth drug carriers that can minimize reticuloendothelial system clearance and circulate for long time to reach target by using simple cell membrane mimetic random copolymer micelles.

  20. Construction of a multivalent meningococcal vaccine strain based on the class 1 outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Ley, P; Poolman, J T

    1992-01-01

    Outer membrane complexes (OMCs) are promising vaccine candidates for protection against meningococcal disease. However, a major obstacle to this approach is the fact that the protective antibodies induced are generally type specific. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we have investigated the possibility of constructing a multivalent vaccine strain by insertion of an additional class 1 outer membrane protein-encoding gene. Starting with a derivative of strain H44/76 deficient in class 3 outer membrane protein, a second class 1 gene was inserted into the chromosome, through homologous recombination with a suicide plasmid carrying the class 1 gene from strain 2996 placed within a class 5 gene. In this way, a strain was obtained in which a class 3 protein was in effect replaced by a class 1 protein from another subtype, i.e. P1.5,2 in addition to the P1.7,16 protein of H44/76. Immunization of mice with such OMCs resulted in high bactericidal titers against both H44/76 and 2996, where normally only strain-specific antibodies are induced. Mutational removal of class 3 protein from the immunizing OMCs had no detectable effect on the bactericidal titer against H44/76, whereas removal of class 1 protein led to a strong reduction. These results demonstrate the dominant role of the subtype-specific sequences of class 1 protein in the induction of bactericidal antibodies and show that construction of a multivalent OMC-based vaccine should be feasible. Images PMID:1639486

  1. Bacterial outer membrane vesicle biogenesis: a new mechanism and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Zingl, Franz G.; Cakar, Fatih; Schild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) release by Gram-negative bacteria has been observed and studied for decades. First considered as a by-product of cell lysis, it soon became evident that OMVs are actively secreted from the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, these small particles (~ 10-300 nm in diameter) consist mainly of OM components like phospholipids (PLs), OM proteins, and lipopolysaccharides or lipooligosaccharides. However, OMVs may also comprise periplasmic, inner membrane, or cytoplasmic components. Since the shedding of substantial amounts of OM material represents a significant energy cost to the bacterial cell, OMV production must have some vital biological functions for Gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, intense research on that topic revealed that OMVs play important roles in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, ranging from secretion and delivery of biomolecules (for example, toxins, DNA, or quorum sensing molecules) over stress response and biofilm formation to immunomodulation and adherence to host cells. Only recently researchers have begun to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of OMV formation, but a general mechanism for the biogenesis of these vesicles is still lacking. Here we review the findings and implications of our recent study published in Nature Communications (Roier S, et al. (2016) Nat. Commun. 7:10515), where we propose a novel and highly conserved bacterial OMV biogenesis mechanism based on PL accumulation in the outer leaflet of the OM. This mechanism might not only have important pathophysiological roles in vivo, but also represents the first general mechanism of OMV formation applicable to all Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sandkvist, M; Michel, L O; Hough, L P; Morales, V M; Bagdasarian, M; Koomey, M; DiRita, V J; Bagdasarian, M

    1997-11-01

    The general secretion pathway (GSP) of Vibrio cholerae is required for secretion of proteins including chitinase, enterotoxin, and protease through the outer membrane. In this study, we report the cloning and sequencing of a DNA fragment from V. cholerae, containing 12 open reading frames, epsC to -N, which are similar to GSP genes of Aeromonas, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas spp. In addition to the two previously described genes, epsE and epsM (M. Sandkvist, V. Morales, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 123: 81-86, 1993; L. J. Overbye, M. Sandkvist, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 132:101-106, 1993), it is shown here that epsC, epsF, epsG, and epsL also encode proteins essential for GSP function. Mutations in the eps genes result in aberrant outer membrane protein profiles, which indicates that the GSP, or at least some of its components, is required not only for secretion of soluble proteins but also for proper outer membrane assembly. Several of the Eps proteins have been identified by use of the T7 polymerase-promoter system in Escherichia coli. One of them, a pilin-like protein, EpsG, was analyzed also in V. cholerae and found to migrate as two bands on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that in this organism it might be processed or otherwise modified by a prepilin peptidase. We believe that TcpJ prepilin peptidase, which processes the subunit of the toxin-coregulated pilus, TcpA, is not involved in this event. This is supported by the observations that apparent processing of EpsG occurs in a tcpJ mutant of V. cholerae and that, when coexpressed in E. coli, TcpJ cannot process EpsG although the PilD peptidase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can.

  3. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, H L; Skyttä, E; Saarela, M; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Latva-Kala, K; Helander, I M

    2000-05-01

    The effect of lactic acid on the outer membrane permeability of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied utilizing a fluorescent-probe uptake assay and sensitization to bacteriolysis. For control purposes, similar assays were performed with EDTA (a permeabilizer acting by chelation) and with hydrochloric acid, the latter at pH values corresponding to those yielded by lactic acid, and also in the presence of KCN. Already 5 mM (pH 4.0) lactic acid caused prominent permeabilization in each species, the effect in the fluorescence assay being stronger than that of EDTA or HCl. Similar results were obtained in the presence of KCN, except for P. aeruginosa, for which an increase in the effect of HCl was observed in the presence of KCN. The permeabilization by lactic and hydrochloric acid was partly abolished by MgCl(2). Lactic acid sensitized E. coli and serovar Typhimurium to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) more efficiently than did HCl, whereas both acids sensitized P. aeruginosa to SDS and to Triton X-100. P. aeruginosa was effectively sensitized to lysozyme by lactic acid and by HCl. Considerable proportions of lipopolysaccharide were liberated from serovar Typhimurium by these acids; analysis of liberated material by electrophoresis and by fatty acid analysis showed that lactic acid was more active than EDTA or HCl in liberating lipopolysaccharide from the outer membrane. Thus, lactic acid, in addition to its antimicrobial property due to the lowering of the pH, also functions as a permeabilizer of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and may act as a potentiator of the effects of other antimicrobial substances.

  4. Lactic Acid Permeabilizes Gram-Negative Bacteria by Disrupting the Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Alakomi, H.-L.; Skyttä, E.; Saarela, M.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Latva-Kala, K.; Helander, I. M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactic acid on the outer membrane permeability of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied utilizing a fluorescent-probe uptake assay and sensitization to bacteriolysis. For control purposes, similar assays were performed with EDTA (a permeabilizer acting by chelation) and with hydrochloric acid, the latter at pH values corresponding to those yielded by lactic acid, and also in the presence of KCN. Already 5 mM (pH 4.0) lactic acid caused prominent permeabilization in each species, the effect in the fluorescence assay being stronger than that of EDTA or HCl. Similar results were obtained in the presence of KCN, except for P. aeruginosa, for which an increase in the effect of HCl was observed in the presence of KCN. The permeabilization by lactic and hydrochloric acid was partly abolished by MgCl2. Lactic acid sensitized E. coli and serovar Typhimurium to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) more efficiently than did HCl, whereas both acids sensitized P. aeruginosa to SDS and to Triton X-100. P. aeruginosa was effectively sensitized to lysozyme by lactic acid and by HCl. Considerable proportions of lipopolysaccharide were liberated from serovar Typhimurium by these acids; analysis of liberated material by electrophoresis and by fatty acid analysis showed that lactic acid was more active than EDTA or HCl in liberating lipopolysaccharide from the outer membrane. Thus, lactic acid, in addition to its antimicrobial property due to the lowering of the pH, also functions as a permeabilizer of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and may act as a potentiator of the effects of other antimicrobial substances. PMID:10788373

  5. Antimicrobial peptides activate the Rcs regulon through the outer membrane lipoprotein RcsF.

    PubMed

    Farris, Carol; Sanowar, Sarah; Bader, Martin W; Pfuetzner, Richard; Miller, Samuel I

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica species are exposed to envelope stresses due to their environmental and infectious lifestyles. Such stresses include amphipathic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and resistance to these peptides is an important property for microbial virulence for animals. Bacterial mechanisms used to sense and respond to CAMP-induced envelope stress include the RcsFCDB phosphorelay, which contributes to survival from polymyxin B exposure. The Rcs phosphorelay includes two inner membrane (IM) proteins, RcsC and RcsD; the response regulator RcsB; the accessory coregulator RcsA; and an outer membrane bound lipoprotein, RcsF. Transcriptional activation of the Rcs regulon occurred within minutes of exposure to CAMP and during the first detectable signs of CAMP-induced membrane disorder. Rcs transcriptional activation by CAMPs required RcsF and preservation of its two internal disulfide linkages. The rerouting of RcsF to the inner membrane or its synthesis as an unanchored periplasmic protein resulted in constitutive activation of the Rcs regulon and RcsCD-dependent phosphorylation. These findings suggest that RcsFCDB activation in response to CAMP-induced membrane disorder is a result of a change in structure or availability of RcsF to the IM signaling constituents of the Rcs phosphorelay.

  6. Emerging Roles for Anionic Non-Bilayer Phospholipids in Fortifying the Outer Membrane Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lately, researchers have been actively investigating Escherichia coli lptD mutants, which exhibit reduced transport of lipopolysaccharide to the cell surface. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Sutterlin et al. (H. A. Sutterlin, S. Zhang, and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 196:3214–3220, 2014) now reveal an important functional role for phosphatidic acid in fortifying the outer membrane permeability barrier in certain lptD mutant backgrounds. These findings come on the heels of the first reports of two LptD crystal structures, which now provide a structural framework for interpreting lptD genetics. PMID:25022852

  7. Rhizobium strains differ considerably in outer membrane permeability and polymyxin B resistance.

    PubMed

    Komaniecka, Iwona; Zamłyńska, Katarzyna; Zan, Radosław; Staszczak, Magdalena; Pawelec, Jarosław; Seta, Irena; Choma, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Six rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii TA1, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, Mesorhizobium huakuii IFO 15243(T), Ochrobactrum lupini LUP 21(T), Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and B. elkanii USDA 76) and two Escherichia coli strains (E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli HB 101) were compared in respect to polymyxin B and EDTA resistance, as well as bacterial outer membrane (OM) permeability to a fluorescent hydrophobic agent (N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine - NPN). TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and a microbial test demonstrated that all the rhizobia were much more resistant to polymyxin B in comparison with E. coli strains. EDTA and polymyxin B enhance permeability of B. japonicum and O. lupini OM. Other rhizobia incorporated NPN independently of the presence of membrane-deteriorating agents; however, the level of fluorescence (measured as NPN absorption) was strain dependent.

  8. Discovery of an archetypal protein transport system in bacterial outer membranes.

    PubMed

    Selkrig, Joel; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Webb, Chaille T; Belousoff, Matthew J; Perry, Andrew J; Wells, Timothy J; Morris, Faye; Leyton, Denisse L; Totsika, Makrina; Phan, Minh-Duy; Celik, Nermin; Kelly, Michelle; Oates, Clare; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Ramarathinam, Sri Harsha; Purcell, Anthony W; Schembri, Mark A; Strugnell, Richard A; Henderson, Ian R; Walker, Daniel; Lithgow, Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called 'autotransporters' have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by bacterial pathogens.

  9. Electron crystallography of PhoE porin, an outer membrane, channel- forming protein from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Walian, P.J.

    1989-11-01

    One approach to studying the structure of membrane proteins is the use of electron crystallography. Dr. Bing Jap has crystallized PhoE pore-forming protein (porin) from the outer membrane of escherichia coli (E. coli) into monolayer crystals. The findings of this research and those of Jap (1988, 1989) have determined these crystals to be highly ordered, yielding structural information to a resolution of better than 2.8 angstroms. The task of this thesis has been to collect and process the electron diffraction patterns necessary to generate a complete three-dimensional set of high resolution structure factor amplitudes of PhoE porin. Fourier processing of these amplitudes when combined with the corresponding phase data is expected to yield the three-dimensional structure of PhoE porin at better than 3.5 angstroms resolution. 92 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs. (CBS)

  10. Eukaryote-wide sequence analysis of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The outer membranes of mitochondria are thought to be homologous to the outer membranes of Gram negative bacteria, which contain 100's of distinct families of β-barrel membrane proteins (BOMPs) often forming channels for transport of nutrients or drugs. However, only four families of mitochondrial BOMPs (MBOMPs) have been confirmed to date. Although estimates as high as 100 have been made in the past, the number of yet undiscovered MBOMPs is an open question. Fortunately, the recent discovery of a membrane integration signal (the β-signal) for MBOMPs gave us an opportunity to look for undiscovered MBOMPs. Results We present the results of a comprehensive survey of eukaryotic protein sequences intended to identify new MBOMPs. Our search employs recent results on β-signals as well as structural information and a novel BOMP predictor trained on both bacterial and mitochondrial BOMPs. Our principal finding is circumstantial evidence suggesting that few MBOMPs remain to be discovered, if one assumes that, like known MBOMPs, novel MBOMPs will be monomeric and β-signal dependent. In addition to this, our analysis of MBOMP homologs reveals some exceptions to the current model of the β-signal, but confirms its consistent presence in the C-terminal region of MBOMP proteins. We also report a β-signal independent search for MBOMPs against the yeast and Arabidopsis proteomes. We find no good candidates MBOMPs in yeast but the Arabidopsis results are less conclusive. Conclusions Our results suggest there are no remaining MBOMPs left to discover in yeast; and if one assumes all MBOMPs are β-signal dependent, few MBOMP families remain undiscovered in any sequenced organism. PMID:21272379

  11. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein P6 of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Michel, Lea Vacca; Snyder, Joy; Schmidt, Rachel; Milillo, Jennifer; Grimaldi, Kyle; Kalmeta, Breanna; Khan, M Nadeem; Sharma, Sharad; Wright, Leslie Kate; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-07-01

    The majority of outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria are tethered to the membrane via an attached lipid moiety and oriented facing in toward the periplasmic space; a few lipoproteins have been shown to be surface exposed. The outer membrane lipoprotein P6 from the Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is surface exposed and a leading vaccine candidate for prevention of NTHi infections. However, we recently found that P6 is not a transmembrane protein as previously thought (L. V. Michel, B. Kalmeta, M. McCreary, J. Snyder, P. Craig, M. E. Pichichero, Vaccine 29:1624-1627, 2011). Here we pursued studies to show that P6 has a dual orientation, existing infrequently as surface exposed and predominantly as internally oriented toward the periplasmic space. Flow cytometry using three monoclonal antibodies with specificity for P6 showed surface staining of whole NTHi cells. Confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that antibodies targeted surface-exposed P6 of intact NTHi cells and not internal P6 in membrane-compromised or dead cells. Western blots of two wild-type NTHi strains and a mutant NTHi strain that does not express P6 showed that P6 antibodies do not detect a promiscuous epitope on NTHi. Depletion of targets to nonlipidated P6 significantly decreased bactericidal activity of human serum. Protease digestion of surface-exposed P6 demonstrated that P6 is predominantly internally localized in a manner similar to its homologue Pal in Escherichia coli. We conclude that P6 of NTHi is likely inserted into the OM in two distinct orientations, with the predominant orientation facing in toward the periplasm.

  12. Deuterium Labeling Strategies for Creating Contrast in Structure-Function Studies of Model Bacterial Outer Membranes Using Neutron Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Anton P; Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Holden, Peter J; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2016-01-01

    Studying the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is challenging due to the complex nature of its structure. Therefore, simplified models are required to undertake structure-function studies of processes that occur at the outer membrane/fluid interface. Model membranes can be created by immobilizing bilayers to solid supports such as gold or silicon surfaces, or as monolayers on a liquid support where the surface pressure and fluidity of the lipids can be controlled. Both model systems are amenable to having their structure probed by neutron reflectometry, a technique that provides a one-dimensional depth profile through a membrane detailing its thickness and composition. One of the strengths of neutron scattering is the ability to use contrast matching, allowing molecules containing hydrogen and those enriched with deuterium to be highlighted or matched out against the bulk isotopic composition of the solvent. Lipopolysaccharides, a major component of the outer membrane, can be isolated for incorporation into model membranes. Here, we describe the deuteration of lipopolysaccharides from rough strains of Escherichia coli for incorporation into model outer membranes, and how the use of deuterated materials enhances structural analysis of model membranes by neutron reflectometry.

  13. Channel-tunnels: outer membrane components of type I secretion systems and multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C

    2003-01-01

    For translocation across the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, substances have to overcome two permeability barriers, the inner and outer membrane. Channel-tunnels are outer membrane proteins, which are central to two distinct export systems: the type I secretion system exporting proteins such as toxins or proteases, and efflux pumps discharging antibiotics, dyes, or heavy metals and thus mediating drug resistance. Protein secretion is driven by an inner membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter while drug efflux occurs via an inner membrane proton antiporter. Both inner membrane transporters are associated with a periplasmic accessory protein that recruits an outer membrane channel-tunnel to form a functional export complex. Prototypes of these export systems are the hemolysin secretion system and the AcrAB/TolC drug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, which both employ TolC as an outer membrane component. Its remarkable conduit-like structure, protruding 100 A into the periplasmic space, reveals how both systems are capable of transporting substrates across both membranes directly from the cytosol into the external environment. Proteins of the channel-tunnel family are widespread within Gram-negative bacteria. Their involvement in drug resistance and in secretion of pathogenic factors makes them an interesting system for further studies. Understanding the mechanism of the different export apparatus could help to develop new drugs, which block the efflux pumps or the secretion system.

  14. Purification, Refolding, and Crystallization of the Outer Membrane Protein OmpG from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Yildiz, Özkan

    2015-01-01

    OmpG is a pore-forming protein from E. coli outer membranes. Unlike the classical outer membrane porins, which are trimers, the OmpG channel is a monomeric β-barrel made of 14 antiparallel β-strands with short periplasmic turns and longer extracellular loops. The channel activity of OmpG is pH dependent and the channel is gated by the extracellular loop L6. At neutral/high pH, the channel is open and permeable for substrate molecules with a size up to 900 Da. At acidic pH, loop L6 folds across the channel and blocks the pore. The channel blockage at acidic pH appears to be triggered by the protonation of a histidine pair on neighboring β-strands, which repel one another, resulting in the rearrangement of loop L6 and channel closure. OmpG was purified by refolding from inclusion bodies and crystallized in two and three dimensions. Crystallization and analysis by electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed the fundamental mechanisms essential for the channel activity.

  15. Association of the outer membrane protein Omp33 with fitness and virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Smani, Younes; Dominguez-Herrera, Juan; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2013-11-15

    Outer membrane protein 33 (Omp33) is an outer membrane porin of Acinetobacter baumannii associated with carbapenem resistance. However, the role of Omp33 in the fitness and virulence of A. baumannii remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of Omp33 in fitness and virulence of A. baumannii by using an isogenic knockout strain deficient in the omp33 gene (JPAB02), derived from the ATCC 17978 wild-type (wt). Both in vitro and in vivo defect in the growth rate was found in the JPAB02 strain in competition with the ATCC 17978 wt, highlighting the effect of Omp33 on the metabolic fitness. A significant reduction was observed both in adherence and invasion of human lung epithelial cells and in cytotoxicity of these cells and macrophages with JPAB02. In a murine peritoneal sepsis model, the JPAB02 strain exhibited lower lethal dose 0 (LD0), LD50, and LD100, and dissemination in mice, with reduced bacterial concentration in spleen and lungs. From these data, we concluded that Omp33 plays an important role for fitness and virulence of A. baumannii.

  16. Conservation of peptide structure of outer membrane protein-macromolecular complex from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M V; Wilde, C E

    1984-01-01

    The structural conservation of an outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae called OMP-MC (outer membrane protein-macromolecular complex) was investigated by determining the isoelectric point and amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein and by using high-performance liquid chromatography for comparative tryptic peptide mapping. The 76,000-dalton subunits generated by reduction and alkylation of the native 800,000-dalton complex from six test strains focused in ultrathin gels as bands of restricted heterogeneity at an approximate pI of 7.6. Dansyl chloride labeling indicated that all strains shared glycine as the amino-terminal amino acid. Sequence analysis of OMP-MC from two strains revealed no amino acid differences within the first 11 residues. Dual-label peptide maps revealed an extremely high degree of conservation of peptide structure. The results indicate that (i) OMP-MCs isolated from various strains of N. gonorrhoeae share structural homology and (ii) the 800,000-dalton complex is a homopolymer composed of 10 to 12 apparently identical 76,000-dalton subunits. Images PMID:6421738

  17. Solution structure and dynamics of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcF from Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Joana M; Silva, Marta A; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Turner, David L; Bruix, Marta; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    Gene knock-out studies on Geobacter sulfurreducens cells showed that the outer membrane-associated monoheme cytochrome OmcF is involved in respiratory pathways leading to the extracellular reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI). In addition, microarray analysis of an OmcF-deficient mutant revealed that many of the genes with decreased transcript level were those whose expression is up-regulated in cells grown with a graphite electrode as electron acceptor, suggesting that OmcF also regulates the electron transfer to electrode surfaces and the concomitant electricity production by G. sulfurreducens in microbial fuel cells. (15)N,(13)C-labeled OmcF was produced and NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the solution structure of the protein in the fully reduced state and the pH-dependent conformational changes. In addition, (15)N relaxation NMR experiments were used to characterize the overall and internal backbone dynamics of OmcF. The structure obtained is well defined, with an average pairwise root mean square deviation of 0.37 Å for the backbone atoms and 0.98 Å for all heavy atoms. For the first time a solution structure and the protein motions were determined for an outer membrane cytochrome from G. sulfurreducens, which constitutes an important step to understand the extracellular electron transfer mechanism in Geobacter cells.

  18. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  19. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  20. A basis for vaccine development: Comparative characterization of Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Roier, Sandro; Blume, Thomas; Klug, Lisa; Wagner, Gabriel E; Elhenawy, Wael; Zangger, Klaus; Prassl, Ruth; Reidl, Joachim; Daum, Günther; Feldman, Mario F; Schild, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical and bilayered particles that are naturally released from the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. They have been proposed to possess several biological roles in pathogenesis and interbacterial interactions. Additionally, OMVs have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae, a human pathogen of the respiratory tract. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding OMV biogenesis, protein sorting into OMVs, OMV size and quantity, as well as OMV composition in H. influenzae. Thus, this study comprehensively characterized and compared OMVs and OMs derived from heterologous encapsulated as well as nonencapsulated H. influenzae strains. Semiquantitative immunoblot analysis revealed that certain OM proteins are enriched or excluded in OMVs suggesting the presence of regulated protein sorting mechanisms into OMVs as well as interconnected OMV biogenesis mechanisms in H. influenzae. Nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, as well as protein and lipooligosaccharide quantifications demonstrated that heterologous H. influenzae strains differ in their OMV size and quantity. Lipidomic analyses identified palmitic acid as the most abundant fatty acid, while phosphatidylethanolamine was found to be the most dominant phospholipid present in OMVs and the OM of all strains tested. Proteomic analysis confirmed that H. influenzae OMVs contain vaccine candidate proteins as well as important virulence factors. These findings contribute to the understanding of OMV biogenesis as well as biological roles of OMVs and, in addition, may be important for the future development of OMV based vaccines against H. influenzae infections.

  1. Molecular characterization of the 98-kilodalton iron-regulated outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, A; van der Ley, P; Poolman, J T; Tommassen, J

    1993-01-01

    When grown under iron limitation, Neisseria meningitidis expresses several additional outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which were studied to assess their vaccine potential. Two monoclonal antibodies were obtained against a 98-kDa OMP of strain 2996 (B:2b:P1.2). Cross-reactivity studies revealed that the two antibodies reacted with 44 and 42 of 74 meningococcal strains, respectively. The antibodies did not block the binding of transferrin or lactoferrin to intact cells. The structural gene for the protein, tentatively designated iroA, was isolated and sequenced. Computer analysis revealed homology to the ferric siderophore receptors in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and to gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 1 (TbpA). The high degree of cross-reactivity and the results of Southern blot analyses, which showed that the iroA gene is also present in strains that did not react with the monoclonal antibodies, suggest that the 98-kDa OMP is well conserved among meningococci and that it is a suitable vaccine candidate. However, the antibodies were not bactericidal in an in vitro assay with human complement. Images PMID:8406871

  2. PhoPQ regulates acidic glycerophospholipid content of the Salmonella Typhimurium outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Matamouros, Susana; Whittington, Dale; Bishop, Russell E; Miller, Samuel I

    2014-02-04

    Gram-negative bacteria have two lipid membranes separated by a periplasmic space containing peptidoglycan. The surface bilayer, or outer membrane (OM), provides a barrier to toxic molecules, including host cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). The OM comprises an outer leaflet of lipid A, the bioactive component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and an inner leaflet of glycerophospholipids (GPLs). The structure of lipid A is environmentally regulated in a manner that can promote bacterial infection by increasing bacterial resistance to CAMP and reducing LPS recognition by the innate immune system. The gastrointestinal pathogen, Salmonella Typhimurium, responds to acidic pH and CAMP through the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system, which stimulates lipid A remodeling, CAMP resistance, and intracellular survival within acidified phagosomes. Work here demonstrates that, in addition to regulating lipid A structure, the S. Typhimurium PhoPQ virulence regulators also regulate acidic GPL by increasing the levels of cardiolipins and palmitoylated acylphosphatidylglycerols within the OM. Triacylated palmitoyl-PG species were diminished in strains deleted for the PhoPQ-regulated OM lipid A palmitoyltransferase enzyme, PagP. Purified PagP transferred palmitate to PG consistent with PagP acylation of both lipid A and PG within the OM. Therefore, PhoPQ coordinately regulates OM acidic GPL with lipid A structure, suggesting that GPLs cooperate with lipid A to form an OM barrier critical for CAMP resistance and intracellular survival of S. Typhimurium.

  3. Structural and functional importance of outer membrane proteins in Vibrio cholerae flagellum.

    PubMed

    Bari, Wasimul; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae has a sheath-covered monotrichous flagellum that is known to contribute to virulence. Although the structural organization of the V. cholerae flagellum has been extensively studied, the involvement of outer membrane proteins as integral components in the flagellum still remains elusive. Here we show that flagella produced by V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706 were two times thicker than those from two other Gram-negative bacteria. A C6706 mutant strain (SSY11) devoid of two outer membrane proteins (OMPs), OmpU and OmpT, produced thinner flagella. SSY11 showed significant defects in the flagella-mediated motility as compared to its parental strain. Moreover, increased shedding of the flagella-associated proteins was observed in the culture supernatant of SSY11. This finding was also supported by the observation that culture supernatants of the SSY11 strain induced the production of a significantly higher level of IL-8 in human colon carcinoma HT29 and alveolar epithelial A549 cells than those of the wild-type C6706 strain. These results further suggest a definite role of these two OMPs in providing the structural integrity of the V. cholerae flagellum as part of the surrounding sheath.

  4. Outer membrane protein functions as integrator of protein import and DNA inheritance in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Sandro; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Týč, Jiří; Vaughan, Sue; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are one of the earliest diverging eukaryotes that have fully functional mitochondria. pATOM36 is a trypanosomatid-specific essential mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been implicated in protein import. Changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of pATOM36 and in vitro assays show that pATOM36 is required for the assembly of the archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM), the functional analog of the TOM complex in other organisms. Reciprocal pull-down experiments and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that a fraction of pATOM36 interacts and colocalizes with TAC65, a previously uncharacterized essential component of the tripartite attachment complex (TAC). The TAC links the single-unit mitochondrial genome to the basal body of the flagellum and mediates the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. RNAi experiments show that pATOM36, in line with its dual localization, is not only essential for ATOM complex assembly but also for segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. However, the two functions are distinct, as a truncated version of pATOM36 lacking the 75 C-terminal amino acids can rescue kinetoplast DNA missegregation but not the lack of ATOM complex assembly. Thus, pATOM36 has a dual function and integrates mitochondrial protein import with mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:27436903

  5. Bioinformatic analysis of outer membrane proteome of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ana; Sánchez, Sandra; Arenas, Jesús; Criado, María T; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2007-03-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing/SDS-PAGE) and Western-blotting techniques were used to analyze and compare common and/or specific outer-membrane proteins and antigens from Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica. Bioinformatic image analyses of proteome and immunoproteome maps indicated the presence of numerous proteins and several antigens shared by N. meningitidis and N. lactamica, although the inter-strain variation in the maps was of similar magnitude to the inter-species variation, and digital comparison of the maps did not reveal proteins found to be identical by MALDI-TOF fingerprinting analysis. PorA and RmpM, two relevant outer-membrane antigens, manifested as various spots at several different positions. While some of these were common to all the strains analyzed, others were exclusive to N. meningitidis and their electrophoretic mobilities were different than expected. One such spot, with a molecular mass of 19 kDa, may be the C-terminal fragment of RmpM (RmpM-Cter). The results demonstrate that computer-driven analysis based exclusively on spot positions in the proteome or immunoproteome maps is not a reliable approach to predict the identity of proteins or antigens; rather, other identification techniques are necessary to obtain accurate comparisons.

  6. Toward Understanding the Outer Membrane Uptake of Small Molecules by Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Elif; Parkin, Jamie; Adelanwa, Ayodele; Cheneke, Belete; Movileanu, Liviu; Khalid, Syma; van den Berg, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Because small molecules enter Gram-negative bacteria via outer membrane (OM) channels, understanding OM transport is essential for the rational design of improved and new antibiotics. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most small molecules are taken up by outer membrane carboxylate channel (Occ) proteins, which can be divided into two distinct subfamilies, OccD and OccK. Here we characterize substrate transport mediated by Occ proteins belonging to both subfamilies. Based on the determination of the OccK2-glucuronate co-crystal structure, we identify the channel residues that are essential for substrate transport. We further show that the pore regions of the channels are rigid in the OccK subfamily and highly dynamic in the OccD subfamily. We also demonstrate that the substrate carboxylate group interacts with central residues of the basic ladder, a row of arginine and lysine residues that leads to and away from the binding site at the channel constriction. Moreover, the importance of the basic ladder residues corresponds to their degree of conservation. Finally, we apply the generated insights by converting the archetype of the entire family, OccD1, from a basic amino acid-specific channel into a channel with a preference for negatively charged amino acids. PMID:23467408

  7. OMPcontact: An Outer Membrane Protein Inter-Barrel Residue Contact Prediction Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Han; Yan, Lun; Su, Lingtao; Xu, Dong

    2017-03-01

    In the two transmembrane protein types, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) perform diverse important biochemical functions, including substrate transport and passive nutrient uptake and intake. Hence their 3D structures are expected to reveal these functions. Because experimental structures are scarce, predicted 3D structures are more adapted to OMP research instead, and the inter-barrel residue contact is becoming one of the most remarkable features, improving prediction accuracy by describing the structural information of OMPs. To predict OMP structures accurately, we explored an OMP inter-barrel residue contact prediction method: OMPcontact. Multiple OMP-specific features were integrated in the method, including residue evolutionary covariation, topology-based transmembrane segment relative residue position, OMP lipid layer accessibility, and residue evolution conservation. These features describe the properties of a residue pair in different respects: sequential, structural, evolutionary, and biochemical. Within a 3-residues slide window, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) could accurately determinate the inter-barrel contact residue pair using above features. A 5-fold cross-valuation process was applied in testing the OMPcontact performance against a non-redundant OMP set with 75 samples inside. The tests compared four evolutionary covariation methods and screen analyzed the adaptive ones for inter-barrel contact prediction. The results showed our method not only efficiently realized the prediction, but also scored the possibility for residue pairs reliably. This is expected to improve OMP tertiary structure prediction. Therefore, OMPcontact will be helpful in compiling a structural census of outer membrane protein.

  8. Structure of BamA, an essential factor in outer membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Schütz, Monika; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Faulstich, Michaela; Bermejo, Ivan; Rudel, Thomas; Diederichs, Kay; Zeth, Kornelius

    2014-06-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is an essential process for maintaining the bacterial cell envelope and involves the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) for OMP recognition, folding and assembly. In Escherichia coli this function is orchestrated by five proteins: the integral outer membrane protein BamA of the Omp85 superfamily and four associated lipoproteins. To unravel the mechanism underlying OMP folding and insertion, the structure of the E. coli BamA β-barrel and P5 domain was determined at 3 Å resolution. These data add information beyond that provided in the recently published crystal structures of BamA from Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and are a valuable basis for the interpretation of pertinent functional studies. In an `open' conformation, E. coli BamA displays a significant degree of flexibility between P5 and the barrel domain, which is indicative of a multi-state function in substrate transfer. E. coli BamA is characterized by a discontinuous β-barrel with impaired β1-β16 strand interactions denoted by only two connecting hydrogen bonds and a disordered C-terminus. The 16-stranded barrel surrounds a large cavity which implies a function in OMP substrate binding and partial folding. These findings strongly support a mechanism of OMP biogenesis in which substrates are partially folded inside the barrel cavity and are subsequently released laterally into the lipid bilayer.

  9. Outer membrane protein functions as integrator of protein import and DNA inheritance in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Käser, Sandro; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Týč, Jiří; Vaughan, Sue; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2016-08-02

    Trypanosomatids are one of the earliest diverging eukaryotes that have fully functional mitochondria. pATOM36 is a trypanosomatid-specific essential mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been implicated in protein import. Changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of pATOM36 and in vitro assays show that pATOM36 is required for the assembly of the archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM), the functional analog of the TOM complex in other organisms. Reciprocal pull-down experiments and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that a fraction of pATOM36 interacts and colocalizes with TAC65, a previously uncharacterized essential component of the tripartite attachment complex (TAC). The TAC links the single-unit mitochondrial genome to the basal body of the flagellum and mediates the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. RNAi experiments show that pATOM36, in line with its dual localization, is not only essential for ATOM complex assembly but also for segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. However, the two functions are distinct, as a truncated version of pATOM36 lacking the 75 C-terminal amino acids can rescue kinetoplast DNA missegregation but not the lack of ATOM complex assembly. Thus, pATOM36 has a dual function and integrates mitochondrial protein import with mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals expression of outer membrane proteins during infection.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eleanor; Alberdi, M Pilar; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Porter, Megan E; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Mclean, Kevin; Smith, David G E

    2014-12-05

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the aetiological agent of the commercially significant porcine disease, proliferative enteropathy. Current understanding of host-pathogen interaction is limited due to the fastidious microaerophilic obligate intracellular nature of the bacterium. In the present study, expression of bacterial proteins during infection was investigated using a mass spectrometry approach. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of two isolates of L. intracellularis from heavily-infected epithelial cell cultures and database mining using fully annotated L. intracellularis genome sequences identified 19 proteins. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, proteins were identified with roles in cell metabolism, protein synthesis and oxidative stress protection; seven proteins with putative or unknown function were also identified. Detailed bioinformatic analyses of five uncharacterised proteins, which were expressed by both isolates, identified domains and motifs common to other outer membrane-associated proteins with important roles in pathogenesis including adherence and invasion. Analysis of recombinant proteins on Western blots using immune sera from L. intracellularis-infected pigs identified two proteins, LI0841 and LI0902 as antigenic. The detection of five outer membrane proteins expressed during infection, including two antigenic proteins, demonstrates the potential of this approach to interrogate L. intracellularis host-pathogen interactions and identify novel targets which may be exploited in disease control.

  11. Iron- and molybdenum-repressible outer membrane proteins in competent Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Page, W J; von Tigerstrom, M

    1982-07-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii produced three major proteins of 93,000, 85,000, and 81,000 daltons and a minor 77,000-dalton protein in the outer membrane of Fe-limited cells, and these cells were competent for transformation by DNA. The synthesis of these proteins was repressed in Fe-sufficient medium. Mo limitation of nitrogen-fixing cells resulted in the hyperproduction of a 44,000-dalton protein and the production of a minor 77,000-dalton protein in the outer membrane. Mo limitation enhanced competence in Fe-limited medium and induced competence in Fe-sufficient medium. The 44,000-dalton protein was replaced by a 45,000-dalton protein when Fe-sufficient medium also contained NH4+, but the cells were noncompetent. The synthesis of these proteins was repressed in Mo-sufficient medium and by NH4+ in Fe-limited medium. All of the culture supernatants contained a blue-white fluorescent material (absorbance maximum, 214 nm) which appeared to coordinate Fe3+, Fe2+, MoO4(2-), WO3(2-), and VO3(-).

  12. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex proteins by differential proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Afrane, Mary; Clemmer, David E; Zhong, Guangming; Nelson, David E

    2010-06-01

    The extracellular chlamydial infectious particle, or elementary body (EB), is enveloped by an intra- and intermolecular cysteine cross-linked protein shell called the chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC). A few abundant proteins, including the major outer membrane protein and cysteine-rich proteins (OmcA and OmcB), constitute the overwhelming majority of COMC proteins. The identification of less-abundant COMC proteins has been complicated by limitations of proteomic methodologies and the contamination of COMC fractions with abundant EB proteins. Here, we used parallel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 434/Bu EB, COMC, and Sarkosyl-soluble EB fractions to identify proteins enriched or depleted from COMC. All well-described COMC proteins were specifically enriched in the COMC fraction. In contrast, multiple COMC-associated proteins found in previous studies were strongly enriched in the Sarkosyl-soluble fraction, suggesting that these proteins are not COMC components or are not stably associated with COMC. Importantly, we also identified novel proteins enriched in COMC. The list of COMC proteins identified in this study has provided reliable information for further understanding chlamydial protein secretion systems and modeling COMC and EB structures.

  13. The omptins of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica cleave the reactive center loop of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    PubMed

    Haiko, Johanna; Laakkonen, Liisa; Juuti, Katri; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Korhonen, Timo K

    2010-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) and a key molecule that regulates fibrinolysis by inactivating human plasminogen activators. Here we show that two important human pathogens, the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, inactivate PAI-1 by cleaving the R346-M347 bait peptide bond in the reactive center loop. No cleavage of PAI-1 was detected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an oral/fecal pathogen from which Y. pestis has evolved, or with Escherichia coli. The cleavage and inactivation of PAI-1 were mediated by the outer membrane proteases plasminogen activator Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE protease of S. enterica, which belong to the omptin family of transmembrane endopeptidases identified in Gram-negative bacteria. Cleavage of PAI-1 was also detected with the omptins Epo of Erwinia pyrifoliae and Kop of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which both belong to the same omptin subfamily as Pla and PgtE, whereas no cleavage of PAI-1 was detected with omptins of Shigella flexneri or E. coli or the Yersinia chromosomal omptins, which belong to other omptin subfamilies. The results reveal a novel serpinolytic mechanism by which enterobacterial species expressing omptins of the Pla subfamily bypass normal control of host proteolysis.

  14. Fusion of Legionella pneumophila outer membrane vesicles with eukaryotic membrane systems is a mechanism to deliver pathogen factors to host cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jens; Keese, Susanne; Roessle, Manfred; Steinert, Michael; Schromm, Andra B

    2015-05-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon observed in many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila. During infection, this human pathogen primarily invades alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Legionella-containing vacuole. In the current study, we analysed the membrane architecture of L. pneumophila OMVs by small-angle X-ray scattering and biophysically characterized OMV membranes. We investigated the interaction of L. pneumophila OMVs with model membranes by Förster resonance energy transfer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These experiments demonstrated the incorporation of OMV membrane material into liposomes composed of different eukaryotic phospholipids, revealing an endogenous property of OMVs to fuse with eukaryotic membranes. Cellular co-incubation experiments showed a dose- and time-dependent binding of fluorophore-labelled OMVs to macrophages. Trypan blue quenching experiments disclosed a rapid internalization of OMVs into macrophages at 37 and 4 °C. Purified OMVs induced tumour necrosis factor-α production in human macrophages at concentrations starting at 300 ng ml(-1). Experiments on HEK293-TLR2 and TLR4/MD-2 cell lines demonstrated a dominance of TLR2-dependent signalling pathways. In summary, we demonstrate binding, internalization and biological activity of L. pneumophila OMVs on human macrophages. Our data support OMV membrane fusion as a mechanism for the remote delivery of virulence factors to host cells.

  15. Bacterial Social Networks: Structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Jonathan P.; Wei, Doug; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Costerton, J. William; Berleman, James E.; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Summary The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviors, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of vesicles and vesicle chains that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains and increased abundance in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including 3D Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined these structures to range between 30-60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactoseamine (GalNAc) carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl membrane proteins transferred in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and likely provides a mechanism for the coordination of social activities. PMID:23848955

  16. Identification of a novel bacterial outer membrane interleukin-1Β-binding protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Paino, Annamari; Ahlstrand, Tuuli; Nuutila, Jari; Navickaite, Indre; Lahti, Maria; Tuominen, Heidi; Välimaa, Hannamari; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Pöllänen, Marja T; Ihalin, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI), was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control protein for IL-1

  17. Preferential packing of acidic glycosidases and proteases into Bacteroides outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Elhenawy, Wael; Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Feldman, Mario F

    2014-03-11

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical membranous structures released from the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. OMV have been proposed to play several different roles during both pathogenesis and symbiosis. Despite the fact that OMV were described several decades ago, their biogenesis is a poorly characterized process. Whether OMV are produced by an active mechanism or by passive disintegration of the OM is a still matter of controversy. Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are important members of the human microbiota. In this work, we determined and compared the protein compositions of OM and OMV from B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron. SDS-PAGE analysis of both fractions revealed dramatically different protein profiles. Proteomic analysis of OM and OMV in B. fragilis identified more than 40 proteins found exclusively in OMV and more than 30 proteins detectable only in the OM. The OMV-specific proteome showed a high prevalence of glycosidases and proteases, some of which were shown to be active in vitro. Similar results were obtained for B. thetaiotaomicron. Most of the OMV-exclusive proteins were acidic. Based on these results, we propose that these species possess machinery devoted to selectively pack acidic proteins into the OMV. These OMV equipped with hydrolytic enzymes could help in securing nutrients for the benefit of the whole bacterial community present in the microbiota, uncovering a novel function for bacterial OMV. IMPORTANCE The members of genus Bacteroides are key players in the symbiosis between the human host and the gut microbiota. It is known for its ability to degrade a wide variety of glycans that are not substrates for human glycosidases. The cleaved glycans can be utilized by Bacteroides and other microbiota members, resulting in the production of short-chain fatty acids that are beneficial for the host. Although members of the genus Bacteroides are known to secrete different hydrolases, their secretion

  18. Proteolytic Cleavage of the Immunodominant Outer Membrane Protein rOmpA in Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Noriea, Nicholas F; Clark, Tina R; Mead, David; Hackstadt, Ted

    2017-03-15

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, contains two immunodominant proteins, rOmpA and rOmpB, in the outer membrane. Both rOmpA and rOmpB are conserved throughout spotted fever group rickettsiae as members of a family of autotransporter proteins. Previously, it was demonstrated that rOmpB is proteolytically processed, with the cleavage site residing near the autotransporter domain at the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, cleaving the 168-kDa precursor into apparent 120-kDa and 32-kDa fragments. The 120- and 32-kDa fragments remain noncovalently associated on the surface of the bacterium, with implications that the 32-kDa fragment functions as the membrane anchor domain. Here we present evidence for a similar posttranslational processing of rOmpA. rOmpA is expressed as a predicted 224-kDa precursor yet is observed on SDS-PAGE as a 190-kDa protein. A small rOmpA fragment of ∼32 kDa was discovered during surface proteome analysis and identified as the carboxy-terminal end of the protein. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was generated to the autotransporter region of rOmpA and confirmed a 32-kDa fragment corresponding to the calculated mass of a proteolytically cleaved rOmpA autotransporter region. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed a cleavage site on the carboxy-terminal side of Ser-1958 in rOmpA. An avirulent strain of R. rickettsii Iowa deficient in rOmpB processing was also defective in the processing of rOmpA. The similarities of the cleavage sites and the failure of R. rickettsii Iowa to process either rOmpA or rOmpB suggest that a single enzyme may be responsible for both processing events.IMPORTANCE Members of the spotted fever group of rickettsiae, including R. rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, express at least four autotransporter proteins that are protective antigens or putative virulence determinants. One member of this class of proteins, rOmpB, is proteolytically processed to a

  19. Identification of a Novel Bacterial Outer Membrane Interleukin-1Β-Binding Protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Annamari; Ahlstrand, Tuuli; Nuutila, Jari; Navickaite, Indre; Lahti, Maria; Tuominen, Heidi; Välimaa, Hannamari; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Pöllänen, Marja T.; Ihalin, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI), was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control protein for IL-1

  20. Flagella proteins contribute to the production of outer membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli W3110.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Takayuki; Kato, Mayu; Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-08

    Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that are derived from the bacterial outer membrane. OMVs contribute to bacterial cell-cell communications and host-microbe interactions by delivering components to locations outside the bacterial cell. In order to explore the molecular machinery involved in OMV biogenesis, the role of a major OMV protein was examined in the production of OMVs from E. coli W3110, which is a widely used standard E. coli K-12 strain. In addition to OmpC and OmpA, which are used as marker proteins for OMVs, an analysis of E. coli W3110 OMVs revealed that they also contain abundant levels of FliC, which is also known as flagellin. A membrane-impermeable biotin-labeling reagent did not label FliC in intact OMVs, but labeled FliC in sonically disrupted OMVs, suggesting that FliC is localized in the lumen of OMV. Compared to the parental strain expressing wild-type fliC, an E. coli strain with a fliC-null mutation produced reduced amounts of OMVs based on both protein and phosphate levels. In addition, an E. coli W3110-derived strain with a null-mutation in flgK, which encodes flagellar hook-associated protein that is essential along with FliC for flagella synthesis, also produced fewer OMVs than the parental strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the ability to form flagella, including the synthesis of flagella proteins, affects the production of E. coli W3110 OMVs.

  1. The construction and characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lacking protein III in its outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Protein III (PIII) is a highly conserved, antigenically stable gonococcal outer membrane protein that is closely associated with the major outer membrane protein, protein I (PI). We have previously reported the cloning of the PIII gene. This gene was inserted into the Eco RI site of the runaway plasmid pMOB45. The beta-lactamase (beta la) Bam HI restriction fragment from the gonococcal plasmid pFA3 was inserted at the Xba I site in the PIII gene. The plasmid construct was Hae III methylated and the PIII/beta la insert was excised with Eco RI and used to transform gonococcal strain F62. One beta la+, ampicillin- resistant transformant was isolated and designated 2D. A Western blot of 2D whole cell lysate was probed with affinity-purified polyclonal PIII antisera. No PIII reactivity was detected. Southern blot analysis was performed on F62 and 2D chromosomal DNA that were cut with Eco RI or Cla I. A PIII DNA probe hybridized with fragments 2.2 kb larger in strain 2D than strain F62. This corresponds to the size of the beta la insert. A beta la-specific probe hybridized with the same 2D restriction fragments as above, but did not react with any F62 fragments, confirming that homologous recombination had occurred. There were minimal phenotypic changes between 2D and its parent strain, F62. Chromosomal DNA from 2D was able to transform gonococcal strains F62, UU1, and Pgh 3-2, rendering these PIII-. 2D and other PIII- transformants can now be used to study the role of PIII in gonococcal physiology, metabolism, membrane structure, and pathogenesis. Moreover, we now have organisms from which we can purify gonococcal proteins without PIII contamination. PMID:2499656

  2. Antibiotic Resistance and Regulation of the Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Barrier by Host Innate Immune Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-negative outer membrane is an important barrier that provides protection against toxic compounds, which include antibiotics and host innate immune molecules such as cationic antimicrobial peptides. Recently, significant research progress has been made in understanding the biogenesis, regulation, and functioning of the outer membrane, including a recent paper from the laboratory of Dr. Brett Finlay at the University of British Columbia (J. van der Heijden et al., mBio 7:e01238-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01541-16). These investigators demonstrate that toxic oxygen radicals, such as those found in host tissues, regulate outer membrane permeability by altering the outer membrane porin protein channels to regulate the influx of oxygen radicals as well as β-lactam antibiotics. This commentary provides context about this interesting paper and discusses the prospects of utilizing increased knowledge of outer membrane biology to develop new antibiotics for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27677793

  3. Activation of the Complement Classical Pathway (C1q Binding) by Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Outer Membrane Protein

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Aguilar, Alicia; Rubires, Xavier; Albertí, Sebastian; Benedí, Vicente Javier; Tomás, Juan M.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of killing of Aeromonas hydrophila serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway has been studied. The bacterial cell surface component that binds C1q more efficiently was identified as a major outer membrane protein of 39 kDa, presumably the porin II described by D. Jeanteur, N. Gletsu, F. Pattus, and J. T. Buckley (Mol. Microbiol. 6:3355–3363, 1992), of these microorganisms. We have demonstrated that the purified form of porin II binds C1q and activates the classical pathway in an antibody-independent manner, with the subsequent consumption of C4 and reduction of the serum total hemolytic activity. Activation of the classical pathway has been observed in human nonimmune serum and agammaglobulinemic serum (both depleted of factor D). Binding of C1q to other components of the bacterial outer membrane, in particular to rough lipopolysaccharide, could not be demonstrated. Activation of the classical pathway by this lipopolysaccharide was also much less efficient than activation by the outer membrane protein. The strains possessing O-antigen lipopolysaccharide bind less C1q than the serum-sensitive strains, because the outer membrane protein is less accessible, and are resistant to complement-mediated killing. Finally, a similar or identical outer membrane protein (presumably porin II) that binds C1q was shown to be present in strains from the most common mesophilic Aeromonas O serogroups. PMID:9673268

  4. Overcoming hysteresis to attain reversible equilibrium folding for outer membrane phospholipase A in phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, C. Preston; Kwon, Sarah; Fleming, Karen G.

    2011-01-01

    The free energy of unfolding of a membrane protein from lipids into water (ΔGw,lo) describes its equilibrium thermodynamic stability. Knowing this parameter gives insight into a membrane protein’s sequence-structure-energy relationships. However, there are few measures of membrane protein stability because of the technical difficulties associated with unfolded and partially folded states. Here, we describe experimental process that allowed us to measure the ΔGw,lo of the outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC). To arrive at this reversible folding condition, we screened a large number of experimental variables: temperature, incubation time, salt concentration, pH, lipid composition as well as liposome morphology. The principal challenge we encountered under most conditions was hysteresis between folding and unfolding titrations. A second factor that compromised reversible folding was the observation that a fraction of the protein population tended to aggregate. We found that hysteresis could be completely eliminated on a feasible timescale by conducting experiments at acidic pH, by the slow dilution of the protein in the initial titration setup and by utilizing a low concentration of a detergent as a temporary “holdase” to solubilize the protein upon its initial dilution into folding conditions. We confirmed that the detergent did not disrupt the LUVs using fluorescence emission of lipid-sensitive dyes and light scattering. The results of our parameter search should be generally useful for efforts to measure of ΔGw,lo for other membrane proteins. PMID:21888919

  5. Isolation and characterization of the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide from Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed Central

    Progulske, A; Holt, S C

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of the outer membrane fractions (OMFs) of Eikenella corrodens strains 23834 and 470 as well as the strain 23834 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined. The OMFs were obtained by Triton X-100 treatment of the heavier membrane fraction from sucrose density centrifugation of the total membrane fraction. The resulting OMFs of strains 23834 and 470, free of cytoplasmic membrane components, were found to contain 69.6 and 75.0% (wt/wt) protein, 4.8 and 9.2% lipid, 4.6 and 4.7% carbohydrate, and 2.0 and 4.6% muramic acid, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis both OMFs contained one major peptide determined to be 33,500 daltons for the strain 23834 OMF, and 37,500 daltons for the strain 470 OMF. Analysis of the OMF fatty acids revealed hexadecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecenoic, and lesser amounts of octadecanoic acids. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the OMFs revealed typical large sheets of membrane. Structures (10 nm in diameter) resembling pores were also evident. The E. corrodens LPS was found to be composed of 34.5% (wt/wt) carbohydrate and 25.0% lipid A. Only minute amounts of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and heptose could be detected. Fatty acid analysis revealed primarily octadecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, with lesser amounts of octadecenoic acid. No hydroxy fatty acids were detected. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed the E. corrodens LPS to resemble other smooth-type LPSs. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed a vesicle-like morphology. The E. corrodens LPS appears not to be a "classical," i.e., enteric, type of LPS. Images PMID:6360892

  6. Phylogenomic analysis supports the ancestral presence of LPS-outer membranes in the Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Luisa CS; Poppleton, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Criscuolo, Alexis; Dupuy, Bruno; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Beloin, Christophe; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unanswered questions in evolutionary biology is when and how the transition between diderm (two membranes) and monoderm (one membrane) cell envelopes occurred in Bacteria. The Negativicutes and the Halanaerobiales belong to the classically monoderm Firmicutes, but possess outer membranes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-OM). Here, we show that they form two phylogenetically distinct lineages, each close to different monoderm relatives. In contrast, their core LPS biosynthesis enzymes were inherited vertically, as in the majority of bacterial phyla. Finally, annotation of key OM systems in the Halanaerobiales and the Negativicutes shows a puzzling combination of monoderm and diderm features. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the LPS-OMs of Negativicutes and Halanaerobiales are remnants of an ancient diderm cell envelope that was present in the ancestor of the Firmicutes, and that the monoderm phenotype in this phylum is a derived character that arose multiple times independently through OM loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14589.001 PMID:27580370

  7. Topographic labelling of pore-forming proteins from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Page, M G; Rosenbusch, J P

    1986-01-01

    The topography of three pore-forming proteins from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been explored by using two labelling techniques. Firstly, the distribution of nucleophilic residues has been investigated by selective chemical modification using arylglyoxals (for arginine residues), isothiocyanates (for lysine residues), carbodi-imides (for carboxy residues) and diazonium salts. Secondly, the membrane-embedded domains have been investigated by labelling with photoactivatable phospholipid analogues and a reagent that partitions into the membrane. Few nucleophilic groups are found to be freely accessible to pore-impermeant probes reacting in the aqueous medium. More groups are accessible to small, pore-permeant probes, suggesting that several groups of each sort are contained within the pore. In addition, there appear to be a number of arginine, lysine, carboxyl and many tyrosine residues that are rather inaccessible and that react only with small, hydrophobic probes, if at all. Amongst these more deeply buried residues there are four arginine residues and an as-yet-undetermined number of carboxy residues that appear to be essential to the structural integrity of the oligomeric molecule. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2428354

  8. Enhancement of macrophage-mediated tumor cell killing by bacterial outer membrane proteins (porins).

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, J B; Ribi, E; Wheat, R W

    1983-01-01

    Various microbial products are known to influence the function of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and certain lipid A-associated proteins are known to enhance the tumoricidal effects of macrophages. The purpose of this study was to determine whether porins (outer membrane proteins) of Salmonella typhimurium G30/C21 would influence the activity of macrophages from lipid A-responsive and -unresponsive mice. Porins, extracted by a combined sodium dodecyl sulfate-EDTA method from cell walls, were free of LPS as determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and appeared as a band at approximately 36,000 molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In tumor cell killing assays done under LPS-free conditions, the porins in doses of 1 to 10 ng/ml enhanced the tumoricidal effect of macrophages from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-infected C3H/HeN or C3H/HeJ mice. Protein-free LPS enhanced the tumoricidal activity of macrophages from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-infected C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. The tumoricidal-enhancing activity of protein-free LPS was blocked by the lipid A-binding antibiotic polymyxin B sulfate, but the effects of porins were not altered by the polymyxin B sulfate. These results suggest that porins, proteins known to alter membrane function, may alter macrophage function by interaction with macrophage membranes. Images PMID:6311745

  9. Purification, refolding and characterization of the trimeric Omp2a outer membrane porin from Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Roussel, G; Matagne, A; De Bolle, X; Perpète, E A; Michaux, C

    2012-06-01

    Brucella melitensis is a gram-negative bacteria known to cause brucellosis and to produce severe infections in humans. Whilst brucella's outer membrane proteins have been extensively studied due to their potential role as antigens or virulence factors, their function is still poorly understood at the structural level, as the 3D structure of Brucella β-barrel membrane proteins are still unknown. In this context, the B. melitensis trimeric Omp2a porin has been overexpressed and refolded in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside. We here show that this refolding process is insensitive to urea but is temperature- and ionic strength-dependent. Reassembled species were characterized by fluorescence, size-exclusion chromatography and circular dichroism. A refolding mechanism is proposed, suggesting that Omp2a first refolds under a monomeric form and then self-associates into a trimeric state. This first complete in vitro refolding of a membrane protein from B. melitensis shall eventually lead to functional and 3D structure determination.

  10. Sorting of an integral outer membrane protein via the lipoprotein-specific Lol pathway and a dedicated lipoprotein pilotin.

    PubMed

    Collin, Séverine; Guilvout, Ingrid; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Pugsley, Anthony P

    2011-05-01

    The lipoprotein PulS is a dedicated chaperone that is required to target the secretin PulD to the outer membrane in Klebsiella or Escherichia coli, and to protect it from proteolysis. Here, we present indirect evidence that PulD protomers do not assemble into the secretin dodecamer before they reach the outer membrane, and that PulS reaches the outer membrane in a soluble heterodimer with the general lipoprotein chaperone LolA. However, we could not find any direct evidence for PulD protomer association with the PulS-LolA heterodimer. Instead, in cells producing PulD and a permanently locked PulS-LolA dimer (in which LolA carries an R43L substitution that prevents lipoprotein transfer to LolB in the outer membrane), LolAR43L was found in the inner membrane, probably still associated with PulS bound to PulD that had been incorrectly targeted because of the LolAR43L substitution. It is speculated that PulD protomers normally cross the periplasm together with PulS bound to LolA but when the latter cannot be separated (due to the mutation in lolA), the PulD protomers form dodecamers that insert into the inner membrane.

  11. Membrane Frizzled Related Protein is necessary for the normal development and maintenance of photoreceptor outer segments

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jungyeon; Smith, Richard S.; Peachey, Neal S.; Wu, Jiang; Hicks, Wanda L.; Naggert, Jürgen K.; Nishina, Patsy M.

    2009-01-01

    A 4 base pair deletion in a splice donor site of the Mfrp (membrane-type frizzled-related protein) gene, herein referred to as Mfrprd6/rd6, is predicted to lead to the skipping of exon 4 and photoreceptor degeneration in retinal degeneration 6 (rd6) mutant mice. Little, however, is known about the function of the protein or how the mutation causes the degenerative retinal phenotype. Here we examine ultrastructural changes in the retina of Mfrprd6/rd6 mice to determine the earliest effects of the mutation. We also extend the reported observations of the expression pattern of the dicistronic Mfrp/C1qtnf5 message and the localization of these and other retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal proteins during development and assess the ability of RPE cells to phagocytize outer segments in mutant and WT mice. At the ultrastructural level, outer segments do not develop normally in Mfrprd6/rd6 mutants. They are disorganized and become progressively shorter as mutant mice age. Additionally, there are focal areas in which there is a reduction of apical RPE microvilli. At P25, the rod ERG a-wave of Mfrprd6/rd6 mice is reduced in amplitude by ~50% as are ERG components generated by the RPE. Examination of β-catenin localization and Fos and Tcf-1 expression, intermediates of the canonical Wnt-pathway, showed they were not different between mutant and WT mice, suggesting that MFRP may operate through an alternative pathway. Finally, impaired outer segment phagocytosis was observed in Mfrprd6/rd6 mice both in standard ambient lighting conditions and with bright light exposure when compared to WT controls. PMID:18764959

  12. Affinity purification of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) utilizing a His-tag mutant.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nathan J; Turner, Kendrick B; DiVito, Kyle A; Daniele, Michael A; Walper, Scott A

    To facilitate the rapid purification of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), we developed two plasmid constructs that utilize a truncated, transmembrane protein to present an exterior histidine repeat sequence. We chose OmpA, a highly abundant porin protein, as the protein scaffold and utilized the lac promoter to allow for inducible control of the epitope-presenting construct. OMVs containing mutant OmpA-His6 were purified directly from Escherichia coli culture media on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) Ni-NTA resin. This enabling technology can be combined with other molecular tools directed at OMV packaging to facilitate the separation of modified/cargo-loaded OMV from their wt counterparts. In addition to numerous applications in the pharmaceutical and environmental remediation industries, this technology can be utilized to enhance basic research capabilities in the area of elucidating endogenous OMV function.

  13. Antigenic Structure of Outer Membrane Protein E of Moraxella catarrhalis and Construction and Characterization of Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Yuskiw, Norine; Hiltke, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Outer membrane protein E (OMP E) is a 50-kDa protein of Moraxella catarrhalis which possesses several characteristics indicating that the protein will be an effective vaccine antigen. To study the antigenic structure of OMP E, eight monoclonal antibodies were developed and characterized. Three of the antibodies recognized epitopes which are present on the bacterial surface. Fusion peptides corresponding to overlapping regions of OMP E were constructed, and immunoblot assays were performed to localize the areas of the molecule bound by the monoclonal antibodies. These studies identified a surface-exposed epitope in the region of amino acids 80 through 180. To further study the protein, two mutants which lack OMP E were constructed. In bactericidal assays, the mutants were more readily killed by normal human serum compared to the isogenic parent strains. These results indicate that OMP E is involved in the expression of serum resistance of M. catarrhalis. PMID:11035732

  14. Outer eggshell membrane as delivery vehicle for polysaccharide/protein microcapsules incorporated with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhi; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Fei; Du, Bingjian; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Leng, Xiaojing

    2013-01-23

    This study investigates the features of a new type of delivery system prepared by combining a natural outer eggshell membrane (OESM) with emulsified microcapsules. The loading efficiency, controlled release properties, and forming mechanisms of the prepared system were studied. The polysaccharide/protein microcapsules incorporated with vitamin E can be attached to highly cross-linked protein fiber networks of OESM. This attachment could be reinforced more than 2-fold using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The combined OESM/microcapsule delivery system significantly exhibited better controlled release properties than the microcapsules alone because of the steric blocking effect. Moreover, the OESM delivery system incorporated with microcapsules formed by pectin/protein as wall material showed more resistance against enzymatic attacks because of the formation of compact aggregates promoted by electrostatic effects.

  15. An immunoproteomic approach for characterization of the outer membrane proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngjae; Sun, Jisun; Han, Jang Hyuck; Jang, Joo Hyun; Kang, Zheng Wu; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) is an important pathogen that causes fowl typhoid in chickens. In order to investigate SG outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as potential vaccine candidate proteins, we established a proteomic map and database of antigenic SG-OMPs. A total of 174 spots were detected by 2DE. Twenty-two antigen-reactive spots were identified as nine specific proteins using PMF. OmpA was the most abundant protein among all of the identified OMPs, and it exhibited seven protein species. We conducted Western blot analysis for the SG-OMPs in order to determine which proteins were cross-reactive to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and SG. Our results indicated that OmpA was considered to be an antigenic cross-reactive protein among the three serovars. This study sheds new light on our understanding of cross-protection among Salmonella serovars.

  16. Identification of an Iron-Regulated, Hemin-Binding Outer Membrane Protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Battistoni, Federico; Platero, Raúl; Duran, Rosario; Cerveñansky, Carlos; Battistoni, Julio; Arias, Alicia; Fabiano, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are able to establish symbiotic associations with leguminous hosts. In iron-limited environments these bacteria can use iron present in heme or heme compounds (hemoglobin, leghemoglobin). Here we report the presence in Sinorhizobium meliloti of an iron-regulated outer membrane protein that is able to bind hemin but not hemoglobin. Protein assignment was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Tryptic peptides correlated with the mass measurements obtained accounted for 54% of the translated sequence of a putative heme receptor gene present in the chromosome of S. meliloti 1021. The results which we obtained suggest that this protein (designated ShmR for Sinorhizobium heme receptor) is involved in high-affinity heme-mediated iron transport. PMID:12450806

  17. Immunochemical diversity of the major outer membrane protein of avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

    1988-01-01

    Immunochemical properties of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of 16 strains of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from psittacine birds, budgerigars, a pigeon, turkeys, humans, cats, a muskrat, sheep, and cattle and a strain of C. trachomatis, L2/434/Bu, were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by immunoblotting analysis with hyperimmunized rabbit antisera to strains of parrot, turkey, feline, and bovine origin. The MOMPs of the strains showed variation in molecular weights and immunological specificities. Fifteen of the C. psittaci strains were classified into two avian and two mammalian types based on immunological specificity of the MOMP, whereas the other strain was not classified in this study. Immunological classification based on specificity of the MOMP by immunoblotting proved to be a valuable method to classify various strains of C. psittaci. Images PMID:3366861

  18. Studies on the expression of outer membrane protein 2 in escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fralick, J A; Diedrich, D L

    1982-01-01

    The relative level of protein 2 expressed in the outer membrane of strains of Escherichia coli K-12 lysogenized with bacteriophage PA-2 was found to be influenced by both the growth temperature and lc+ gene dosage. An increase in either of these parameters was accompanied by an increase in the level of protein 2 up to an apparent saturation level. Any increase in the amount of protein 2 was accompanied by a concomittant decrease in the amount of OmpF and OmpC porins. This inverse relationship led to the maintenance of an approximately constant protein mass per unit of peptidoglycan. Our results are discussed in light of recent genetic studies on the regulation of the OmpF and OmpC porins and can be explained through the competition of these three matrix proteins for a common export or insertion site.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Neisseria lactamica and N eisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicle vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Thomas E; Skipp, Paul J; O'Connor, C David; Hudson, Michael J; Vipond, Richard; Elmore, Michael J; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2006-06-19

    Vaccines to prevent meningococcal disease have been developed from the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Neisseria meningitidis and the related commensal organism Neisseria lactamica. In addition to lipopolysaccharide and the major porins, these vaccines contain a large number of proteins that are incompletely characterised. Here we describe comparative proteomic analyses of the N. lactamica OMV vaccine and OMVs from a serogroup B strain of N. meningitidis. Tandem mass-spectrometry data for trypsinised N. lactamica OMV vaccine were matched to an incompletely assembled genome sequence from the same strain to give 65 robust protein identifications and a further 122 single- or two-peptide matches. Fifty-seven N. meningitidis K454 proteins were identified robustly (and a further 68 from single- or two-peptide matches) by inference from the N. meningitidis MC58 genome. The results suggest that OMVs have a hitherto unappreciated complexity and pinpoint novel candidate antigens for further characterisation.

  20. Genetic Manipulation of Outer Membrane Permeability: Generating Porous Heterogeneous Catalyst Analogs in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, TN; Park, AHA; Bantat, S

    2014-12-01

    The limited permeability of the E. coli outer membrane can significantly hinder whole-cell biocatalyst performance. In this study, the SARS coronavirus small envelope protein (SCVE) was expressed in E. coli cells previously engineered for periplasmic expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. This maneuver increased small molecule uptake by the cells, resulting in increased apparent CA activity of the biocatalysts. The enhancements in activity were quantified using methods developed for traditional heterogeneous catalysis. The expression of the SCVE protein was found to significantly reduce the Thiele moduli (phi), as well as increase the effectiveness factors (eta), effective diffusivities (D-e), and permeabilities (P) of the biocatalysts. These catalytic improvements translated into superior performance of the biocatalysts for the precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution which is an attractive strategy for long-term sequestration of captured carbon dioxide. Overall, these results demonstrate that synthetic biology approaches can be used to enhance heterogeneous catalysts incorporated into microbial whole-cell scaffolds.

  1. Pore-forming ability of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Egli, C; Hancock, R E; Holt, S C

    1992-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43, 45, and 51 kDa were purified from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238, and their pore-forming abilities were determined by the black lipid bilayer method. The non-heat-modifiable 45-kDa protein (Omp 45) showed no pore-forming activity even at high KCl concentrations. The single-channel conductances in 1 M KCl of the heat-modifiable proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43 kDa (Omp 43) and 51 kDa (Omp 51) were 0.49 and 0.60 nS, respectively. The proteins formed nonselective channels and, as determined by experiments of ion selectivity and zero-current potential, were weakly anion selective. Images PMID:1370429

  2. Immunization with outer membrane vesicles displaying designer glycotopes yields class-switched, glycan-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Jenny L.; Chen, Linxiao; Perregaux, Emily C.; Weyant, Kevin B.; Rosenthal, Joseph A.; Heiss, Christian; Azadi, Parastoo; Fisher, Adam C.; Putnam, David; Moe, Gregory R.; Merritt, Judith H.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The development of antibodies against specific glycan epitopes poses a significant challenge due to difficulties obtaining desired glycans at sufficient quantity and purity, and the fact that glycans are usually weakly immunogenic. To address this challenge, we leveraged the potent immunostimulatory activity of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) to deliver designer glycan epitopes to the immune system. This approach involved heterologous expression of two clinically important glycans, namely polysialic acid (PSA) and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) in hypervesiculating strains of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. The resulting glycOMVs displayed structural mimics of PSA or T antigen on their surfaces, and induced high titers of glycan-specific IgG antibodies following immunization in mice. In the case of PSA glycOMVs, serum antibodies potently killed Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB), whose outer capsule is PSA, in a serum bactericidal assay. These findings demonstrate the potential of glycOMVs for inducing class-switched, humoral immune responses against glycan antigens. PMID:27341433

  3. Outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori: paradigm deviations in H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, George; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and numerous OM proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its OM profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines or therapeutics that target any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε proteobacteria, while the inner and OM associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OMP transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to their E. coli counterparts. Eventual

  4. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  5. The β-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein Assembly Complex of Neisseria meningitidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Volokhina, Elena B.; Beckers, Frank; Tommassen, Jan; Bos, Martine P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved protein Omp85 is required for outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly in gram-negative bacteria and in mitochondria. Its Escherichia coli homolog, designated BamA, functions with four accessory lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE, together forming the β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam). Here, we addressed the composition of this machinery and the function of its components in Neisseria meningitidis, a model organism for outer membrane biogenesis studies. Analysis of genome sequences revealed homologs of BamC, BamD (previously described as ComL), and BamE and a second BamE homolog, Mlp. No homolog of BamB was found. As in E. coli, ComL/BamD appeared essential for viability and for OMP assembly, and it could not be replaced by its E. coli homolog. BamE was not essential but was found to contribute to the efficiency of OMP assembly and to the maintenance of OM integrity. A bamC mutant showed only marginal OMP assembly defects, but the impossibility of creating a bamC bamE double mutant further indicated the function of BamC in OMP assembly. An mlp mutant was unaffected in OMP assembly. The results of copurification assays demonstrated the association of BamC, ComL, and BamE with Omp85. Semi-native gel electrophoresis identified the RmpM protein as an additional component of the Omp85 complex, which was confirmed in copurification assays. RmpM was not required for OMP folding but stabilized OMP complexes. Thus, the Bam complex in N. meningitidis consists of Omp85/BamA plus RmpM, BamC, ComL/BamD, and BamE, of which ComL/BamD and BamE appear to be the most important accessory components for OMP assembly. PMID:19767435

  6. Can direct extracellular electron transfer occur in the absence of outer membrane cytochromes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris?

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A; Zane, Mr. Grant M.; Auer, Dr. Manfred; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne; Wall, Judy D.; Gorby, Dr. Yuri A.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer has been investigated over several decades via forms of soluble electron transfer proteins that are exported for extracellular reoxidation. More recently, several organisms have been shown to reduce extracellular metals via the direct transfer of electron through appendages; also known as nanowires. They have been reported most predominantly in Shewanella and Geobacter. While the relevancy and composition of these structures in each genus has been debated, both possess outer membrane cytochrome complexes that could theoretically come into direct contact with solid phase oxidized metals. Members of the genus Desulfovibrio apparently have no such cytochromes although similar appendages are present, are electrically conductive, and are different from flagella. Upon U(VI)-reduction, the structures in Desulfovibrio become coated with U(IV). Deletion of flagellar genes did not alter soluble or amorphous Fe(III) or U(VI) reduction, or appendage appearance. Removal of the chromosomal pilA gene hampered amorphous Fe(III)-reduction by ca. 25%, but cells lacking the native plasmid, pDV1, reduced soluble Fe(III) and U(VI) at ca. 50% of the wild type rate while amorphous Fe(III)-reduction slowed to ca. 20% of the wild type rate. Appendages were present in all deletions as well as pDV1, except pilA. Gene complementation restored all activities and morphologies to wild type levels. This suggests that pilA encodes the structural component, whereas genes within pDV1 may provide the reactive members. How such appendages function without outer membrane cytochromes is under investigation.

  7. Outer membrane protein DsrA is the major fibronectin-binding determinant of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Isabelle; White, C Dinitra; Nepluev, Igor; Throm, Robert E; Spinola, Stanley M; Elkins, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    The ability to bind extracellular matrix proteins is a critical virulence determinant for skin pathogens. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiological agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid, binds extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin (FN). We investigated H. ducreyi FN binding and report several important findings about this interaction. First, FN binding by H. ducreyi was greatly increased in bacteria grown on heme and almost completely inhibited by hemoglobin. Second, wild-type strain 35000HP bound significantly more FN than did a dsrA mutant in two different FN binding assays. Third, the expression of dsrA in the dsrA mutant restored FN binding and conferred the ability to bind FN to a non-FN-binding Haemophilus influenzae strain. Fourth, an anti-DsrA monoclonal antibody partially blocked FN binding by H. ducreyi. The hemoglobin receptor, the collagen-binding protein, the H. ducreyi lectin, the fine-tangle pili, and the outer membrane protein OmpA2 were not involved in H. ducreyi FN binding, since single mutants bound FN as well as the parent strain did. However, the major outer membrane protein may have a minor role in FN binding by H. ducreyi, since a double dsrA momp mutant bound less FN than did the single dsrA mutant. Finally, despite major sequence differences, DsrA proteins from both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains mediated FN and vitronectin binding. We concluded that DsrA is the major factor involved in FN binding by both classes of H. ducreyi strains.

  8. The Metal Dependence of Pyoverdine Interactions with Its Outer Membrane Receptor FpvA▿

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Jason; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Hagege, Agnès; Celia, Hervé; Pattus, Franc

    2008-01-01

    To acquire iron, Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine (Pvd), which chelates iron and shuttles it into the cells via the specific outer membrane transporter FpvA. We studied the role of iron and other metals in the binding and transport of Pvd by FpvA and conclude that there is no significant affinity between FpvA and metal-free Pvd. We found that the fluorescent in vivo complex of iron-free FpvA-Pvd is in fact a complex with aluminum (FpvA-Pvd-Al) formed from trace aluminum in the growth medium. When Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured in a medium that had been treated with a metal affinity resin, the in vivo formation of the FpvA-Pvd complex and the recycling of Pvd on FpvA were nearly abolished. The accumulation of Pvd in the periplasm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also reduced in the treated growth medium, while the addition of 1 μM AlCl3 to the treated medium restored the effects of trace metals observed in standard growth medium. Using fluorescent resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance techniques, the in vitro interactions between Pvd and detergent-solubilized FpvA were also shown to be metal dependent. We demonstrated that FpvA binds Pvd-Fe but not Pvd and that Pvd did not compete with Pvd-Fe for FpvA binding. In light of our finding that the Pvd-Al complex is transported across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a model for siderophore recognition based on a metal-induced conformation followed by redox selectivity for iron is discussed. PMID:18641139

  9. Epoxide-mediated differential packaging of Cif and other virulence factors into outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ballok, Alicia E; Filkins, Laura M; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Extraction, purification, and characterization of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Holt, S C

    1991-01-01

    The outer membrane of Wolinella recta ATCC 33238 was isolated by French pressure cell disruption and differential centrifugation. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were solubilized by Zwittergent 3.14 extraction and separated by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography. The major OMPs that were found in W. recta ATCC 33238 and in several other Wolinella spp. consisted of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 51, 45, and 43 kDa. These three conserved proteins were purified to essential homogeneity by one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and characterized chemically. Heating at between 75 and 100 degrees C revealed both the 43- and 51-kDa proteins to be heat modified from apparent molecular masses of 32 and 38 kDa, respectively. The 45-kDa protein was unmodified at all temperatures tested. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-SDS-PAGE revealed the 51-kDa protein to be composed of multiple pIs between a pH of 5.0 and greater than 8.0 while the 43- and 45-kDa proteins had a pI of approximately 6.0. N'-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the first 30 to 40 amino acids and search of the Protein Identification Resource data base for similar proteins only revealed the 43-kDa protein to be similar to the P.69 OMP of Bordetella pertussis; however, the homology was weak (33%). Amino acid analysis revealed the 43-kDa protein to be noncharged and the 45- and 51-kDa proteins to be hydrophilic, containing between 38 to 42% polar residues but no cysteine. This study reports the purification and partial characterization of three conserved proteins in W. recta ATCC 33238. Images PMID:1894372

  11. Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Both acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities are present in chloroplast envelope membranes. The functions of these enzymes in lipid metabolism remains unresolved, although the synthetase has been proposed to be involved in either plastid galactolipid synthesis or the export of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the cytoplasm. We have examined the locations of both enzymes within the two envelope membranes of pea (Pisum sativum var Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts. Inner and outer envelope membranes were purified from unfractionated envelope preparations by linear density sucrose gradient centrifugation. Acyl-CoA synthetase was located in the outer envelope membrane while acyl-CoA thioesterase was located in the inner envelope membrane. Thus, it seems unlikely that the synthetase is directly involved in galactolipid assembly. Instead, its localization supports the hypothesis that it functions in the transport of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663076

  12. Characterization and vaccine potential of outer membrane vesicles produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    SciTech Connect

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Charbit, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structures has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Lastly, vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria.

  13. Characterization and vaccine potential of outer membrane vesicles produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    DOE PAGES

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structuresmore » has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Lastly, vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria.« less

  14. The prediction and characterization of YshA, an unknown outer membrane protein from Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Thomas C.; Landry, Samuel J.; Wimley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an effective pathway for the prediction and characterization of novel transmembrane β-barrel proteins. The Freeman-Wimley algorithm, which is a highly accurate prediction method based on the physicochemical properties of experimentally characterized transmembrane β barrel (TMBB) structures, was used to predict TMBBs in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. The previously uncharacterized product of gene yshA was tested as a model for validating the algorithm. YshA is a highly conserved 230-residue protein that is predicted to have 10 transmembrane β-strands and an N-terminal signal sequence. All of the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties exhibited by YshA are consistent with the prediction that it is a TMBB. Specifically, recombinant YshA localizes to the outer membrane when expressed in Escherichia coli; YshA has β-sheet-rich secondary structure with stable tertiary contacts in the presence of detergent micelles or when reconstituted into a lipid bilayer; when in a lipid bilayer, YshA forms a membrane-spanning pore with an effective radius of ~0.7 nm. Taken together, these data substantiate the predictions made by the Freeman-Wimley algorithm by showing that YshA is a TMBB protein. PMID:20863811

  15. NMR Polypeptide Backbone Conformation of the E. coli Outer Membrane Protein W

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Reto; Stanczak, Pawel; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The outer membrane proteins (Omp) are key factors for bacterial survival and virulence. Among the Omps which have been structurally characterized either by X-ray crystallography or by NMR in solution, the crystal structure of OmpW stands out because three of its four extracellular loops are well defined, whereas long extracellular loops in other E. coli Omps are disordered in the crystals as well as in NMR structures. OmpW thus presented an opportunity for detailed comparison of the extracellular loops in a β-barrel membrane protein structure in crystals and in non-crystalline milieus. Here the polypeptide backbone conformation of OmpW in 30-Fos micelles was determined. Complete backbone NMR assignments were obtained and the loops were structurally characterized. In combination with the OmpW crystal structure, NMR line shape analyses and 15N{1H}-NOE data, these results showed that intact regular secondary structures in the loops undergo slow hinge motions at the detergent–solvent interface. PMID:25017731

  16. Cristae remodeling causes acidification detected by integrated graphene sensor during mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ted D.; Pham, Phi Q.; Li, Jinfeng; Letai, Anthony G.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Burke, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the resultant mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) via BAK and BAX oligomerization, cytochrome c (cytc) release, and caspase activation are well studied, but their effect on cytosolic pH is poorly understood. Using isolated mitochondria, we show that MOMP results in acidification of the surrounding medium. BAK conformational changes associated with MOMP activate the OMA1 protease to cleave OPA1 resulting in remodeling of the cristae and release of the highly concentrated protons within the cristae invaginations. This was revealed by utilizing a nanomaterial graphene as an optically clear and ultrasensitive pH sensor that can measure ionic changes induced by tethered mitochondria. With this platform, we have found that activation of mitochondrial apoptosis is accompanied by a gradual drop in extra-mitochondrial pH and a decline in membrane potential, both of which can be rescued by adding exogenous cytc. These findings have importance for potential pharmacological manipulation of apoptosis, in the treatment of cancer. PMID:27786282

  17. AKR2A-mediated import of chloroplast outer membrane proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Yong Jik; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Junho; Kim, Soojin; Sohn, Eun Ju; Hwang, Inhwan

    2008-02-01

    In plant cells, chloroplasts have essential roles in many biochemical reactions and physiological responses. Chloroplasts require numerous protein components, but only a fraction of these proteins are encoded by the chloroplast genome. Instead, most are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported into chloroplasts from the cytoplasm post-translationally. Membrane proteins located in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane (OEM) have a critical function in the import of proteins into the chloroplast. However, the biogenesis of chloroplast OEM proteins remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis ankyrin repeat protein, AKR2A, plays an essential role in the biogenesis of the chloroplast OEM proteins. AKR2A binds to chloroplast OEM protein targeting signals, as well as to chloroplasts. It also displays chaperone activity towards chloroplast OEM proteins, and facilitates the targeting of OEP7 to chloroplasts in vitro. AKR2A RNAi in plants with an akr2b knockout background showed greatly reduced levels of chloroplast proteins, including OEM proteins, and chloroplast biogenesis was also defective. Thus, AKR2A functions as a cytosolic mediator for sorting and targeting of nascent chloroplast OEM proteins to the chloroplast.

  18. Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Outer Membrane Vesicles Produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structures has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria. PMID:26930282

  19. Outer-membrane Transport of Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a First Step in Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn,E.; Patel, D.; van den Berg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biodegradation of hydrocarbons, an important process for environmental remediation, requires the passage of hydrophobic substrates across the cell membrane. Here, we report crystal structures of two outer membrane proteins, Pseudomonas putida TodX and Ralstonia pickettii TbuX, which have been implicated in hydrocarbon transport and are part of a subfamily of the FadL fatty acid transporter family. The structures of TodX and TbuX show significant differences with those previously determined for Escherichia coli FadL, which may provide an explanation for the substrate-specific transport of TodX and TbuX observed with in vivo transport assays. The TodX and TbuX structures revealed 14-stranded {beta}-barrels with an N-terminal hatch domain blocking the barrel interior. A hydrophobic channel with bound detergent molecules extends from the extracellular surface and is contiguous with a passageway through the hatch domain, lined by both hydrophobic and polar or charged residues. The TodX and TbuX structures support a mechanism for transport of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment to the periplasm via a channel through the hatch domain.

  20. DipM links peptidoglycan remodeling to outer membrane organization in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Goley, Erin D.; Comolli, Luis R.; Fero, Katherine E.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cell division in Gram-negative organisms requires coordinated invagination of the multi-layered cell envelope such that each daughter receives an intact inner membrane (IM), peptidoglycan (PG) layer, and outer membrane (OM). Here, we identify DipM, a putative LytM endopeptidase in Caulobacter crescentus, and show that it plays a critical role in maintaining cell envelope architecture during growth and division. DipM localized to the division site in an FtsZ-dependent manner via its peptidoglycan binding LysM domains. Although not essential for viability, ΔdipM cells exhibited gross morphological defects, including cell widening and filamentation, indicating a role in cell shape maintenance and division that we show requires its LytM domain. Strikingly, cells lacking DipM also showed OM blebbing at the division site, at cell poles, and along the cell body. Cryo electron tomography of sacculi isolated from cells depleted of DipM revealed marked thickening of the peptidoglycan as compared to wild type, which we hypothesize leads to loss of trans-envelope contacts between components of the Tol-Pal complex. We conclude that DipM is required for normal envelope invagination during division and to maintain a sacculus of constant thickness that allows for maintenance of OM connections throughout the cell envelope. PMID:20497504

  1. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  2. Purification of cone outer segment for proteomic analysis on its membrane proteins in carp retina

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Takashi; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Tachibanaki, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Rods and cones are both photoreceptors in the retina, but they are different in many aspects including the light response characteristics and, for example, cell morphology and metabolism. These differences would be caused by differences in proteins expressed in rods and cones. To understand the molecular bases of these differences between rods and cones, one of the ways is to compare proteins expressed in rods and cones, and to find those expressed specifically or dominantly. In the present study, we are interested in proteins in the outer segment (OS), the site responsible for generation of rod- or cone-characteristic light responses and also the site showing different morphology between rods and cones. For this, we established a method to purify the OS and the inner segment (IS) of rods and also of cones from purified carp rods and cones, respectively, using sucrose density gradient. In particular, we were interested in proteins tightly bound to the membranes of cone OS. To identify these proteins, we analyzed proteins in some selected regions of an SDS-gel of washed membranes of the OS and the IS obtained from both rods and cones, with Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a protein database constructed from carp retina. By comparing the lists of the proteins found in the OS and the IS of both rods and cones, we found some proteins present in cone OS membranes specifically or dominantly, in addition to the proteins already known to be present specifically in cone OS. PMID:28291804

  3. RfaL Is Required for Yersinia pestis Type III Secretion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Houppert, Andrew S.; Bohman, Lesley; Merritt, Peter M.; Cole, Christopher B.; Caulfield, Adam J.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject cytotoxic Yop proteins directly into the cytosol of mammalian host cells. The T3SS can also be activated in vitro at 37°C in the absence of calcium. The chromosomal gene rfaL (waaL) was recently identified as a virulence factor required for proper function of the T3SS. RfaL functions as a ligase that adds the terminal N-acetylglucosamine to the lipooligosaccharide core of Y. pestis. We previously showed that deletion of rfaL prevents secretion of Yops in vitro. Here we show that the divalent cations calcium, strontium, and magnesium can partially or fully rescue Yop secretion in vitro, indicating that the secretion phenotype of the rfaL mutant may be due to structural changes in the outer membrane and the corresponding feedback inhibition on the T3SS. In support of this, we found that the defect can be overcome by deleting the regulatory gene lcrQ. Consistent with a defective T3SS, the rfaL mutant is less virulent than the wild type. We show here that the virulence defect of the mutant correlates with a decrease in both T3SS gene expression and ability to inject innate immune cells, combined with an increased sensitivity to cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:23357388

  4. An Active Site Water Network in the Plasminogen Activator Pla from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-08-13

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 {angstrom}. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  5. An active site water network in the plasminogen activator pla from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Eren, Elif; Murphy, Megan; Goguen, Jon; van den Berg, Bert

    2010-07-14

    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1.9 A. The structure shows a water molecule located between active site residues D84 and H208, which likely corresponds to the nucleophilic water. A number of other water molecules are present in the active site, linking residues important for enzymatic activity. The R211 sidechain in loop L4 is close to the nucleophilic water and possibly involved in the stabilization of the oxyanion intermediate. Subtle conformational changes of H208 result from the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the outside of the barrel, explaining the unusual dependence of omptins on lipopolysaccharide for activity. The Pla structure suggests a model for the interaction with plasminogen substrate and provides a more detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism of omptin proteases.

  6. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer membrane protein OmpL32

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immu...

  7. Outer membrane proteome of Prevotella intermedia 17: identification of thioredoxin and iron-repressible hemin uptake loci.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fan; Anaya, Cecilia; Lewis, Janina P

    2007-02-01

    Although hemin is an indispensable nutrient for the oral pathogen Prevotella intermedia, not much is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of hemin acquisition. The availability of the genomic sequence of the bacterium allowed us to apply proteomic approaches to identify proteins that may be mediating the hemin acquisition process. As hemin acquisition mechanisms have been shown to be induced in iron-depleted conditions, we applied proteomic approaches to detect those proteins whose expressions were affected by iron. We analyzed 40 protein spots and identified 19 such proteins. Interestingly, two proteins drastically upregulated in iron-depleted conditions, PIN0009 and PINA0611, are homologs of hemin uptake receptors in other bacteria. PIN0009 is predicted to be an outer membrane lipoprotein. It is encoded by a gene that is the first of a seven-gene genomic locus encoding proteins of a novel hemin acquisition system. The second protein, PINA0611, is a homolog of numerous TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors including outer membrane iron uptake receptors of various Gram-negative bacteria. There was also another protein, regulated by iron, that was previously demonstrated to bind hemoglobin in P. intermedia. Finally, we identified a thioredoxin-like protein that has a novel outer membrane location.

  8. Identification and Comparative Analysis of Genes Encoding Outer Membrane Proteins P2 and P5 in Haemophilus parsuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a serious swine pathogen but little is known about how it causes disease. A related human pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae, has been better studied and many of its virulence factors have been identified. Two of these, outer membrane proteins P2 and P5, have been shown to ha...

  9. Organization of lipids in the artificial outer membrane of bull spermatozoa reconstructed at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Tainturier, D; Anton, M

    2013-08-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used to preserve the quality of bull spermatozoa over time. Sequestration of seminal plasma proteins by low density lipoproteins and formation of a protective film around the spermatozoa membrane by low density lipoproteins were the main mechanisms proposed. However, the organization of lipids in the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane has been never considered as a possible parameter. This study evaluated whether a change in the organization of the outer leaflet of the spermotozoa membrane could occur during cooling down. The organization of the main components of the spermatozoa membrane's outer layer at the liquid-gas interface was analysed. Cryopreservative media (at 8° and 34°C) were used to study the miscibility of the spermatozoa membrane lipids using epifluorescence imaging and by tensiometry on Langmuir films. The results show that the four lipids: sphingomyelin, cholesterol, 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC) and plasmalogen 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-PC) were not fully miscible and their organization was controlled by temperature. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin form condensed domains surrounded by a mixture of PC and P-PC at 34°C while these condensed domains are surrounded by separated domains of pure PC and pure P-PC at 8°C. The organization of the outer membrane lipids, in particular the separation of PC and P-PC lipids during cooling down, must be considered to fully understand preservation of membrane integrity during cryopreservation.

  10. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; ...

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pccmore » protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.« less

  11. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  12. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus J; Babauta, Jerome T; Kennedy, David W; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R; Clarke, Thomas A; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Rosso, Kevin M; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K; Shi, Liang

    2014-12-01

    The multi-heme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC) and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC) respectively. Here, we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  13. Characterization of rat TOM70 as a receptor of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Maki; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2002-05-01

    We cloned a approximately 70 kDa rat mitochondrial outer membrane protein (OM70) with a sequence identity of 28.1% and 20.1% with N. crassa and S. cerevisiae Tom70, respectively. Even with this low sequence identity, however, the proteins share a remarkable structural similarity: they have 7-10 tetratricopeptide repeat motifs and are anchored to the outer membrane through the N-terminal transmembrane domain with the bulk portion located in the cytosol. Antibodies against OM70 inhibited import of preproteins, such as the ADP/ATP carrier and rTOM40, that use internal targeting signals but not the import of cleavable presequence-containing preproteins. Blue native gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation of digitoninsolubilized mitochondrial outer membranes revealed that OM70 was loosely associated with the approximately 400 kDa translocase complex of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which contains rTOM22 and rTOM40. A yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated that OM70 interacted with rTOM20 and rTOM22 through the cytoplasmic domains. Thus, OM70 is a functional homologue of fungal Tom70 and functions as a receptor of the preprotein import machinery of the rat mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, the N-terminal 66 residue region of OM70, which comprises a hydrophilic 41 residue N-terminal domain, a 22 residue transmembrane domain and three arginine residues, is sufficient to act as a mitochondria-targeting signal, and the arginine cluster is crucial for this function.

  14. Species-specificity of the BamA component of the bacterial outer membrane protein-assembly machinery.

    PubMed

    Volokhina, Elena B; Grijpstra, Jan; Beckers, Frank; Lindh, Erika; Robert, Viviane; Tommassen, Jan; Bos, Martine P

    2013-01-01

    The BamA protein is the key component of the Bam complex, the assembly machinery for outer membrane proteins (OMP) in gram-negative bacteria. We previously demonstrated that BamA recognizes its OMP substrates in a species-specific manner in vitro. In this work, we further studied species specificity in vivo by testing the functioning of BamA homologs of the proteobacteria Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Bordetella pertussis, Burkholderia mallei, and Escherichia coli in E. coli and in N. meningitidis. We found that no BamA functioned in another species than the authentic one, except for N. gonorrhoeae BamA, which fully complemented a N. meningitidis bamA mutant. E. coli BamA was not assembled into the N. meningitidis outer membrane. In contrast, the N. meningitidis BamA protein was assembled into the outer membrane of E. coli to a significant extent and also associated with BamD, an essential accessory lipoprotein of the Bam complex.Various chimeras comprising swapped N-terminal periplasmic and C-terminal membrane-embedded domains of N. meningitidis and E. coli BamA proteins were also not functional in either host, although some of them were inserted in the OM suggesting that the two domains of BamA need to be compatible in order to function. Furthermore, conformational analysis of chimeric proteins provided evidence for a 16-stranded β-barrel conformation of the membrane-embedded domain of BamA.

  15. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli CusC the Outer Membrane Component of a Heavy Metal Efflux Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R Kulathila; R Kulathila; M Indic; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    While copper has essential functions as an enzymatic co-factor, excess copper ions are toxic for cells, necessitating mechanisms for regulating its levels. The cusCBFA operon of E. coli encodes a four-component efflux pump dedicated to the extrusion of Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of CusC, the outer membrane component of the Cus heavy metal efflux pump, to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The structure has the largest extracellular opening of any outer membrane factor (OMF) protein and suggests, for the first time, the presence of a tri-acylated N-terminal lipid anchor. The CusC protein does not have any obvious features that would make it specific for metal ions, suggesting that the narrow substrate specificity of the pump is provided by other components of the pump, most likely by the inner membrane component CusA.

  16. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jingquan; Rouse, Sarah L; Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R; El Arnaout, Toufic; Whitney, John C; Howell, P Lynne; Sansom, Mark S P; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE.

  17. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jingquan; Rouse, Sarah L.; Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R.; El Arnaout, Toufic; Whitney, John C.; Howell, P. Lynne; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Crystal structures of the β-barrel porin AlgE reveal a mechanism whereby alginate is exported from P. aeruginosa for biofilm formation. The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE.

  18. A Comprehensive Approach to Identification of Surface-Exposed, Outer Membrane-Spanning Proteins of Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Pinne, Marija; Haake, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral life cycle involves transmission via fresh water and colonization of the renal tubules of their reservoir hosts or infection of accidental hosts, including humans. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs), particularly those with surface-exposed regions, play crucial roles in virulence mechanisms of pathogens and the adaptation to various environmental conditions, including those of the mammalian host. Little is known about the surface-exposed OMPs in Leptospira, particularly those with outer membrane-spanning domains. Herein, we describe a comprehensive strategy for identification and characterization of leptospiral transmembrane OMPs. The genomic sequence of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1–130 allowed us to employ the β-barrel prediction programs, PRED-TMBB and TMBETA-NET, to identify potential transmembrane OMPs. Several complementary methods were used to characterize four novel OMPs, designated OmpL36, OmpL37, OmpL47 and OmpL54. In addition to surface immunofluorescence and surface biotinylation, we describe surface proteolysis of intact leptospires as an improved method for determining the surface exposure of leptospiral proteins. Membrane integration was confirmed using techniques for removal of peripheral membrane proteins. We also demonstrate deficiencies in the Triton X-114 fractionation method for assessing the outer membrane localization of transmembrane OMPs. Our results establish a broadly applicable strategy for the elucidation of novel surface-exposed outer membrane-spanning proteins of Leptospira, an essential step in the discovery of potential virulence factors, diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates. PMID:19562037

  19. Outer membrane and porin characteristics of Serratia marcescens grown in vitro and in rat intraperitoneal diffusion chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Malouin, F; Campbell, G D; Halpenny, M; Becker, G W; Parr, T R

    1990-01-01

    The composition and antibiotic permeability barrier of the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens were assessed in cells grown in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal diffusion chambers implanted in rats were used for the in vivo cultivation of bacteria. Outer membranes isolated from log-phase bacterial cells recovered from these chambers were compared with membranes isolated from cells grown in vitro. Analysis revealed that the suspected 41-kilodalton porin and the OmpA protein were recovered on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels in equal quantities. Several high-molecular-weight proteins, thought to be iron starvation induced, appeared in the diffusion chamber-grown cells. The outer membrane permeability barriers to cephaloridine were similar in in vivo- and in vitro-grown cells based on permeability coefficient calculations. The permeability coefficient of cephaloridine in S. marcescens cells (30.3 x 10(-5) to 38.9 x 10(-5) cm s-1) was greater than that obtained for an Escherichia coli strain expressing only porin OmpC but smaller than those obtained for the E. coli wild type and a strain expressing only porin OmpF. Functional characterization of the suspected porin was performed by using the planar lipid bilayer technology. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-0.4 M NaCl-soluble porin from both in vitro- and in vivo-grown cells showed an average single-channel conductance in 1 M KCl of 1.6. A partial amino acid sequence (19 residues) was obtained for the S. marcescens porin. The sequence showed a very high homology to the E. coli OmpC porin. These data identified the S. marcescens outer membrane 41-kilodalton protein as a porin by both functional and amino acid analyses. Also, the methodology used allowed for efficient growth and recovery of diffusion chamber-grown bacterial cells and permitted identification of specific in vivo-induced changes in bacterial cell membrane composition. Images PMID:2157667

  20. Virulence characteristics of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli deletion of gene encoding the outer membrane protein X

    PubMed Central

    MENG, Xianrong; LIU, Xueling; ZHANG, Liyuan; HOU, Bo; LI, Binyou; TAN, Chen; LI, Zili; ZHOU, Rui; LI, Shaowen

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein X (OmpX) and its homologues have been proposed to contribute to the virulence in various bacterial species. But, their role in virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is yet to be determined. This study evaluates the role of OmpX in ExPEC virulence in vitro and in vivo using a clinical strain PPECC42 of porcine origin. The ompX deletion mutant exhibited increased swimming motility and decreased adhesion to, and invasion of pulmonary epithelial A549 cell, compared to the wild-type strain. A mild increase in LD50 and distinct decrease in bacterial load in such organs as heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were observed in mice infected with the ompX mutant. Complementation of the complete ompX gene in trans restored the virulence of mutant strain to the level of wild-type strain. Our results reveal that OmpX contributes to ExPEC virulence, but may be not an indispensable virulence determinant. PMID:27149893

  1. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Jessica D; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Chen, Yu-Yen; Singleton, William; Gause, Katelyn T; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis.

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae secretes outer membrane vesicles that induce the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Chul; Lee, Eun Jeoung; Lee, Jung Hwa; Jun, So Hyun; Choi, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Il; Kang, Sang Sun; Hyun, Sunghee

    2012-06-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria are an important vehicle for delivery of effector molecules to host cells, but the production of OMVs from Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and their role in bacterial pathogenesis have not yet been determined. In the present study, we examined the production of OMVs from K. pneumoniae and determined the induction of the innate immune response against K. pneumoniae OMVs. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 produced and secreted OMVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that 159 different proteins were associated with K. pneumoniae OMVs. Klebsiella pneumoniae OMVs did not inhibit cell growth or induce cell death. However, these vesicles induced expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 in epithelial cells. An intratracheal challenge of K. pneumoniae OMVs in neutropenic mice resulted in severe lung pathology similar to K. pneumoniae infection. In conclusion, K. pneumoniae produces OMVs like other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and K. pneumoniae OMVs are a molecular complex that induces the innate immune response.

  3. Phenolic Compounds of Pomegranate Byproducts (Outer Skin, Mesocarp, Divider Membrane) and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-08-31

    Pomegranate peel was separated into outer leathery skin (PS), mesocarp (PM), and divider membrane (PD), and its phenolic compounds were extracted as free (F), esterified (E), and insoluble-bound (B) forms for the first time. The total phenolic content followed the order PD > PM > PS. ABTS(•+), DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelation were evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel extracts showed inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and cupric ion-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation as well as peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Seventy-nine phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) mainly in the form of insoluble-bound. Thirty compounds were identified for the first time. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in pomegranate peel, whereas kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid. Moreover, ellagic acid and monogalloyl-hexoside were the major hydrolyzable tannins, whereas the dominant proanthocyanidin was procyanidin dimers. Proanthocyanidins were detected for the first time.

  4. Proteomic profiling of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane vesicles: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Recent progress in the studies of Gram-negative bacterial extracellular vesicles implies that OMVs may function as intercellular communicasomes in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Current MS-based high-throughput proteomic analyses of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs have identified thousands of vesicular proteins and provided clues to reveal the biogenesis and pathophysiological functions of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. The future directions of proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs may include the isolation strategy of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs to thoroughly exclude nonvesicular contaminants and proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs derived from diverse conditions as well as body fluids of bacterium-infected hosts. We hope this review will shed light on future research in this emerging field of proteomics of extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria and contribute to the development of OMV-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines.

  5. The major outer membrane protein of Acidovorax delafieldii is an anion-selective porin.

    PubMed

    Brunen, M; Engelhardt, H; Schmid, A; Benz, R

    1991-07-01

    The major outer membrane protein (Omp34) of Acidovorax delafieldii (formerly Pseudomonas delafieldii) was purified to homogeneity and was characterized biochemically and functionally. The polypeptide has an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of 34,000, and it forms stable oligomers at pH 9.0 in the presence of 10% octylpolyoxyethylene or 2% lithium dodecyl sulfate below 70 degrees C. The intact protein has a characteristic secondary structure composition, as revealed by Fourier transforming infrared spectroscopy (about 60% beta sheet). These features and the amino acid composition are typical for porins. The purified Omp34 is associated with 1 to 2 mol of lipopolysaccharide per mol of the monomer. Pore-forming activity was demonstrated with lipid bilayer experiments. Single-channel and selectivity measurements showed that the protein forms highly anion-selective channels. The unusual dependence of the single-channel conductance on salt concentration suggests that the porin complexes bear positive surface charges, accumulating negatively charged counterions at the pore mouth.

  6. Protecting enzymatic function through directed packaging into bacterial outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nathan J.; Turner, Kendrick B.; Medintz, Igor L.; Walper, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess innate machinery to transport extracellular cargo between cells as well as package virulence factors to infect host cells by secreting outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain small molecules, proteins, and genetic material. These robust proteoliposomes have evolved naturally to be resistant to degradation and provide a supportive environment to extend the activity of encapsulated cargo. In this study, we sought to exploit bacterial OMV formation to package and maintain the activity of an enzyme, phosphotriesterase (PTE), under challenging storage conditions encountered for real world applications. Here we show that OMV packaged PTE maintains activity over free PTE when subjected to elevated temperatures (>100-fold more activity after 14 days at 37 °C), iterative freeze-thaw cycles (3.4-fold post four-cycles), and lyophilization (43-fold). We also demonstrate how lyophilized OMV packaged PTE can be utilized as a cell free reagent for long term environmental remediation of pesticide/chemical warfare contaminated areas. PMID:27117743

  7. Meningococcal outer membrane protein NhhA triggers apoptosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sjölinder, Mikael; Altenbacher, Georg; Hagner, Matthias; Sun, Wei; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sjölinder, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Phagocytotic cells play a fundamental role in the defense against bacterial pathogens. One mechanism whereby bacteria evade phagocytosis is to produce factors that trigger apoptosis. Here we identify for the first time a meningococcal protein capable of inducing macrophage apoptosis. The conserved meningococcal outer membrane protein NhhA (Neisseria hia/hsf homologue A, also known as Hsf) mediates bacterial adhesion and interacts with extracellular matrix components heparan sulphate and laminin. Meningococci lacking NhhA fail to colonise nasal mucosa in a mouse model of meningococcal disease. We found that exposure of macrophages to NhhA resulted in a highly increased rate of apoptosis that proceeded through caspase activation. Exposure of macrophages to NhhA also led to iNOS induction and nitric oxide production. However, neither nitric oxide production nor TNF-α signaling was found to be a prerequisite for NhhA-induced apoptosis. Macrophages exposed to wildtype NhhA-expressing meningococci were also found to undergo apoptosis whereas NhhA-deficient meningococci had a markedly decreased capacity to induce macrophage apoptosis. These data provide new insights on the role of NhhA in meningococcal disease. NhhA-induced macrophage apoptosis could be a mechanism whereby meningococci evade immunoregulatory and phagocytotic actions of macrophages.

  8. Molecular recognition in myxobacterial outer membrane exchange: Functional, social and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Through cooperative interactions, bacteria can build multicellular communities. To ensure that productive interactions occur, bacteria must recognize their neighbors and respond accordingly. Molecular recognition between cells is thus a fundamental behavior, and in bacteria important discoveries have been made. This MicroReview focuses on a recently described recognition system in myxobacteria that is governed by a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA. TraA regulates outer membrane exchange (OME), whereby myxobacterial cells transiently fuse their OMs to efficiently transfer proteins and lipids between cells. Unlike other transport systems, OME is rather indiscriminate in what OM goods are transferred. In contrast, the recognition of partnering cells is discriminatory and only occurs between cells that bear identical or closely related TraA proteins. Therefore TraA functions in kin recognition and, in turn, OME helps regulate social interactions between myxobacteria. Here, I discuss and speculate on the social and evolutionary implications of OME and suggest it helps to guide their transition from free-living cells into coherent and functional populations. PMID:24261719

  9. Differences in outer membrane proteins of the lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Batteiger, B.E.; Jones, R.B.

    1985-11-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis exhibit differences in biological properties both in vivo and in vitro. To identify analogous biochemical differences, the authors studied the molecular charges of chlamydial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) by means of isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins of whole elementary bodies biosynthetically labeled with L-(35S)cysteine revealed that most chlamydial proteins were neutral or acidic. The major OMPs (MOMPs) of all strains tested were acidic and had apparent isoelectric points (pIs) that varied within narrow limits despite differences in molecular mass of up to 3,000 daltons (Da). However, a low-molecular-mass cysteine-rich OMP analogous to that previously described for Chlamydia psittaci varied consistently in molecular mass (12,500 versus 12,000 Da) and pI (5.4 versus 6.9) between LGV strains and trachoma strains, respectively. OMPs with a molecular mass of 60,000 Da in the trachoma biovar strains had pIs in the 7.3 to 7.7 range. However, analogous OMPs in the LGV strains existed as a doublet with a molecular mass of about 60,000 Da. These data indicate substantial differences in biochemical characteristics of analogous OMPs in the LGV and trachoma biovars. Such differences are the first structural differences described between LGV and trachoma strains which support their distinction into separate biovars and may be related to some of their biological differences.

  10. Outer membrane protein e of Escherichia coli K-12 is co-regulated with alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Tommassen, J; Lugtenberg, B

    1980-01-01

    Outer membrane protein e is induced in wild-type cells, just like alkaline phosphatase and some other periplasmic proteins, by growth under phosphatase limitation. nmpA and nmpB mutants, which synthesize protein e constitutively, are shown also to produce the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase constitutively. Alternatively, individual phoS, phoT, and phoR mutants as well as pit pst double mutants, all of which are known to produce alkaline phosphatase constitutively, were found to be constitutive for protein e. Also, the periplasmic space of most nmpA mutants and of all nmpB mutants grown in excess phosphate was found to contain, in addition to alkaline phosphatase, at least two new proteins, a phenomenon known for individual phoT and phoR mutants as well as for pit pst double mutants. The other nmpA mutants as well as phoS mutants lacked one of these extra periplasmic proteins, namely the phosphate-binding protein. From these data and from the known positions of the mentioned genes on the chromosomal map, it is concluded that nmpB mutants are identical to phoR mutants. Moreover, some nmpA mutants were shown to be identical to phoS mutants, whereas other nmpA mutants are likely to contain mutations in one of the genes phoS, phoT, or pst. Images PMID:6995425

  11. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lenzo, Jason C.; Holden, James A.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Singleton, William; Gause, Katelyn T.; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis. PMID:27035339

  12. A Pseudomonas T6SS effector recruits PQS-containing outer membrane vesicles for iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinshui; Zhang, Weipeng; Cheng, Juanli; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Kaixiang; Wang, Yao; Wei, Gehong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    Iron sequestration by host proteins contributes to the defence against bacterial pathogens, which need iron for their metabolism and virulence. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant lacking all three known iron acquisition systems retains the ability to grow in media containing iron chelators, suggesting the presence of additional pathways involved in iron uptake. Here we screen P. aeruginosa mutants defective in growth in iron-depleted media and find that gene PA2374, proximal to the type VI secretion system H3 (H3-T6SS), functions synergistically with known iron acquisition systems. PA2374 (which we have renamed TseF) appears to be secreted by H3-T6SS and is incorporated into outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by directly interacting with the iron-binding Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a cell–cell signalling compound. TseF facilitates the delivery of OMV-associated iron to bacterial cells by engaging the Fe(III)-pyochelin receptor FptA and the porin OprF. Our results reveal links between type VI secretion, cell–cell signalling and classic siderophore receptors for iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. PMID:28348410

  13. Characterization of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Brucella melitensis and Protection Induced in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Calderón, Eric Daniel; Lopez-Merino, Ahidé; Jain, Neeta; Peralta, Humberto; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M.; Witonsky, Sharon; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from smooth B. melitensis 16 M and a derived rough mutant, VTRM1 strain, were purified and characterized with respect to protein content and induction of immune responses in mice. Proteomic analysis showed 29 proteins present in OMVs from B. melitensis 16 M; some of them are well-known Brucella immunogens such as SOD, GroES, Omp31, Omp25, Omp19, bp26, and Omp16. OMVs from a rough VTRM1 induced significantly higher expression of IL-12, TNFα, and IFNγ genes in bone marrow dendritic cells than OMVs from smooth strain 16 M. Relative to saline control group, mice immunized intramuscularly with rough and smooth OMVs were protected from challenge with virulent strain B. melitensis 16 M just as well as the group immunized with live strain B. melitensis Rev1 (P < 0.005). Additionally, the levels of serum IgG2a increased in mice vaccinated with OMVs from rough strain VTRM1 consistent with the induction of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:22242036

  14. A naturally derived outer-membrane vesicle vaccine protects against lethal pulmonary Burkholderia pseudomallei infection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Asakrah, Saja; Qazi, Omar; Brown, Katherine A; Kurtz, Jonathan; Aucoin, David P; McLachlan, James B; Roy, Chad J; Morici, Lisa A

    2011-10-26

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, and other members of the Burkholderia, are among the most antibiotic-resistant bacterial species encountered in human infection. Mortality rates associated with severe B. pseudomallei infection approach 50% despite therapeutic treatment. A protective vaccine against B. pseudomallei would dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality in endemic areas and provide a safeguard for the U.S. and other countries against biological attack with this organism. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of B. pseudomallei-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Vesicles are produced by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and contain many of the bacterial products recognized by the host immune system during infection. We demonstrate that subcutaneous (SC) immunization with OMVs provides significant protection against an otherwise lethal B. pseudomallei aerosol challenge in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with B. pseudomallei OMVs displayed OMV-specific serum antibody and T-cell memory responses. Furthermore, OMV-mediated immunity appears species-specific as cross-reactive antibody and T cells were not generated in mice immunized with Escherichia coli-derived OMVs. These results provide the first compelling evidence that OMVs represent a non-living vaccine formulation that is able to produce protective humoral and cellular immunity against an aerosolized intracellular bacterium. This vaccine platform constitutes a safe and inexpensive immunization strategy against B. pseudomallei that can be exploited for other intracellular respiratory pathogens, including other Burkholderia and bacteria capable of establishing persistent infection.

  15. Lymphocytic proliferative response to outer-membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Isibasi, A; Ortiz-Navarrete, V; Paniagua, J; García, J A; Blanco, F; Kumate, J

    1993-01-01

    Porins isolated from Salmonella typhi have been demonstrated to protect against the challenge with this bacteria in mice. The mechanism has not been clarified, but could be associated with activation of both humoral and cellular immunity. In order to evaluate the induction of specific T cell responses, the lymphocytic proliferation to porins isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli was examined by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay in mice immunized with three different antigens: acetone-killed S. typhimurium, its porins, or outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) isolated from S. typhi. Higher proliferative responses were observed in mice immunized with porins and OMPs compared with those which received the acetone-killed bacteria. Although cross-reactivity was observed between porins, they were not mitogenic. Moreover, porins were able to activate T lymphocytes isolated from mice immunized with S. typhi OMPs. These results suggest that T cell activation, through the release of lymphokines, may play a role in the induction of protective immunity with porins.

  16. Activity of KB-5246 against outer membrane mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Kotera, Y; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1990-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of KB-5246 against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and the antibacterial activity and apparent uptake in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium outer membrane mutants of KB-5246 were measured. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of KB-5246, ciprofloxacin, oflaxacin, and norfloxacin for E. coli KL-16 DNA gyrase were 0.72, 0.62, 0.84, and 1.16 micrograms/ml, respectively. The activity of KB-5246 was twofold lower against an OmpF-deficient mutant and twofold higher against a mutant which produced OmpF constitutively than against the parent with osmoregulated OmpF production. KB-5246 had twofold-higher activity against a deep rough mutant of S. typhimurium than against the parent. The apparent uptake of KB-5246 in the OmpF-deficient mutant was decreased and its uptake in the deep rough mutant was increased when compared with those in the parents. These results suggest that KB-5246 is taken up by porin and nonporin pathways and has strong inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase, resulting in potent antibacterial activity. PMID:2167038

  17. Immunodetection of Outer Membrane Proteins by Flow Cytometry of Isolated Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Sarah; Arbour, Nathalie; Vande Velde, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Methods to detect and monitor mitochondrial outer membrane protein components in animal tissues are vital to study mitochondrial physiology and pathophysiology. This protocol describes a technique where mitochondria isolated from rodent tissue are immunolabeled and analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondria are isolated from rodent spinal cords and subjected to a rapid enrichment step so as to remove myelin, a major contaminant of mitochondrial fractions prepared from nervous tissue. Isolated mitochondria are then labeled with an antibody of choice and a fluorescently conjugated secondary antibody. Analysis by flow cytometry verifies the relative purity of mitochondrial preparations by staining with a mitochondrial specific dye, followed by detection and quantification of immunolabeled protein. This technique is rapid, quantifiable and high-throughput, allowing for the analysis of hundreds of thousands of mitochondria per sample. It is applicable to assess novel proteins at the mitochondrial surface under normal physiological conditions as well as the proteins that may become mislocalized to this organelle during pathology. Importantly, this method can be coupled to fluorescent indicator dyes to report on certain activities of mitochondrial subpopulations and is feasible for mitochondria from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) as well as liver. PMID:25285411

  18. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  19. The development of a meningococcal disease vaccine based on Neisseria lactamica outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Andrew; Halliwell, Denise; Matheson, Mary; Reddin, Karen; Finney, Michelle; Hudson, Michael

    2005-03-18

    Serogroup B meningococcal disease remains a serious problem in many countries and no effective vaccine is currently available. Immunological and epidemiological evidence suggests that carriage of commensal Neisseria species is involved in the development of natural immunity against meningococcal disease. Neisseria lactamica has many surface structures in common with Neisseria meningitidis and may be the most important of these species. We have produced extensive pre-clinical data, which indicate that N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) may provide a vaccine effective against diverse disease-causing meningococcal strains. Immunisation with N. lactamica OMVs protected against lethal challenge with diverse meningococcal isolates in a mouse intraperitoneal challenge model of meningococcal disease and we are developing this vaccine for use in a phase I safety and immunogenicity study in adult volunteers. We have shown that OMVs produced from bacteria grown under iron-limited or iron-rich conditions provide equivalent protection in the mouse infection model and thus OMVs produced from iron-rich will be used. Sterile filtration of N. lactamica OMVs has proved difficult but this has been improved by resuspending the vesicles in a buffer, which increases their surface zeta potential. The vaccine is currently being manufactured and validated ELISA protocols have been developed for the analysis of serological responses.

  20. Outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria lactamica as a potential mucosal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Sardiñas, Gretel; Reddin, Karen; Pajon, Rolando; Gorringe, Andrew

    2006-01-12

    The muscosal delivery of vaccines has many advantages including ease of administration and the induction of a mucosal immune response at the natural site of infection for many pathogens. Mice were immunised with outer membrane vesicles (OMV) prepared from Neisseria lactamica or Neisseria meningitidis by subcutaneous (SC) or intranasal (IN) routes, or live cells of N. lactamica given IN or by SC injection. A systemic IgG and mucosal IgA response was demonstrated and N. lactamica OMV induced antibodies cross-reactive with N. meningitidis; however, a cross-reactive response following IN administration was only evident after three doses of vaccine. OMV from both organisms were also an effective intranasal adjuvant for a co-administered model antigen, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), inducing systemic IgG against HBsAg and IgA in lung and vaginal washes. IN administration of N. meningitidis OMV elicited serum antibodies that were bactericidal for meningococci and provided passive protection in an infant rat model of meningococcal bacteraemia. The antibody response to N. lactamica OMV given IN was only weakly bactericidal but still afforded passive protection. Thus, OMV from N. lactamica given IN elicit immune responses cross-reactive with N. meningitidis and act as an effective mucosal adjuvant.

  1. Gut microbiota-derived outer membrane vesicles: under-recognized major players in health and disease?

    PubMed

    Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Teti, Anna; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    The role of gut microbiota both in human health and in disease is the subject of intense investigation. The interactions between gut microbiota and the host involve a complex network of metabolic pathways and of biologically active molecules secreted by intestinal bacteria, some of which are packed into nanoparticles known as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs can enter the systemic circulation and be delivered to different organs including the brain, eliciting a variety of immunological and metabolic responses. The resulting acute and chronic effects are largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that OMVs could play a critical role in immune homeostasis and in acute inflammatory reactions. Moreover, the "leaky gut" hypothesis has recently emphasized the role of the brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorders, pointing to the importance of bacteria and of bacterial products delivered into the circulation in eliciting the low-grade inflammatory response associated with this syndrome. Interestingly, experimental evidence suggests that OMVs can also affect the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This review also highlights the importance of investigating possible influences of OMVs on the development of the immune system.

  2. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  3. Long-Distance Delivery of Bacterial Virulence Factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.; MacEachran, Daniel P.; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Ye, Siying; O'Toole, George A.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a mechanism for the long-distance delivery of multiple bacterial virulence factors, simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm, thus obviating the need for direct interaction of the pathogen with the host cell to cause cytotoxicity. We show that outer membrane–derived vesicles (OMV) secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa deliver multiple virulence factors, including β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, hemolytic phospholipase C, and Cif, directly into the host cytoplasm via fusion of OMV with lipid rafts in the host plasma membrane. These virulence factors enter the cytoplasm of the host cell via N-WASP–mediated actin trafficking, where they rapidly distribute to specific subcellular locations to affect host cell biology. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial derived OMV deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner. PMID:19360133

  4. Dataset of the proteome of purified outer membrane vesicles from the human pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomintans.

    PubMed

    Kieselbach, Thomas; Oscarsson, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen, which is linked to aggressive forms of periodontitis and can be associated with endocarditis. The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of this species contain effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA), which they can deliver into human host cells. The OMVs can also activate innate immunity through NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This dataset provides a proteome of highly purified OMVs from A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e strain 173. The experimental data do not only include the raw data of the LC-MS/MS analysis of four independent preparations of purified OMVs but also the mass lists of the processed data and the Mascot.dat files from the database searches. In total 501 proteins are identified, of which 151 are detected in at least three of four independent preparations. In addition, this dataset contains the COG definitions and the predicted subcellular locations (PSORTb 3.0) for the entire genome of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e strain SC1083, which is used for the evaluation of the LC-MS/MS data. These data are deposited in ProteomeXchange in the public dataset PXD002509. In addition, a scientific interpretation of this dataset by Kieselbach et al. (2015) [2] is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138591.

  5. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane lipoprotein I gene: molecular cloning, sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, M; Barron, C; Schweizer, A; von Specht, B U; Domdey, H

    1989-01-01

    Lipoprotein I (OprI) is one of the major proteins of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Like porin protein F (OprF), it is a vaccine candidate because it antigenically cross-reacts with all serotype strains of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. Since lipoprotein I was expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of its own promoter, we were able to isolate the gene by screening a lambda EMBL3 phage library with a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against lipoprotein I. The monocistronic OprI mRNA encodes a precursor protein of 83 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 19 residues. The mature protein has a molecular weight of 6,950, not including bound glycerol and lipid. Although the amino acid sequences of protein I of P. aeruginosa and Braun's lipoprotein of E. coli differ considerably (only 30.1% identical amino acid residues), peptidoglycan in E. coli, are identical. Using lipoprotein I expressed in E. coli, it can now be tested whether this protein alone, without P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide contaminations, has a protective effect against P. aeruginosa infections. Images PMID:2502533

  7. Cell contact-dependent outer membrane exchange in myxobacteria: genetic determinants and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Darshankumar T; Wei, Xueming; Bucuvalas, Alex; Haft, Daniel H; Gerloff, Dietlind L; Wall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are dense microbial communities. Although widely distributed and medically important, how biofilm cells interact with one another is poorly understood. Recently, we described a novel process whereby myxobacterial biofilm cells exchange their outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins. For the first time we report here the identification of two host proteins, TraAB, required for transfer. These proteins are predicted to localize in the cell envelope; and TraA encodes a distant PA14 lectin-like domain, a cysteine-rich tandem repeat region, and a putative C-terminal protein sorting tag named MYXO-CTERM, while TraB encodes an OmpA-like domain. Importantly, TraAB are required in donors and recipients, suggesting bidirectional transfer. By use of a lipophilic fluorescent dye, we also discovered that OM lipids are exchanged. Similar to lipoproteins, dye transfer requires TraAB function, gliding motility and a structured biofilm. Importantly, OM exchange was found to regulate swarming and development behaviors, suggesting a new role in cell-cell communication. A working model proposes TraA is a cell surface receptor that mediates cell-cell adhesion for OM fusion, in which lipoproteins/lipids are transferred by lateral diffusion. We further hypothesize that cell contact-dependent exchange helps myxobacteria to coordinate their social behaviors.

  8. Flocculation of Escherichia coli Cells in Association with Enhanced Production of Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Hong; Yajima, Reiki; Taya, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flocculation is a phenomenon of aggregation of dispersed bacterial cells in the form of flocs or flakes. In this study, the mechanism of spontaneous flocculation of Escherichia coli cells by overexpression of the bcsB gene was investigated. The flocculation induced by overexpression of bcsB was consistent among the various E. coli strains examined, including the K-12, B, and O strains, with flocs that resembled paper scraps in structure being about 1 to 2 mm. The distribution of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli cells within the floc structure was investigated by three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy. Flocs were sensitive to proteinase K, indicating that the main component of the flocs was proteinous. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the flocs strongly suggested the involvement of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in E. coli flocculation. The involvement of OMVs in flocculation was supported by transmission electron microscopy observation of flocs. Furthermore, bcsB-induced E. coli flocculation was greatly suppressed in strains with hypovesiculation phenotypes (ΔdsbA and ΔdsbB strains). Thus, our results demonstrate the strong correlation between spontaneous flocculation and enhanced OMV production of E. coli cells. PMID:26092467

  9. Immunogenicity of Coxiella burnetii whole cells and their outer membrane components.

    PubMed

    Gajdosová, E; Kovácová, E; Toman, R; Skultéty, L; Lukácová, M; Kazár, J

    1994-12-01

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii whole cells (Cb I and Cb II) and their outer membrane components (OMC), i.e. phase I trichloroacetic acid extract (TCAE), phase I 29 K protein (PRO), phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPS I, LPS II), polysaccharides (PS I, PS II), and lipid A (LA I, LA II), were compared. The highest immune response was observed in BALB/c mice by Cb I in both humoral immunity and lymphocyte transformation assays, and in the protective effect as well. The immune response was also significant by Cb II, but their protective capacity was low. The OMC reacted variously. Only TCAE and PRO gave a high value of humoral immunity evaluated by the serological methods. All OMC reacted in the haemolytic plaque assay giving different responses. Lymphoproliferation of splenocytes was positive with all OMC using both Cb I and Cb II antigens with the exception of PS I and PS II in the case of Cb II antigen. The induction of protection against infectious Cb I was demonstrated after immunization with TCAE, PRO, and LPS I. Other OMC did not induce protection against this agent.

  10. Improved Production Process for Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Zomer, Gijsbert; Kaaijk, Patricia; Ruiterkamp, Nicole; Wijffels, René H.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; van der Pol, Leo A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved detergent-free process has been developed to produce vaccine based on native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Performance was evaluated with the NonaMen vaccine concept, which provides broad coverage based on nine distinct PorA antigens. Scalable aseptic equipment was implemented, replacing undesirable steps like ultracentrifugation, inactivation with phenol, and the use of preservatives. The resulting process is more consistent and gives a higher yield than published reference processes, enabling NOMV production at commercial scale. Product quality met preliminary specifications for 9 consecutive batches, and an ongoing study confirmed real-time stability up to 12 months after production. As the NOMV had low endotoxic activity and induced high bactericidal titres in mice, they are expected to be safe and effective in humans. The production process is not limited to NonaMen and may be applicable for other N. meningitidis serogroups and other gram-negative pathogens. The current results therefore facilitate the late-stage development and clinical evaluation of NOMV vaccines. PMID:23741478

  11. Clearing the outer mitochondrial membrane from harmful proteins via lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Johannes; Salzmann, Manuel; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Hasek, Jiri; Geltinger, Florian; Duschl, Jutta; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Briza, Peter; Haskova, Danusa; Lejskova, Renata; Sopjani, Mentor; Richter, Klaus; Rinnerthaler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In recent years it turned out that there is not only extensive communication between the nucleus and mitochondria but also between mitochondria and lipid droplets (LDs) as well. We were able to demonstrate that a number of proteins shuttle between LDs and mitochondria and it depends on the metabolic state of the cell on which organelle these proteins are predominantly localized. Responsible for the localization of the particular proteins is a protein domain consisting of two α-helices, which we termed V-domain according to the predicted structure. So far we have detected this domain in the following proteins: mammalian BAX, BCL-XL, TCTP and yeast Mmi1p and Erg6p. According to our experiments there are two functions of this domain: (1) shuttling of proteins to mitochondria in times of stress and apoptosis; (2) clearing the outer mitochondrial membrane from pro- as well as anti-apoptotic proteins by moving them to LDs after the stress ceases. In this way the LDs are used by the cell to modulate stress response. PMID:28386457

  12. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ates, Louis S; Ummels, Roy; Commandeur, Susanna; van de Weerd, Robert; van der Weerd, Robert; Sparrius, Marion; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Alber, Marina; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Piersma, Sander R; Abdallah, Abdallah M; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Pain, Arnab; Jiménez, Connie R; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N G

    2015-05-01

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  13. A study of properties and abundance of the components of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferases in mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. Effects of hypothyroidism, fasting and a ketotic diabetic state.

    PubMed

    Ghadiminejad, I; Saggerson, E D

    1991-08-01

    1. Liver mitochondrial outer and inner membranes were isolated from normal, 48 h-fasted, streptozotocin-diabetic and hypothyroid rats. 2. Relative to membrane protein, fasting and diabetes substantially increased the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in outer membranes. Inner-membrane CPT specific activity was only slightly altered, being increased in diabetes and decreased in hypothyroidism. Abundance of an inner-membrane Mr-68,000 polypeptide that cross-reacted with an anti-CPT serum was significantly increased in diabetes and hypothyroidism. Relative to inner-membrane CPT activity, this cross-reactivity was increased by 37% in diabetes and by 400% in hypothyroidism, suggesting modification of the intrinsic activity of the CPT in these states. 3. CPT in outer membranes was inhibitable by malonyl-CoA, whereas inner-membrane CPT was insensitive to malonyl-CoA. Fasting and diabetes increased the IC50 (concentration of malonyl-CoA causing 50% inhibition) for outer-membrane CPT, whereas the IC50 was decreased in hypothyroidism. 4. Binding of [14C]malonyl-CoA was observed with both outer and inner membranes and was fitted to two-site models in each case. Fasting, diabetes and hypothyroidism changed the KD for binding at the higher-affinity site in outer membranes in a manner that correlated closely with changes in IC50 for inhibition of outer-membrane CPT by malonyl-CoA. Fasting and diabetes increased the abundance of this outer-membrane high-affinity malonyl-CoA-binding site, whereas hypothyroidism decreased its abundance.

  14. PelC is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane lipoprotein of the OMA family of proteins involved in exopolysaccharide transport.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Perrine; Soscia, Chantal; Voulhoux, Romé; Filloux, Alain

    2007-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium, opportunistic pathogen, which causes severe acute or chronic infections, as is the case with cystic fibrosis patients. Chronic infections are frequently accompanied by the development of the bacterial population into a specialized community called biofilm. The pelA-G gene cluster of P. aeruginosa has been shown to be involved in pellicle production and biofilm formation. The pel genes have been proposed to contribute to the formation of the exopolysaccharide-containing pellicle. However, the function and the subcellular localization of the seven different Pel proteins are poorly understood. Based on bioinformatics analysis, we have previously considered that PelF is a putative glycosyltransferase (GT4 family), whereas PelG is a Wzx-like polysaccharide transporter from the PST family. In this study we have further characterized the PelC protein. We have shown that PelC is an outer membrane lipoprotein. The N-terminal signal peptide of the PelC lipoprotein is sufficient to target the protein into the membranes. However, by constructing various PelC hybrid proteins we also proposed that efficient and functional outer membrane insertion of PelC requires not only the signal peptide and the lipid modification, but also requires the C-terminal domain of PelC. Because the gene encoding the outer membrane lipoprotein PelC is part of a putative gene cluster involved in exopolysaccharide biogenesis, we suggest that PelC is a new member of the outer membrane auxiliary (OMA) family of lipoprotein whose Wza, involved in Escherichia coli capsular polysaccharide transport, is an archetype.

  15. Synthesis of outer membrane proteins in cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J; Sambucetti, L; Silverman, P M

    1983-01-01

    Two major proteins, the murein lipoprotein and the OmpF matrix porin, are deficient in the outer membrane of cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We present evidence that the cpx mutations prevent or retard the translocation of these proteins to the outer membrane. The mutations had no effect on the rate of lipoprotein synthesis. Mutant cells labeled for 5 min with radioactive arginine accumulated as much lipoprotein as otherwise isogenic cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. This lipoprotein accumulated as such; no material synthesized in mutant cells and reactive with antilipoprotein antibodies had the electrophoretic mobility of prolipoprotein. Hence, the initial stages of prolipoprotein insertion into the inner membrane leading to its cleavage to lipoprotein appeared normal. However, after a long labeling interval, mutant cells were deficient in free lipoprotein and lacked lipoprotein covalently bound to peptidoglycan, suggesting that little if any of the lipoprotein synthesized in mutant cells reaches the outer membrane. Immunoreactive OmpF protein could also be detected in extracts of mutant cells labeled for 5 min, but the amount that accumulated was severalfold less in mutant cells than in cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. Analysis of beta-galactosidase synthesis from ompF-lacZ fusion genes showed this difference to be the result of a reduced rate of ompF transcription in mutant cells. Even so, little or none of the ompF protein synthesized in mutant cells was incorporated into the outer membrane. Images PMID:6339479

  16. Multiple Lines of Evidence Localize Signaling, Morphology, and Lipid Biosynthesis Machinery to the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane of Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Owen; Taylor, Nicolas L.; Carrie, Chris; Eubel, Holger; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Zhang, Botao; Narsai, Reena; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial outer membrane is notoriously difficult to deduce by orthology to other organisms, and biochemical enrichments are inevitably contaminated with the closely associated inner mitochondrial membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In order to identify novel proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we integrated a quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of highly enriched and prefractionated samples with a number of confirmatory biochemical and cell biology approaches. This approach identified 42 proteins, 27 of which were novel, more than doubling the number of confirmed outer membrane proteins in plant mitochondria and suggesting novel functions for the plant outer mitochondrial membrane. The novel components identified included proteins that affected mitochondrial morphology and/or segregation, a protein that suggests the presence of bacterial type lipid A in the outer membrane, highly stress-inducible proteins, as well as proteins necessary for embryo development and several of unknown function. Additionally, proteins previously inferred via orthology to be present in other compartments, such as an NADH:cytochrome B5 reductase required for hydroxyl fatty acid accumulation in developing seeds, were shown to be located in the outer membrane. These results also revealed novel proteins, which may have evolved to fulfill plant-specific requirements of the mitochondrial outer membrane, and provide a basis for the future functional characterization of these proteins in the context of mitochondrial intracellular interaction. PMID:21896887

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane protein A is required to prevent the activation of airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    March, Catalina; Moranta, David; Regueiro, Verónica; Llobet, Enrique; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2011-03-25

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is a class of proteins highly conserved among the Enterobacteriaceae family and throughout evolution. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated gram-negative pathogen. It is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by a lack of an early inflammatory response. Data from our laboratory indicate that K. pneumoniae CPS helps to suppress the host inflammatory response. However, it is unknown whether K. pneumoniae employs additional factors to modulate host inflammatory responses. Here, we report that K. pneumoniae OmpA is important for immune evasion in vitro and in vivo. Infection of A549 and normal human bronchial cells with 52OmpA2, an ompA mutant, increased the levels of IL-8. 52145-Δwca(K2)ompA, which does not express CPS and ompA, induced the highest levels of IL-8. Both mutants could be complemented. In vivo, 52OmpA2 induced higher levels of tnfα, kc, and il6 than the wild type. ompA mutants activated NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of p38, p44/42, and JNK MAPKs and IL-8 induction was via NF-κB-dependent and p38- and p44/42-dependent pathways. 52OmpA2 engaged TLR2 and -4 to activate NF-κB, whereas 52145-Δwca(K2)ompA activated not only TLR2 and TLR4 but also NOD1. Finally, we demonstrate that the ompA mutant is attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. The results of this study indicate that K. pneumoniae OmpA contributes to attenuate airway cell responses. This may facilitate pathogen survival in the hostile environment of the lung.

  18. Deciphering the function of the outer membrane protein OprD homologue of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Nehmé, Rony; Molle, Virginie; Aranda, Jesús; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Chevalier, Sylvie; Bou, Germán; Jouenne, Thierry; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    The increasing number of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is a major cause for concern which restricts therapeutic options to treat severe infections caused by this emerging pathogen. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in carbapenem resistance, we studied the contribution of an outer membrane protein homologue of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprD porin. Suspected to be the preferred pathway of carbapenems in A. baumannii, the oprD homologue gene was inactivated in strain ATCC 17978. Comparison of wild-type and mutant strains did not confirm the expected increased resistance to any antibiotic tested. OprD homologue sequence analysis revealed that this protein actually belongs to an OprD subgroup but is closer to the P. aeruginosa OprQ protein, with which it could share some functions, e.g., allowing bacterial survival under low-iron or -magnesium growth conditions or under poor oxygenation. We thus overexpressed and purified a recombinant OprD homologue protein to further examine its functional properties. As a specific channel, this porin presented rather low single-channel conductance, i.e., 28 pS in 1 M KCl, and was partially closed by micro- and millimolar concentrations of Fe(3+) and Mg(2+), respectively, but not by imipenem and meropenem or basic amino acids. The A. baumannii OprD homologue is likely not involved in the carbapenem resistance mechanism, but as an OprQ-like protein, it could contribute to the adaptation of this bacterium to magnesium- and/or iron-depleted environments.

  19. Immunochemical and biological characterization of outer membrane proteins of Porphyromonas endodontalis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Kuribayashi, S; Shimauchi, H; Toda, T; Hamada, S

    1992-11-01

    Outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Porphyromonas endodontalis HG 370 (ATCC 35406) were prepared from the cell envelope fraction of the organisms. The cell envelope that had been obtained by sonication of the whole cells was extracted in 2% lithium dodecyl sulfate and then successively chromatographed with Sephacryl S-200 HR and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow. Two OMP fractions, OMP-I and OMP-II, were obtained, and their immunochemical properties and induction of specific antibodies were examined. The OMP-I preparation consisted of a major protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa and other moderate to minor proteins of 40.3, 51.4, 67, and 71.6 kDa, while the OMP-II preparation contained 14-, 15.5-, 27-, and 44-kDa proteins as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis. OMP-I was found to form hydrophilic diffusion pores by incorporation into artificial liposomes composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and dicetylphosphate, indicating that OMP-I exhibited significant porin activity. However, the liposomes containing heat-denatured OMP-I were scarcely active. Spontaneous and antigen-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)-, IgG-, and IgA-secreting spot-forming cells (SFC) enzymatically dissociated into single-cell suspensions from chronically inflamed periapical tissues and were enumerated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. In patients with radicular cysts or dental granulomas, the major isotype of spontaneous SFC was IgG. In radicular cysts, the OMP-II-specific IgG SFC represented 0.13% of the total IgG SFC, while the antigen-specific IgA or IgM SFC was not observed. It was also found that none of these mononuclear cells produced antibodies specific for OMP-I or lipopolysaccharide of P. endodontalis.

  20. Immunochemical and biological characterization of outer membrane proteins of Porphyromonas endodontalis.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, T; Kuribayashi, S; Shimauchi, H; Toda, T; Hamada, S

    1992-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Porphyromonas endodontalis HG 370 (ATCC 35406) were prepared from the cell envelope fraction of the organisms. The cell envelope that had been obtained by sonication of the whole cells was extracted in 2% lithium dodecyl sulfate and then successively chromatographed with Sephacryl S-200 HR and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow. Two OMP fractions, OMP-I and OMP-II, were obtained, and their immunochemical properties and induction of specific antibodies were examined. The OMP-I preparation consisted of a major protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa and other moderate to minor proteins of 40.3, 51.4, 67, and 71.6 kDa, while the OMP-II preparation contained 14-, 15.5-, 27-, and 44-kDa proteins as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis. OMP-I was found to form hydrophilic diffusion pores by incorporation into artificial liposomes composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and dicetylphosphate, indicating that OMP-I exhibited significant porin activity. However, the liposomes containing heat-denatured OMP-I were scarcely active. Spontaneous and antigen-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)-, IgG-, and IgA-secreting spot-forming cells (SFC) enzymatically dissociated into single-cell suspensions from chronically inflamed periapical tissues and were enumerated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. In patients with radicular cysts or dental granulomas, the major isotype of spontaneous SFC was IgG. In radicular cysts, the OMP-II-specific IgG SFC represented 0.13% of the total IgG SFC, while the antigen-specific IgA or IgM SFC was not observed. It was also found that none of these mononuclear cells produced antibodies specific for OMP-I or lipopolysaccharide of P. endodontalis. Images PMID:1328059

  1. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Pors, Susanne E; Pedersen, Ida J; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Thøfner, Ida C N; Persson, Gry; Bojesen, Anders M

    2016-11-15

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re-isolation remained unchanged. Furthermore, a high OMV-specific IgY response was induced by immunization and subsequent challenge of the hens. The results strongly indicate that immunization with G. anatis OMVs provides significant protection against G. anatis challenge and induces specific antibody responses with high titers of OMV-specific IgY in serum. The results therefore show great promise for OMV based vaccines aiming at providing protecting against G. anatis in egg-laying hens.

  2. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-10-05

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

  3. Characterization of New Members of the Group 3 Outer Membrane Protein Family of Brucella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Imed; Boigegrain, Rose-Anne; Machold, Jan; Weise, Christoph; Cloeckaert, Axel; Rouot, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of the omp25 gene in Brucella spp. leads to attenuated strains and confers protection to the host. Omp25 and Omp31, whose functions remain unknown, were the first characterized members of group 3 outer membrane proteins (Omps) (25 to 34 kDa). Recently, genomic and proteomic approaches identified five new putative members of this family, some of which are produced in B. melitensis or B. abortus. In the present study, using protein microsequencing, we identified new members of group 3 Omps proteins produced in B. suis. Since several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Omp25 cross-reacted with other members of group 3 Omps, we also performed Western immunoblotting to compare wild-type B. suis with mutants systematically having B. suis omp25-related genes knocked out. We demonstrate the production of three paralogs of Omp31 and/or Omp25 in B. suis, and the existence of a common site of signal peptide cleavage (AXAAD), which is very similar to that present in the five homologous Omps of Bartonella quintana. The seven group 3 Omps were classified in four-subgroups on the basis of percentage amino acid sequence identities: Omp25 alone, the Omp25b-Omp25c-Omp25d cluster, the Omp31/31b subgroup, and the less related Omp22 protein (also called Omp3b). Together with previous data, our results demonstrate that all new members of group 3 Omps are produced in B. suis or in other Brucella species and we propose a nomenclature that integrates all of these proteins to facilitate the understanding of future Brucella interspecies study results. PMID:12874309

  4. Leptospiral Outer Membrane Protein Microarray, a Novel Approach to Identification of Host Ligand-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral life cycle involves transmission via freshwater and colonization of the renal tubules of their reservoir hosts. Infection requires adherence to cell surfaces and extracellular matrix components of host tissues. These host-pathogen interactions involve outer membrane proteins (OMPs) expressed on the bacterial surface. In this study, we developed an Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 OMP microarray containing all predicted lipoproteins and transmembrane OMPs. A total of 401 leptospiral genes or their fragments were transcribed and translated in vitro and printed on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides. We investigated the potential of this protein microarray to screen for interactions between leptospiral OMPs and fibronectin (Fn). This approach resulted in the identification of the recently described fibronectin-binding protein, LIC10258 (MFn8, Lsa66), and 14 novel Fn-binding proteins, denoted Microarray Fn-binding proteins (MFns). We confirmed Fn binding of purified recombinant LIC11612 (MFn1), LIC10714 (MFn2), LIC11051 (MFn6), LIC11436 (MFn7), LIC10258 (MFn8, Lsa66), and LIC10537 (MFn9) by far-Western blot assays. Moreover, we obtained specific antibodies to MFn1, MFn7, MFn8 (Lsa66), and MFn9 and demonstrated that MFn1, MFn7, and MFn9 are expressed and surface exposed under in vitro growth conditions. Further, we demonstrated that MFn1, MFn4 (LIC12631, Sph2), and MFn7 enable leptospires to bind fibronectin when expressed in the saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa. Protein microarrays are valuable tools for high-throughput identification of novel host ligand-binding proteins that have the potential to play key roles in the virulence mechanisms of pathogens. PMID:22961849

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Sequence and transcriptional start site of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane porin protein F gene.

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, M; Schweizer, A; Lottspeich, F; Krauss, G; Marget, M; Vogel, K; von Specht, B U; Domdey, H

    1988-01-01

    Porin F is one of the major proteins of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It forms water-filled pores of variable size. Porin F is a candidate for a vaccine against P. aeruginosa because it antigenically cross-reacts in all serotype strains of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. We have isolated the gene for porin F from a lambda EMBL3 bacteriophage library by using oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes and have determined its nucleotide sequence. Different peptide sequences obtained from isolated porin F confirmed the deduced protein sequence. The mature protein consists of 326 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 35,250. The precursor contains an N-terminal signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues. S1 protection and primer extension experiments, together with Northern (RNA) blots, indicate that the mRNA coding for porin F is monocistronic with short untranslated regions of about 58 bases at the 5' end and about 47 bases at the 3' end. The sequences in the -10 and -35 regions upstream of the transcriptional start site are closely related to the Escherichia coli promoter consensus sequences, which explains why the porin F gene is expressed in E. coli under the control of its own promoter. The amino acid sequence of porin F is not homologous to the different E. coli porins OmpF, OmpC, LamB, and PhoE. On the other hand, a highly homologous region of 30 amino acids between the OmpA proteins of different enteric bacteria and porin F of P. aeruginosa was detected. The core region of the homology to E. coli OmpA had 11 of 12 amino acid residues in common. Images PMID:2447060

  7. Gene Transfer Potential of Outer Membrane Vesicles of Acinetobacter baylyi and Effects of Stress on Vesiculation

    PubMed Central

    Fulsundar, Shweta; Harms, Klaus; Flaten, Gøril E.; Johnsen, Pål J.; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are continually released from a range of bacterial species. Numerous functions of OMVs, including the facilitation of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) processes, have been proposed. In this study, we investigated whether OMVs contribute to the transfer of plasmids between bacterial cells and species using Gram-negative Acinetobacter baylyi as a model system. OMVs were extracted from bacterial cultures and tested for the ability to vector gene transfer into populations of Escherichia coli and A. baylyi, including naturally transformation-deficient mutants of A. baylyi. Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were used to determine the movement of DNA into OMVs. We also determined how stress affected the level of vesiculation and the amount of DNA in vesicles. OMVs were further characterized by measuring particle size distribution (PSD) and zeta potential. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunogold labeling were performed using anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate (anti-FITC)-conjugated antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies to track the movement of FITC-labeled and DNA-containing OMVs. Exposure to OMVs isolated from plasmid-containing donor cells resulted in HGT to A. baylyi and E. coli at transfer frequencies ranging from 10−6 to 10−8, with transfer efficiencies of approximately 103 and 102 per μg of vesicular DNA, respectively. Antibiotic stress was shown to affect the DNA content of OMVs as well as their hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. Morphological observations suggest that OMVs from A. baylyi interact with recipient cells in different ways, depending on the recipient species. Interestingly, the PSD measurements suggest that distinct size ranges of OMVs are released from A. baylyi. PMID:24657872

  8. Discovery of Salmonella Virulence Factors Translocated via Outer Membrane Vesicles to Murine Macrophages.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that the regulators SpvR, FruR, IHF, PhoP/PhoQ, SsrA/SsrB, SlyA, Hnr, RpoE, SmpB, CsrA, RpoS, Crp, OmpR/EnvZ, and Hfq are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in mice. Here we use quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics profiling of in-frame deletion mutants of these 14 regulators to identify proteins that are coordinately regulated by these virulence regulators and are thus presumably novel factors contributing to Salmonella pathogenesis. Putative candidate proteins from proteomics analysis were determined, which exhibited similar abundance profiles to those of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. A subset of 5 proteins including STM0082, STM1548, PdgL, STM1633, and STM3595 was selected for further analysis. All 5 proteins were expressed inside macrophage cells and STM0082 (SrfN) was secreted into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, deletion of STM0082 attenuated virulence in mice when administered intraperitoneally as determined by competitive index. srfN transcription was positively regulated by SsrAB, however, secretion was independent of SPI-2 TTSS as well as SPI-1 TTSS and flagella. Proteins including PagK and STM2585A, which are positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ, have sec signal peptides as predicted for SrfN and were secreted into macrophage cytoplasm regardless of SPI-2 TTSS. Isolation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) revealed the presence of SrfN, PagK, and STM2585A inside vesicle compartments. This result is the first case showing delivery of virulence effectors via OMVs in S. Typhimurium. Moreover, Hfq regulation of SrfN translation suggests that small non-coding RNAs may be responsible for regulating effector protein expression.

  9. Identification of Outer Membrane and Exoproteins of Carbapenem-Resistant Multilocus Sequence Type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Brinkworth, Amanda J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Olano, L. Renee; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a cause of life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals (e.g., transplant recipients and critically ill patients). Strains classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258 are among the most prominent causes of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections worldwide, but the basis for the success of this lineage remains incompletely determined. To gain a more comprehensive view of the molecules potentially involved in the success of ST258, we used a proteomics approach to identify surface-associated and culture supernatant proteins produced by ST258. Protein samples were prepared from varied culture conditions in vitro, and were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified a total of 193 proteins in outer membrane preparations from bacteria cultured in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) or RPMI 1640 tissue culture media (RPMI). Compared with LB, several iron-acquisition proteins, including IutA, HmuR, HmuS, CirA, FepA, FitA, FoxA, FhuD, and YfeX, were more highly expressed in RPMI. Of the 177 proteins identified in spent media, only the fimbrial subunit, MrkA, was predicted to be extracellular, a finding that suggests few proteins (or a limited quantity) are freely secreted by ST258. Notably, we discovered 203 proteins not reported in previous K. pneumoniae proteome studies. In silico modeling of proteins with unknown function revealed several proteins with beta-barrel transmembrane structures typical of porins, as well as possible host-interacting proteins. Taken together, these findings contribute several new targets for the mechanistic study of drug-resistance and pathogenesis by ST258 K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:25893665

  10. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Deborah R.; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G.; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  11. A Burkholderia pseudomallei outer membrane vesicle vaccine provides protection against lethal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Petersen, Hailey; Judy, Barbara M; Blumentritt, Carla A; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Roy, Chad J; Torres, Alfredo G; Morici, Lisa A

    2014-05-01

    The environmental Gram-negative encapsulated bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in areas of Southeast Asia and northern Australia in which the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is also classified as a tier I select agent due to the high level of lethality of the bacterium and its innate resistance to antibiotics, as well as the lack of an effective vaccine. Gram-negative bacteria, including B. pseudomallei, secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are enriched with multiple protein, lipid, and polysaccharide antigens. Previously, we demonstrated that immunization with multivalent B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs protects highly susceptible BALB/c mice against an otherwise lethal aerosol challenge. In this work, we evaluated the protective efficacy of OMV immunization against intraperitoneal challenge with a heterologous strain because systemic infection with phenotypically diverse environmental B. pseudomallei strains poses another hazard and a challenge to vaccine development. We demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OMVs derived from strain 1026b afforded significant protection against septicemic infection with B. pseudomallei strain K96243. OMV immunization induced robust OMV-, lipopolysaccharide-, and capsular polysaccharide-specific serum IgG (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3) and IgM antibody responses. OMV-immune serum promoted bacterial killing in vitro, and passive transfer of B. pseudomallei OMV immune sera protected naive mice against a subsequent challenge. These results indicate that OMV immunization provides antibody-mediated protection against acute, rapidly lethal sepsis in mice. B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs may represent an efficacious multivalent vaccine strategy against melioidosis.

  12. Altered Outer Membrane Transcriptome Balance with AmpC Overexpression in Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Piotr; Ojdana, Dominika; Sieńko, Anna; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Sacha, Paweł; Nikliński, Jacek; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The growing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is an emerging challenge in modern medicine. The utility of carbapenems, considered "last-line" agents in therapy of infections caused by MDR pathogens, is being diminished by the growing incidence of various resistance mechanisms. Enterobacter cloacae have lately begun to emerge as an important pathogen prone to exhibiting multiple drug resistance. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistance in 44 E. cloacae clinical strains resistant to at least one carbapenem, and 21 susceptible strains. Molecular investigation of 65 E. cloacae clinical strains was based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allowing for amplification of ampC, ompF, and ompC transcripts, and analysis of nucleotide sequences of alleles included in MLST scheme. Co-operation of three distinct carbapenem resistance mechanisms has been reported-production of OXA-48 (5%), AmpC overproduction (97.7%), and alterations in outer membrane (OM) transcriptome balance. Carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae were characterized by (1.) downregulation of ompF gene (53.4%), which encodes protein with extensive transmembrane channels, and (2.) the polarization of OM transcriptome-balance (79.1%), which was sloped toward ompC gene, encoding proteins recently reported to possess restrictive transmembrane channels. Subpopulations of carbapenem-susceptible strains showed relatively high degrees of sequence diversity without predominant types. ST-89 clearly dominates among carbapenem-resistant strains (88.6%) suggesting clonal spread of resistant strains. The growing prevalence of pathogens resistant to all currently available antimicrobial agents heralds the potential risk of a future "post-antibiotic era." Great efforts need to be taken to explore the background of resistance to "last resort" antimicrobials.

  13. Altered Outer Membrane Transcriptome Balance with AmpC Overexpression in Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Piotr; Ojdana, Dominika; Sieńko, Anna; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Sacha, Paweł; Nikliński, Jacek; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The growing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is an emerging challenge in modern medicine. The utility of carbapenems, considered “last-line” agents in therapy of infections caused by MDR pathogens, is being diminished by the growing incidence of various resistance mechanisms. Enterobacter cloacae have lately begun to emerge as an important pathogen prone to exhibiting multiple drug resistance. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistance in 44 E. cloacae clinical strains resistant to at least one carbapenem, and 21 susceptible strains. Molecular investigation of 65 E. cloacae clinical strains was based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allowing for amplification of ampC, ompF, and ompC transcripts, and analysis of nucleotide sequences of alleles included in MLST scheme. Co-operation of three distinct carbapenem resistance mechanisms has been reported—production of OXA-48 (5%), AmpC overproduction (97.7%), and alterations in outer membrane (OM) transcriptome balance. Carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae were characterized by (1.) downregulation of ompF gene (53.4%), which encodes protein with extensive transmembrane channels, and (2.) the polarization of OM transcriptome-balance (79.1%), which was sloped toward ompC gene, encoding proteins recently reported to possess restrictive transmembrane channels. Subpopulations of carbapenem-susceptible strains showed relatively high degrees of sequence diversity without predominant types. ST-89 clearly dominates among carbapenem-resistant strains (88.6%) suggesting clonal spread of resistant strains. The growing prevalence of pathogens resistant to all currently available antimicrobial agents heralds the potential risk of a future “post-antibiotic era.” Great efforts need to be taken to explore the background of resistance to “last resort” antimicrobials. PMID:28066375

  14. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition.

  15. Role of outer membrane protein T in pathogenicity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hejair, Hassan M A; Ma, Jiale; Zhu, Yingchu; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Huochun

    2017-01-27

    An outer membrane protein T (OmpT) could play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) in human and animals. However, whether ompT plays a role in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompT in APEC pathogenesis. An ompT gene was deleted from APEC mutant strain (TW-XM) was constructed and characterized. The inactivation of ompT reduced significantly the adherence and invasion capabilities of APEC to mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) bEnd.3 cells at the rates of 43.8% and 28.8% respectively, compared with the wild strain TW-XM. Further studies showed that deletion of ompT gene reduced the bacterial virulence with 15.2-fold in ducklings and 9.7-fold in mouse models based on the measurement of the LD50. Furthermore, experimental infection of animals revealed that, loss of ompT showed reduced APEC colonization and invasion capacity in brains, lungs and blood by 2-fold, 1.96-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared with the wild-type strain TW-XM. These virulence-related phenotypes were partially recoverable by genetic complementation. The results of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that the loss of ompT significantly decreased the expression levels of ompA, fimC and tsh in the mutant strain ΔOmpT, when compared with TW-XM (p<0.01). Collectively, our data showed that inactivation of ompT decreased adhesion, invasion, colonization, proliferation capacities, possibly by reduced expression levels of ompA, fimC and tsh, which may justify that, ompT is implicated in APEC pathogenicity.

  16. Heterogeneous interactome between Litopenaeus vannamei plasma proteins and Vibrio parahaemolyticus outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; She, Xin-Tao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    A great loss has been suffered by microbial infectious diseases under intensive shrimp farming in recent years. In this background, the understanding of shrimp innate immunity becomes an importantly scientific issue, but little is known about the heterogeneous protein-protein interaction between pathogenic cells and hosts, which is a key step for the invading microbes to infect internet organs through bloodstream. In the present study, bacterial outer membrane (OM) protein array and pull-down approaches are used to isolate both Vibrio parahaemolyticus OM proteins that bind to shrimp serum proteins and the shrimp serum proteins that interact with bacterial cells, respectively. Three interacting shrimp serum proteins, hemocyanin, β-1,3-glucan binding protein and LV_HP_RA36F08r and thirty interacting OM proteins were determined. They form 63 heterogeneous protein-protein interactions. Nine out of the 30 OM proteins were randomly demonstrated to be up-regulated or down-regulated when bacterial cells were cultured with shrimp sera, indicating the biological significance of the network. The interesting findings uncover the complexity of struggle between host immunity and bacterial infection. Compared with our previous report on heterogeneous interactome between fish grill and bacterial OM proteins, the present study further extends the investigation from lower vertebrates to invertebrates and develops a bacterial OM protein array to identify the OM proteins bound with shrimp serum proteins, which elevates the frequencies of the bound OM proteins. Our results highlight the way to determine and understand the heterogeneous interaction between hosts and microbes.

  17. The outer membranes of Brucella spp. are resistant to bactericidal cationic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Tejada, G; Pizarro-Cerdá, J; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I

    1995-01-01

    The actions of polymyxin B, rabbit polymorphonuclear lysosome extracts, 14 polycationic peptides (including defensin NP-2, cecropin P1, lactoferricin B, and active peptides from cationic protein 18 and bactenecin), EDTA, and Tris on Brucella spp. were studied, with other gram-negative bacteria as controls. Brucella spp. were comparatively resistant to all of the agents listed above and bound less polymyxin B, and their outer membranes (OMs) were neither morphologically altered nor permeabilized to lysozyme by polymyxin B concentrations, although both effects were observed for controls. EDTA and peptides increased or accelerated the partition of the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-naphthylamine into Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae OMs but had no effect on Brucella OMs. Since Brucella and H. influenzae OMs are permeable to hydrophobic compounds (G. Martínez de Tejada and I. Moriyón, J. Bacteriol. 175:5273-5275, 1993), the results show that such unusual permeability is not necessarily related to resistance to polycations. Although rough (R) B. abortus and B. ovis were more resistant than the controls were, there were qualitative and quantitative differences with smooth (S) brucellae; this may explain known host range and virulence differences. Brucella S-lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) had reduced affinities for polycations, and insertion of Brucella and Salmonella montevideo S-LPSs into the OM of a Brucella R-LPS mutant increased and decreased, respectively, its resistance to cationic peptides. The results show that the core lipid A of Brucella LPS plays a major role in polycation resistance and that O-chain density also contributes significantly. It is proposed that the features described above contribute to Brucella resistance to the oxygen-independent systems of phagocytes. PMID:7622230

  18. Circadian control of photoreceptor outer segment membrane turnover in mice genetically incapable of melatonin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Chiba, A; Menaker, M

    1999-01-01

    Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors periodically shed membrane from their outer segment distal tips; this material is phagocytosed and degraded by the retinal pigmented epithelium. Both a circadian oscillator and the daily light-dark cycle affect disk shedding, and the effects of both may be mediated by melatonin. To clarify melatonin's role in this process, we asked whether endogenous melatonin is required for rhythmic disk shedding in mouse retina. We analyzed disk shedding in two mouse strains: C3H, which produce melatonin in retina and pineal under the control of circadian oscillators, and C57BL/6, which do not produce melatonin. In cyclic light, both strains exhibited a robust cycle of disk phagosome content in the pigmented epithelium. Peak shedding occurred just after dawn, and trough levels occurred during the middle of the dark phase. In constant darkness, mice exhibited circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, the characteristics of which were similar between strains. Both strains also exhibited rhythmic disk shedding in constant darkness, although amplitudes of the rhythms were damped. Exogenous melatonin delivered once per day failed to reestablish high-amplitude cyclic shedding in mice held in constant darkness. Our results show that, while disk shedding in cyclic light is robustly rhythmic, neither rhythmic production of melatonin nor the circadian oscillator responsible for rhythmic locomotor activity is sufficient to drive high-amplitude rhythmic shedding in constant darkness. More importantly, melatonin is required neither for cyclic changes in the rate of disk shedding in cyclic light, nor for the circadian rhythm of disk shedding in constant darkness.

  19. Construction and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Swinepox Virus Expressing Outer Membrane Protein L of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yizhen; Lin, Huixing; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-07-28

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative flagellated bacteria that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to severe systemic infection. To explore development of a potent vaccine against Salmonella infections, the gene encoding outer membrane protein L (ompL) was inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays were used to verify the recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-OmpL. The immune responses and protection efficacy of rSPV-OmpL were assessed in a mouse model. Forty mice were assigned to four groups, which were immunized with rSPV-OmpL, inactive Salmonella (positive control), wildtype SPV (wtSPV; negative control), or PBS (challenge control), respectively. The OmpLspecific antibody in the rSPV-OmpL-immunized group increased dramatically and continuously over time post-vaccination, and was present at a significantly higher level than in the positive control group (p < 0.05). The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4, which represent Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the rSPVOmpL- vaccinated group than in the other three groups. After intraperitoneal challenge with a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium CVCC542, eight out of ten mice in the rSPV-OmpLvaccinated group were protected, whereas all the mice in the negative control and challenge control groups died within 3 days. Passive immune protection assays showed that hyperimmune sera against OmpL could provide mice with effective protection against challenge from S. typhimurium. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-OmpL might serve as a promising vaccine against Salmonella infection.

  20. Legionella pneumophila-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles Promote Bacterial Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Anna Lena; Stoiber, Cornelia; Herkt, Christina E.; Schulz, Christine; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria. This includes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), a causative agent of severe pneumonia. Upon its transmission into the lung, L. pneumophila primarily infects and replicates within macrophages. Here, we analyzed the influence of L. pneumophila OMVs on macrophages. To this end, differentiated THP-1 cells were incubated with increasing doses of Legionella OMVs, leading to a TLR2-dependent classical activation of macrophages with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of TLR2 and NF-κB signaling reduced the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs prior to infection reduced replication of L. pneumophila in THP-1 cells. Blocking of TLR2 activation or heat denaturation of OMVs restored bacterial replication in the first 24 h of infection. With prolonged infection-time, OMV pre-treated macrophages became more permissive for bacterial replication than untreated cells and showed increased numbers of Legionella-containing vacuoles and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Additionally, miRNA-146a was found to be transcriptionally induced by OMVs and to facilitate bacterial replication. Accordingly, IRAK-1, one of miRNA-146a’s targets, showed prolonged activation-dependent degradation, which rendered THP-1 cells more permissive for Legionella replication. In conclusion, L. pneumophila OMVs are initially potent pro-inflammatory stimulators of macrophages, acting via TLR2, IRAK-1, and NF-κB, while at later time points, OMVs facilitate L. pneumophila replication by miR-146a-dependent IRAK-1 suppression. OMVs might thereby promote spreading of L. pneumophila in the host. PMID:27105429

  1. Expression of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D S; Stewart, S J

    1993-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis was expressed in Escherichia coli. To assess whether it assembled into a conformationally correct structure at the cell surface, we characterized the recombinant MOMP (rMOMP) by Western immunoblot analysis, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize contiguous and conformational MOMP epitopes. Western blot analysis showed that most of the rMOMP comigrated with authentic monomer MOMP, indicating that its signal peptide was recognized and cleaved by E. coli. The rMOMP could not be detected on the cell surface of viable or formalin-killed E. coli organisms by indirect immunofluorescence staining with a MAb specific for a MOMP contiguous epitope. In contrast, the same MAb readily stained rMOMP-expressing E. coli cells that had been permeabilized by methanol fixation. A MAb that recognizes a conformational MOMP epitope and reacted strongly with formalin- or methanol-fixed elementary bodies failed to stain formalin- or methanol-fixed E. coli expressing rMOMP. Moreover, this MAb did not immunoprecipitate rMOMP from expressing E. coli cells even though it precipitated the authentic protein from lysates of C. trachomatis elementary bodies. Therefore we concluded that rMOMP was not localized to the E. coli cell surface and was not recognizable by a conformation-dependent antibody. These results indicate that rMOMP expressed by E. coli is unlikely to serve as an accurate model of MOMP structure and function. They also question the utility of rMOMP as a source of immunogen for eliciting neutralizing antibodies against conformational antigenic sites of the protein. Images PMID:8406797

  2. Purification and Bicelle Crystallization for Structure Determination of the E. coli Outer Membrane Protein TamA.

    PubMed

    Gruss, Fabian; Hiller, Sebastian; Maier, Timm

    2015-01-01

    TamA is an Omp85 protein involved in autotransporter assembly in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. It comprises a C-terminal 16-stranded transmembrane β-barrel as well as three periplasmic POTRA domains, and is a challenging target for structure determination. Here, we present a method for crystal structure determination of TamA, including recombinant expression in E. coli, detergent extraction, chromatographic purification, and bicelle crystallization in combination with seeding. As a result, crystals in space group P21212 are obtained, which diffract to 2.3 Å resolution. This protocol also serves as a template for structure determination of other outer membrane proteins, in particular of the Omp85 family.

  3. The three domains of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mim1 have discrete functions in assembly of the TOM complex.

    PubMed

    Lueder, Franziska; Lithgow, Trevor

    2009-05-06

    The assembly of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins is an essential process, mediated by the SAM complex and a set of additional protein modules. We show that one of these, Mim1, is anchored in the outer membrane with its N-terminus exposed to the cytosol and its C-terminus in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Using an in vitro assay to measure the multi-step pathway for assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex, we find that an "early reaction" mediated by the SAM complex is regulated by the N-terminal domain of Mim1. In addition, a "late reaction" catalysed by the Sam37 subunit of the SAM complex is also influenced by Mim1. Thus, Mim1 participates at multiple stages in the assembly of the TOM complex.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  5. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at ~1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  6. The tolC locus of Escherichia coli affects the expression of three major outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Morona, R; Reeves, P

    1982-01-01

    tolC mutants, which are resistant to colicin E1 and also highly sensitive to detergents and dyes, were shown to lack the OmpF outer membrane protein. There was little effect on transcription as judged by the use of an ompF-lac operon fusion strain, and the tolC effect was probably due to a post-transcriptional effect. The NmpC protein and protein 2 were also tolC dependent. Images PMID:6281230

  7. Salicylate-inducible antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia associated with absence of a pore-forming outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J L; Clark, D K

    1992-01-01

    The most common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in multiply resistant Pseudomonas cepacia is decreased porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. In some gram-negative organisms this form of antibiotic resistance can be induced by growth in the presence of weak acids, such as salicylates, which suppress porin synthesis. To determine the effects of salicylates on outer membrane permeability of P. cepacia, a susceptible laboratory strain, 249-2, was grown in 10 mM sodium salicylate. Antibiotic susceptibility and uptake, as well as outer membrane protein patterns, were compared between strain 249-2 grown with and without salicylates. The MICs of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime were compared between organisms grown in standard and salicylate-containing medium and are as follows: chloramphenicol, 12.5 versus 100 micrograms/ml; trimethoprim, 0.78 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml; ciprofloxacin, 0.4 versus 1.56 micrograms/ml; ceftazidime, 3.125 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml. The permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics was calculated from the rate of hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin, PADAC. There was no significant difference between strains grown in the presence and absence of salicylate. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography quantitation of loss from culture medium, the effect of 10 mM salicylate on the cellular permeability of chloramphenicol was measured in strain 249-2 by introduction of a plasmid which encodes production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. After 1 h of incubation, 18.5% +/- 1.54% versus 70.1% +/- 3.52%, and after 2 h, 4.20% +/- 1.65% versus 41.90% +/- 2.16% remained in supernatants from organisms grown in the absence and presence of 10 mM salicylate, respectively. Outer membrane protein pattern analysis demonstrated the absence of a protein of apparent molecular weight of 40,000 when strain 249-2 was grown in the presence of 10 mM salicylate. To determine whether this protein functioned as a porin

  8. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer-membrane protein OmpL32

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Azad; Pinne, Marija; Haake, David A.; Zuerner, Richard L.; Frank, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer-membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immune response. In this study, 2D gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS identified a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 protein, corresponding to ORF LIC11848, which undergoes extensive and differential methylation of glutamic acid residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy implicated LIC11848 as a surface-exposed outer-membrane protein, prompting the designation OmpL32. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of golden Syrian hamster liver and kidney sections revealed expression of OmpL32 during colonization of these organs. Identification of methylated surface-exposed outer-membrane proteins, such as OmpL32, provides a foundation for delineating the role of this post-translational modification in leptospiral virulence. PMID:22174381

  9. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population. PMID:28272446

  10. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-03-08

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population.

  11. Characterization of antigens from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae recognized by human bactericidal antibodies. Role of Haemophilus outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gnehm, H E; Pelton, S I; Gulati, S; Rice, P A

    1985-01-01

    Major outer membrane antigens, proteins, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae were characterized and examined as targets for complement-dependent human bactericidal antibodies. Outer membranes from two nontypable H. influenzae isolates that caused otitis media and pneumonia (middle ear and transtracheal aspirates) were prepared by shearing organisms in EDTA. These membranes were compared with membranes prepared independently by spheroplasting and lysozyme treatment of whole cells and found to have: similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of the proteins; identical densities (rho = 1.22 g/cm3); and minimal d-lactose dehydrogenase activity indicating purity from cytoplasmic membranes. Outer membranes were solubilized in an LPS-disaggregating buffer and proteins were separated from LPS by molecular sieve chromatography. The SDS-PAGE patterns of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from the two strains differed in the major band although other prominent bands appeared similar in molecular weight. LPS prepared by hot phenol water extraction of each of the strains contained 45% (pneumonia isolate) and 60% (otitis isolate) lipid (wt/wt), 49% and 50% carbohydrate (wt/wt), respectively, and less than 1%, 3-deoxy-manno octulosonic acid. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) purified from normal human serum (NHS) plus complement was bactericidal for both strains. Purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from NHS killed the middle ear isolate and immune convalescent IgM from the serum of the patient with pneumonia killed his isolate. NHS or convalescent serum were absorbed with OMPs and LPS (0.6-110 micrograms) from each of the strains and immune specific inhibition of bactericidal antibody activity by each antigen was determined. OMPs from the pulmonary isolate inhibited bactericidal antibody activity directed against the isolate in both NHS (1.5 microgram of antigen) and immune serum (0.75 microgram of antigen). OMPs (60

  12. Piscine reovirus encodes a cytotoxic, non-fusogenic, integral membrane protein and previously unrecognized virion outer-capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Key, Tim; Read, Jolene; Nibert, Max L; Duncan, Roy

    2013-05-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a tentative new member of the family Reoviridae and has been linked to heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Recent sequence-based evidence suggests that PRV is about equally related to members of the genera Orthoreovirus and Aquareovirus. Sequence similarities have also suggested that PRV might encode a fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein, which in turn suggests that PRV might be the prototype of a new genus with syncytium-inducing potential. In previous support of this designation has been the absence of identifiable PRV-encoded homologues of either the virion outer-clamp protein of ortho- and aquareoviruses or the virion outer-fibre protein of most orthoreoviruses. In the current report, we have provided experimental evidence that the putative p13 FAST protein of PRV lacks the defining feature of the FAST protein family - the ability to induce syncytium formation. Instead, p13 is the first example of a cytosolic, integral membrane protein encoded by ortho- or aquareoviruses, and induces cytotoxicity in the absence of cell-cell fusion. Sequence analysis also identified signature motifs of the outer-clamp and outer-fibre proteins of other reoviruses in two of the predicted PRV gene products. Based on these findings, we conclude that PRV does not encode a FAST protein and is therefore unlikely to be a new fusogenic reovirus. The presence of a novel integral membrane protein and two previously unrecognized, essential outer-capsid proteins has important implications for the biology, evolution and taxonomic classification of this virus.

  13. Surface hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by the outer membrane protein Rv0888 supports replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Speer, Alexander; Sun, Jim; Danilchanka, Olga; Meikle, Virginia; Rowland, Jennifer L; Walter, Kerstin; Buck, Bradford R; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Hölscher, Christoph; Ehrt, Sabine; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sphingomyelinases secreted by pathogenic bacteria play important roles in host-pathogen interactions ranging from interfering with phagocytosis and oxidative burst to iron acquisition. This study shows that the Mtb protein Rv0888 possesses potent sphingomyelinase activity cleaving sphingomyelin, a major lipid in eukaryotic cells, into ceramide and phosphocholine, which are then utilized by Mtb as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources, respectively. An Mtb rv0888 deletion mutant did not grow on sphingomyelin as a sole carbon source anymore and replicated poorly in macrophages indicating that Mtb utilizes sphingomyelin during infection. Rv0888 is an unusual membrane protein with a surface-exposed C-terminal sphingomyelinase domain and a putative N-terminal channel domain that mediated glucose and phosphocholine uptake across the outer membrane in an M. smegmatis porin mutant. Hence, we propose to name Rv0888 as SpmT (sphingomyelinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Erythrocyte membranes contain up to 27% sphingomyelin. The finding that Rv0888 accounts for half of Mtb's hemolytic activity is consistent with its sphingomyelinase activity and the observation that Rv0888 levels are increased in the presence of erythrocytes and sphingomyelin by 5- and 100-fold, respectively. Thus, Rv0888 is a novel outer membrane protein that enables Mtb to utilize sphingomyelin as a source of several essential nutrients during intracellular growth.

  14. Real-time Visualization of Phospholipid Degradation by Outer Membrane Phospholipase A using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rangl, Martina; Rima, Luca; Klement, Jessica; Miyagi, Atsushi; Keller, Sandro; Scheuring, Simon

    2017-03-07

    Phospholipases are abundant in various types of cells and compartments, where they play key roles in physiological processes as diverse as digestion, cell proliferation, and neural activation. In Gram-negative bacteria, outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) is involved in outer-membrane lipid homeostasis and bacterial virulence. Although the enzymatic activity of OmpLA can be probed with an assay relying on an artificial monoacyl thioester substrate, only little is known about its activity on diacyl phospholipids. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to directly image enzymatic phospholipid degradation by OmpLA in real time. In the absence of Ca(2+), reconstituted OmpLA diffused within a phospholipid bilayer without revealing any signs of phospholipase activity. Upon addition of Ca(2+), OmpLA was activated and degraded the membrane with a turnover of ~2 phospholipid molecules per second, per OmpLA dimer until most of the membrane phospholipids were hydrolyzed and the protein became tightly packed.

  15. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are outer membrane and periplasmic extensions of the extracellular electron transport components

    PubMed Central

    Pirbadian, Sahand; Barchinger, Sarah E.; Leung, Kar Man; Byun, Hye Suk; Jangir, Yamini; Bouhenni, Rachida A.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad A.; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, John H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic–abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report, to our knowledge, the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis point to S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires as extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures as previously thought. These membrane extensions are associated with outer membrane vesicles, structures ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, and are consistent with bacterial nanowires that mediate long-range EET by the previously proposed multistep redox hopping mechanism. Redox-functionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution. PMID:25143589

  16. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m(2), which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m(2) of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation.

  17. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are outer membrane and periplasmic extensions of the extracellular electron transport components.

    PubMed

    Pirbadian, Sahand; Barchinger, Sarah E; Leung, Kar Man; Byun, Hye Suk; Jangir, Yamini; Bouhenni, Rachida A; Reed, Samantha B; Romine, Margaret F; Saffarini, Daad A; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A; Golbeck, John H; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report, to our knowledge, the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis point to S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires as extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures as previously thought. These membrane extensions are associated with outer membrane vesicles, structures ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, and are consistent with bacterial nanowires that mediate long-range EET by the previously proposed multistep redox hopping mechanism. Redox-functionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  18. Selection of a Highly Monensin-Resistant Prevotella bryantii Subpopulation with Altered Outer Membrane Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Todd R.; Russell, James B.

    1999-01-01

    . bryantii cultures had a subpopulation with different outer membrane characteristics and increased monensin resistance. PMID:10543782

  19. Sialylation of Outer Membrane Porin Protein D: A Mechanistic Basis of Antibiotic Uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Khatua, Biswajit; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Choudhury, Biswa Pronab; Chaudhry, Rama; Mandal, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an environmentally ubiquitous, extracellular, opportunistic pathogen, associated with severe infections of immune-compromised host. We demonstrated earlier the presence of both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids (Sias) on PA (PA+Sias) and normal human serum is their source of Sias. PA+Sias showed decreased complement deposition and exhibited enhanced association with immune-cells through sialic acid binding immunoglobulin like lectins (Siglecs). Such Sias-siglec-9 interaction between PA+Sias and neutrophils helped to subvert host immunity. Additionally, PA+Sias showed more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics as reflected in their minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% than PA−Sias. Accordingly, we have affinity purified sialoglycoproteins of PA+Sias. They were electrophoresed and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Sequence study indicated the presence of a few α2,6-linked, α2,3-linked, and both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialylated proteins in PA. The outer membrane porin protein D (OprD), a specialized channel-forming protein, responsible for uptake of β-lactam antibiotics, is one such identified sialoglycoprotein. Accordingly, sialylated (OprD+Sias) and non-sialylated (OprD−Sias) porin proteins were separately purified by using anion exchange chromatography. Sialylation of purified OprD+Sias was confirmed by several analytical and biochemical procedures. Profiling of glycan structures revealed three sialylated N-glycans and two sialylated O-glycans in OprD+Sias. In contrast, OprD−Sias exhibit only one sialylated N-glycans. OprD−Sias interacts with β-lactam antibiotics more than OprD+Sias as demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance study. Lyposome-swelling assay further exhibited that antibiotics have more capability to penetrate through OprD−Sias purified from four clinical isolates of PA. Taken together, it

  20. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein Q allele distribution is associated with distinct pathologies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Khan, Rustam; Salim, Saima Azhar; Awan, Safia; Abrar, Ambar; Jafri, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains expressing outer membrane protein Q (HopQ) promote adherence to the gastric epithelial cell. We characterized HopQ alleles in relation to H. pylori-related disease, histology and virulence markers. Gastric biopsies were obtained at esophagogastroduodenoscopy from patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. H. pylori culture, histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HopQ types, cagA, cagA-promoter and vacA alleles were performed. DNA extracted was used for PCR. Sequencing of PCR products of HopQ types 1 and 2 was followed by BLAST query. We examined 241 H. pylori isolates. HopQ type 1 was positive in 70 (29%) isolates, type 2 in 60 (25%) isolates, while both type 1 and type 2 in 111 (46%) H. pylori isolates, respectively. Nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was associated with HopQ type 2 in 48 (41%) isolates, while gastric carcinoma (GC) in 37 (53%) (P<0.001) with type 1 isolates. Gastric ulcers (GU) were 39 (46%) (P<0.001) in H. pylori infection with multiple HopQ alleles compared to 6 (23%) in HopQ type 1. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that multiple HopQ alleles were associated with GU OR 2.9 (1.07-7.8) (P=0.03). HopQ type 1 was associated with cagA 58 (84%) (P<0.001) and cagA-promoter 58 (83%) (P<0.001) compared to 14 (23%) and 17 (28%) respectively, in type 2. VacAs1a was associated with HopQ type 1 in 59 (84%) isolates compared to HopQ type 2 in 35 (58%) (P=0.002) isolates. VacAm1 was associated with HopQ type 1 in 53 (76%) isolates compared to HopQ type 2 in 32 (53%) (P=0.004) isolates. H. pylori infection with multiple HopQ alleles was predominant. H. pylori infection with single HopQ type 1 was associated with GC in the presence of other H. pylori virulence markers.

  1. Overexpression of an outer membrane protein associated with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis.

  2. Degraded and stable phosphatidylglycerol in Escherichia coli inner and outer membranes, and recycling of fatty acyl residues.

    PubMed

    Joseleau-Petit, D; Kepes, A

    1982-04-15

    The metabolic fate of membrane phospholipids in exponentially growing Escherichia coli was reexamined by incorporation and chase of labeled precursors: [32P]phosphate, [2-3H]glycerol and 3H-labeled fatty acids. It was found that the well-known turnover of phosphatidylglycerol lasted only about two generation times; after which period, the remaining labeled phosphatidylglycerol, approximately one-third of the total, was stable for at least the subsequent two generation times. The location of the stable phosphatidylglycerol pool remaining after the turnover in the outer and inner membrane was investigated. Both envelopes were found to contain stable phosphatidylglycerol so that the existence of a stable portion cannot be ascribed to its exclusive location in one leaflet. In some experiments, a small loss of labeled phosphatidylethanolamine was also observed, and upon fractionation this was found to occur exclusively in the outer membrane. [32P]Phosphate and [2-3H]glycerol labels of the degraded phospholipids were lost from lipid-soluble material, whereas labeled fatty acid, palmitate or oleate was reincorporated into newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, so that total fatty acid label remained constant in (membrane) phospholipid during chase. In view of the amount of glycerol lost, the recycling of the fatty acids under the form of diacylglycerols to phosphatidic acid does not appear to be the predominant pathway of reincorporation. After double labeling with [32P]phosphate and [3H]palmitate, followed by chase, a complete balance sheet of loss and reincorporation of fatty acid, in the three phospholipids, in the two envelopes could be established. Results indicate that fatty acid was reincorporated essentially in the inner membrane phospholipids. Movements of phospholipids and of fatty acids from one membrane to another and in the plane of each layer are discussed in the light of the results.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; ...

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  5. Interaction of Bacteroides fragilis Toxin with Outer Membrane Vesicles Reveals New Mechanism of Its Secretion and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zakharzhevskaya, Natalya B.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Vanyushkina, Anna A.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Rakitina, Daria V.; Podgorsky, Victor V.; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E.; Kharlampieva, Daria D.; Manuvera, Valentin A.; Lisitsyn, Fedor V.; Gushina, Elena A.; Lazarev, Vassili N.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2017-01-01

    The only recognized virulence factor of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) that accompanies bloodstream infections is the zinc-dependent non-lethal metalloprotease B. fragilis toxin (BFT). The isolated toxin stimulates intestinal secretion, resulting in epithelial damage and necrosis. Numerous publications have focused on the interrelation of BFT with intestinal inflammation and colorectal neoplasia, but nothing is known about the mechanism of its secretion and delivery to host cells. However, recent studies of gram-negative bacteria have shown that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) could be an essential mechanism for the spread of a large number of virulence factors. Here, we show for the first time that BFT is not a freely secreted protease but is associated with OMVs. Our findings indicate that only outer surface-exposed BFT causes epithelial cell contact disruption. According to our in silico models confirmed by Trp quenching assay and NMR, BFT has special interactions with outer membrane components such as phospholipids and is secreted during vesicle formation. Moreover, the strong cooperation of BFT with polysaccharides is similar to the behavior of lectins. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of BFT secretion provides new perspectives for investigating intestinal inflammation pathogenesis and its prevention. PMID:28144586

  6. The outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6749 contributes to its tolerance to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil).

    PubMed

    Mann, C M; Cox, S D; Markham, J L

    2000-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is less susceptible to the antimicrobial properties of tea tree oil than many bacteria and its tolerance is considered to be due to its outer membrane. Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), which has no antibacterial action, was used to permeabilize the outer membrane. The addition of PMBN to Ps. aeruginosa NCTC 6749 markedly increased this organism's susceptibility to tea tree oil and to its normally inert hydrocarbons, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene.

  7. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Heremore » we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This phenomenon can

  8. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  9. The damage of outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the presence of TiO2 combined with UV light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Duan, Wenli; Wang, Qisui; Li, Xi

    2010-07-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to TiO2, UV light, and their combined effect were studied on the Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. The damage of outer membrane was observed for the cells after treatment of TiO2 or UV light. TiO2 alone can break down lipopolysacchride (LPS), the outermost layer of the E. coli cells, but was not able to destroy peptidoglycan underneath. The same phenomenon was observed for E. coli under 500 W UV light treatment alone. However, the outer membrane of E. coli could be removed completely in the presence of both TiO2 and UV light, and the cells became elliptical or round without a mechanically strong network. From the analysis of the concentrations for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a large amount of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were detected in the solution of the treated cells by photo-catalysis, and this was attributed to the damage of LPS dispatches. After TiO2 or UV light treatment, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity of E. coli was found from an increase in fluorescence polarization by a fluorescence probe. The permeability of the treated cells increased to some degree that can be confirmed by quantum dots labeling technique.

  10. Elongated structure of the outer-membrane activator of peptidoglycan synthesis LpoA: implications for PBP1A stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jean, Nicolas L; Bougault, Catherine M; Lodge, Adam; Derouaux, Adeline; Callens, Gilles; Egan, Alexander J F; Ayala, Isabel; Lewis, Richard J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-08

    The bacterial cell envelope contains the stress-bearing peptidoglycan layer, which is enlarged during cell growth and division by membrane-anchored synthases guided by cytoskeletal elements. In Escherichia coli, the major peptidoglycan synthase PBP1A requires stimulation by the outer-membrane-anchored lipoprotein LpoA. Whereas the C-terminal domain of LpoA interacts with PBP1A to stimulate its peptide crosslinking activity, little is known about the role of the N-terminal domain. Herein we report its NMR structure, which adopts an all-α-helical fold comprising a series of helix-turn-helix tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR)-like motifs. NMR spectroscopy of full-length LpoA revealed two extended flexible regions in the C-terminal domain and limited, if any, flexibility between the N- and C-terminal domains. Analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering results are consistent with LpoA adopting an elongated shape, with dimensions sufficient to span from the outer membrane through the periplasm to interact with the peptidoglycan synthase PBP1A.

  11. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli CusC, the Outer Membrane Component of a Heavy Metal Efflux Pump

    PubMed Central

    Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Background While copper has essential functions as an enzymatic co-factor, excess copper ions are toxic for cells, necessitating mechanisms for regulating its levels. The cusCBFA operon of E. coli encodes a four-component efflux pump dedicated to the extrusion of Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. Methodology/Principal Findings We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of CusC, the outer membrane component of the Cus heavy metal efflux pump, to 2.3 Å resolution. The structure has the largest extracellular opening of any outer membrane factor (OMF) protein and suggests, for the first time, the presence of a tri-acylated N-terminal lipid anchor. Conclusions/Significance The CusC protein does not have any obvious features that would make it specific for metal ions, suggesting that the narrow substrate specificity of the pump is provided by other components of the pump, most likely by the inner membrane component CusA. PMID:21249122

  12. Adhesion of Type 1-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Abiotic Surfaces Leads to Altered Composition of Outer Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Karen; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Thomas; Karlsson, Karl-Anders; Hermansson, Malte

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic differences between planktonic bacteria and those attached to abiotic surfaces exist, but the mechanisms involved in the adhesion response of bacteria are not well understood. By the use of two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we have demonstrated that attachment of Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces leads to alteration in the composition of outer membrane proteins. A major decrease in the abundance of resolved proteins was observed during adhesion of type 1-fimbriated E. coli strains, which was at least partly caused by proteolysis. Moreover, a study of fimbriated and nonfimbriated mutants revealed that these changes were due mainly to type 1 fimbria-mediated surface contact and that only a few changes occurred in the outer membranes of nonfimbriated mutant strains. Protein synthesis and proteolytic degradation were involved to different extents in adhesion of fimbriated and nonfimbriated cells. While protein synthesis appeared to affect adhesion of only the nonfimbriated strain, proteolytic activity mostly seemed to contribute to adhesion of the fimbriated strain. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, six of the proteins resolved by 2D analysis were identified as BtuB, EF-Tu, OmpA, OmpX, Slp, and TolC. While the first two proteins were unaffected by adhesion, the levels of the last four were moderately to strongly reduced. Based on the present results, it may be suggested that physical interactions between type 1 fimbriae and the surface are part of a surface-sensing mechanism in which protein turnover may contribute to the observed change in composition of outer membrane proteins. This change alters the surface characteristics of the cell envelope and may thus influence adhesion. PMID:11274103

  13. FPOP-LC-MS/MS Suggests Differences in Interaction Sites of Amphipols and Detergents with Outer Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, Thomas G.; Calabrese, Antonio N.; Ault, James R.; Radford, Sheena E.; Ashcroft, Alison E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphipols are a class of novel surfactants that are capable of stabilizing the native state of membrane proteins. They have been shown to be highly effective, in some cases more so than detergent micelles, at maintaining the structural integrity of membrane proteins in solution, and have shown promise as vehicles for delivering native membrane proteins into the gas phase for structural interrogation. Here, we use fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP), which irreversibly labels the side chains of solvent-accessible residues with hydroxyl radicals generated by laser photolysis of hydrogen peroxide, to compare the solvent accessibility of the outer membrane protein OmpT when solubilized with the amphipol A8-35 or with n-dodecyl-β-maltoside (DDM) detergent micelles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry analyses, we show that fast photochemical oxidation reveals differences in the extent of solvent accessibility of residues between the A8-35 and DDM solubilized states, providing a rationale for the increased stability of membrane proteins solubilized with amphipol compared with detergent micelles, as a result of additional intermolecular contacts.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of 28 kDa outer membrane protein gene of Brucella melitensis Rev. 1.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Pallab; Kumar, S Vinoth; Prasad, Rajeev; Srivastava, S K; Yadav, M P

    2005-09-01

    Brucella melitensis is an organism of paramount zoonotic importance. The 28 kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) is one of the immunodominant antigens of B. melitensis. The gene encoding 28 kDa OMP (omp28) has been amplified from B. melitensis Rev. 1 strain. A PCR product of 753 bp, encoding complete omp28 gene of B. melitensis, was obtained. The gene was further cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of B. melitensis Rev. 1 strain showed substitution of 2 nucleotides from that of 16M strain.

  15. Disruption the Outer Membrane of Enteropathogenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli using Proanthocyanidins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported as a natural antibacterial agent to suppress the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins on destabilizing the outer...

  16. Reconstitution of a nanomachine driving the assembly of proteins into bacterial outer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Belousoff, Matthew J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Lu, Jingxiong; Holt, Stephen A.; Tan, Khershing; Selkrig, Joel; Webb, Chaille T.; Buchanan, Susan K.; Martin, Lisandra L.; Lithgow, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    In biological membranes, various protein secretion devices function as nanomachines, and measuring the internal movements of their component parts is a major technological challenge. The translocation assembly module (the TAM) is a nanomachine required for virulence of bacterial pathogens. We have reconstituted a membrane containing the TAM onto a gold surface for characterization by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Magnetic Contrast Neutron Reflectrometry (MCNR). The MCNR studies provided structural resolution down to 1Å, enabling accurate measurement of protein domains projecting from the membrane layer. Here, we show that dynamic movements within the TamA component of the TAM are initiated in the presence of a substrate protein, Ag43, and that these movements recapitulate an initial stage in membrane protein assembly. The reconstituted system provides a powerful new means to study molecular movements in biological membranes, and the technology is widely applicable to studying the dynamics of diverse cellular nanomachines. PMID:25341963

  17. Reconstitution of a nanomachine driving the assembly of proteins into bacterial outer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hsin-Hui; Leyton, Denisse L.; Shiota, Takuya; Belousoff, Matthew J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Lu, Jingxiong; Holt, Stephen A.; Tan, Khershing; Selkrig, Joel; Webb, Chaille T.; Buchanan, Susan K.; Martin, Lisandra L.; Lithgow, Trevor

    2014-10-01

    In biological membranes, various protein secretion devices function as nanomachines, and measuring the internal movements of their component parts is a major technological challenge. The translocation and assembly module (TAM) is a nanomachine required for virulence of bacterial pathogens. We have reconstituted a membrane containing the TAM onto a gold surface for characterization by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and magnetic contrast neutron reflectrometry (MCNR). The MCNR studies provided structural resolution down to 1 Å, enabling accurate measurement of protein domains projecting from the membrane layer. Here we show that dynamic movements within the TamA component of the TAM are initiated in the presence of a substrate protein, Ag43, and that these movements recapitulate an initial stage in membrane protein assembly. The reconstituted system provides a powerful new means to study molecular movements in biological membranes, and the technology is widely applicable to studying the dynamics of diverse cellular nanomachines.

  18. Computational redesign of the lipid-facing surface of the outer membrane protein OmpA.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, James A; Whitehead, Timothy A; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-08-04

    Advances in computational design methods have made possible extensive engineering of soluble proteins, but designed β-barrel membrane proteins await improvements in our understanding of the sequence determinants of folding and stability. A subset of the amino acid residues of membrane proteins interact with the cell membrane, and the design rules that govern this lipid-facing surface are poorly understood. We applied a residue-level depth potential for β-barrel membrane proteins to the complete redesign of the lipid-facing surface of Escherichia coli OmpA. Initial designs failed to fold correctly, but reversion of a small number of mutations indicated by backcross experiments yielded designs with substitutions to up to 60% of the surface that did support folding and membrane insertion.

  19. Mitochondrial outer-membrane E3 ligase MUL1 ubiquitinates ULK1 and regulates selenite-induced mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Guo; Feng, Du; Liu, Jinhua; Ma, Biao; Zhou, Changqian; Mu, Chenglong; Zhang, Weilin; Chen, Quan; Zhu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria serve as membrane sources and signaling platforms for regulating autophagy. Accumulating evidence has also shown that damaged mitochondria are removed through both selective mitophagy and general autophagy in response to mitochondrial and oxidative stresses. Protein ubiquitination through mitochondrial E3 ligases plays an integrative role in mitochondrial outer membrane protein degradation, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy. Here we showed that MUL1, a mitochondria-localized E3 ligase, regulates selenite-induced mitophagy in an ATG5 and ULK1-dependent manner. ULK1 partially translocated to mitochondria after selenite treatment and interacted with MUL1. We also demonstrated that ULK1 is a novel substrate of MUL1. These results suggest the association of mitochondria with autophagy regulation and provide a new mechanism for the beneficial effects of selenium as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:26018823

  20. Enzymatic, outer membrane proteins and plasmid alterations of starved Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus cells in seawater.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Fethi Ben; Kallel, Héla; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2009-06-01

    The marine bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were incubated in seawater for 8 months to evaluate their adaptative responses to starvation. The starved cells showed an altered biochemical and enzymatic profiles, respectively, on Api 20E and Api ZYM systems and an evolution to the filterable minicells state capable to pass membrane pore size 0.45 microm. Outer membrane proteins patterns of stressed bacteria were also altered. Indeed, these modifications were manifested by the appearance and/or disappearance of bands as well as in the level of expression of certain proteins. Plasmids profiles analysis showed that V. alginolyticus ATCC 33787 lost three plasmids, whereas other tested strains conserved their initial profiles.

  1. The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning β-barrel

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adam; Brown, Gemma; Stejskal, Lenka; Laity, Peter R.; Bingham, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep evolutionary history of the Spirochetes places their branch point early in the evolution of the diderms, before the divergence of the present day Proteobacteria. As a spirochete, the morphology of the Borrelia cell envelope shares characteristics of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A thin layer of peptidoglycan, tightly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, is surrounded by a more labile outer membrane (OM). This OM is rich in lipoproteins but with few known integral membrane proteins. The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) domain is an eight-stranded membrane-spanning β-barrel, highly conserved among the Proteobacteria but so far unknown in the Spirochetes. In the present work, we describe the identification of four novel OmpA-like β-barrels from Borrelia afzelii, the most common cause of erythema migrans (EM) rash in Europe. Structural characterization of one these proteins (BAPKO_0422) by SAXS and CD indicate a compact globular structure rich in β-strand consistent with a monomeric β-barrel. Ab initio molecular envelopes calculated from the scattering profile are consistent with homology models and demonstrate that BAPKO_0422 adopts a peanut shape with dimensions 25×45 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm). Deviations from the standard C-terminal signature sequence are apparent; in particular the C-terminal phenylalanine residue commonly found in Proteobacterial OM proteins is replaced by isoleucine/leucine or asparagine. BAPKO_0422 is demonstrated to bind human factor H (fH) and therefore may contribute to immune evasion by inhibition of the complement response. Encoded by chromosomal genes, these proteins are highly conserved between Borrelia subspecies and may be of diagnostic or therapeutic value. PMID:26181365

  2. Purification, crystallization and characterization of the Pseudomonas outer membrane protein FapF, a functional amyloid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Sarah L.; Hawthorne, Wlliam J.; Lambert, Sebastian; Morgan, Marc L.; Hare, Stephen A.; Matthews, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria often produce extracellular amyloid fibres via a multi-component secretion system. Aggregation-prone, unstructured subunits cross the periplasm and are secreted through the outer membrane, after which they self-assemble. Here, significant progress is presented towards solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the novel amyloid transporter FapF from Pseudomonas, which facilitates the secretion of the amyloid-forming polypeptide FapC across the bacterial outer membrane. This represents the first step towards obtaining structural insight into the products of the Pseudomonas fap operon. Initial attempts at crystallizing full-length and N-terminally truncated constructs by refolding techniques were not successful; however, after preparing FapF106–430 from the membrane fraction, reproducible crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.4, b = 124.6, c = 80.4 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 96.32° and three monomers in the asymmetric unit. It was found that the switch to complete detergent exchange into C8E4 was crucial for forming well diffracting crystals, and it is suggested that this combined with limited proteolysis is a potentially useful protocol for membrane β-barrel protein crystallography. The three-dimensional structure of FapF will provide invaluable information on the mechanistic differences of biogenesis between the curli and Fap functional amyloid systems. PMID:27917837

  3. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, Adam J; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Buchanan, Susan K

    2015-10-23

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function.

  4. Evidence of Distinct Channel Conformations and Substrate Binding Affinities for the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein Translocase Pore Tom40*

    PubMed Central

    Kuszak, Adam J.; Jacobs, Daniel; Gurnev, Philip A.; Shiota, Takuya; Louis, John M.; Lithgow, Trevor; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all mitochondrial proteins are coded by the nuclear genome and must be transported into mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane complex. Tom40 is the central subunit of the translocase complex and forms a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. To date, the mechanism it utilizes for protein transport remains unclear. Tom40 is predicted to comprise a membrane-spanning β-barrel domain with conserved α-helical domains at both the N and C termini. To investigate Tom40 function, including the role of the N- and C-terminal domains, recombinant forms of the Tom40 protein from the yeast Candida glabrata, and truncated constructs lacking the N- and/or C-terminal domains, were functionally characterized in planar lipid membranes. Our results demonstrate that each of these Tom40 constructs exhibits at least four distinct conductive levels and that full-length and truncated Tom40 constructs specifically interact with a presequence peptide in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. Therefore, neither the first 51 amino acids of the N terminus nor the last 13 amino acids of the C terminus are required for Tom40 channel formation or for the interaction with a presequence peptide. Unexpectedly, substrate binding affinity was dependent upon the Tom40 state corresponding to a particular conductive level. A model where two Tom40 pores act in concert as a dimeric protein complex best accounts for the observed biochemical and electrophysiological data. These results provide the first evidence for structurally distinct Tom40 conformations playing a role in substrate recognition and therefore in transport function. PMID:26336107

  5. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    PubMed

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  6. Identification of a novel type III secretion-associated outer membrane-bound protein from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Li, Rui-Fang; Ming, Zhen-Hua; Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to overcome host defenses. To date, most of our knowledge about the T3SS molecular architecture comes from the studies on animal pathogens. In plant pathogens, nine Hrc proteins are believed to be structural components of the T3SS, of which HrcC and HrcJ form the outer and inner rings of the T3SS, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that a novel outer membrane-bound protein (HpaM) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is critical for the type III secretion and is structurally and functionally conserved in phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp. We showed that the C-terminus of HpaM extends into the periplasm to interact physically with HrcJ and the middle part of HpaM interacts physically with HrcC. It is clear that the outer and inner rings compose the main basal body of the T3SS apparatus in animal pathogens. Therefore, we presume that HpaM may act as a T3SS structural component, or play a role in assisting assembling or affecting the stability of the T3SS apparatus. HpaM is a highly prevalent and specific protein in Xanthomonas spp., suggesting that the T3SS of Xanthomonas is distinctive in some aspects from other pathogens. PMID:28198457

  7. Identification of a novel type III secretion-associated outer membrane-bound protein from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Rui-Fang; Ming, Zhen-Hua; Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2017-02-15

    Many bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to overcome host defenses. To date, most of our knowledge about the T3SS molecular architecture comes from the studies on animal pathogens. In plant pathogens, nine Hrc proteins are believed to be structural components of the T3SS, of which HrcC and HrcJ form the outer and inner rings of the T3SS, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that a novel outer membrane-bound protein (HpaM) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is critical for the type III secretion and is structurally and functionally conserved in phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp. We showed that the C-terminus of HpaM extends into the periplasm to interact physically with HrcJ and the middle part of HpaM interacts physically with HrcC. It is clear that the outer and inner rings compose the main basal body of the T3SS apparatus in animal pathogens. Therefore, we presume that HpaM may act as a T3SS structural component, or play a role in assisting assembling or affecting the stability of the T3SS apparatus. HpaM is a highly prevalent and specific protein in Xanthomonas spp., suggesting that the T3SS of Xanthomonas is distinctive in some aspects from other pathogens.

  8. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-11-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform.

  9. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform. PMID:27849050

  10. Terbium, a fluorescent probe for investigation of siderophore pyochelin interactions with its outer membrane transporter FptA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Binsheng; Hoegy, Françoise; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Mesini, Philippe J; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2011-10-01

    Pyochelin (Pch) is a siderophore and FptA is its outer membrane transporter produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to import iron. The fluorescence of the element terbium is affected by coordinated ligands and it can therefore be used as a probe to investigate the pyochelin-iron uptake pathway in P. aeruginosa. At pH 8.0, terbium fluorescence is greatly enhanced in the presence of pyochelin indicating chelation of the metal by the siderophore. Titration curves showed a 2:1 (Pch:Tb(3+)) stoichiometry and an affinity of K=(2±-1)×10(11)M(-2) was determined. Pch-Tb interaction with the transporter FptA could be followed in vitro and in vivo in P. aeruginosa cells, by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between three partners: the tryptophans of FptA (donor), Pch (acceptor for the Trps and donor for Tb(3+)) and Tb(3+) (acceptor). Pch-Tb binds to the Pch-Fe outer membrane transporter FptA with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 4.6μM. This three-partner FRET is a potentially valuable tool for investigation of the interactions between FptA and its siderophore Pch.

  11. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane protein OmpW from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Zeth, Kornelius; Söding, Johannes; Lupas, Andrei; Linke, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    The outer membrane protein OmpW from E. coli was overexpressed in inclusion bodies and refolded with the help of detergent. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffract to 3.5 Å resolution. OmpW is an eight-stranded 21 kDa molecular-weight β-barrel protein from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is a major antigen in bacterial infections and has implications in antibiotic resistance and in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds. OmpW from Escherichia coli was cloned and the protein was expressed in inclusion bodies. A method for refolding and purification was developed which yields properly folded protein according to circular-dichroism measurements. The protein has been crystallized and crystals were obtained that diffracted to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å. The crystals belong to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.5, c = 105.7 Å. A homology model of OmpW is presented based on known structures of eight-stranded β-barrels, intended for use in molecular-replacement trials.

  12. Outer membrane protein A, peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, and murein lipoprotein are released by Escherichia coli bacteria into serum.

    PubMed

    Hellman, J; Loiselle, P M; Tehan, M M; Allaire, J E; Boyle, L A; Kurnick, J T; Andrews, D M; Sik Kim, K; Warren, H S

    2000-05-01

    Complexes containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and three outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are released by gram-negative bacteria incubated in human serum and into the circulation in an experimental model of sepsis. The same OMPs are bound by immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the cross-protective antiserum raised to Escherichia coli J5 (anti-J5 IgG). This study was performed to identify the three OMPs. The 35-kDa OMP was identified as outer membrane protein A (OmpA) by immunoblotting studies using OmpA-deficient bacteria and recombinant OmpA protein. The 18-kDa OMP was identified as peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) based on peptide sequences from the purified protein and immunoblotting studies using PAL-deficient bacteria. The 5- to 9-kDa OMP was identified as murein lipoprotein (MLP) based on immunoblotting studies using MLP-deficient bacteria. The studies identify the OMPs released into human serum and into the circulation in an experimental model of sepsis as OmpA, PAL, and MLP.

  13. Function and Expression of an N-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Inducible Outer Membrane Channel in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Condemine, Guy; Berrier, Catherine; Plumbridge, Jacqueline; Ghazi, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli yjhA (renamed nanC) gene encodes a protein of the KdgM family of outer membrane-specific channels. It is transcribed divergently from fimB, a gene involved in the site-specific inversion of the region controlling transcription of the fimbrial structural genes but is separated from it by one of the largest intergenic regions in E. coli. We show that nanC expression is induced by N-acetylneuraminic acid and modulated by N-acetylglucosamine. This regulation occurs via the NanR and NagC regulators, which also control fimB expression. nanC expression is also activated by the regulators cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein, OmpR, and CpxR. When the NanC protein was reconstituted into liposomes, it formed channels with a conductance of 450 pS at positive potential and 300 to 400 pS at negative potential in 800 mM KCl. The channels had a weak anionic selectivity. In an ompR background, where the general porins OmpF and OmpC are absent, NanC is required for growth of E. coli on N-acetylneuraminic acid as the sole carbon source. All these results suggest that NanC is an N-acetylneuraminic acid outer membrane channel protein. PMID:15743943

  14. Involvement and necessity of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel outer membrane protein assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gerken, Henri; Leiser, Owen P.; Bennion, Drew; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Cpx and σE regulons help maintain outer membrane integrity; the Cpx pathway monitors the biogenesis of cell surface structures, such as pili, while the σE pathway monitors the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In this study we revealed the importance of the Cpx regulon in the event of β-barrel OMP mis-assembly, by utilizing mutants expressing either a defective β-barrel OMP assembly machinery (Bam) or assembly defective β-barrel OMPs. Analysis of specific mRNAs showed that ΔcpxR bam double mutants failed to induce degP expression beyond the wild type level, despite activation of the σE pathway. The synthetic conditional lethal phenotype of ΔcpxR in mutant Bam or β-barrel OMP backgrounds was reversed by wild type DegP expressed from a heterologous plasmid promoter. Consistent with the involvement of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, the expression of cpxP, the archetypal member of the cpx regulon, was upregulated in defective Bam backgrounds or in cells expressing a single assembly-defective β-barrel OMP species. Together, these results showed that both the Cpx and σE regulons are required to reduce envelope stress caused by aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, with the Cpx regulon principally contributing by controlling degP expression. PMID:20487295

  15. Characterization and pathogenic role of outer membrane vesicles produced by the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Cristian; Valenzuela, Karla; Hernández, Mauricio; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Haro, Ronie E; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Cárcamo, Juan G; Villar, Maite T; Artigues, Antonio; Garduño, Rafael; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-02-29

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the major fish pathogens affecting Chilean aquaculture. This Gram-negative bacterium is highly infectious and is the etiological agent of Piscirickettsiosis. Little is currently known about how the virulence factors expressed by P. salmonis are delivered to host cells. However, it is known that several Gram-negative microorganisms constitutively release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which have been implicated in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. In this study, OMVs production by P. salmonis was observed during infection in CHSE-214 cells and during normal growth in liquid media. The OMVs were spherical vesicles ranging in size between 25 and 145 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the protein profile of the OMVs was similar to the outer membrane protein profile of P. salmonis. Importantly, the bacterial chaperonin Hsp60 was found in the OMVs of P. salmonis by Western-blot and LC-MS/MS analyses. Finally, in vitro infection assays showed that purified OMVs generated a cytopathic effect on CHSE-214 cells, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. Therefore, OMVs might be an important vehicle for delivering effector molecules to host cells during P. salmonis infection.

  16. Chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is essential for chloroplast anchorage to the plasma membrane and chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Kazusato; Yamasato, Akihiro; Kong, Sam-Geun; Kasahara, Masahiro; Nakai, Masato; Takahashi, Fumio; Ogura, Yasunobu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2008-10-01

    Chloroplasts change their intracellular distribution in response to light intensity. Previously, we isolated the chloroplast unusual positioning1 (chup1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant is defective in normal chloroplast relocation movement and shows aggregation of chloroplasts at the bottom of palisade mesophyll cells. The isolated gene encodes a protein with an actin-binding motif. Here, we used biochemical analyses to determine the subcellular localization of full-length CHUP1 on the chloroplast outer envelope. A CHUP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, which was detected at the outermost part of mesophyll cell chloroplasts, complemented the chup1 phenotype, but GFP-CHUP1, which was localized mainly in the cytosol, did not. Overexpression of the N-terminal hydrophobic region (NtHR) of CHUP1 fused with GFP (NtHR-GFP) induced a chup1-like phenotype, indicating a dominant-negative effect on chloroplast relocation movement. A similar pattern was found in chloroplast OUTER ENVELOPE PROTEIN7 (OEP7)-GFP transformants, and a protein containing OEP7 in place of NtHR complemented the mutant phenotype. Physiological analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing truncated CHUP1 in a chup1 mutant background and cytoskeletal inhibitor experiments showed that the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 anchors chloroplasts firmly on the plasma membrane, consistent with the localization of coiled-coil GFP on the plasma membrane. Thus, CHUP1 localization on chloroplasts, with the N terminus inserted into the chloroplast outer envelope and the C terminus facing the cytosol, is essential for CHUP1 function, and the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 prevents chloroplast aggregation and participates in chloroplast relocation movement.

  17. Detection of IgG and IgM to meningococcal outer membrane proteins in relation to carriage of Neisseria meningitidis or Neisseria lactamica.

    PubMed

    Kremastinou, J; Tzanakaki, G; Pagalis, A; Theodondou, M; Weir, D M; Blackwell, C C

    1999-05-01

    Carriage of non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis or Neisseria lactamica induces antibodies protective against meningococcal disease. Antibodies directed against outer membrane proteins are bactericidal and the serotype and subtype outer membrane protein antigens are being examined for their value as vaccine candidates for serogroup B disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carriage of these two Neisseria species among children and young adults on induction of antibodies to outer membrane components from strains causing disease in Greece. Among 53 patients with meningococcal disease, IgG or IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9 of 13 (69%) from whom the bacteria were isolated and 27 of 40 (67%) who were culture-negative. For military recruits (n = 604), the proportion of carriers of meningococci with IgM or IgG to outer membrane proteins was higher than non-carriers, P < 0.05 and P = 0.000000, respectively. Among school children (n = 319), the proportion with IgM or IgG to outer membrane proteins for carriers of meningococci was higher compared with non-carriers, P = 0.000000 and P = 0000043, respectively. Carriage of N. lactamica was not associated with the presence of either IgM or IgG to the outer membrane proteins in the children. The higher proportion of children (50%) with IgM to outer membrane proteins compared with recruits (10%) might reflect more recent exposure and primary immune responses to the bacteria. The lack of association between antibodies to outer membrane proteins and carriage of N. lactamica could reflect observations that the majority of N. lactamica isolates from Greece and other countries do not react with monoclonal typing reagents. Bactericidal antibodies to meningococci associated with high levels of IgG to N. lactamica were found in a previous study; these are thought to be directed to antigens other than outer membrane proteins or capsules and imply antigens such as lipo-oligosaccharide are involved in

  18. Purification, pore-forming ability, and antigenic relatedness of the major outer membrane protein of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, S; Das, A B; Ghosh, A N; Biswas, T

    1994-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP), the most abundant outer membrane protein, was purified to homogeneity from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. The purification method involved selective extraction of MOMP with sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of 0.4 M sodium chloride followed by size exclusion chromatography with Sephacryl S-200 HR. MOMP was found to form hydrophilic diffusion pores by incorporation into artificial liposome vesicles composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and dicetylphosphate, indicating that MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 exhibited significant porin activity. However, the liposomes containing heat-denatured MOMP were barely active. The molecular weight of MOMP found by size exclusion chromatography was 130,000, and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-10% polyacrylamide gel it moved as an oligomer of 78,000 molecular weight. Upon boiling, fully dissociated monomers of 38,000 molecular weight were seen for S. dysenteriae type 1. However, among the four Shigella spp., the monomeric MOMP generated upon boiling ranged from 38,000 to 35,000 in molecular weight. Antibody raised in BALB/c mice immunized with MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 reacted strongly with purified MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with whole-cell preparations of S. dysenteriae type 1 in an ELISA, suggesting that MOMP possessed surface components. Moreover, MOMP could be visualized on the bacterial surface by immunoelectron microscopy with anti-MOMP antibody. S. dysenteriae type 1 MOMP-specific immunoglobulin eluted from MOMP bound to a nitrocellulose membrane was found to cross-react with MOMP preparations of S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei, indicating that MOMPs were antigenically related among Shigella species. The strong immunogenicity, surface exposure, and antigenic relatedness make MOMP of Shigella species an immunologically significant macromolecule for study. Images PMID:7927692

  19. Characterization of a novel β-barrel protein (AtOM47) from the mitochondrial outer membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Radomiljac, Jordan; Wang, Yan; Law, Simon R.; Keech, Olivier; Narsai, Reena; Berkowitz, Oliver; Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, mitochondria are major providers of energy and building blocks for growth and development as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. They are encircled by two lipid membranes containing proteins that control mitochondrial function through the import of macromolecules and metabolites. Characterization of a novel β-barrel protein, OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN 47 (OM47), unique to the green lineage and related to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) protein family, showed that OM47 can complement a VDAC mutant in yeast. Mutation of OM47 in Arabidopsis thaliana by T-DNA insertion had no effect on the import of proteins, such as the β-barrel proteins translocase of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40) or sorting and assembly machinery 50 (SAM50), into mitochondria. Molecular and physiological analyses revealed a delay in chlorophyll breakdown, higher levels of starch, and a delay in the induction of senescence marker genes in the mutant lines. While there was a reduction of >90% in OM47 protein in mitochondria isolated from 3-week-old om47 mutants, in mitochondria isolated from 8-week-old plants OM47 levels were similar to that of the wild type. This recovery was achieved by an up-regulation of OM47 transcript abundance in the mutants. Combined, these results highlight a role in leaf senescence for this plant-specific β-barrel protein, probably mediating the recovery and recycling of chloroplast breakdown products by transporting metabolic intermediates into and out of mitochondria. PMID:27811077

  20. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein hFis1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and fission through self-interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serasinghe, Madhavika N.; Yoon, Yisang

    2008-11-15

    Mitochondrial fission in mammals is mediated by at least two proteins, DLP1/Drp1 and hFis1. DLP1 mediates the scission of mitochondrial membranes through GTP hydrolysis, and hFis1 is a putative DLP1 receptor anchored at the mitochondrial outer membrane by a C-terminal single transmembrane domain. The cytosolic domain of hFis1 contains six {alpha}-helices ({alpha}1-{alpha}6) out of which {alpha}2-{alpha}5 form two tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) folds. In this study, by using chimeric constructs, we demonstrated that the cytosolic domain contains the necessary information for hFis1 function during mitochondrial fission. By using transient expression of different mutant forms of the hFis1 protein, we found that hFis1 self-interaction plays an important role in mitochondrial fission. Our results show that deletion of the {alpha}1 helix greatly increased the formation of dimeric and oligomeric forms of hFis1, indicating that {alpha}1 helix functions as a negative regulator of the hFis1 self-interaction. Further mutational approaches revealed that a tyrosine residue in the {alpha}5 helix and the linker between {alpha}3 and {alpha}4 helices participate in hFis1 oligomerization. Mutations causing oligomerization defect greatly reduced the ability to induce not only mitochondrial fragmentation by full-length hFis1 but also the formation of swollen ball-shaped mitochondria caused by {alpha}1-deleted hFis1. Our data suggest that oligomerization of hFis1 in the mitochondrial outer membrane plays a role in mitochondrial fission, potentially through participating in fission factor recruitment.

  1. Structural insights into cardiolipin transfer from the Inner membrane to the outer membrane by PbgA in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Haohao; Zhang, Zhengyu; Tang, Xiaodi; Huang, Shihai; Li, Huanyu; Peng, Bo; Dong, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a unique asymmetric lipid bilayer in which the outer leaflet is composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inner leaflet is formed by glycerophospholipid (GPL). The OM plays a fundamental role in protecting Gram-negative bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds. The transport and assembly pathways for phospholipids of bacterial OM are unknown. Cardiolipin (CL) plays an important role in OM biogenesis and pathogenesis, and the inner membrane (IM) protein PbgA, containing five transmembrane domains and a globular domain in periplasm has been recently identified as a CL transporter from the IM to the OM with an unknown mechanism. Here we present the first two crystal structures of soluble periplasmic globular domain of PbgA from S. typhimurium and E. coli, which revealed that the globular domains of PbgA resemble the structures of the arylsulfatase protein family and contains a novel core hydrophobic pocket that may be responsible for binding and transporting CLs. Our structural and functional studies shed an important light on the mechanism of CL transport in Gram-negative bacteria from the IM to the OM, which offers great potential for the development of novel antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:27487745

  2. Comparative analysis of the structures of the outer membrane protein P1 genes from major clones of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Grass, S; Einhorn, M; Bailey, C; Newell, C

    1989-01-01

    P1 outer membrane proteins from Haemophilus influenzae type b are heterogeneous antigenically and with respect to apparent molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For determination of the molecular basis for the differences in the P1 proteins, the genes for the P1 proteins from strain 1613, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 3L, and strain 8358, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 6U, were cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported gene for the P1 protein from strain MinnA, a strain with the outer membrane protein subtype 1H. These prototype strains are representatives of the three major clonal families of H. influenzae type b responsible for invasive disease in diverse areas of the world. The nucleotide sequences of the P1 genes from strains 1613 and 8358 were 94 and 90% identical to the MinnA sequence, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences were 91 and 86% identical, respectively. Heterogeneity between the MinnA and 1613 proteins was largely localized to two short variable regions; the protein from strain 8538 contained a third variable region not observed in the other P1 proteins. Thus, the outer membrane protein P1 genes are highly conserved; the variable regions may code for the previously demonstrated strain-specific antigenic determinants. Images PMID:2572549

  3. Studies on gonococcus infection. XVIII. 125I-labeled peptide mapping of the major protein of the gonococcal cell wall outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J

    1979-01-01

    The major outer membrane proteins from 10 gonococcal strains were examined after 125I-labeling of the proteins as single bands resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. These 125I-proteins were then treated with either trypsin or alpha-chymotrypsin, and the resultant 125I-peptides were visualized by autoradiography after two-dimensional electrophoretic and chromatographic separation on thin-layer cellulose sheets. Several 125I-peptides were present in all the major outer membrane proteins examined. The presence and absence of additional 125I-peptides segregated the major proteins into two pattern groups. One group consisted of major outer membranes with molecular weights of 34,000 or 33,000; major proteins with molecular weights of 32,000 constituted the other group. Two beta-lactamase-producing gonococcal isolates were examined. Their major outer membrane proteins were identical in apparent molecular weights and alpha-chymotryptic 125I-peptide fingerprints; these proteins contained 125I-peptides not found in other gonococcal major proteins. No 125I-peptide differences were found among the major outer membrane proteins of strain F62 gonococci that exhibited differences in piliation and/or colony opacity characteristics. Images PMID:110681

  4. Local and Global Dynamics in Klebsiella pneumoniae Outer Membrane Protein a in Lipid Bilayers Probed at Atomic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Saurel, Olivier; Iordanov, Iordan; Nars, Guillaume; Demange, Pascal; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Andreas, Loren B; Pintacuda, Guido; Milon, Alain

    2017-02-01

    The role of membrane proteins in cellular mechanism strongly depends on their dynamics, and solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique method to exhaustively characterize motions of proteins in a lipid environment. Herein, we make use of advances in (1)H-detected MAS NMR to describe the dynamics of the membrane domain of the Outer membrane protein A of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpOmpA). By measuring (1)H-(15)N dipolar-coupling as well as (15)N R1 and R1ρ relaxation rates at fast (60 kHz) MAS and high magnetic field (1 GHz), we were able to describe the motions of the residues of the β-barrel as a collective rocking of low amplitude and of hundreds of nanoseconds time scale. Residual local motions at the edges of the strands, underscored by enhanced (15)N R1ρ relaxation rates, report on the mobility of the connected loops. In agreement with MAS NMR data, proteolysis experiments performed on the full length KpOmpA as well as on its membrane domain, reconstituted in liposomes or in detergent micelles, revealed in all cases the existence of a unique trypsin cleavage site within the membrane domain (out of 16 potential Lys and Arg sites). This site is located in the extracellular loop L3, showing that it is highly accessible to protein-protein interactions. KpOmpA is involved in cell-cell recognition, for adhesion and immune response mechanisms. The L3 region may therefore play a key role in pathogenicity.

  5. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus.

  6. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin; Parales, R. E.

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus

  7. [Bacterial Outer Membrane Nanovesicles: Structure, Biogenesis, Functions, and Application in Biotechnology and Medicine (Review)].

    PubMed

    Lusta, K A

    2015-01-01

    The review summarizes the comprehensive biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of extracellular membrane nanovesicles (EMN) derived from different kinds of bacteria. The EMN structure, composition, biogenesis, secretion mechanisms, formation conditions, functions, involvement in pathogenesis, and application in biotechnology and medicine are discussed.

  8. An Essential Tyrosine Phosphatase Homolog Regulates Cell Separation, Outer Membrane Integrity, and Morphology in Caulobacter crescentus ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shapland, Elaine B.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Bajwa, Amrita K.; Ryan, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Although reversible phosphorylation on tyrosine residues regulates the activity of many eukaryotic proteins, there are few examples of this type of regulation in bacteria. We have identified the first essential tyrosine phosphatase homolog in a bacterium, Caulobacter crescentusCtpA. ctpAmutants with altered active-site residues are nonviable, and depletion of CtpA yields chains of cells with blebbed outer membranes, linked by unresolved peptidoglycan. CtpA overexpression reduces cell curvature in a manner similar to deleting the intermediate filament protein crescentin, but it does not disrupt crescentin localization or membrane attachment. Although it has no obvious signal sequence or transmembrane-spanning domains, CtpA associates with the Caulobacterinner membrane. Immunolocalization experiments suggest that CtpA accumulates at the division site during the last quarter of the cell cycle. We propose that CtpA dephosphorylates one or more proteins involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis or remodeling, which in turn affect cell separation, cell envelope integrity, and vibrioid morphology. PMID:21705597

  9. Role of Tim50 in the transfer of precursor proteins from the outer to the inner membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mokranjac, Dejana; Sichting, Martin; Popov-Celeketić, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Gevorkyan-Airapetov, Lada; Zohary, Keren; Hell, Kai; Azem, Abdussalam; Neupert, Walter

    2009-03-01

    Transport of essentially all matrix and a number of inner membrane proteins is governed, entirely or in part, by N-terminal presequences and requires a coordinated action of the translocases of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes (TOM and TIM23 complexes). Here, we have analyzed Tim50, a subunit of the TIM23 complex that is implicated in transfer of precursors from TOM to TIM23. Tim50 is recruited to the TIM23 complex via Tim23 in an interaction that is essentially independent of the rest of the translocase. We find Tim50 in close proximity to the intermembrane space side of the TOM complex where it recognizes both types of TIM23 substrates, those that are to be transported into the matrix and those destined to the inner membrane, suggesting that Tim50 recognizes presequences. This function of Tim50 depends on its association with TIM23. We conclude that the efficient transfer of precursors between TOM and TIM23 complexes requires the concerted action of Tim50 with Tim23.

  10. Outer membrane protein A of E. coli folds into detergent micelles, but not in the presence of monomeric detergent.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, J. H.; Wiener, M. C.; Tamm, L. K.

    1999-01-01

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli is a beta-barrel membrane protein that unfolds in 8 M urea to a random coil. OmpA refolds upon urea dilution in the presence of certain detergents or lipids. To examine the minimal requirements for secondary and tertiary structure formation in beta-barrel membrane proteins, folding of OmpA was studied as a function of the hydrophobic chain length, the chemical structure of the polar headgroup, and the concentration of a large array of amphiphiles. OmpA folded in the presence of detergents only above a critical minimal chain length of the apolar chain as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a SDS-PAGE assay that measures tertiary structure formation. Details of the chemical structure of the polar headgroup were unimportant for folding. The minimal chain length required for folding correlated with the critical micelle concentration in each detergent series. Therefore, OmpA requires preformed detergent micelles for folding and does not adsorb monomeric detergent to its perimeter after folding. Formation of secondary and tertiary structure is thermodynamically coupled and strictly dependent on the interaction with aggregated amphiphiles. PMID:10548052

  11. Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential for Endoplasmic Reticulum to Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport.

    PubMed

    Salka, Kyle; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Wilson, Kassandra; Bozidis, Petros; Mehta, Mansi; Rainey, Kristin; Sesaki, Hiromi; Patterson, George H; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M

    2017-12-01

    Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), we find these conventional pathways for ER to the mitochondria trafficking are dispensable for vMIA trafficking to OMM. Instead, mutations in vMIA that change its hydrophobicity alter its trafficking to mitochondria. Superresolution imaging showed that PACS-2- and Mfn-mediated membrane apposition or hydrophobic interactions alter vMIA's ability to organize in nanoscale clusters at the OMM. This shows that signal-anchored MAM proteins can make use of hydrophobic interactions independently of conventional ER-mitochondria pathways to traffic from the ER to mitochondria. Further, vMIA hydrophobic interactions and ER-mitochondria contacts facilitate proper organization of vMIA on the OMM.

  12. Proteome-scale identification of outer membrane proteins in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a structure based combined hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aarti; Rub, Abdur; Akhter, Yusuf

    2014-07-29

    Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in eubacteria have several important roles, which range from membrane transport to the host-pathogen interactions. These are directly involved in pathogen attachment, entry and activation of several pathogen-induced signaling cascades in the cell. The cardinal structural features of OMPs include the presence of a β-barrel, a signal peptide and the absence of the transmembrane helix. This is the first report on proteome-wide identification of OMPs of ruminant pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The complete proteome of MAP was analyzed using a pipeline of algorithms, which screens the amino acid sequences and structural features shared by OMPs in other bacteria. Secondary structure of these proteins is also analyzed and scores are calculated for amphiphilic β-strands. From the set of 588 exported proteins, 264 proteins are predicted to be inner membrane proteins while 83 proteins are identified as potential OMPs in MAP. Finally, this study identified 57 proteins as top candidates, on the basis of computed isoelectric points, as the core set of OMPs. Significantly, the resulting data for OMPs are not only useful in designing novel vaccines but may also open avenues for the development of early serodiagnostic tools for MAP.

  13. Bax and Bak function as the outer membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability pore in regulating necrotic cell death in mice.

    PubMed

    Karch, Jason; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Burr, Adam R; Sargent, Michelle A; Elrod, John W; Peixoto, Pablo M; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Osinska, Hanna; Cheng, Emily H-Y; Robbins, Jeffrey; Kinnally, Kathleen W; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2013-08-27

    A critical event in ischemia-based cell death is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). However, the molecular identity of the components of the MPTP remains unknown. Here, we determined that the Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak, which are central regulators of apoptotic cell death, are also required for mitochondrial pore-dependent necrotic cell death by facilitating outer membrane permeability of the MPTP. Loss of Bax/Bak reduced outer mitochondrial membrane permeability and conductance without altering inner membrane MPTP function, resulting in resistance to mitochondrial calcium overload and necrotic cell death. Reconstitution with mutants of Bax that cannot oligomerize and form apoptotic pores, but still enhance outer membrane permeability, permitted MPTP-dependent mitochondrial swelling and restored necrotic cell death. Our data predict that the MPTP is an inner membrane regulated process, although in the absence of Bax/Bak the outer membrane resists swelling and prevents organelle rupture to prevent cell death. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00772.001.

  14. Bax and Bak function as the outer membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability pore in regulating necrotic cell death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Jason; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Burr, Adam R; Sargent, Michelle A; Elrod, John W; Peixoto, Pablo M; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Osinska, Hanna; Cheng, Emily H-Y; Robbins, Jeffrey; Kinnally, Kathleen W; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2013-01-01

    A critical event in ischemia-based cell death is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). However, the molecular identity of the components of the MPTP remains unknown. Here, we determined that the Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak, which are central regulators of apoptotic cell death, are also required for mitochondrial pore-dependent necrotic cell death by facilitating outer membrane permeability of the MPTP. Loss of Bax/Bak reduced outer mitochondrial membrane permeability and conductance without altering inner membrane MPTP function, resulting in resistance to mitochondrial calcium overload and necrotic cell death. Reconstitution with mutants of Bax that cannot oligomerize and form apoptotic pores, but still enhance outer membrane permeability, permitted MPTP-dependent mitochondrial swelling and restored necrotic cell death. Our data predict that the MPTP is an inner membrane regulated process, although in the absence of Bax/Bak the outer membrane resists swelling and prevents organelle rupture to prevent cell death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00772.001 PMID:23991283

  15. Charged anaesthetics alter LM-fibroblast plasma-membrane enzymes by selective fluidization of inner or outer membrane leaflets.

    PubMed

    Sweet, W D; Schroeder, F

    1986-10-15

    The functional consequences of the differences in lipid composition and structure between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane were investigated. Fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene(DPH), quenching, and differential polarized phase fluorimetry demonstrated selective fluidization by local anaesthetics of individual leaflets in isolated LM-cell plasma membranes. As measured by decreased limiting anisotropy of DPH fluorescence, cationic (prilocaine) and anionic (phenobarbital and pentobarbital) amphipaths preferentially fluidized the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets respectively. Unlike prilocaine, procaine, also a cation, fluidized both leaflets of these membranes equally. Pentobarbital stimulated 5'-nucleotidase between 0.1 and 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas phenobarbital only inhibited, at higher concentrations. Cationic drugs were ineffective. Two maxima of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activation were obtained with both anionic drugs. Only one activation maximum was obtained with both cationic drugs. The maximum in activity below 1 mM for all four drugs clustered about a single limiting anisotropy value in the cytofacial leaflet, whereas there was no correlation between activity and limiting anisotropy in the exofacial leaflets. Therefore, although phenobarbital and pentobarbital below 1 mM fluidized the exofacial leaflet more than the cytofacial leaflet, the smaller fluidization in the cytofacial leaflet was functionally significant for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase was stimulated at 1 mM-phenobarbital, unaffected by pentobarbital and slightly stimulated by both cationic drugs at concentrations fluidizing both leaflets. Thus the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was highly sensitive to selective fluidization of the leaflet containing its active site, whereas the other enzymes examined were little affected by fluidization of either leaflet.

  16. Crystal Structures of the Outer Membrane Domain of Intimin and Invasin from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairman, James W.; Dautin, Nathalie; Wojtowicz, Damian; Liu, Wei; Noinaj, Nicholas; Barnard, Travis J.; Udho, Eshwar; Przytycka, Teresa M.; Cherezov, Vadim; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-12-10

    Intimins and invasins are virulence factors produced by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. They contain C-terminal extracellular passenger domains that are involved in adhesion to host cells and N-terminal {beta} domains that are embedded in the outer membrane. Here, we identify the domain boundaries of an E. coli intimin {beta} domain and use this information to solve its structure and the {beta} domain structure of a Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin. Both {beta} domain structures crystallized as monomers and reveal that the previous range of residues assigned to the {beta} domain also includes a protease-resistant domain that is part of the passenger. Additionally, we identify 146 nonredundant representative members of the intimin/invasin family based on the boundaries of the highly conserved intimin and invasin {beta} domains. We then use this set of sequences along with our structural data to find and map the evolutionarily constrained residues within the {beta} domain.

  17. Heme uptake across the outer membrane as revealed by crystal structures of the receptor–hemophore complex

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Stefanie; Huché, Frédéric; Diederichs, Kay; Izadi-Pruneyre, Nadia; Lecroisey, Anne; Wandersman, Cécile; Delepelaire, Philippe; Welte, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use specific heme uptake systems, relying on outer membrane receptors and excreted heme-binding proteins (hemophores) to scavenge and actively transport heme. To unravel the unknown molecular details involved, we present 3 structures of the Serratia marcescens receptor HasR in complex with its hemophore HasA. The transfer of heme over a distance of 9 Å from its high-affinity site in HasA into a site of lower affinity in HasR is coupled with the exergonic complex formation of the 2 proteins. Upon docking to the receptor, 1 of the 2 axial heme coordinations of the hemophore is initially broken, but the position and orientation of the heme is preserved. Subsequently, steric displacement of heme by a receptor residue ruptures the other axial coordination, leading to heme transfer into the receptor. PMID:19144921

  18. Native surface association of a recombinant 38-kilodalton Treponema pallidum antigen isolated from the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, T E; Radolf, J D; Walfield, A M; Cunningham, T M; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1986-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid designated pAW305, containing a 6-kilobase insert of Treponema pallidum DNA, directed the expression of a 38-kilodalton (kDa) treponemal antigen in Escherichia coli. The 38-kDa antigen copurified with the outer membrane fraction of the E. coli cell envelope after treatment with nonionic detergents or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Rabbits immunized with the recombinant 38-kDa antigen developed antibodies which reacted specifically with a 38-kDa T. pallidum antigen on immunoblots, and 38-kDa antisera specifically immobilized T. pallidum in a complement-dependent manner in the T. pallidum immobilization test. Antisera to the 38-kDa recombinant antigen were also used to demonstrate its native surface association on T. pallidum by immunoelectron microscopy. Images PMID:3516880

  19. VDAC electronics: 3. VDAC-Creatine kinase-dependent generation of the outer membrane potential in respiring mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial energy in cardiac cells has been reported to be channeled into the cytosol through the intermembrane contact sites formed by the adenine nucleotide translocator, creatine kinase and VDAC. Computational analysis performed in this study showed a high probability of the outer membrane potential (OMP) generation coupled to such a mechanism of energy channeling in respiring mitochondria. OMPs, positive inside, calculated at elevated concentrations of creatine are high enough to restrict ATP release from mitochondria, to significantly decrease the apparent K(m,ADP) for state 3 respiration and to maintain low concentrations of Ca(2+) in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. An inhibition by creatine of Ca(2+)-induced swelling of isolated mitochondria and other protective effects of creatine reported in the literature might be explained by generated positive OMP. We suggest that VDAC-creatine kinase-dependent generation of OMP represents a novel physiological factor controlling metabolic state of mitochondria, cell energy channeling and resistance to death.

  20. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Forms an Eight-Stranded beta-Barrel with a Hydrophobic Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Hong,H.; Patel, D.; Tamm, L.; van den Berg, B.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli OmpW belongs to a family of small outer membrane (OM) proteins that are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Their functions are unknown, but recent data suggest that they may be involved in the protection of bacteria against various forms of environmental stress. In order to gain insight into the function of these proteins we have determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli OmpW to 2.7 Angstroms resolution. The structure shows that OmpW forms an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a long and narrow hydrophobic channel that contains a bound LDAO detergent molecule. Single channel conductance experiments show that OmpW functions as an ion channel in planar lipid bilayers. The channel activity can be blocked by the addition of LDAO. Taken together, the data suggest that members of the OmpW family could be involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules across the bacterial OM.

  1. Outer membrane protein A and OprF – Versatile roles in Gram-negative bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is an abundant protein of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria with a multitude of functions. Although the structural features and porin function of OmpA were well studied, its role in the pathogenesis of various bacterial infections has been emerging for the past decade. The four extracellular loops of OmpA interact with a variety of host tissues for adhesion, invasion and evasion of host-defense mechanisms. This review describes how various regions present in the extracellular loops of OmpA contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal meningitis induced by E. coli K1 and for many other functions. In addition, the function of OmpA like proteins such as OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also discussed herein. PMID:22240162

  2. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Porin Family Highlights a Major Difference in the Outer Membrane of Chlamydial Symbionts and Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aistleitner, Karin; Heinz, Christian; Hörmann, Alexandra; Heinz, Eva; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Schulz, Frederik; Maier, Elke; Pichler, Peter; Benz, Roland; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae constitute an evolutionary well separated group of intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of humans as well as symbionts of protozoa. The amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila lacks a homologue of the most abundant outer membrane protein of the Chlamydiaceae, the major outer membrane protein MOMP, highlighting a major difference between environmental chlamydiae and their pathogenic counterparts. We recently identified a novel family of putative porins encoded in the genome of P. amoebophila by in silico analysis. Two of these Protochlamydia outer membrane proteins, PomS (pc1489) and PomT (pc1077), are highly abundant in outer membrane preparations of this organism. Here we show that all four members of this putative porin family are toxic when expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibodies against heterologously expressed PomT and PomS purified directly from elementary bodies, respectively, demonstrated the location of both proteins in the outer membrane of P. amoebophila. The location of the most abundant protein PomS was further confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy. We could show that pomS is transcribed, and the corresponding protein is present in the outer membrane throughout the complete developmental cycle, suggesting an essential role for P. amoebophila. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that PomS functions as a porin with anion-selectivity and a pore size similar to the Chlamydiaceae MOMP. Taken together, our results suggest that PomS, possibly in concert with PomT and other members of this porin family, is the functional equivalent of MOMP in P. amoebophila. This work contributes to our understanding of the adaptations of symbiotic and pathogenic chlamydiae to their different eukaryotic hosts. PMID:23383036

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis to measure immune response to Brucella species.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, S B; Bibb, W F; Shih, C N; Kaufmann, A F; Mitchell, J R; McKinney, R M

    1986-01-01

    We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to measure human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM response to the major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis. The ELISA was more sensitive in detecting antibody than a standard microagglutination (MA) test with B. abortus antigen. Of 101 sera from persons with suspected brucellosis, 79 (78.2%) gave ELISA IgM titers greater than or equal to the B. abortus MA titer without 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), which measures both IgM and IgG. Of the 101 sera, 97% gave ELISA IgG titers greater than or equal to the MA with 2ME titer. A total of 58 sera, drawn from 11 human patients from 1 to 29 weeks after onset of brucellosis, gave higher geometric mean titers for the ELISA IgG test than for the MA with 2ME test. These 58 sera also gave ELISA IgM geometric mean titers that were greater than or within one doubling dilution of the geometric mean titers of MA without 2ME. In addition to detecting antibody response to B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, the ELISA was sensitive to antibody response to human and canine infections with B. canis. The B. canis antibody response is not detected by the MA test with B. abortus antigen. The ELISA, with a standard preparation of major outer membrane proteins of B. melitensis as antigen, appears to be useful in measuring antibody response in humans to infections by all species of Brucella known to infect humans. PMID:3095364

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to serotype 2 and serotype 15 outer membrane proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and their use in serotyping.

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, W D; Moran, E E; Connelly, H; Mandrell, R E; Brandt, B

    1984-01-01

    A series of murine monoclonal antibodies to serotype 2 and serotype 15 strains of Neisseria meningitidis were produced which were specific for outer membrane proteins of classes 1, 2, 3, and 5. A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies that exhibited a high degree of serotype specificity when reacted with prototype strains of known serotype were selected for study. Each of the corresponding epitopes was localized on a specific outer membrane protein by means of immunoprecipitation, electroblotting, or both. The serotype 2a-, 2b-, and 2c-specific antibodies bound to the class 2 protein, the serotype 15-specific antibody bound to the class 3 protein, two antibodies (3-1-P1.2 and 3-1-P1.16) bound to class 1 proteins, and two antibodies (1-1-P5.1 and 3-1-P5.2) bound to class 5 proteins. Six of these monoclonal antibodies were used in a spot-blot procedure to survey 122 case isolates (groups B, C, Y, and W135) and 363 carrier isolates (all serogroups) for the presence of the 2a, 2b, 2c, 15, P1.2, and P1.16 epitopes. A total of 66% of the case isolates and 30% of the carrier isolates reacted with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies. The use of monoclonal antibodies for serotyping of meningococci appears to be feasible and easy and appears to have significant advantages over the use of polyclonal typing sera. Images PMID:6434428

  5. OpnS, an outer membrane porin of Xenorhabdus nematophila, confers a competitive advantage for growth in the insect host.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, Ransome; Forst, Steven

    2009-09-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila engages in a mutualistic association with an entomopathogenic nematode and also functions as a pathogen toward different insect hosts. We studied the role of the growth-phase-regulated outer membrane protein OpnS in host interactions. OpnS was shown to be a 16-stranded beta-barrel porin. opnS was expressed during growth in insect hemolymph and expression was elevated as the cell density increased. When wild-type and opnS deletion strains were coinjected into insects, the wild-type strain was predominantly recovered from the insect cadaver. Similarly, an opnS-complemented strain outcompeted the DeltaopnS strain. Coinjection of the wild-type and DeltaopnS strains together with uncolonized nematodes into insects resulted in nematode progeny that were almost exclusively colonized with the wild-type strain. Likewise, nematode progeny recovered after coinjection of a mixture of nematodes carrying either the wild-type or DeltaopnS strain were colonized by the wild-type strain. In addition, the DeltaopnS strain displayed a competitive growth defect when grown together with the wild-type strain in insect hemolymph but not in defined culture medium. The DeltaopnS strain displayed increased sensitivity to antimicrobial compounds, suggesting that deletion of OpnS affected the integrity of the outer membrane. These findings show that the OpnS porin confers a competitive advantage for the growth and/or the survival of X. nematophila in the insect host and provides a new model for studying the biological relevance of differential regulation of porins in a natural host environment.

  6. Immunogenic and invasive properties of Brucella melitensis 16M outer membrane protein vaccine candidates identified via a reverse vaccinology approach.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Gabriel; Pei, Jianwu; Mwangi, Waithaka; Adams, L Garry; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Ficht, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is the etiologic agent of brucellosis, one of the most common and widely distributed zoonotic diseases. Its highly infectious nature, the insidious, systemic, chronic, debilitating aspects of the disease and the lack of an approved vaccine for human use in the United States are features that make Brucella a viable threat to public health. One of the main impediments to vaccine development is identification of suitable antigens. In order to identify antigens that could potentially be used in a vaccine formulation, we describe a multi-step antigen selection approach. We initially used an algorithm (Vaxign) to predict ORF encoding outer membrane proteins with antigenic determinants. Differential gene expression during acute infection and published evidence for a role in virulence were used as criteria for down-selection of the candidate antigens that resulted from in silico prediction. This approach resulted in the identification of nine Brucella melitensis outer membrane proteins, 5 of which were recombinantly expressed and used for validation. Omp22 and Hia had the highest in silico scores for adhesin probability and also conferred invasive capacity to E. coli overexpressing recombinant proteins. With the exception of FlgK in the goat, all proteins reacted to pooled sera from exposed goats, mice, and humans. BtuB, Hia and FlgK stimulated a mixed Th1-Th2 response in splenocytes from immunized mice while BtuB and Hia elicited NO release from splenocytes of S19 immunized mice. The results support the applicability of the current approach to the identification of antigens with immunogenic and invasive properties. Studies to assess immunogenicity and protective efficacy of individual proteins in the mouse are currently underway.

  7. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  8. Correlation between Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein OprR

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Maeda, Takuya; Murakami, Keiji; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was investigated. A P. aeruginosa strain with adapted resistance to QACs was developed by a standard broth dilution method. It was revealed that P. aeruginosa exhibited remarkable resistance to N-dodecylpyridinium iodide (P-12), whose structure is similar to that of a common disinfectant, cetylpyridinium chloride. Adapted resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is commonly used as a disinfectant, was also observed in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the P-12-resistant strain exhibited cross-resistance to BAC. Analysis of the outer membrane protein of the P-12-resistant strain by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a significant increase in the level of expression of a protein (named OprR) whose molecular mass was approximately 26 kDa. The actual function of OprR is not yet clear; however, OprR was expected to be an outer membrane-associated protein with homology to lipoproteins of other bacterial species, according to a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information website with the BLAST program by use of the N-terminal sequence of OprR. A correlation between the level of expression of OprR and the level of resistance of P. aeruginosa to QACs was observed by using a PA2800 gene knockout mutant derived from the P-12-resistant strain. The knockout mutant recovered susceptibility not only to P-12 but also to BAC. These results suggested that OprR significantly participated in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to QACs, such as P-12 and BAC. PMID:12821452

  9. Proteomic analysis of the sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa responding to ampicilin, kanamycin, and tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuanxian; Xu, Changxin; Ren, Haixia; Lin, Xiangmin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Sanying

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial wound infections by antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains have increasing importance in hospitals. Outer membrane proteins of the bacterium have strong influence on its resistance to antibiotics. In the current study, a parallel proteomic approach was applied to analysis of sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of P. aeruginosa responding to ampicilin, kanamycin and tetracycline resistances. Eleven differential proteins with 15 spots were determined and then identified by MALDI-TOF/MS, in which four with increased OprF, MexA, OmpH, and decreased hypothetical protein (NCBI No. 15599856), six with increased OprF, OmpH, hypothetical protein (NCBI No. 15599183) and decreased OprG, MexA, conserved hypothetical protein (NCBI No. 15600371), and eight with increased OprF, MexA, OprL, probable Omp (NCBI No. 15599856), probable secretion protein (NCBI No. 15600167), OprD and decreased OprG, conserved hypothetical protein (NCBI No. 15600371) responded to ampicilin, kanamycin, and tetracycline resistances, respectively. With the exception of OprF, the other differential proteins did not show the same behaviors against the three antibiotic resistances. Compared with our previous report on E. coli Omps responding to ampicilin and tetracycline resistances, which was only a protein difference in quality between the two antibiotics, P. aeruginosa showed significant diversity against the three antibiotics. Our findings might provide valuable data for an understanding of antibiotic-resistant difference between different species of bacteria. Meanwhile, these proteins shared by different bacteria or a bacterium against different antibiotics may provide universal targets for the development of new drugs that control antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  10. High-resolution diffraction from crystals of a membrane-protein complex: bacterial outer membrane protein OmpC complexed with the antibacterial eukaryotic protein lactoferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Sundara Baalaji, N.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Singh, T. P.; Krishnaswamy, S. E-mail: mkukrishna@rediffmail.com