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Sample records for petrochemical industry part ii

  1. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  2. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition. PMID:9595345

  3. Industrial energy in transition: a petrochemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wishart, R S

    1978-02-10

    The future growth of the petrochemical industry depends in part on the industry's ability to improve efficiency in the use of oil and gas feedstocks and to develop promising alternatives. Technological innovation is proving to be the key to the long-term viability of the industry. The next 6 to 7 years will be characterized by the commercialization of new technologies designed to improve the efficiency of petroleum as a feedstock. Union Carbide's advanced cracking reactor, now nearing the demonstration stage, exemplifies this type of effort. The increasing price of oil and gas will make coal-based synthesis gas more attractive as a feedstock, particularly for oxygenated petrochemical products. A further development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municipal wastes to raise steam for electricity generation and as a possible, supplemental feedstock. By the year 2000, it is predicted that feedstocks from all sources other than oil and gas may constitute 10 to 14 percent of the total new material requirement for the petrochemical industry.

  4. Technology transfer in the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of the Japanese petrochemical industry from the 1950s through the 1960s solely from the standpoint of the process of technology transplantation. The Japanese petrochemical industry in this period is interesting as it relates to technology transfer to Japan because: (1) It was an industry at the core of the heavy and chemical industries, which were an important pillar of Japan's industrial policy; (2) It was a new technical field with no past history; and (3) Unraveling of technology was successfully pursued, with the result that Japan became a petrochemical technology-exporting country in the 1960s.

  5. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  6. Cancer incidence in a petrochemical industry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Gösta; Barregard, Lars; Holmberg, Erik; Sallsten, Gerd

    2010-09-15

    Emissions from petrochemical industries may contain suspected or established carcinogens. As increased incidence of cancer in residential areas close to petrochemical industries has been reported in the literature, we conducted a study of cancer incidence in Stenungsund, Sweden, where petrochemical industries were established in the mid 1960s. A number of cancer cases in the central parts of Stenungsund were collected from the regional cancer registry for each year between 1974 and 2005. In addition to the total number of cases, the numbers of leukemia, lymphoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, and brain cancer were also collected. Expected numbers for each year were calculated based on age- and sex-specific incidence rates in reference areas. Levels of carcinogenic volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) were estimated from measurements and emission data. A dispersion model was used to classify Stenungsund into a "low" and "high" ethylene level area. Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) for all cancer for the entire period was 1.02 (95% CI 0.97-1.08). The occurrence of leukemia, lymphoma, and cancer in the central nervous system was slightly lower than expected for the entire period. SIR for lung cancer was 1.37 (95% CI 1.10-1.69), and SIR for liver cancer was 1.50 (0.82-2.53). VOC levels were low. Taking estimated exposure and demographic factors into account, our assessment is that occurrence of cancer was not affected by industrial emissions in any of the studied sites.

  7. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  8. China`s refining/petrochemical industry continues expansion

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    China`s downstream petroleum industry decreased refinery throughput and increased petrochemical production in 1994, compared to 1993 data. A report titled ``China Petroleum Industry `94,`` issued by China Petroleum Newsletter, a publication of China Petroleum Information Institute, summarized China`s refined products and petrochemical production figures for 1994. The report also listed important construction projects at China`s downstream plants. This paper presents data from this report.

  9. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  10. Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen

    1997-02-21

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN MODERN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Timasheva, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are reported the results of the performance of hygiene assessment of working conditions in petrochemical industry. The studies have shown that workers' body is exposed to a complex of hazardous occupational factors including a chemical factor, noise, the severity and intensity of the working process. An overall assessment of working conditions corresponds to Class 3.3.

  12. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies. PMID:24569855

  13. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  14. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  15. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  16. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  17. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  18. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  19. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  20. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  1. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  2. Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

    2014-10-01

    The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation.

  3. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level.

  5. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  6. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  7. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  8. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  9. Correlation between environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrochemical industry operators.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Tranfo, Giovanna; Pigini, Daniela; Paci, Enrico; Salamon, Fabiola; Scapellato, Maria L; Fracasso, Maria E; Manno, Maurizio; Bartolucci, Giovanni B

    2010-01-15

    The present work was aimed to study in petrochemical industry operators the correlation, if any, between environmental exposure to low levels of benzene and two biological exposure indexes in end-shift urine, i.e. trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA). Exposure to benzene was assessed in 133 male subjects employed in outdoor operations in a petrochemical plant, using personal passive-diffusive air samplers worn at the breathing zone; adsorbed benzene was determined by GC-FID analysis. S-PMA was determined by a new HPLCMS/MS method, after (quantitative) acidic hydrolysis of the cysteine conjugate precursor. t,t-MA was measured by an HPLC-UV method. Smoking habits were assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both environmental and biological monitoring data showed that benzene exposure of petrochemical industry operators was low (mean values were 0.014ppm, 101mug/g creat, and 2.8mug/g creat, for benzene, t,t-MA, and S-PMA, respectively) if compared with the ACGIH limits. Cigarette smoking was confirmed to be a strong confounding factor for the urinary excretion of both metabolites: statistically significant increases of t,t-MA and S-PMA levels were recorded in smokers when compared to non-smokers (p<0.0001). The best correlation found was that between exposure to benzene and S-PMA levels, particularly in non-smokers. This was partly due to the hydrolysis of the S-PMA precursor N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dihydro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-l-cysteine, a crucial step of the new analytical method used, which indeed reduced the variability of the results by means of an improved standardization of this critical preanalytical factor. A weaker correlation was found between exposure to benzene and t,t-MA, possibly explained by the fact that the latter is also a metabolite of sorbic acid, a common diet component. In summary, even at such low levels of exposure, urinary metabolites proved to be a useful tool for assessing individual occupational

  10. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  11. Mortality among three refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts. II. Retirees.

    PubMed

    Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J; Jorgensen, G

    2000-07-01

    This study updates mortality data for 6238 retirees from three refinery/petrochemical plants. Almost 90% of the cohort was deceased. Deaths from all causes (standardized mortality ratio, 104; 95% confidence interval, 102 to 107) and all cancers (standardized mortality ratio, 109; 95% confidence interval, 102 to 116) were elevated. Increased deaths due to kidney cancer, mesothelioma, and the category of other lymphohemopoietic cancers also were observed. The rate of leukemia was not increased. There was little internal or external consistency to support an occupational relationship for kidney cancer, but findings for mesothelioma and other lymphohemopoietic cancers are consistent with reports for other petroleum cohorts. Analyses by age indicated significantly higher all-cause mortality rates among persons retiring before age 65. The results suggest that continued surveillance of mesothelioma and lymphohemopoietic cancer malignancies in younger workers with more contemporary exposures may be warranted. Furthermore, age at retirement should be considered when analyzing occupational cohorts.

  12. Devising an integrated methodology for analyzing energy use and CO2 emissions from Taiwan's petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Lee, C F; Lin, S J; Lewis, C

    2001-12-01

    Input-output modeling and multiplier analysis are used to assess Taiwan's five petrochemical industries, based upon their economic contribution and potential impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emission. In addition, a consolidated index system was developed for evaluating energy and economic efficiencies as well as targets for CO2 reduction. Results indicate that petrochemical materials (PM) make a major contribution to economic development, with lesser contributions from plastic materials (PL) and artificial fibres (AF). PM has the highest energy multiplier while PL has the largest induced potential for energy consumption. Plastic and rubber products (PP, RP) are relatively insignificant energy consumers. AF has the highest CO2 multiplier, and its induced potential for CO2 emission is the most significant. The consolidated index shows that the upstream petrochemical industries perform rather poorly in an integrated view of economic, energy, and CO2 emission, and should be seen as the primary targets for CO2 reduction. Investment of the petrochemical industries in Taiwan should be adjusted to improve energy efficiency, economic bases, and lower CO2 emissions.

  13. Viability of industrial integration within the Gulf Cooperation Council: the case of petrochemical industries

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabban, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates - was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. These countries, with their great though declining financial capability arising from oil as the main source of income, had already tried individually to diversify their economies in order to decrease their total reliance on crude oil income in the wake of the world oil glut. Their limited base of natural resources other than oil is a major constraint. Industrialization, and specifically, industrialization through oil-based industries, seems to be the most-viable approach they have toward their successful economic development. This study concentrates on the issues of regional economic and industrial development as the main factor for economic gain that may result from the GCC scheme. The experience of different integration schemes provides some beneficial lessons for the GCC. The GCC region has a comparative advantage in petrochemical industries, which suit the region's factor endowments, arising from the availability of cheap energy feedstock.

  14. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  15. Managing workplace safety and health: The case of contract labor in the U. S. petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.C.; Kochan, T.A.; Smith, M.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the safety and health issues relating to the use of contract labor in the U.S. petrochemical industry. The study was commissioned by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) following the October 23, 1989, explosion and fire at the Phillips 66 Houston Chemical Complex in Pasadena, TX. The explosion killed 23 workers and injured 232 others. This incident brought the long-standing debate over the use of contract workers in the petrochemical industry to the attention of national policymakers. This study was therefore designed to produce a better factual base from which policy and practice on the use of contract workers might be better informed.

  16. [Early signs of the influence of harmful industrial factors on workers at present-day petrochemical plants].

    PubMed

    Karimova, L K; Gizatullina, D F

    2012-01-01

    The working conditions and health status were studied in workers from different petrochemical plants. The leading industrial factors that conferred moderate and high risks of health impairments as early signs of the combined action of harmful substances and industrial noise, as well as mild occupational diseases were identified in the workers of essential trades at the petrochemical plants. According to the results of the investigation, the authors have elaborated a package of measures to promote the health status of workers at the petrochemical plants.

  17. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  18. [Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].

    PubMed

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions.

  19. Industrial Arts Movement's History, Vision, and Ideal: Relevant, Contemporary, Used But Unrecognized--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen; Volk, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    The accepted model of industrial arts underestimates the continuity of vocational education and technology education and exaggerates differences between industrial arts and earlier forms of industrial education. The ideals of Dewey and others have been lost as technology education reproduces old structures of industrial arts that include…

  20. 2012 in review - part II: overcoming the obstacles in the pharma/biotech industry.

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M

    2013-02-01

    As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™.

  1. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  2. Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, B Tom T; Berkowitz, Carl M; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Williams, E J; Fesenfeld, F; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G; Lonneman, William A; Riemer, D

    2004-12-22

    Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

  3. Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.

    PubMed

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

    2006-07-31

    This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article.

  4. A comparison of new and existing light sources for the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borton, J.A.; Daley, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will compare current light sources with new research available for the Petrochemical Industry in the 1990`s. High lumen output, by today`s standards, is not necessarily the correct criterion for selection of light sources in process and work areas. This paper will demonstrate how the human eye reacts to various light sources both photopically (day vision) and scotopically (night vision). This comparison of light sources with the new research may change the thinking of users and designers in their selection of light sources.

  5. Annoyance and worry in a petrochemical industrial area--prevalence, time trends and risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-04-03

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18-75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600-800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200-1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1-4% in the control area), and 40-50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10-20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution.

  6. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  7. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  8. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-01-01

    A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

  13. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  14. State of Terengganu: A development plan for the petrochemical industry and its associated downstream industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-08

    This study, conducted by Chem Systems, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Terengganu's State Economic Planning Unit. The main objectives of the report are to: (1) Identify and list all medium stream and downstream activities, including services in petrochemical industries, using natural gas-derived ethane, propane, and butane as main feedstock and other linkages; (2) List the various enterprises noted above that can be economically and viably established in Terengganu; (3) Identify and locate the various sites for the projects identified. This is volume 1 of 2 and it contains the Final Report.

  15. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests. PMID:25320701

  16. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  17. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  18. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites. PMID:25697555

  19. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  20. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  1. [Asbestos exposure in the petrochemical industry and interaction with other occupational risk factors: analysis of the last ten years INAIL data].

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Mariano; Saldutti, Elisa; Bindi, Luciano; Di Giacobbe, Andrea; Mercadante, Lucina; Innocenzi, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the trend of occupational diseases, in particular those asbestos-related, in the petrochemical industry from 2002 to 2011, taking into account the number of diseases claimed to and compensated by the National Institute for Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL), assessing risk factors and possible interactions. To identify the research areas, we selected INAIL cost codes, related to the petrochemical industry. In the last five years, over the total claims submitted by industrial workers, 54% of claims for asbestosis, 76.7% of claims for neoplastic diseases, and 78.6% of claims for pleural plaques have been compensated. In the petrochemical industry, such percentages are respectively 59.2%, 81.6% and 82.7%. These data suggest possible interactions between asbestos and other risk factors, particularly significant in the petrochemical industry, although difficult to identify, as well as an initial underestimation of asbestos exposure in this industry.

  2. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  3. Genotoxicity of river water under the influence of petrochemical industrial complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, C.T.; Vargas, V.M.F. ); Henriques, J.A.P.; Mattevi, M.S. )

    1994-06-01

    The toxic effects of industrial wastes discharged into natural waters should be intensively investigated since they may affect the survival, behavior or genetic composition of aquatic organisms, as well as the health of the population drinking this water. Most mutagenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic-carcinogenic substances can be detected by tests which evaluate alterations in DNA sequence in combination with at least one in vitro test. Among the methods used to determine the genotoxicity of a substance, the Ames test on bacteria and analysis of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes are considered to be classic. The Ames test has been extensively used to determine the mutagenicity of environmental samples, among them river water and industrial effluents. SCE analysis has shown considerable potential for the detection of mutagens and carcinogens in human populations exposed to different genotoxic conditions, including polluted natural waters. The present report presents the results obtained using these two methods for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of water from the Cai River, in the area affected by the Petrochemical Complex of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After treatment, the wastes of the complex are discharged into the Cai River, an important tributary of the Guaiba River, which provides the drinking water used by the approximately 1,200,000 inhabitants of Porto Alegre, capital city of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. [The mortality from malignant neoplasms in the population of a large industrial city with petroleum-refining and petrochemical enterprises].

    PubMed

    Sharafutdinova, N Kh

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution with toxic chemical near oil-processing and petrochemical enterprises is significantly higher than in administrative district of the city. The studies proved that level and share of mortality with malignancies of trachea, bronchi and lungs is higher in industrial district, than that in the administrative one. The standardized parameters of mortality among females were increased in the industrial district, especially in 70s and 80s, i.e. in 10-20 years after launching the plants. The industrial district was characterized by higher mortality at young age. The mortality with the studied cancers at age of 20-29 and 30-39 prevailed in the industrial district.

  5. The effect of social trust on citizens’ health risk perception in the context of a petrochemical industrial complex.

    PubMed

    López-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-21

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust - both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions - affects citizens' health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens' health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies).

  6. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  7. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area.

  8. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area. PMID:21822578

  9. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

  10. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-04-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs.

  11. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  12. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fluidized and fixed bed incinerators disposing petrochemical industrial biological sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Long-Full; Lai, Soon-Onn

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two fluidized bed incinerators (FLBI_A and FLBI_B) and one fixed bed incinerator (FIBI) disposing biological sludge generated from the petrochemical industries in Taiwan. The results of 21 individual PAHs (including low (LM-PAHs), middle (MM-PAHs) and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs)) were reported. The LM-PAHs mainly dominated the total-PAHs in the stack flue gases, whereas the LM- and HM-PAHs dominated the total-PAHs in the bottom fly, fly ash and WSB effluent. Due to high carcinogenic potencies (=total-BaP(eq) concentrations) in the bottom ash (195 ng g(-1)) and WSB effluent (20,600 ng L(-1)) of the FIBI, cautious should be taken in treating them to avoid second contamination. Lower combustion efficiency and elevated fuel/feedstock (F/W) ratio for the FIBI led to the highest total emission factor of total-PAHs (38,400 microg kg(-1)). Lower total-PAH removal efficiencies of wet scrubber (WSB) (0.837-5.89%), cyclone (0.109-0.255%) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (0.032%) than those reported elsewhere resulted in high fraction in PAH contributions from the stack flue gases. Lower total-PAH emission factor was found for FLBI_A (2380 microg kg(-1) biological sludge) with higher combustion efficiency compared to those for FLBI_B (11,500 microg kg(-1)) and FIBI (38,400 microg kg(-1) biological sludge), implying that combustion efficiency plays a vital role in PAH emissions. PMID:19272707

  13. PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang

    1995-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

  14. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  15. 1988 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

  16. Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater.

  17. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated.

  18. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated. PMID

  19. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. March 1983-July 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1983-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment utilized for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site-hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 248 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. March 1983-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1983-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials-recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site-hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 68 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. March 1983-June 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1983-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment utilized for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site-hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 245 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. January 1984-October 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 84-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used for pollution control in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Topics include emissions investigations, recycling and materials recovery studies, and standards for specific industries. Sources, site hazard evaluations, and the toxicity of specific chemicals are also discussed. (Contains 151 citations with title list and subject index.)

  3. Characterization of ozone precursor volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres and around the petrochemical industry in the Tarragona region.

    PubMed

    Ras, Maria Rosa; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an assessment of volatile organic compound (VOCs) levels in ambient air in samples collected at urban and industrial sites in southern Catalonia, which is home to one of the most important petrochemical complexes in southern Europe. This study contains data from a total of 192 samples collected in 2007, from May to October, at six air pollution measurement stations within the area of influence of several chemical and petrochemical industrial plants. The ambient air concentrations of a group of 65 VOCs, some of them ozone precursors, were determined by active sampling into sorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the same time, several meteorological parameters were also recorded, and levels of NO, NO(2) and O(3) measured by the automatic stations, have been included in the study as well. Ambient air profiles of the different areas were studied, and the ozone formation dependent on VOCs and NO(2) levels was also analysed, taking into account the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) for different groups of VOCs. PMID:19423150

  4. Characterization of ozone precursor volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres and around the petrochemical industry in the Tarragona region.

    PubMed

    Ras, Maria Rosa; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an assessment of volatile organic compound (VOCs) levels in ambient air in samples collected at urban and industrial sites in southern Catalonia, which is home to one of the most important petrochemical complexes in southern Europe. This study contains data from a total of 192 samples collected in 2007, from May to October, at six air pollution measurement stations within the area of influence of several chemical and petrochemical industrial plants. The ambient air concentrations of a group of 65 VOCs, some of them ozone precursors, were determined by active sampling into sorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the same time, several meteorological parameters were also recorded, and levels of NO, NO(2) and O(3) measured by the automatic stations, have been included in the study as well. Ambient air profiles of the different areas were studied, and the ozone formation dependent on VOCs and NO(2) levels was also analysed, taking into account the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) for different groups of VOCs.

  5. Selection of Bottom Liner for Land Disposal of Industrial Waste Containing Lead-Case Study: Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Safari, Edwin; Baghvand, Akbar; Abduli, Mohammad Ali

    Industrial wastes generated at Tabriz Petrochemical Complex (TPC) were shown to contain significant concentration of lead. Environmentally sound landfilling of these waste streams was studied in terms of potential risk of associated groundwater contamination. The waste was to be disposed of in a landfill overlying an aquifer of fine sand texture and a water table depth of about 9 m. A modeling approach was employed for estimating the concentration of lead in groundwater downstream of the landfill site. The Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) developed by US Environmental Protection Agency was used which estimates the receptor dose of lead, calculates the associated human health risk and recommends protective measures (i.e., liner type). Accordingly the appropriate liner being of composite type was selected as the required protective measure to minimize the transport of lead to the underlying aquifer which is a major source of drinking water for the downstream residential communities.

  6. New industrial heat pump applications to a petrochemical plant, Phase IIA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy conservation potential of a heat pump in an industrial site. The proper placement of the heat pump was based on the principles of Pinch Technology. Chevron`s refinery at Port Arthur, Texas, was selected as the industrial site for this study. Two energy conservation options were identified for this site with a combined total savings of $570,000 per year. This represents over 10% reduction in current thermal energy consumption of the process units, which were part of this study. The details of each option are described. The first option was a passive heat integration scheme. The second option involves a semi-open cycle mechanical vapor recompression heat pump that compresses the steam generated from the reactor exhaust streams of the cyclohexane unit to provide part of the reboiling duty of the benzene column.

  7. America's Nomads (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Evidence suggests that living and labor conditions have improved very little among agricultural laborers and are particularly hopeless among migrants. Since the government, food producers, industry, and consumers are all beneficiaries of the present farm system, it is unlikely that farm workers will be able to unionize and control their own…

  8. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  9. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  11. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Moffatt, S.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Phillimore, P. R.; Foy, C.; Dunn, C. E.; Tate, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England, with some data from subsets of estates. The estates were aggregated into zones (designated as A, B, and C in Teesside where A is closest to and C furthest from industry, and S in Sunderland). Zone S provided a reference area. The hypothesis was that a health gradient both within Teesside (A > B > C) and between Teesside and Sunderland (ABC > S) would indicate a possible health effect of local industrial air pollution. Data presented were: mortality (1981-91) from 27 housing estates; population self completion questionnaire survey data (1993, 9115 subjects) from 15 housing estates; and general practitioner (GP) consultation data (1989-94) from 2201 subjects in 12 Teesside estates. RESULTS: The populations in the four zones were comparable for indicators including smoking habits, residential histories, and unemployment. All cause and cause specific mortalities were high compared with England and Wales. Mortality in all Teesside zones (ABC) combined was mostly higher than in zone S. In people aged 0-64, lung cancer and respiratory disease showed gradients with highest mortality in areas closest to industry (A > B > C and ABC > S). The association was clearest for lung cancer in women (0-64 years old, trend across zones ABC, p = 0.07, directly standardised rate ratio relative to zone S was 169 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 116-122)). There were no important, consistent gradients in the hypothesised direction between zones in consultation rates in general practice, and self reported respiratory and nonrespiratory health including asthma. CONCLUSIONS: There

  13. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  14. Understanding Math - Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the second remedial workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students at the secondary level. It covers fractions, geometry formulas, decimals and percents, and time. For the first workbook, see SE 015 827, and for the teacher's guide, see SE 015 829. (DT)

  15. Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gyunter, L.I.; Shatalaev, I.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical plant adapted to organic compounds of various classes and salts of certain metals. Of the metals, it is shown that chromium, nickel, and zinc have a pronounced toxic effect on activated sludge; the toxicity of cobalt and barium is less. Shown is the design of experiments for investigating the joint toxic effect of components of waste waters of the syndet Progress, dibutyl-p-cresol, and synthetic fatty acids on activated sludge dehydrogenases.

  16. Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used.

  17. AERMOD: A DISPERSION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCE APPLICATIONS PART II: MODEL PERFORMANCE AGAINST 17 FIELD STUDY DATABASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) are described. This is the second in a series of three articles. Part I describes the model's methods for characterizing the atmospheric boundary layer and complex ter...

  18. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry.

  19. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  20. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  1. Conventional, microwave, and ultrasound sequential extractions for the fractionation of metals in sediments within the Petrochemical Industry, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Relić, Dubravka; Dorđević, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; Anđelković, Ivan; Pantelić, Ana; Stanković, Ratomir; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the main objective was fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, and K in certificate material and sediment samples gathered from and around the Petrochemical Industry using the conventional, microwave and ultrasonic sequential extraction. Microwave oven and ultrasound bath were used as an energy source for achieving faster extraction. Additional heating and boiling of samples were avoided by using lower power and shorter time for microwave and ultrasound extraction. Precision and accuracy of procedure were evaluated by using certificate material (BCR701). Acceptable accuracy of metals (87.0-111.3 %) was achieved for all three-step sequential of conventional extraction protocol. An accuracy of the fourth step has been verified with two certificate materials: BCR143R and 146R. The range of total extracted metal concentrations from sediments was similar for all three extraction techniques. A significant high percentage of Cd, Cu, and Zn were obtained after extraction of the exchangeable and acid soluble sediment fraction. Principal component analysis of values obtained after determination of risk assessment code using conventional and ultrasound sequential extraction show similarity of these values. Accuracy, recovery, and risk assessment code values imply that ultrasound sequential extraction is a more suitable, accelerated sequential extraction procedure (30 min per extraction step) than microwave extraction in applied conditions.

  2. Biological anoxic treatment of O₂-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

    2013-09-15

    An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  3. [The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility.

  4. Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng

    High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one

  5. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  6. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds). PMID:21905411

  7. [Petrochemical industry and health risk perception: a research carried out by means of focus groups].

    PubMed

    Gatto, Elisa; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Saitta, Pietro; Faberi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative analysis aimed at collecting new and useful elements for a questionnaire prepared to be submitted to a representative sample of the population residing in the industrial areas of Sicily. The study employed four focus groups and addressed adults selected among the population living in the area called Valle del Mela (Sicily) in order to investigate customs, images and perception of risks related to living conditions in a complex industrial area. The area under investigation is characterized by the presence of a large refinery process plants, a power plant and a number of small factories operating in various highly polluting sectors. The study investigates the specific perceptions expressed by conveyed people according to their sex, age and parental status. The authors suggest that their findings are useful in order to implement communication actions aimed at targeting broader strata of the local population. PMID:19585877

  8. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  9. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil.

  10. [Oxidation behavior and kinetics of representative VOCs emitted from petrochemical industry over CuCeOx composite oxides].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Wei; Yu, Yan-Ke; Chen, Jin-Sheng; He, Chi

    2013-12-01

    CuCeOx composite catalysts were synthesized via coprecipitation (COP-CuCeO,) and incipient impregnation (IMP-CuCeOx) methods, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by XRD, low-temperature N2 sorption, H2-TPR and O2-TPD. The influences of reactant composition and concentration, reaction space velocity, O2 content, H2O concentration, and catalyst type on the oxidation behaviors of benzene, toluene, and n-hexane emitted from petrochemical industry were systematically investigated. In addition, the related kinetic parameters were model fitted. Compared with IMP-CuCeOx, COP-CuCeOx had well-dispersed active phase, better low-temperature reducibility, and more active surface oxygen species. The increase of reactant concentration was unfavorable for toluene oxidation, while the opposite phenomenon could be observed in n-hexane oxidation. The inlet concentration of benzene was irrelevant to its conversion under high oxidation rate. The introduction of benzene obviously inhibited the oxidation of toluene and n-hexane, while the presence of toluene had a positive effect on beuzene conversion. The presence of n-hexane could promote the oxidation of toluene, while toluene had a negative influence on e-hexane oxidation. Both low space velocity and high oxygen concentration were beneficial for the oxidation process, and the variation of oxygen content had negligible effect on n-hexane and henzene oxidation. The presence of H2O noticeably inhibited the oxidation of toluene, while significantly accelerated the oxidation procedure of henzene and n-hexane. COP-CuCeOx had superior catalytic performance for toluene and benzene oxidation, while IMP-CuCeOx showed higher n-hexane oxidation activity under dry condition. The oxidation behaviors under different conditions could be well fitted and predicted by the pseudo first-order kinetic model.

  11. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  12. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  13. Field and petrochemical studies of pegmatites in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omada, J. I.; Kolawole, M. S.; Odoma, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Field, petrological and geochemical studies of pegmatite bodies in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria, have been undertaken with a view to characterizing them and determining the rare earth mineralization potentials. Pegmatite bodies which are zoned or poorly zoned occur as dykes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE consisting dominantly of feldspar-quartz, feldspar-quartz-mica, and feldspar-mica-quartz, respectively. Trace elements concentration in the Na-rich and K-rich feldspars is such that Rb > Ba > Sr > Pb > Ga and the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high contents of Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs. The muscovite samples have enrichment pattern of Rb > Nb > Sn > Gn > Ta > Cs: each of the elements has concentration values that are higher than those in either the K-rich or Na-rich feldspars suggesting that muscovite and to a lesser extent feldspars, are the possible carriers of Ta, Sn and REE that are associated with the pegmatite bodies in the Lokoja area. The mineralogy and composition of the pegmatite bodies are indicative of post tectonic anorogenic acidic igneous protolith which underwent alkali metasomatism involving selective enrichment of trace elements and REE, fractionation and rock-fluid interactions.

  14. Characterization of Industrial Emission Sources and Photochemistry in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Degouw, J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J.; Richter, D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schauffler, S.; Trainer, M.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Zheng, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Houston-Galveston urban area contains a number of large industrial petrochemical emission sources that produce volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. These co-located emissions result in rapid and efficient ozone production downwind. Unlike a single large power plant, the industrial complexes consist of numerous sources that can be difficult to quantify in emission inventories. During September - October 2006, the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted research flights as part of the second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II). We examine measurements of NOx, SO2, and speciated hydrocarbons from the Houston Ship Channel, which contains a dense concentration of industrial petrochemical sources, and isolated petrochemical facilities. These measurements are used to derive source emission estimates, which are then compared to available emission inventories. We find that high hydrocarbon emissions are typical for the Houston Ship Channel and isolated petrochemical facilities. Ethene and propene are found to be major contributors to ozone formation. Ratios of C2H4 / NOx and C3H6 / NOx exceed emission inventory values by factors of 10 - 50. These findings are consistent with the first TexAQS study in 2000. We examine trends in C2H4 / NOx and C3H6 / NOx ratios between 2000 and 2006, and determine that day-to-day variability and within-plume variability exceeds any long-term reduction in ethene and propene emissions for the isolated petrochemical sources. We additionally examine downwind photochemical products formed by these alkenes.

  15. Petro-safe `95: 6. Annual environmental, safety and health conference and exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held January 31--February 2, 1995 in Houston Texas. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on process safety issues in the petrochemical industry. Topics of discussion include the following: environmental issues; process safety management and risk management; waste and remediation issues; train, health and safety issues; business risk management; and emergency response and spill control. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of its ACHEMA coverage, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industry trade associations in 11 countries, seeking views of on the state of the industry. These reports thus provide an added dimension to feature articles in this issue that focus on petrochemical/chemical-product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, etc. The nations represented here were chosen for commentary because collectively they contain most of the world's petrochemical capacity. Space limitations prohibit the publishing of commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. The countries are: Belgium, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the United States.

  17. Standards in neurosonology. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27104002

  18. Standards in neurosonology. Part II.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  19. Study on mechanics of bodies under the action of sound pollution in industrial halls. Part II: Analysis of sound pressure inside the hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghir, M.; Lăpuşan, I. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, it is taking into account all these phenomena of sounds propagation in given space. Within the framework of the given research is a study in industrial park "Teraplast" from Bistriţa-Năsăud county. This is industrial products for pvc constructions. From the submissions made to the workshops of processing industrial park "Teraplast" has been found, that noise is produced mainly in the power pumps hall. The registrations were made during a normal working days. The recorders made, for one minute, with recorder (NL32, Japanese society RION) in the pump's hall 12 positions were introduced in a high- capacity computer. This second part of the paper contains a natural continuation of the study conducted in the first part. Through the composition of sound waves for each pump in part according to the construction of the hall, gives the sound field generated by sources of power pumps during simultaneous operation. Field of noise sources inside the hall of power pumps determines an acoustic pressure on the walls of the hall. Taking into consideration the frequencies that are threatening the construction of the hall, will be presented successively acoustic pressure what special expertise to the hall walls the pressures of 230Hz, 350Hz, 800Hz and 1400Hz. This study is important for the acoustic pressure made from the "Teraplast" enterprise inside, and outside the halls.

  20. Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment.

  1. Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. PMID:24687787

  2. An overview of remaining life assessment methods for high temperature components operating in the power and petrochemical industries

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, C.J.; Townsend, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    The capability to assess the secure remaining life of components operating in the creep range, thereby assuring integrity between inspection intervals, has become a major factor in the economic operation of power and petrochemical plant which has passed the original design life, frequently by a considerable margin. An overview is given of the nature of remaining life assessment and examples given of methods developed for headers, seam-welded pipe and fired heaters. The more common problems associated with weldments are also reviewed.

  3. Understanding the petrochemical cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W.

    1996-10-01

    The presentation will examine the nature of the supply, demand and profitability cycles that appear to be endemic in the petrochemical industry. The focus will be on the underlying factors that cause cyclicality. Data for ethylene and first line derivatives will be used both to provide quantitative illustrations of the magnitude of the cyclical effects and to give an improved perspective on the forces that drive cylicality. We will also examine to what extent cycle timing may be predictable, and present some scenario based projections.

  4. 1991 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is a source of information on the petrochemical industry in existence. The new edition lists more than 1500 companies providing you with a brief company description, their address, phone, fax and telex numbers, as well as more than 10,000 names of key personnel and their titles. Where available, products and capacities are listed as are proposed projects. Information is included for more than 2000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East.

  5. Modern refining and petrochemical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugach, V.V.

    1995-07-01

    Petroleum refining and petroleum chemistry are characterized by a whole set of manufacturing processes and methods, whose application depends on the initial raw material and the final products. Therefore, refining and petrochemical equipment has many different operational principles, design solutions, and materials. The activities of the Russian Petroleum Industry are discussed.

  6. [Association of polymorph variants of CYP1A2 and CYP1A1 genes with reproductive and thyroid diseases in female workers of petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Irmiakova, A R; Kochetova, O V; Gaĭnullina, M K; Sivochalova, O V; Viktorova, T V

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results obtained in study of relationship between polymorph variants of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes with reproductive and thyroid diseases risk in female workers of petrochemical industry, when compared with reference group females. Variants TD and DD of CYP1A2 gene appeared to be associated with nodes formation in uterus and breast in female workers and reference group females. Following liability markers are obtained: homozygous in rare allele genotype CC of CYP1A1 gene for reproductive and thyroid diseaes (fibrous cystic mastopathy and nodular goitre), heterozygous genotype AG of CYP1A1 gene in uterine myoma and fibrous cystic mastopathy, homozygous in deleted T genotype of CYP1A2 gene in autoimmune thyroiditis. Occupational hazards and long length of service at hazardous industries increase effects of rare alleles of the genes studied.

  7. Culturally and linguistically responsive teaching: part II.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    This part II of a two-part article about culturally and linguistically responsive teaching provides suggestions for evaluating learners who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and are often under-represented in nursing education settings.

  8. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  9. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  10. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1995-02-24

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 mumol/mol creatinine. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was 0.51 mumol/mol creatinine. During activities with a low potential exposure to PAH, such as loading bitumen and the handling of clarified slurry oils and furfural extracts, 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally increased compared with the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAH. Despite the substantially higher potential exposure to PAH during clean-out operations of various oil refinery installations, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers involved were in the same range. This suggests that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. However, in workers digging PAH-contaminated soil and workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, significantly increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. A major decrease in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene following the application of dermal protective equipment in the ground workers suggested that skin absorption plays a major role in occupational exposure to PAH. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the workers of the needle coke plant was investigated in relation to potential determinants of exposure to PAH. It was indeed found that not only inhalatory but also dermal exposure was a significant determinant of occupational exposure to PAH.

  11. [Analysis of the methods of evaluation of occupational exposure to benzene and phenol of petrochemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, S; Paradowski, M; Lis, E; Rojewiska, E

    1981-01-01

    209 workers exposed to airborne benzene and phenol at the Mazovian Refining Petrochemical Works, at three different plants, i.e. of Phenol, Gasoline Composing and Water -- Wastes, have been examined. It has been demonstrated that urine phenol content in workers working in an open plant area is very often inadequate to the airborne time-weighted averaged concentration of benzene and phenol. It has been shown more advisable to determine urine phenol concentrations twice: before and after the work shift. At the same time some specific methods have been recommended for determining phenol concentrations in urine. These are: gas chromatographic method of Dirmikis and Darbre, modified in this laboratory, and Gibbs' colorimetric method modified by Bardodej with 4-amino-antipyrine or Gibbs' colorimetric method with 2,6-dibromoquinone-4-chloroimide modified by Hanke et al. The Theis-Benedict method should not be applied in medical analytical laboratory because of its low specificity to phenol.

  12. Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

  13. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry--Part II: Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A.; Legator, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart hemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumors, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukemias, and other cancers of hematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure.29 references.

  14. X-pinch. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A. Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-06-15

    Results of experimental studies of the X-pinch since its invention and implementation in 1982 at the Lebedev Physical Institute are presented. The review consists of two parts. The first part briefly outlines the history of creation and studies of X-pinches, describes the diagnostic techniques and devices developed during these studies, and presents the main results obtained in studying the physical processes occurring in the X-pinch. The second part is devoted to the results of detailed studies of the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the X-pinch hot spot—the region where the highest plasma parameters are achieved and which is a source of X-ray emission with extreme parameters. Some results of X-pinch simulations are also presented.

  15. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  16. Occlusal disease revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Lytle, J D

    2001-06-01

    In part I of this article, the evolution of bruxism from childhood was discussed. Further, the different types of anterior tooth wear were reviewed. Specifically, the type of wear noted in bruxed-braced or cross-over position was pointed out. Examples were illustrated to allow the practitioner to recognize the type of parafunction in advance of treatment. This article will continue the discussion of cross over with moderate to extreme examples. Suggestions for treatment are discussed depending on the severity of the problem. Restorative failure and the implications for implant dentistry are noted. PMID:11490404

  17. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  18. [Effects of dissolved oxygen in the oxic parts of A/O reactor on degradation of organic pollutants and analysis of microbial community for treating petrochemical wastewater].

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng-Yuan; Chu, Li-Bing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Jian-Long

    2015-02-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the biodegradation of organic pollutants were investigated using A/O reactors for the treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater. Two A/O reactors, DO were controlled at 2-3 mg x L(-1) in the oxic parts of reactor A and 5-6 mg x L(-1) of reactor B, were operated in parallel for comparison. The nearly a half of year operation results showed that the effluent COD in reactor A (72.5 ± 14.8 mg x L(-1)) was slightly higher than that in reactor B (68.7 ± 14.6 mg x L(-1)) at a HRT of 20 h. The average COD removal efficiencies were 67.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The effluent ammonium concentration was maintained at 0.8 mg x L(-1) and approximately 95% of ammonium removal was achieved. The effluent BOD, concentration was lower than 5 mg x L(-1). This indicated that the organic pollutants could be degraded thoroughly by the A/O processes, which were affected slightly by DO. Results of 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in oxic parts showed that at the phylum levels, sequences belonged to Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant with 58.7% and 59.2%, 14.7% and 12.7%, 10.8% and 12.4% of total bacterial sequences in reactor A and B, respectively. Ammonium oxidation bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and obligate aerobic bacteria were highly enriched in reactor B with high DO levels, while the anaerobic denitrifiers Azospira and Acidovora were highly enriched in reactor A with low DO levels. The identified bacteria belonged to genera Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Sphingobium and Altererythrobacter were reported to degrade PAHs, chloronitrobenzene, pesticides and petroleum, which contributed to the degradation of petrochemical wastewater.

  19. Enrollment Management & the Enrollment Industry: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author begins to examine the connections between institutional enrollment management efforts and the various external for-profit, and not-for-profit, businesses that have become part of the enrollment management industry. This essay is an effort to map the relationships between institutions, the enrollment industry, and more…

  20. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    PubMed

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  1. Mortality experience of a young petrochemical industry cohort. 1979-1992 follow-up study of US-based employees.

    PubMed

    Huebner, W W; Schnatter, A R; Nicolich, M J; Jorgensen, G

    1997-10-01

    This retrospective study examines the mortality patterns of a relatively young cohort of 81,746 former and current petrochemical company employees. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for 1979 through 1992 are generally from about unity to well below unity for major causes and numerous specific causes of death studied by gender/race/job subgroups. Findings of note include a SMR (based on incidence rates) of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.33) for mesothelioma, and a SMR of 1.81 (95% CI, 0.90 to 3.24) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, both among males hired before 1960. All male semiskilled operatives have a 1.6-fold increase (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.29) in motor vehicle accident deaths, with declining rates since the mid-1980s. The overall SMR for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is at unity (69 deaths), with excesses in technician and office worker subgroups. Four decedents with lymphoma (code 202.8 in 9th revision ICD) had AIDS as a secondary cause of death, suggesting the need to examine secondary causes when studying lymphopoietic conditions. This routine surveillance activity provides leads regarding the presence or absence of excess mortality risk.

  2. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  3. Sports Concussion Management: part II.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Thomas R; Cox, Conrad B; Bielak, Ken; Casmus, Robert; Laskowitz, Daniel; Nichols, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    Millions of concussions occur every year in the United States. The public interest in concussion has increased after a number of high-profile deaths in high school athletes from sports-related head trauma and in some professional athletes from chronic traumatic encephalopathy. One of the most active areas of research in sports medicine during the last decade has been the evaluation and management of concussion. In this second article of a two-part series, we provide an overview of the latest scientific advances in concussion research. This overview includes an update on the pathobiological changes that occur during concussion and the results of biomechanical studies. In addition, to aid the practicing clinician, we review the literature on proven and currently studied concussion risk factors, including a history of concussion, fatigue, and age. Genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers may provide risk-prediction capability, but at present the research remains inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging are promising technologies that reveal more sophisticated data about the impact of concussion on the brain. We review the existing literature on the application of these neuroimaging modalities to sports concussion. An update from the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport, with highlights of new recommendations, and the presentation of the third edition of the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool to evaluate acute concussion, concludes our review.

  4. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported.

  5. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations. PMID:25877640

  6. Behavioral analysis of sources of occupational stress and responses of middle-level managers in the Gulf Coast petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    A behavioral assessment interview procedure was used to identify sources of occupational stress, responses and effectiveness of these responses to stress. Seventy-three middle-level managers in three petrochemical companies in the Texas gulf area were interviewed. Six categories of stress were used to categorize the sources of stress obtained during the interview. The frequencies in sources of stress reported by managers were not significantly different among areas of the plants; however, there were significant differences among companies. The most frequent source of stress for all companies is factors intrinsic to the job. The responses the managers made to sources of stress were categorized. Some of the types of responses were: making new policy, seeking information, and not addressing the problem. Each manager rated the effectiveness of his response in terms of its ability to reduce stress. There is an advantage when subjects list their responses to stress and then rate the effectiveness of each response. In research of this type subjects do not consciously select their best response, but give their most frequent response and then rate its effectiveness. The results of this study indicate that the most frequent response to a source of stress and the most effective response in reducing stress are not always the same. The most frequent response is direct/delayed problem resolution, while the most effective response in reducing stress is prevention. There is a significant difference among the effectiveness ratings of middle-level managers' responses to stress. Not addressing the problem proved to be the least effective response in reducing middle-level managers' stress.

  7. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  8. Refiners boost crude capacity; Petrochemical production up

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-03-21

    Continuing demand strength in refined products and petrochemical markets caused refiners to boost crude-charging capacity slightly again last year, and petrochemical producers to increase production worldwide. Product demand strength is, in large part, due to stable product prices resulting from a stabilization of crude oil prices. Crude prices strengthened somewhat in 1987. That, coupled with fierce product competition, unfortunately drove refining margins negative in many regions of the U.S. during the last half of 1987. But with continued strong demand for gasoline, and an increased demand for higher octane gasoline, margins could turn positive by 1989 and remain so for a few years. U.S. refiners also had to have facilities in place to meet the final requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead phase-down rules on Jan. 1, 1988. In petrochemicals, plastics demand dept basic petrochemical plants at good utilization levels worldwide. U.S. production of basics such as ethylene and propylene showed solid increases. Many of the derivatives of the basic petrochemical products also showed good production gains. Increased petrochemical production and high plant utilization rates didn't spur plant construction projects, however. Worldwide petrochemical plant projects declined slightly from 1986 figures.

  9. Results of the European Commission MARINA II study: part I--general information and effects of discharges by the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Janssens, A; Henrich, E; Hunter, G; Gerchikov, M; Dutton, M; van Weers, A W; Nielsen, S; Simmonds, J; Bexon, A; Sazykina, T

    2004-01-01

    From the collated data relevant to discharges by the nuclear industry, it results that the input of beta activity (excluding Chernobyl fallout and tritium) into the OSPAR region decreased by a factor of 4 from 1986 to 1991, reaching by this date the same level as in the early 1950s. Over the same period the discharges of the alpha activity into the OSPAR region also decreased by a factor 3, the same trend has been seen also for tritium. Since 1986 the effective dose to members of the critical group in the vicinity of Sellafield and Cap de La Hague was consistently below the ICRP and EU limit of 1 mSv per year to members of the general public. The overall radiological impact from nuclear industry on the population of the European Union from the OSPAR area has decreased from 280 manSv y(-1) in 1978 to 14 manSv y(-1) in 2000. PMID:15063552

  10. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    PubMed Central

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  11. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  12. Biomass in a petrochemical world.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Dermot J

    2013-02-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted.

  13. Biomass in a petrochemical world

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2013-01-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  14. [Personal contextual factors (short version), part II].

    PubMed

    Viol, M; Grotkamp, S; Seger, W

    2007-01-01

    In this journal a group of medical experts recently compiled a proposal for a systemic classification of personal contextual factors into domains, categories and items with respect to the ethical guidelines of the ICF (part I). In a second step the main issues have been transferred into the preliminary draft for a short version which is presented in this paper to give support for practical daily use in health insurance matters (part II). PMID:17347930

  15. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  16. Innovations in petrochemical crackers

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, L.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive review will be given on the latest innovations in petrochemical cracker technologies. These improvements can result in significant costs reduction for various feedstocks. Several examples will be illustrated.

  17. Catalog of Infrared Observations. Part I: Data. Part II: Appendixes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 through 1986. The Catalog is published in two parts, with the observational data (roughly 200,000 observations of 20,000 individual sources) listed in Part I, and supporting appendices in Part II. The expanded Second Edition contains a new feature: complete IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected, listed with the main Catalog observations, as well as in complete detail in the Appendix. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  18. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Zheng-Bin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Ning, Shu-Kuang

    2016-01-15

    Receptor and dispersion models both provide important information to help understand the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and develop effective management strategies. In this study, differences between the predicted concentrations of two models and the associated impacts on the estimated health risks due to different theories behind two models were investigated. Two petrochemical industrial complexes in Kaohsiung city of southern Taiwan were selected as the sites for this comparison. Although the study compares the approaches by applying the methods to this specific area, the results are expected to be adopted for other areas or industries. Ninety-nine VOC concentrations at eight monitoring sites were analyzed, with the effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations being considered. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was used for source apportionment, while the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict the VOC concentrations at receptor sites. In the results of receptor modeling, 54% ± 11% and 49% ± 20% of the monitored concentrations were contributed by process emissions in two complexes, whereas the numbers increased to 78% ± 41% and 64% ± 44% in the results of dispersion modeling. Significant differences were observed between two model predictions (p < 0.05). The receptor model was more reproducible given the smaller variances of its results. The effect of seasonal humidity variation on two model predictions was not negligible. Similar findings were observed given that the cancer and non-cancer risks estimated by the receptor model were lower but more reproducible. The adverse health risks estimated by the dispersion model exceeded and were 75.3%-132.4% of the values estimated by using the monitored data, whereas the percentages were lowered to the range from 27.4% to 53.8% when the prediction was performed by using the receptor model. As the results of different models could be

  19. Custom impression trays. Part II: Removal forces.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D L; Breeding, L C; Moseley, J P

    1994-03-01

    When choosing a material for making custom impression trays, it is important to understand the forces to which the tray will be subjected during removal of the completed impression from the oral cavity. Such forces have not been recorded in the dental literature. The purpose of Part II of this three-part series was to record these forces in vitro, using two different tray-removal methods. A polymethyl methacrylate custom tray was used during this study. Results from this investigation indicated that it is easier to remove a completed impression, made with a custom tray, by a single point of anterior force application (224 N) than by force application evenly around the tray (514 N). The recorded force values from this investigation will be used in Part III of this series.

  20. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. II. Effects on hepatic phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ruth; Wilson, James; Lochmiller, Robert; Janz, David; Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas

    2003-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible exposure and resultant hepatic effects of petrochemical waste on cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) living on landfarmed sites. Male and female cotton rats were collected in summer, fall, and winter from four landfarm sites and four ecologically similar reference sites. Hepatic methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activity was significantly induced in male and female rats collected from landfarms compared to rats collected from reference sites. In contrast, changes in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were inconsistent due to season, sex, and treatment variation. A significant decrease in EROD and MROD activity was found in cotton rats held for 48 h prior to sacrifice compared to rats euthanized on the day of capture. These results indicate that when using hepatic EROD and MROD activities as biochemical markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, animals should be euthanized as quickly as possible after capture. The cotton rats collected from one landfarm unit exhibited a pattern of consistent elevation of EROD, MROD, and pent-oxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity. This unit also had a pattern of elevated CYP1A2 protein expression determined by Western blotting. There were no consistent alterations from contaminant exposure on hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione levels, or CYP1A1 protein. Hepatic EROD and MROD activities varied considerably between seasons and sex of rats. In conclusion, consistent induction of hepatic EROD and MROD activities in cotton rats was found in three out of four sampled landfarm sites compared to the rats collected from the reference sites, indicating exposure to contaminants-likely polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used...

  6. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  7. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management.

  8. Prediction of periventricular leukomalacia. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Biswanath; Bird, Geoffrey L.; Kuijpers, Marijn; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Wernovsky, Gil; Clancy, Robert R.; Licht, Daniel J.; Gaynor, J. William; Nataraj, Chandrasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of Part II is to analyze the dataset of extracted hemodynamic features (Case 3 of Part I) through computational intelligence (CI) techniques for identification of potential prognostic factors for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) occurrence in neonates with congenital heart disease. Methods The extracted features (Case 3 dataset of Part I) were used as inputs to CI based classifiers, namely, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) in combination with genetic algorithms (GA) for selection of the most suitable features predicting the occurrence of PVL. The selected features were next used as inputs to a decision tree (DT) algorithm for generating easily interpretable rules of PVL prediction. Results Prediction performance for two CI based classifiers, MLP and PNN coupled with GA are presented for different number of selected features. The best prediction performances were achieved with 6 and 7 selected features. The prediction success was 100% in training and the best ranges of sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP) and accuracy (AC) in test were 60-73%, 74-84% and 71-74%, respectively. The identified features when used with the DTalgorithm gave best SN, SP and AC in the ranges of 87-90% in training and 80-87%, 74-79% and 79-82% in test. Among the variables selected in CI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and pCO2 figured prominently similar to Part I. Decision tree based rules for prediction of PVL occurrence were obtained using the CI selected features. Conclusions The proposed approach combines the generalization capability of CI based feature selection approach and generation of easily interpretable classification rules of the decision tree. The combination of CI techniques with DT gave substantially better test prediction performance than using CI and DT separately. PMID:19162456

  9. Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive. PMID:19663358

  10. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-05-01

    Development of East Asia`s petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia`s petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261...

  12. DICOM: key concepts--part II.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two installments of IT World was to give a general overview of DICOM and to take a look at different parts of the standard to get a sense of its main themes. We found that the standard provides a common reference for all developers but does not impose a single type of implementation. This allows for innovation. The standard is also built for flexibility, able to adapt to new modalities that have a need to communicate. The speedy acceptance of DICOM by the medical imaging industry is opening new possibilities for healthcare organizations to increase the quality while decreasing the cost of patient care. All of the DICOM networked supporting medical equipment as well as the organization's computer systems made by multiple original equipment manufacturers and located at one site or many sites can communicate by means of DICOM. This gives us the opportunity for medical images to be captured and communicated quicker. The result enables physicians to make diagnoses and treatment decisions sooner. It's all good stuff and even more reason why we should endeavor to understand the basics of DICOM. DICOM is here to stay!

  13. 88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Reduction of carbon dioxide to petrochemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneco, S.; Iiba, K.; Ohta, K.; Mizuno, T.

    2000-03-01

    The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} at the Cu electrode was investigated in methanol-based electrolyte using various cesium supporting salts as the ionophore at an extremely low temperature (243 K). Cesium acetate, chloride, bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were used as the ionophore. The main products from CO{sub 2} by electrochemical reduction were methane, ethylene, ethane, carbon monoxide, and formic acid. In the methanol-based electrolyte using cesium supporting salts, except for acetate, the Faradaic efficiency for ethylene was larger than that for methane. This research can contribute to large-scale manufacturing of petrochemical intermediate products, such as methane and ethylene, from readily available and cheap raw materials: CO{sub 2}-saturated methanol from industrial absorbers (the Rectisol process). Thus the synthesis of hydrocarbons by the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} may be of practical interest for fuel production, storage of solar energy, and production of intermediate materials for the petrochemical industry.

  15. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... - C17) Chlorobenzene Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroform Chlorotoluene Dibromomethane Dibutylphenols...

  16. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... - C17) Chlorobenzene Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroform Chlorotoluene Dibromomethane Dibutylphenols...

  17. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... - C17) Chlorobenzene Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroform Chlorotoluene Dibromomethane Dibutylphenols...

  18. Directional drilling allows quick exit from petrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Halderman, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    Horizontal directional drilling uses specialty tools and techniques largely taken from the oil field and the mining industry to very accurately install pipelines, utilities and other conduits under obstacles such as rivers, beaches, environmentally sensitive areas, roadways, railroads, airfields, and congested pipeline corridors. In the early part of 1990, a particularly interesting problem confronted the pipeline engineers at Union Carbides 2,500-acre Seadrift plant near Port Lavaca, Texas. Having started up in 1954, the plant today is a major supplier of chemicals and plastics to industry, shipping more than two billion pounds per year. Since very large volumes of cooling water are needed for the operation of a petrochemical complex of this magnitude, years of expansion and modifications have caused the plant to become nearly surrounded by a number of rather large segmented ponds.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  3. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  4. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Jackson, Roderick K; Cox, Matthew; Cortes, Rodrigo; Deitchman, Benjamin H

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  5. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  6. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  7. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  8. Can refiners successfully extend revenue streams through petrochemicals?

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    The petrochemical industry is actually an outgrowth of the need for new types of materials throughout the world. A recent estimate places the requirements for infra-structure investment (public works, housing, power, etc.) in developing Asia for the period 1995-2004 at $1.4 trillion. New petrochemical derived materials for construction will be required in record numbers to meet this need. For example, the use of fiber reinforced plastics will have a substantial potential in construction. Other chemically resistant materials have wide applications in humid, corrosive environments and could therefore find markets worldwide. Other sectors such as telecommunications, power plants and transportation are also areas of potential commercial applications for petrochemical derived materials. For refinery-based petrochemicals such as ethylene, the world`s largest volume organic chemical, and for aromatics and propylene, the building blocks for so many modern materials, these circumstances present challenges, risks, but perhaps most of all opportunity.

  9. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  10. Removal of nitrogen from secondary effluent of a petrochemical industrial park by a hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor with one-stage ANAMMOX.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Lin; Tsao, Hsiang-Wei; Huang, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Yang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Wei-Chiang; Wen, Chun-Kuei; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to explore the capability of one-stage ANAMMOX in a hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor (HBCR) fed with petrochemical wastewater. Under favorable operating conditions in continuous-flow operations (at the dissolved oxygen level of 0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)), the average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency reached 62-67% and approximately 90% of TN can be removed by ANAMMOX. In batch operations of the hybrid biofilm-carrier reactor (without adding carbon substrate), the specific TN removal rate of the reactor in which both Kaldnes and nonwoven carriers were kept was two-fold higher than that of the reactor in which only nonwoven carriers were kept. This indicated that the microbial activity of thinner biofilms (Kaldnes carriers) was remarkably higher than that of thicker biofilms (nonwoven carriers). Finally, based on the 16S rRNA clone library, a cluster of ANAMMOX Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was identified.

  11. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene by the mixed culture of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus vireti isolated from the petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Mohandass, Ramya; Rout, Pallabi; Jiwal, Sonia; Sasikala, Chitrambalam

    2012-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds that pose threat to humans and animal life. Methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The bacterial consortium capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from petrochemical soil. The isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus viretibased on morphological characterization, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. About 58.98% of benzo(a)pyrene at concentration of 500 mg l(-1) in mineral salts medium were removed by bacterial consortium. GC mass spectral analysis showed the presence of metabolite cis-4-(7-hydroxypyren-8-yl)-2-oxobut-3enoic acid. The results indicate that the bacterial consortium is a new bacterial resource for biodegrading benzo(a)pyrene and might be used for bioremediation of sites heavily contaminated by benzo[a]pyrene and its derivatives.

  12. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob

    This student manual contains the following six units for classroom and laboratory experiences in high school industrial electronics: (1) introduction and review of DC and AC circuits; (2) semiconductors; (3) integrated circuits; (4) digital basics; (5) complex digital circuits; and (6) computer circuits. The units include unit objectives, specific…

  13. Refinery, petrochemical plant injuries decline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-25

    The National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) reports a 7% reduction in workplace injury and illness incidence rates for refineries in 1993, and a 21% decrease for petrochemical plants. The report summarizes data from 135 of the 162 US member refineries, and 117 of the 172 US member petrochemical plants. This paper summarizes the report findings.

  14. Greed in the Groves: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rise of an academic-industrial complex through which American and multinational corporations siphon the publicly created resources of universities and thereby convert publicly financed research into private gain. Asserts that this new corporate dominance represents an unprecedented intrusion into the heart of academic freedom which…

  15. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  16. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  17. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  18. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  19. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development.

  20. II: Through the Western Part of the City: Charlottenburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Until 1920 the city we now call Berlin was a collection of independent towns and villages — among them Charlottenburg, which was one of the most important and was the proud sister of Berlin, Prussia’s and Germany’s capital, where the wealthy and innovative bourgeoisie lived. Werner von Siemens, Germany’s pioneer in the modern electrical industry, was a prime example of that elite. His castle-like villa was located not far from today’s Ernst-Reuter-Platz at Otto-Suhr-Allee 10-16, and important parts of his enterprise expanded into the “meadows outside of Charlottenburg” during the second half of the 19th century. It was no accident that the efforts to unite Berlin’s two colleges for trade and construction (both founded around 1800) led to the foundation of a modern Technical College in Charlottenburg in 1879, today’s Technical University of Berlin. Its magnificent main building (figure 1), which was opened in 1882 by the German Emperor, was an expression of the great self-confidence of this new institution of higher learning and of Charlottenburg’s bourgeoisie. Although large parts of the building were destroyed by bombs during World War II, you can still get an impression of its monumentality from what survived at number 135 Strasse des 17. Juni.

  1. Getting in Taped, Part I and Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundy, H. M.; Higgins, J.

    1971-01-01

    This article is in two parts: discussion of mathematical concepts involved in converting the reading from the tape-recorder counter which counts the turns of the run-off spool to that from the counter which counts turns of the take-up spool; calculating the length of tape run off when given the reading from the tape-recorder counter of the run-off…

  2. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... potential compatibility problems, this commodity is not assigned to a specific group in Figure 1 to 46 CFR part 150 (Compatibility Chart). 2 See Appendix I to 46 CFR part 150 (Exceptions to the Chart)....

  3. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... potential compatibility problems, this commodity is not assigned to a specific group in Figure 1 to 46 CFR part 150 (Compatibility Chart). 2 See Appendix I to 46 CFR part 150 (Exceptions to the Chart)....

  4. The Metis Nation--Part Two II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, John

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with historical events involving the Metis people from the time Manitoba entered the Confederation to the conclusion of the 1885 battle at Fish Creek near Batoche, Saskatchewan. Part I is in the Summer, 1978 issue of the Northian. (Author/RTS)

  5. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  6. Faculty Handbook. Part II. Improving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    Part of a faculty handbook by the Graduate School of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this section reviews and discusses research on adult characteristics and adult learning, (including effects of group structure), the setting of course objectives, conditions required for an effective learning experience, teaching methods, and techniques for…

  7. A Fundamental Breakdown. Part II: Manipulative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, J. Scott; Mohr, Derek J.

    2005-01-01

    In the May, 2005, issue of "TEPE," the "Research to Practice" section initiated a two-part series focused on assessing fundamental locomotor and manipulative skills. The series was generated in response to research by Pappa, Evanggelinou, & Karabourniotis (2005), recommending that curricular programming in physical education at the elementary…

  8. Sexual Harassment, Parts I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate newsletter issues examine the issue of sexual harassment on college campuses. Part I contains a general introduction to the topic and two articles. The first of these discusses the definition of sexual harassment by the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the courts, the EEOC guidelines on conduct of a…

  9. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  11. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  12. Consular Reports on Continuation Schools in Prussia: I. Vocational Training in Magdeburg; II. Part-Time Schools for Industrial Workers; III. The City Continuation and Trade School of Brunswick; IV. The Continuation Schools of Barmen; V. Part-Time Shoe Schools in Breslau. Bulletin, 1913, No. 9. Whole Number 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Ernest L.; Busser, Ralph C.; Albert, Talbot J.; Eager, Eugene; Potts, Frank G.

    1913-01-01

    This bulletin contains a compilation of consular reports on continuation schools in Prussia. It is presented in five sections, as follows: (1) Vocational Training in Magdeburg; (2) Part-Time Schools for Industrial Workers; (3) The City Continuation and Trade School of Brunswick; (4) The Continuation Schools of Barmen; and (5) Part-Time Shoe…

  13. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  14. Magnet hospitals: Part II. Institutions of excellence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Schmalenberg, C

    1988-02-01

    The oft repeated charge today is to "focus on those who are succeeding!" That's what this report does. Using the eight characteristics identified by Peters and Waterman in their book In Search of Excellence, the study analyzes 16 magnet hospitals to ascertain to what extent they possess characteristics similar to the 'best run' companies in the corporate community. The authors suggest that these magnet hospitals may be dealing effectively with the nursing shortage by creating organizational conditions conducive to eliminating internal nurse shortage. Part I of this article appeared the January 1988 issue of JONA.

  15. [Main issues of psychoneuroimmunology: Part II].

    PubMed

    Mausch, K

    2000-01-01

    In psychoneuroimmunology links between psyche and the body are examined in the context of neurotransmitter, hormone and immuno-transmitter interaction. This allows for construction of models which show empirically verifiable links between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The earlier concepts of stress by Cannon and Selye focused on the physical and mental strain influence on the action of the nervous and endocrine systems. Ursin, Olff and Schedlowski introduced the concept of stress extended by an immune system reaction, which is an integral part of the alarm phase. A change in the amount of NK cells and their stress-influenced activity is an important defense mechanism of the body. It constitutes a component of the preparation for defense against potential pathogen penetration.

  16. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  17. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  18. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-04-17

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ``next Asia,`` if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region`s enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies.

  19. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  20. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part II.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics - pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy - started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning - as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder - 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  1. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  2. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  3. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  4. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  5. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  6. Caring communications: how technology enhances interpersonal relations, Part II.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roy L

    2008-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part series about technology's role in interpersonal communications examined how humans interact; proposed a caring theory of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution; and delineated ways that technology--in general--supports this carative model of interpersonal relations. Part II will examine the barriers to adoption of carative technologies, describe the core capabilities required to overcome them, and discuss specific technologies that can support carative interpersonal relationships. PMID:18360212

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543...

  8. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1991-92. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report, which combined Part I and Part II of a benefit study, presents data from a survey of Ontario universities concerning fringe benefits offered in 1991-92. Part I is made up of a series of tables displaying the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution. The first five tables cover general aspects of benefits,…

  9. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Susan L

    2002-03-01

    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships. PMID:11874314

  10. Petroleum industry in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Farideh, A.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the oil industry in Iran from the early discovery of oil nearly two hundred years ago in Mazandaran (north part) to the development of a giant modern industry in the twentieth century. Chapter I presents a brief historical setting to introduce the reader to the importance of oil in Iran. It focuses on the economic implications of the early oil concessions in the period 1901 to 1951. Chapter II discusses the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry and creation of NIOC in 1951 and the international political and economic implication of these activities. Chapter III explains the activities of NIOC in Iran. Exploration and drilling, production, exports, refineries, natural gas, petrochemicals and internal distributions are studied. Chapter IV discusses the role of the development planning of Iran. A brief presentation of the First Development Plan through the Fifth Development Plan is given. Sources and uses of funds by plan organization during these Five Plans is studied. The Iran and Iraq War is also studied briefly, but the uncertainty of its resolution prevents any close analysis of its impact on the Iranian oil industry. One conclusion, however, is certain; oil has been a vital resource in Iran's past and it will remain the lifetime of its economic development in the future.

  11. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill...

  12. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  13. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  14. Evaluation of myelotoxicity in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) exposed to environmental contaminants. II. Myelotoxicity associated with petroleum industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Stair, E L; Lish, J W; Lochmiller, R L; Rafferty, D P; Qualls, C W

    2001-01-26

    Various chemical mixtures exist in soil contaminated with petrochemical wastes, yet no comprehensive assessment of their impact on terrestrial ecosystems has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hematotoxicity risks to wild populations of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) residing in habitats previously contaminated by petroleum industrial wastes. Resident cotton rats were monitored on nine contaminated sites and nine ecologically matched reference sites in Oklahoma. The possible toxicological interactions of petrochemical wastes on bone marrow was investigated by using the assay of colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells. There was a consistent significant 21 to 39% decrease in the number of colony-forming units of granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) in cotton rats from petrochemical-contaminated sites compared to matched reference sites, with no marked changes in hematological or histopathological parameters. These results suggest that bone-marrow progenitor cell culture is a sensitive indicator for the assessment of ecotoxicity risks associated with petrochemical wastes that are generated by the oil refining industry. Long-term exposure to hazardous wastes associated with the petroleum industry may represent a subtle risk to the hematopoietic system in humans.

  15. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  16. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  17. Sanctioned social violence: a psychoanalytic view. Part II.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2003-08-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two papers. In Part I, the first paper, the author reviewed the influence on the development of socially sanctioned violence of psychodynamics of group psychology and mass psychology, the regressive pull of ideologies, personality features of social and political leadership, and historical trauma and social crises. In this Part II, the author explores, from a psychoanalytic perspective, the dehumanization processes related to fundamentalist ideologies and terrorism.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENT BEHAVIOR. PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLEN, NORMAN E.

    A CONTINUATION OF A PREVIOUS STUDY--"RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENT BEHAVIOR--PART I"--IS PRESENTED. A FURTHER ANALYSIS OF THE TEACHER MATRIX REVEALED THAT THOSE TEACHERS VIEWED TO BE NEAR THE WARM, PERMISSIVE END OF THE SCALE WERE NOT FOUND TO BE LESS WELL LIKED BY THE CHILDREN. THEY MADE LESS ACHIEVEMENT GAIN IN…

  19. Guide to the Archives of International Organizations. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walne, Peter, Comp.

    This compilation forms Part II of the guide according to the plan conceived by a working party of the Section of Archivists of International Organisations of the International Council on Archives in 1974-1975. The directory provides access to national and other archive and manuscript repositories that maintain the archives of international…

  20. The Level/Preventive Approach to Solving Technical and Economic Tasks as One of Directions in Development of the Enterprises of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineva, R.; Daminev, R.; Karimov, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, as a tool of strategy generation in development of industrial enterprise, a methodological approach is considered, that allows the choosing the best path of development among many solutions of technical and economic tasks, taking into account both the interests of enterprises and of society as a whole.

  1. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  2. 31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

  3. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-A. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the second of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for two of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 197 tasks included in these two duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  4. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  5. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  6. Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.

    PubMed Central

    Baak, Y M; Ahn, B Y; Chang, H S; Kim, J H; Kim, K A; Lim, Y

    1999-01-01

    A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504154

  7. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040..., Part II and III (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming. DATES: Written comments should be received on... Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040). Abstract: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)...

  8. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  9. English for Petrochemical Plant Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Henri Sue

    The development of a program and curriculum for instruction in technical English for Saudi Arabian petrochemical plant operator trainees studying in the United States for two years was undertaken by the University of South Alabama's English Language Center. The program was designed to accommodate (1) the degree of skills and prior learning of the…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  15. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  16. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:22807605

  17. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part II).

    PubMed

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-12-01

    Since calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs frequently administered in combination with other agents, the potential for clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions exists. These interactions occur most frequently via altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme activity. Part I of the article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, dealt with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. Part II examines interactions with cyclosporin, anaesthetics, carbamazepine and cardiovascular agents. PMID:1782739

  18. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite.

  19. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  20. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  1. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum Powder: Part II. Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-12-01

    The optimal processing parameters that are required to atomize amorphous Al were established on the basis of numerical simulations in part I of this study. In this part II, the characterization of cooling rate experienced by gas-atomized, Al-based amorphous powders was studied via experiments. An experimental investigation was implemented to validate the numerical predictions reported in part I of this study. The cooling rate experienced by the powders, for example, was experimentally determined on the basis of dendrite arm spacing correlations, and the results were compared with the numerical predictions. The experimental studies were completed using commercial Al 2024 as a baseline material and Al90Gd7Ni2Fe1 metallic glass (MG). The results showed that the cooling rate of droplets increases with decreasing particle size, with an increasing proportion of helium in the atomization gas and with increasing melt superheat. The experimental results reported in this article suggest good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations.

  2. Care of the patient with chronic pain: part II.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    2000-01-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual issues for patients and their families. It is often misunderstood and unsuccessfully managed. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I [Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 3 (4), 192-204] outlined the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain. In Part II, a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems are introduced. PMID:11858295

  3. What are future petrochemical feedstocks?

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, T.J.

    1997-05-01

    Continuing growth in olefins and aromatics demand will require investment in production facilities worldwide. Feedstock selection for these new plants must take into account changing co-product demand patterns and production technology. Feedstock availability and logistics will be the most important considerations. Competition with fuel demand will encourage petrochemical producers to increase feedstock integration, to expand feedstock flexibility and to seek new feedstock sources. The paper discusses the following feedstocks: ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil, and condensate.

  4. Improvement of dewatering capacity of a petrochemical sludge.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Kucukselek, Emrah

    2007-06-01

    Oily sludge produced from a petrochemical industry was used to investigate the improvement of its dewatering properties. The oil content (OC) and the dry solid content (DS) of the raw sludge were respectively, 15% and 3.6% by weight. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the raw petrochemical industrial sludge were found to be 2000s and approximately 5.5x10(16)m/kg, respectively. Conventional chemical conditioners such as alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte, and less conventional ones like fly ash, gypsum, and bentonite were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Conventional chemical conditioners gave better results for the enhancement of the dewatering capacity of the sludge. The best result was obtained by using 0.9% cationic polyelectrolyte by weight, and a decrease of 99%-95% were achieved for CST and SRF, respectively, when this dosage of cationic polyelectrolyte was used. PMID:17101214

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  6. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  7. Association of childhood leukemia with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollution in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and childhood leukemia (19 yr of age or younger), the authors conducted a matched case-control study using childhood deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible childhood leukemia deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of children who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were not associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. The proportion of a municipality's total population employed in the petrochemical industry in a municipality was used as an indicator of a resident's exposure to air emissions from the petrochemical industry. The subjects were divided into three levels (< or =25th percentile; 25th-75th percentile; > 75th percentile) according to the levels of the index just described. After controlling for possible confounders, results showed that children who lived in the group of municipalities characterized by the highest levels of petrochemical air pollution had a statistically significant higher risk of developing leukemia than the group that lived in municipalities with the lowest petrochemical air pollution levels. The results of this study shed important light on the relationship between the Taiwan petrochemical industry and human health risks. PMID:18236219

  8. German women in chemistry, 1925-1945 (Part II).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the role of German women into the chemistry profession from 1925 to 1945, examining their relative numbers and experience in higher education, in academic and industrial careers as well as in professional organizations such as the Verein Deutscher Chemikerinnen. The paper examines the effect of the 1930s Depression, National Socialism, and World War II on women chemists, considering both general trends as well as the experiences and achievements of several individual women in a variety of situations. Finally, it considers the longterm consequences of these developments, such as the Nazi expulsion of Jewish women, destruction of women's organizations and devaluing of women's achievements, in limiting the recognition and participation of German women chemists after 1945.

  9. German women in chemistry, 1925-1945 (part II).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    1998-12-01

    The paper traces the role of German women into the chemistry profession from 1925 to 1945, examining their relative numbers and experience in higher education, in academic and industrial careers as well as in professional organizations such as the Verein Deutscher Chemikerinnen. The paper examines the effect of the 1930s Depression, National Socialism, and World War II on women chemists, considering both general trends as well as the experiences and achievements of several individual women in a variety of situations. Finally, it considers the longterm consequences of these developments, such as the Nazi expulsion of Jewish women, destruction of women's organizations and devaluing of women's achievements, in limiting the recognition and participation of German women chemists after 1945.

  10. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  11. Arm-free paraplegic standing--Part II: Experimental results.

    PubMed

    Matjacić, Z; Bajd, T

    1998-06-01

    In Part I, we proposed an approach for restoring unsupported standing to thoracic-level paraplegics. The theoretical analysis and simulation of an underactuated double inverted pendulum, representing the standing subject, showed that arm-free standing might be achieved. Here in Part II, we present the mechanical apparatus which we used in our experiments and experimental results from tests of the balance-control strategy. We demonstrate that an intact and a paraplegic subject could perform quiet standing with the ankle stiffness set to 8 Nm/degree or even less (the intact subject). Both were also able to recover from disturbances, imposed by the artificial ankle joint of the apparatus. Introducing cognitive auditory feedback greatly improved the standing abilities of both subjects. PMID:9631321

  12. The subthalamic nucleus part II: modelling and simulation of activity.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    Part I of The Subthalamic Nucleus (volume 198) (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections.The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. This monograph (Part II of the two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models - single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727495

  13. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1037 - Power Take-Off Test Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power Take-Off Test Cycle II Appendix II to Part 1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 1037, App. II Appendix II to Part...

  16. 19 CFR Annex II to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews II Annex II to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex II Annex II to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  20. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  1. Association of brain cancer with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and brain cancer (29 yr of age or younger), the authors conducted a matched case-control study using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible brain cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of subjects who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were not associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. The proportion of a municipality's total population employed in the petrochemical industry in a municipality was used as an indicator of a resident's exposure to air emissions from the petrochemical industry. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to the levels of the index just described. Subjects who lived in the group of municipalities characterized by the highest levels of petrochemical air pollution had a statistically significant higher risk of developing brain cancer than the group that lived in municipalities with the lowest petrochemical air pollution levels after controlling for possible confounders (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.00-2.73). The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of petrochemical air pollution in the etiology of brain cancer. PMID:18214804

  2. A guide to clinical trials. Part II: interpreting medical research.

    PubMed

    Highleyman, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this two-part article, which appeared in the Summer 2005 issue of BETA, provided an overview of the clinical trial process. Part II covers features of clinical trials and interpretation of study results. Clinical trials provide the foundation for evidence-based medicine, or medical decision-making guided by data from formal research. Medical professionals keep up with the latest information by reading peer-reviewed medical journals and attending conferences. Likewise, HIV positive people can keep abreast of the state of the art by following the medical literature and community publications like BETA. Trials offer important information about a therapy's benefits and risks in a population, but they cannot predict how well a given treatment will work for a specific person. Healthcare providers, therefore, must still rely heavily on clinical experience, intuition, and a careful evaluation of the various factors unique to each individual case--the practice of medicine remains an art as well as a science. PMID:16610119

  3. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  4. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 Manufacturers... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted In-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 Manufacturers... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted In-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 Manufacturers... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT...

  8. Branch Flow Model: Relaxations and Convexification-Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Farivar, M; Low, SH

    2013-08-01

    We propose a branch flow model for the analysis and optimization of mesh as well as radial networks. The model leads to a new approach to solving optimal power flow (OPF) that consists of two relaxation steps. The first step eliminates the voltage and current angles and the second step approximates the resulting problem by a conic program that can be solved efficiently. For radial networks, we prove that both relaxation steps are always exact, provided there are no upper bounds on loads. For mesh networks, the conic relaxation is always exact but the angle relaxation may not be exact, and we provide a simple way to determine if a relaxed solution is globally optimal. We propose convexification of mesh networks using phase shifters so that OPF for the convexified network can always be solved efficiently for an optimal solution. We prove that convexification requires phase shifters only outside a spanning tree of the network and their placement depends only on network topology, not on power flows, generation, loads, or operating constraints. Part I introduces our branch flow model, explains the two relaxation steps, and proves the conditions for exact relaxation. Part II describes convexification of mesh networks, and presents simulation results.

  9. Revision of the Genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 and Descriptions of New Species. Part II of Three Parts

    PubMed Central

    Raski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Part II covers species with average female stylet length of 22-38 μm. Seven new species are described and further observations are given on 12 other species. A key to the species covered in Parts I and II is included. Paratylenchus curvitatus van der Linde, 1938, is transferred to species inquirendae. PMID:19308171

  10. Characterization of NOx, SO2, ethene, and propene from industrial emission sources in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; de Gouw, J. A.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Holloway, J. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Schauffler, S. M.; Walega, J. G.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Zheng, W.

    2010-08-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria urban area contains industrial petrochemical sources that emit volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, resulting in rapid and efficient ozone production downwind. During September to October 2006, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted research flights as part of the second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II). We use measurements of NOx, SO2, and speciated hydrocarbons from industrial sources in Houston to derive source emission ratios and compare these to emission inventories and the first Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2000. Between 2000 and 2006, NOx/CO2 emission ratios changed by an average of -29% ± 20%, while a significant trend in SO2/CO2 emission ratios was not observed. We find that high hydrocarbon emissions are routine for the isolated petrochemical facilities. Ethene (C2H4) and propene (C3H6) are the major contributors to ozone formation based on calculations of OH reactivity for organic species including C2-C10 alkanes, C2-C5 alkenes, ethyne, and C2-C5 aldehydes and ketones. Measured ratios of C2H4/NOx and C3H6/NOx exceed emission inventory values by factors of 1.4-20 and 1-24, respectively. We examine trends in C2H4/NOx and C3H6/NOx ratios between 2000 and 2006 for the isolated petrochemical sources and estimate a change of -30% ± 30%, with significant day-to-day and within-plume variability. Median ambient mixing ratios of ethene and propene in Houston show decreases of -52% and -48%, respectively, between 2000 and 2006. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and peroxyacetyl nitrate products produced by alkene oxidation are observed downwind, and their time evolution is consistent with the rapid photochemistry that also produces ozone.

  11. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  12. The reuse of petroleum and petrochemical waste in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, D. )

    1992-02-01

    The high temperatures and long residence times in the combustion zones of cement kilns have been used for over ten years to burn flammable liquid hazardous wastes, such as solvents, as fuels. Increasing government regulation and control of this technology has actually resulted in expanded use as both waste generators and cement manufacturers have grown more comfortable and confident of this technology. Liquid petroleum and petrochemical wastes have been a part of this liquid fuel stream from its inception. Solid and sludgy petroleum and petrochemical wastes present greater handling difficulties. Nevertheless, the land ban of many of these hazardous wastes has resulted in the motivation to develop solid and sludge handling and processing technologies to allow their use as fuel. These processing options extend back to the point of generation. Changes in filter press media and drying technologies are allowing certain petroleum and petrochemical wastes to be pneumatically introduced into cement kilns. Quality control technologies, including laboratories at both cement kilns and the generating/processing location, have also been a critical part of these developments. As this technology matures, as much as 454,000,000 kg of nationwide capacity for hazardous waste fuel solids is likely to become available.

  13. Texas facility treats, recycles refinery, petrochemical wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-16

    A US Gulf Coast environmental services company is treating refinery and petrochemical plant wastes to universal treatment standards (UTS). DuraTherm Inc.`s recycling center uses thermal desorption to treat a variety of refinery wastes and other hazardous materials. The plant is located in San Leon, Tex., near the major Houston/Texas City refining and petrochemical center. DuraTherm`s customers include major US refining companies, plus petrochemical, terminal, pipeline, transportation, and remediation companies. Examples of typical contaminant concentrations and treatment levels for refinery wastes are shown. The paper discusses thermal desorption, the process description and testing.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 280 - List of Agencies Designated To Receive Notifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 04333 Maryland (EPA Form), Science and Health Advisory Group, Office of Environmental Programs, 201 West... Notifications II Appendix II to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Designated To Receive Notifications Alabama (EPA Form), Alabama Department of Environmental...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 280 - List of Agencies Designated To Receive Notifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 04333 Maryland (EPA Form), Science and Health Advisory Group, Office of Environmental Programs, 201 West... Notifications II Appendix II to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Designated To Receive Notifications Alabama (EPA Form), Alabama Department of Environmental...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 280 - List of Agencies Designated To Receive Notifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 04333 Maryland (EPA Form), Science and Health Advisory Group, Office of Environmental Programs, 201 West... Notifications II Appendix II to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Designated To Receive Notifications Alabama (EPA Form), Alabama Department of Environmental...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 280 - List of Agencies Designated To Receive Notifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 04333 Maryland (EPA Form), Science and Health Advisory Group, Office of Environmental Programs, 201 West... Notifications II Appendix II to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Designated To Receive Notifications Alabama (EPA Form), Alabama Department of Environmental...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 280 - List of Agencies Designated To Receive Notifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 04333 Maryland (EPA Form), Science and Health Advisory Group, Office of Environmental Programs, 201 West... Notifications II Appendix II to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Designated To Receive Notifications Alabama (EPA Form), Alabama Department of Environmental...

  19. Asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children living near a petrochemical site.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Enric; Cuadras, Anna; Aguilar, Xavier; Esteban, Leonardo; Borràs-Santos, Alícia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Residential proximity to environmental hazards has been related to adverse health outcomes. Respiratory health and allergies in children living near petrochemical sites have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to the petrochemical site of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and the prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children. Children aged 6-7 (n=2672) and adolescents aged 13-14 (n=2524) residing near two large petrochemical sites and those living in a city with medium vehicular traffic were cross-sectionally compared with children from an area with low vehicular traffic and without industry. The prevalence of symptoms was measured using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written and video questionnaires. Lung function measurements were done in a subsample of 959 adolescents in the four areas. Multivariable analyses were done to estimate the effects of the residential area on symptoms and lung function adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of symptoms was similar across the studied areas. After adjustment, children and adolescents living near a petrochemical site had a statistically significant higher prevalence of respiratory hospitalizations in the previous year (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.49; 95%CI, 1.06-2.09) and of nocturnal cough (PR=1.29; 95%CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Reduced lung function values among adolescents residing near the petrochemical areas were not observed. Although a higher prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents living near the petrochemical sites could not be demonstrated, as described in other studies, respiratory hospitalizations and nocturnal cough could be related to short-term exposures to pollutants. Other clinical and sub-clinical respiratory health effects in the petrochemical industry areas should be investigated.

  20. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R; Sage, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures

  1. Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

  2. Asbestos-associated cancers in the Ontario refinery and petrochemical sector.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1996-11-01

    Asbestos has been widely used in the refinery and petrochemical sector. Mesothelioma has occurred among maintenance employees, and it was hypothesized that mesothelioma is a marker for exposures which might increase lung cancer risk. A death certificate-based case-control study of mesothelioma and lung cancer from 1980 to 1992 was conducted in an Ontario county with a substantial presence of these industries. Each of the 17 men who died of mesothelioma and 424 with lung cancer were matched with controls who died of other causes. The Job and Industry fields on the death certificates were abstracted. Employment as a maintenance worker in the refinery and petrochemical sector was associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma (odds ratio: 24.5; 90% confidence interval 3.1-102). The risk of lung cancer among petrochemical workers, in comparison with all other workers in the county, was 0.88. In an internal comparison of maintenance employees with other blue-collar workers in the refinery and petrochemical sector, the odds ratio for lung cancer was 1.73 (90% confidence interval 0.83-3.6). This finding is consistent with no difference in risk between maintenance and other employees, but it is also compatible with study power being too low to achieve statistical significance. The hypothesis of increased lung cancer risk could be examined more fully with nested case-control studies in existing cohorts. Meanwhile, it would be prudent to reinforce adherence to asbestos control measures in the refinery and petrochemical sector.

  3. Part I. Molecular dichroism, optical and catalysis studies of several metalloporphyrins. Part II. Solid state studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sito, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1. Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrinatopalladium (II), [Pd-TMpyP][sup 4+], was prepared by a new technique, purified and intercalated with calf thymus DNA. The Soret and Q band regions were studied using Circular Dichroism (CD) and magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD). The MCD measurements in Soret and Q band regions and CD of the Q band regions are reported for the first time. The known photocatalyst, tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyinato-zinc(II), was covalently bonded to the surfaces of both iodinated (Ia) and chlorinated (Ib) cross-linked poly(siloxane) materials. Thermal catalytic activity was found to be present, and it was quantitatively measured using olefin oxidation of styrene to acetophenone. The zinc porphyrin supported on iodinated poly(siloxane) showed an over 12-fold increase in catalytic activity, as measured by turnover numbers, compared to the chlorinated support material. Part II. The plasmas produced by ablation of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] single-phase high T[sub C] bulk superconductors when exposed to XeCl excimer laser pulses have been studied. The luminescence of the laser-induced vapor plume have been analyzed using optical emission spectroscopy. Excited atomic neutral and single ionized species (Cu/Cu[sup +], Ba/Ba[sup +], Y/Y[sup +]) as well as some molecular emission bands (CuO, YO) were observed within the experimental resolution of an optical multichannel analyzer detection system. A liquid mediated pulse laser irradiation procedure was used in the attempt to form thin layers of carbides and nitrides of silicon. A boron doped single crystal (100) of silicon was irradiated while immersed in cyclohexane or liquid ammonia. Irradiation of the samples was carried out using a 308 nm excimer laser. The laser pulses had energy densities of 0.5 to 3.0 J cm[sup [minus]2] and the number of pulses used ranged from 1 to 50. The specimens were analyzed using specular reflectance and auger electron spectroscopies.

  4. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.

    A REVIEW OF LITERATURE TREATING NATIONAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL INFORMATION RELATING TO "HARVESTING,""PRIMARY MANUFACTURING," AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE LUMBER INDUSTRY REVEALED THERE HAVE BEEN FEW STUDIES OF EMPLOYEES AND THE KINDS OF JOBS THEY PERFORM. THE TOTAL CONTRIBUTION OF THE TIMBER-BASED INDUSTRY WAS ABOUT 25 BILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY IN THE LATE…

  5. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted In-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted In-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 13. Access to all records, accounts, receipts, etc., pertaining to the costs herein billed will be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II.... II Appendix II to Part 13—Form of Bill for Reimbursement I hereby request that ______...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 13. Access to all records, accounts, receipts, etc., pertaining to the costs herein billed will be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II.... II Appendix II to Part 13—Form of Bill for Reimbursement I hereby request that ______...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 13. Access to all records, accounts, receipts, etc., pertaining to the costs herein billed will be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II.... II Appendix II to Part 13—Form of Bill for Reimbursement I hereby request that ______...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 13. Access to all records, accounts, receipts, etc., pertaining to the costs herein billed will be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II.... II Appendix II to Part 13—Form of Bill for Reimbursement I hereby request that ______...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during idle at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510. (b) Test nonhandheld engines with one... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... during idle at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510. (b) Test nonhandheld engines with one... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... during idle at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510. (b) Test nonhandheld engines with one... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during idle at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510. (b) Test nonhandheld engines with one... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  20. The Transit of Educational Theory II: Herbartianism Comes to America. Part I, The People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Harold B.

    1969-01-01

    Part I concentrates on the persons who were the chief importers and disseminators of the German educational theory and their interrelations. The doctrines of Herbartianism are considered in Part II. (DE)

  1. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  2. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  3. Graphic Arts (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a graphic arts course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  4. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  5. Design/Drafting (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a design/drafting course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  6. Photography (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a photography course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  7. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  8. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  10. The year's new drugs & biologics, 2013: Part II.

    PubMed

    Graul, A I; Navarro, D; Dulsat, C; Cruces, E; Tracy, M

    2014-02-01

    The demise of the pharmaceutical industry, so pessimistically predicted by many in recent years, has not come to pass and in fact the patient is alive and well. New programs enacted by drug regulators have been enthusiastically taken up by the industry, including the FDA's breakthrough therapy and qualified infectious disease product (QIDP) designations, as well as the now-consolidated orphan drug programs in many countries. Pharma companies pragmatically wean nonperformers from the pipeline in an efficient manner, resulting in somewhat leaner but higher-quality pipelines. Mergers and acquisitions also continue to drive consolidation and efficiency in the industry, a trend that continued during 2013. This article provides an updated review of these and other trends in the pharmaceutical industry in the year just passed.

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  12. Iowa High School Industrial Arts Curriculum Project. Report on Year One of Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    Phase II of the Iowa High School Industrial Arts project sought to revise industrial arts content to include the infusion of new technologies, structured mathematics and science content, and a less project-oriented approach to teaching. The project identified a philosophical basis and a content structure; set priorities for development and…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  18. Individualized Testing System: Performance Assessment Resources, ISCS Level II, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is part one of two performance assessment resources booklets for Level II of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). The two booklets are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation materials for Level II of the ISCS developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program.…

  19. Individualized Testing System: Performance Assessment Resources, ISCS Level II, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is part two of two performance assessment resources booklets for Level II of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). The two booklets are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation materials for Level II of the ISCS developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program.…

  20. Coping With the Problems of a Technological Age, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…

  1. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  2. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  3. [Occupational diseases in the petrochemical sector: types and temporal trends].

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the archives of the National Institute for the Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL) are supported from several years by a second source of data on occupational diseases, the MALPROF system, based on data from the prevention units of the local health services (ASL). Integrating these two data flows allows connecting diseases and the occupations at the onset of the disease itself. The 2009-10 data from 12 Italian regions currently participating in the MALPROF system show that noise-induced hearing loss represents the relatively most frequent occupational disease (25.3%) in the petrochemical industry, followed by the musculoskeletal diseases (22.9%). Malignant tumors of the pleura and peritoneum follow with a proportional rate of 19%, six times higher than that recorded for the total industrial sectors (3.6%). Diseases of the respiratory system are clearly proportionally more frequent (16.5%) compared to data reported to the total industrial sectors (6%).

  4. Panel II: Packaging Capital for Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate four capital packaging approaches: a comprehensive statewide enterprise program for Pennsylvania; a county-based industrial development fund in Chautauqua County, New York; an employee buyout in Saratoga Springs, New York; and establishment of a small venture capital company in the Kentucky Highlands with Office of…

  5. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Instructor's Guide and Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob; Notgrass, Troy

    This manual is designed to help instructors guide students through their manuals and laboratory training stations in the field of industrial electronics. The manual consists of the following nine sections: (1) suggestions for teaching the course; (2) an instructional delivery outline; (3) lists of essential elements common to all trade and…

  6. Industrial Cooperative Training II. Curriculum Guide. General Related Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    Basic guidelines are offered for the teacher or coordinator who is working with second year Industrial Cooperative Training students (generally students at the twelfth grade level). The contents are organized into 12 units, with each unit including two to five lesson plans, transparencies (coded "T"), handouts (coded "H"), and a bibliography…

  7. Characterizing the Industrial Special Library Universe--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene B.; Jackson, Ruth L.

    This report presents supplementary statistical information characterizing industrial special libraries and backs up conclusions made in the journal article of the same title appearing in the May 1980 issue of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science (JASIS); this in turn updates an article published in May 1977. JASIS…

  8. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  9. Emerging trends in salmonid RAS - Part II. System enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dozens of land-based, closed containment systems are coming on line to produce salmon. New projects are bringing new principles into the salmon industry. Depuration systems maximize the removal of earthy and musty flavors in harvested fish. An emerging trend has been to apply technologies that incre...

  10. The Value of Upward Evaluation in Libraries--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen

    1995-01-01

    Examines the value of upward evaluation by reviewing historical outcomes of upward evaluations in industrial psychology/business literature and library literature. Also discusses the utilization of upward evaluation in libraries and focuses on results of the Western Kentucky University Libraries' annual process of supervisor evaluation. Appendixes…

  11. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  12. AN OUTLINE OF SERBO-CROATIAN NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE PAPER DESCRIBES MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SERBOCROATIAN NUMERALS, PRONOUNS, AND ADJECTIVES (NOUNS ARE DESCRIBED IN PART I). THE FIRST PART OF THE PAPER DISCUSSES AT SOME LENGTH STRESS PATTERNS OCCURRING IN SERBOCROATIAN NOUN PARADIGMS. THE PATTERNS ARE BASED ON THE DESCRIPTION OF STRESS SHIFTS GIVEN IN THE STANDARD TEXTBOOKS. NEXT, THE…

  13. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific "philosophy" of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with…

  14. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.L.; Decoufle, P.; Moure-Eraso, R.

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  15. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L; Decoufle, P; Moure-Eraso, R

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however, risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  16. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II to.../cm2. ......do kPa 1×10 3 N/m 2. Temperature Degree Celsius °C 5/9 (°F-32). Viscosity...

  17. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II to.../cm2. ......do kPa 1×10 3 N/m 2. Temperature Degree Celsius °C 5/9 (°F-32). Viscosity...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II to.../cm2. ......do kPa 1×10 3 N/m 2. Temperature Degree Celsius °C 5/9 (°F-32). Viscosity...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II to.../cm2. ......do kPa 1×10 3 N/m 2. Temperature Degree Celsius °C 5/9 (°F-32). Viscosity...

  20. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  1. Putting Teeth in the Developmental Tiger. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Rennie

    1979-01-01

    The second in a three-part series outlining Greenville Technical College's developmental studies program, this segment discusses the growth and functions of the Developmental Studies Division's counseling service, the Student Success Center. (Author/DR)

  2. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  3. Astronomy Books of 1984: Part II--The Technical List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1985-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of astronomy books is presented. These books (most of which are designed for research astronomers and graduate students) demand substantial background in astronomy and physics. Nontechnical books are reviewed in part I (SE 537 910). (JN)

  4. Designing SoTL Studies--Part II: Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests solutions to common practical problems in designing SoTL studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of designs are discussed. [Part I available at EJ1029363.

  5. Was Part D a giveaway to the pharmaceutical industry?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; Seiguer, Erica; Frank, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) prohibited the government from negotiating drug prices, a feature that the act's critics characterize as a giveaway to the drug industry. Instead of the government negotiating to keep prices down, the act relies on competition among drug companies to obtain business from private insurers; yet, competition cannot be effective when there are no close clinical substitutes. In the past few years, the rate of introduction of first-in-class drugs has been low; if this continues, the prohibition on negotiation may be only a minor problem. However, if the prior rate of introduction resumes, the government may find itself with unacceptable expenditure levels. PMID:17583259

  6. Conformational behavior of insect pheromones and analogues. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koča, Jaroslav; Carlsen, Per H. J.

    1992-04-01

    The conformational potential energy surface paths of the sex pheromone, Ipsenol, to the Bark Beetle, Ips typographus, and of a series of analogues have been elucidated using the program DAISY. The following structures were calculated: 2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol (Ipsenol, ( II)), 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene-4-ol acetate ( III), 2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol ( IV), 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadien-3-ol ( V), 5-(3-furanyl)-2-methyl-1-penten-3-ol ( VI) and 1-(3-furanyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol ( VII). As a measure of the conformational flexibility of the molecules the flexibility coefficients, f, were determined. The f values for the molecules were determined to be: II, 0.145; III, 0.144; IV, 1.240; V, 0.133; VI, 0.825; and VII, 0.451. The molecular mechanics method was used for energy calculations in conjunction with DAISY. Low-energy conformations (conformational channels) together with energy barriers for conformational changes are presented.

  7. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  8. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  9. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  10. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  11. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  12. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  13. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  14. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That was…

  15. Professional development implications of Ebola virus disease education: part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elaine L; Kerner, Robert L; Schindler, Jaclyn S; DeVoe, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series that explores how one large, integrated health care system swiftly responded to the emerging threat of Ebola virus disease. In this second article, the educational and training activities that were developed are described.

  16. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  17. Developing a Positive Self-Concept. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibrowski, Lee; Slater, Shirley

    This publication supplements an earlier publication, "What Do You Like about Yourself? Developing a Positive Self-Concept" that presented an introduction to self-concept and included activities that could be used with students of all ages. This particular document, divided into two parts, includes additional ideas and activities that relate to…

  18. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  19. Kids in Mental Institutions. Part II. Program 131.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The second of a two-part radio program on children in mental institutions presents transcripts of interviews with psychiatrists and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Subjects addressed include use of drugs, behavior modification, music, and theatre therapy in institutions. The transcript concludes with a narrated tour of Sheppard-Pratt, an…

  20. Summary of Gary Becker's IALL '93 Copyright Workshop, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Irene

    1994-01-01

    This article covers the second part of a workshop on registering copyrighted materials, off-air video recording, using copyrighted videotapes in the classroom, and computer software copyright. The Copyright Law provides for the protection of the authors of creative works, while at the same time providing certain exemptions for educators and…

  1. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  2. Entrepreneurship Education and Training: Can Entrepreneurship Be Taught? Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Colette; Hill, Frances; Leitch, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Despite a growing body of literature in the field, there is still considerable uncertainty as to whether entrepreneurs are born are made, which has led to an ongoing debate in the entrepreneurship academy about whether we can actually teach individuals to be entrepreneurs. With this in mind, this two-part paper aims to address the…

  3. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  5. Real World of Industrial Chemistry. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Completes a report from a previous article by presenting the important manufacture and uses of industrial chemicals. Gives structural formulas and percentages of each major use as well as the typical method of manufacture. (CW)

  6. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  7. The African-American cancer crisis, Part II: A prescription.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W M; Clayton, L A

    1993-01-01

    To appreciate the causes of the African-American cancer crisis, contemporary myths and perceptual gaps regarding cancer in blacks must be analyzed and placed in historical context. Since ancient times, racism has permeated western scientific, medical, and social cultures. Yet contemporary analysts typically frame a 370-year-old African-American health deficit in nonracial terms, and ignore both the metamorphosis of racism and the impact of racism on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; exposure to cancer-causing industrial pollutants; educational opportunities for black health professionals and policymakers, and other factors. If the African-American cancer crisis is to be halted, the growing divergence between urgent needs and meager resources devoted to preventing, detecting, and treating cancer in blacks must be sharply reversed.

  8. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part II.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This article is the second in a series about business intelligence (BI) in a medical practice. The first article reviewed the evolution of data reporting within the industry and provided some examples of how BI concepts differ from the reports available in the menus of our software systems, or the dashboards and scorecards practices have implemented. This article will discuss how to begin a BI initiative for front-end medical practice staffers that will create tools they can use to reduce errors and increase efficiency throughout their workday. This type of BI rollout can allow practices to get started with very little financial investment, gain enthusiasm from end users, and achieve a quick return on investment. More examples of successful BI projects in medical practices are discussed to help illustrate BI concepts.

  9. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part II.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This article is the second in a series about business intelligence (BI) in a medical practice. The first article reviewed the evolution of data reporting within the industry and provided some examples of how BI concepts differ from the reports available in the menus of our software systems, or the dashboards and scorecards practices have implemented. This article will discuss how to begin a BI initiative for front-end medical practice staffers that will create tools they can use to reduce errors and increase efficiency throughout their workday. This type of BI rollout can allow practices to get started with very little financial investment, gain enthusiasm from end users, and achieve a quick return on investment. More examples of successful BI projects in medical practices are discussed to help illustrate BI concepts. PMID:25108990

  10. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS Pt. 13,...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II Appendix II to Part 805 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II Appendix II to Part 805 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the...

  20. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the...

  1. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the...

  2. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Jaimie B.; Kaur, Ravneet R.; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined. PMID:23984226

  3. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  5. Effect of commission structure on decision making. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Barvick, W.M.

    1983-11-24

    Economic and technological changes in the past decade have rendered ineffective public-utility regulation an unaffordable luxury. In this article, the second of two, the author continues his examination of the responsibilities of the state public utility commission, focusing attention on the relationship between the commission and its staff. Problems of personnel management and decision making via ex parte contacts prompt the author to propose a structure that separates the commission from the investigative and advocacy functions of the staff. 7 references.

  6. Variance analysis. Part II, The use of computers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A

    1991-09-01

    This is the second in a two-part series on variance analysis. In the first article (JONA, July/August 1991), the author discussed flexible budgeting, including the calculation of price, quantity, volume, and acuity variances. In this second article, the author focuses on the use of computers by nurse managers to aid in the process of calculating, understanding, and justifying variances. PMID:1919788

  7. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  8. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  9. Male hypogonadism. Part II: etiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Seftel, A

    2006-01-01

    Male hypogonadism has a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic conditions, anatomic abnormalities, infection, tumor, and injury. Defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may also result from type II diabetes mellitus and treatment with a range of medications. Circulating testosterone levels have been associated with sexual function, cognitive function, and body composition. Apart from reduced levels of testosterone, clinical hallmarks of hypogonadism include absence or regression of secondary sex characteristics, reduced fertility (oligospermia, azoospermia), anemia, muscle wasting, reduced bone mass (and bone mineral density), and/or abdominal adiposity. Some patients, particularly those with partial androgen deficiency of the aging male, also experience sexual dysfunction, reduced sense of vitality, depressed mood, increased irritability, difficulty concentrating, and/or hot flushes in certain cases of acute onset. As many patients with male hypogonadism-like patients with erectile dysfunction-do not seek medical attention, it is important for clinicians to be acquainted with the signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, and to conduct appropriate laboratory testing and other assessments to determine the causes and inform the treatment of this condition.

  10. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-01-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment. PMID:24685810

  11. The career plateau--the differential diagnosis: Part II.

    PubMed

    Potts, L E

    1990-08-01

    This is the second article in a three-part series. The first article defined the problem of career plateauing and the heightened awareness of hospital administrators of a long-term concern for nurses and other health care professional. Career plateauing is the point in an organizational career where an individual is unlikely to experience additional hierarchical mobility. This article presents strategies for change for the organization, the manager, and the employee. The third article will summarize a research study the author is currently completing on the development of an inventory to measure the career needs of hospital nurses.

  12. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  13. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  14. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed.

  15. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects.

  16. Restoring immune tolerance in neuromyelitis optica: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, Amit; Steinman, Larry; Behne, Jacinta M; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Chin, Peter S; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Healey, Donald; Kim, James I; Kranz, David M; Lutterotti, Andreas; Martin, Roland; Schippling, Sven; Villoslada, Pablo; Wei, Cheng-Hong; Weiner, Howard L; Zamvil, Scott S; Smith, Terry J; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/SD) and its clinical variants have at their core the loss of immune tolerance to aquaporin-4 and perhaps other autoantigens. The characteristic phenotype is disruption of astrocyte function and demyelination of spinal cord, optic nerves, and particular brain regions. In this second of a 2-part article, we present further perspectives regarding the pathogenesis of NMO/SD and how this disease might be amenable to emerging technologies aimed at restoring immune tolerance to disease-implicated self-antigens. NMO/SD appears to be particularly well-suited for these strategies since aquaporin-4 has already been identified as the dominant autoantigen. The recent technical advances in reintroducing immune tolerance in experimental models of disease as well as in humans should encourage quantum leaps in this area that may prove productive for novel therapy. In this part of the article series, the potential for regulatory T and B cells is brought into focus, as are new approaches to oral tolerization. Finally, a roadmap is provided to help identify potential issues in clinical development and guide applications in tolerization therapy to solving NMO/SD through the use of emerging technologies. Each of these perspectives is intended to shine new light on potential cures for NMO/SD and other autoimmune diseases, while sparing normal host defense mechanisms. PMID:27648464

  17. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

  18. Dirac structures in Lagrangian mechanics Part II: Variational structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Hiroaki; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2006-12-01

    Part I of this paper introduced the notion of implicit Lagrangian systems and their geometric structure was explored in the context of Dirac structures. In this part, we develop the variational structure of implicit Lagrangian systems. Specifically, we show that the implicit Euler-Lagrange equations can be formulated using an extended variational principle of Hamilton called the Hamilton-Pontryagin principle. This variational formulation incorporates, in a natural way, the generalized Legendre transformation, which enables one to treat degenerate Lagrangian systems. The definition of this generalized Legendre transformation makes use of natural maps between iterated tangent and cotangent spaces. Then, we develop an extension of the classical Lagrange-d'Alembert principle called the Lagrange-d'Alembert-Pontryagin principle for implicit Lagrangian systems with constraints and external forces. A particularly interesting case is that of nonholonomic mechanical systems that can have both constraints and external forces. In addition, we define a constrained Dirac structure on the constraint momentum space, namely the image of the Legendre transformation (which, in the degenerate case, need not equal the whole cotangent bundle). We construct an implicit constrained Lagrangian system associated with this constrained Dirac structure by making use of an Ehresmann connection. Two examples, namely a vertical rolling disk on a plane and an L- C circuit are given to illustrate the results.

  19. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  20. Restoring immune tolerance in neuromyelitis optica: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, Amit; Steinman, Larry; Behne, Jacinta M; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Chin, Peter S; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Healey, Donald; Kim, James I; Kranz, David M; Lutterotti, Andreas; Martin, Roland; Schippling, Sven; Villoslada, Pablo; Wei, Cheng-Hong; Weiner, Howard L; Zamvil, Scott S; Smith, Terry J; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/SD) and its clinical variants have at their core the loss of immune tolerance to aquaporin-4 and perhaps other autoantigens. The characteristic phenotype is disruption of astrocyte function and demyelination of spinal cord, optic nerves, and particular brain regions. In this second of a 2-part article, we present further perspectives regarding the pathogenesis of NMO/SD and how this disease might be amenable to emerging technologies aimed at restoring immune tolerance to disease-implicated self-antigens. NMO/SD appears to be particularly well-suited for these strategies since aquaporin-4 has already been identified as the dominant autoantigen. The recent technical advances in reintroducing immune tolerance in experimental models of disease as well as in humans should encourage quantum leaps in this area that may prove productive for novel therapy. In this part of the article series, the potential for regulatory T and B cells is brought into focus, as are new approaches to oral tolerization. Finally, a roadmap is provided to help identify potential issues in clinical development and guide applications in tolerization therapy to solving NMO/SD through the use of emerging technologies. Each of these perspectives is intended to shine new light on potential cures for NMO/SD and other autoimmune diseases, while sparing normal host defense mechanisms.

  1. Thermal cycling distortion of metal ceramics: Part II--Etiology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S D; Pelletier, L B

    1992-08-01

    The three-dimensional geometry of conventional fixed prostheses complicates the study of the thermal cycling distortion in metal ceramic alloys. Any explanation of the etiology of thermal cycling distortion in metal ceramic restorations must account for the observed magnitude, timing, and direction of the deformation. The simplified experimental geometry developed in Part I was applied to elucidate the etiologic factors involved in metal ceramic deformation. Techniques to minimize the thermal cycling distortion were also studied. It was found that all of the significant distortion occurred during the first thermal cycling of the alloy (oxidation) and that no distortion resulted from the application of body porcelain. The specimens that were cold worked and then oxidized had significantly more distortion than any other group. A significant reduction in distortion was observed when the initial thermal cycling was completed before the specimens were cold worked. It was determined that the release of casting- and cold working-induced stresses had a synergistic effect. PMID:1501176

  2. Solar box-cooker: Part II-analysis and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasi Das, T.C. ); Karmakar, S. ); Rao, D.P. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model proposed in the companion paper (Part I), a method is outlined simulation of the solar box-cookers loaded with one, two, or four vessels. The relative importance of various heat-exchange rates in the cooker were examined. The effect of parameters such as the thickness and size of the absorber plate, emissivity of the vessel, insulation thickness, and cooking time were studied. Cookers of three sizes were simulated to assess their adequacy in cooking. The studies indicate that the black paint on the vessels could be avoided if weathered stainless steel or aluminum vessels are used. The cooker with inner dimensions of 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.1 m[sup 3] was found to be adequate to cook lunch and dinner on a clear day even in the winter months. Experimental studies carried out to obtain the heat-transfer coefficients, required for simulation, are presented.

  3. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the radial distributions of the pressure measured with a Pitot tube for the case of a radial jet with/without swirling of the input flow in the pre-chamber; the length of the supersonic part of the jet, dependency of the jet thickness as a function of the distance from the nozzle outlet, and approximating analytical formula for the jet thickness that generalizes the experimental data. Experimental data demonstrated that at the deposition distances lower than 4-6 gauges from the nozzle outlet, the solid particle velocity and temperature are almost uniform over the jet cross section. This means that the target surface can be allocated here without loss in coating quality and deposition coefficient. The maximal recommended distance where the deposition is still possible is the length of l s0 ~ 16 gauges.

  4. Ultrasensitivity part II: multisite phosphorylation, stoichiometric inhibitors, and positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, James E; Ha, Sang Hoon

    2014-11-01

    In this series of reviews, we are examining ultrasensitive responses, the switch-like input-output relationships that contribute to signal processing in a wide variety of signaling contexts. In the first part of this series, we explored one mechanism for generating ultrasensitivity, zero-order ultrasensitivity, where the saturation of two converting enzymes allows the output to switch from low to high over a tight range of input levels. In this second installment, we focus on three conceptually distinct mechanisms for ultrasensitivity: multisite phosphorylation, stoichiometric inhibitors, and positive feedback. We also examine several related mechanisms and concepts, including cooperativity, reciprocal regulation, coherent feed-forward regulation, and substrate competition, and provide several examples of signaling processes where these mechanisms are known or are suspected to be applicable. PMID:25440716

  5. Deformational plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, and scaphocephaly. Part II: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gary F

    2011-01-01

    Cranial deformation is the most common cause of abnormal head shape. Intentional and unintentional alterations of cranial form are associated with the application of external pressure to the growing infant head, and such changes have been recorded throughout man's history. Recent changes in Western sleeping practices, instituted to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, have led to a dramatic rise in cranial deformation and renewed interest in this subject. This 2-part review presents a pragmatic clinical approach to this topic including a critical review of the literature as it applies to each aspect of this common diagnosis: historical perspective, terminology, differential diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and predisposing factors, and prevention and treatment. PMID:21187782

  6. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George; Abel, David

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  7. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  8. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  9. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-07-01

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts. PMID:25775920

  10. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  11. Part II: magnetic field produced by a current dipole.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D; Hosaka, H

    1976-01-01

    To understand the MCG, electrical models of the heart must be used in which the basic building-block is usually the current dipole. The dipole's magnetic field is generally made up of two parts: 1. the contribution by the dipole element itself, which is mathematically simple; 2. the contribution by the current generated in the volume conductor by the dipole, which is complicated and depends on the boundaries; for special boundaries this contribution is zero to Bz, the component of magnetic field which is normal to the boundary. This applies to the boundaries of the semi-infinite volume conductor, the infinite slab, and the sphere. This property allows great simplification in solving the magnetic forward and inverse problems. Because of its importance, it is proven with electrolytic tank experiments. Based on this property, a method is presented for estimating the presence of those dipole combinations which produce a suppressed surface potential; it consists of a visual examination of an "arrow" display of Bz.

  12. Sleep apnoea in patients with heart failure: part II: therapy.

    PubMed

    Bordier, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is generally recommended for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea. CPAP lowers the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. At least 50% of patients presenting with chronic heart failure (HF) have sleep apnoea; a subset of these patients may have obstructive sleep apnoea and may derive a survival benefit from CPAP. However, this population is also prone to developing central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration or both (CSA/CSR), for which CPAP lowers the apnoea-hypopnoea index only partially and for which the overall effect of CPAP on survival remains to be determined, particularly as it has been observed to increase the mortality rate in subsets of patients. Other treatments may prove effective in patients with chronic HF and CSA/CSR, although none, thus far, has been found to confer a survival benefit. New ventilatory modes include bi-level positive airway pressure and automated adaptive servoventilation, the latter being most effective against CSA/CSR. Measures that can alleviate CSA/CSR indirectly include beta-adrenergic blockers and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, nocturnal supplemental oxygen and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects of theophylline, acetazolamide and nocturnal CO(2) have also been studied. The second part of this review describes the applications and effects of therapies that are available for sleep apnoea in patients with chronic HF.

  13. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-03-16

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts.

  14. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  15. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  16. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  17. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  18. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    SciTech Connect

    XIANGYANG,JIANG; MATEJICEK,JIRI; KULKARNI,ANAND; HERMAN,HERBERT; SAMPATH,SANJAY; GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A

    2000-03-28

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development.

  19. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process.

  20. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process. PMID:24321609

  1. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  2. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  3. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  4. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis. PMID:24972360

  5. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    PubMed Central

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  6. Global Thermohaline Circulation. Part II: Sensitivity with Interactive Atmospheric Transports.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Stone, Peter H.; Marotzke, Jochem

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean component is the idealized global general circulation model used in Part I. The atmospheric model assumes fixed latitudinal structure of the heat and moisture transports, and the amplitudes are calculated separately for each hemisphere from the large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) and SST gradient, using parameterizations based on baroclinic stability theory. The ocean-atmosphere heat and freshwater exchanges are calculated as residuals of the steady-state atmospheric budgets.Owing to the ocean component's weak heat transport, the model has too strong a meridional SST gradient when driven with observed atmospheric meridional transports. When the latter are made interactive, the conveyor belt circulation collapses. A flux adjustment is introduced in which the efficiency of the atmospheric transports is lowered to match the too low efficiency of the ocean component.The feedbacks between the THC and both the atmospheric heat and moisture transports are positive, whether atmospheric transports are interactive in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, or both. However, the feedbacks operate differently in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, because the Pacific THC dominates in the Southern Hemisphere, and deep water formation in the two hemispheres is negatively correlated. The feedbacks in the two hemispheres do not necessarily reinforce each other because they have opposite effects on low-latitude temperatures. The model is qualitatively similar in stability to one with conventional `additive' flux adjustment, but quantitatively more stable.

  7. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  8. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Joshua A.; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  9. Cadenced IRAC Monitoring of Infrared-Variable AGNs, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hora, Joseph; Krick, Jessica; Smith, Howard; Surace, Jason

    2008-03-01

    We have analyzed IRAC imaging data from all 97 Spitzer visits to a very well-studied field, the IRAC Dark Calibration Field (IRAC-CF) near the north ecliptic pole. With this extensive dataset we have already identified a unique sample of 30 IR-variable galaxies which we are now working to characterize with respect to variability amplitudes and timescales, panchromatic SEDs, and host morphologies, among other quantities. Unfortunately, the continual change in spacecraft roll angle means that our sources are typically observed for at most six months at a time by each IRAC FOV in succession -- in other words, the visibility windows are exactly out of phase. Thus the existing data, despite the fact that they extend over more than four years, present large, unavoidable gaps that frustrate the time-delay analysis we wish to perform on exactly the timescales known to be common in active galaxies. This has only changed beginning in 2007 July: since that time cadenced IRAC observations have been carried out in synchrony with the IRAC-CF dark-calibration observations as part of our approved Cycle-4 program (PID 40553). Here we are proposing to continue this successful AGN monitoring campaign until the end of the cryogenic mission. The resulting timelines (covering 1500 days thus far and expected to run ultimately to some 2200+ days), will be a unique legacy of the Spitzer mission. This dataset, especially for the sizable, unbiased AGN sample we now have, holds unique promise for measuring the colors and temperatures of IR-varying AGN, and will have much to say about the underlying physical models of the infrared AGN emission. Accordingly we ask for just 8 h to gather IRAC photometry in the temporal gaps that would otherwise accrue in Cycle 5.

  10. Students' Chemical Information Project, October 1967 - September 1968. Final Report: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, A.; And Others

    Part II of the Students' Chemical Information Project (SCIP), designed to spread the use of computer-based information services among research scientists and technologists, contains details of the project operations, statistics, results of questionnaires and research reports from liaison scientists (See LI 002 562 for Part I). Chapter I: Operation…

  11. Extending the use of rubber dam isolation: alternative procedures. Part II.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1993-01-01

    This paper, in three parts, describes additional modified rubber dam utilizations that are generally not attempted with restrictive orthodox application methods. Part II covers alternative means of retention, with the emphasis on nuisance-free and easy application, during the preparatory, impression, and cementation phases of cast restorations.

  12. Studies in Enrollment Trends and Patterns. Part II--Summer Quarter: 1940-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Calvin F.; Watson, F. Jean

    This is the second part of a report on major facets of institutional change at the University of Washington. Part II is a detailed analysis of Summer Quarter students and covers: class differentials in enrollment trends; trends in undergraduate students by major field and college; trends in graduate and professional students by major field and…

  13. Literacy and Deaf Students in Taiwan: Issues, Practices and Directions for Future Research--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu Tan; Andrews, Jean F.; Liu, Chun Jung

    2014-01-01

    In Part I, we underscore the issues surrounding young deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) learners of literacy in Taiwan who use sign to support their learning of Chinese literacy. We also described the linguistic features of Chinese writing and the visual codes used by DHH children. In Part II, we describe the reading and writing practices used with…

  14. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  15. Charting the Course for a Nursing Online Journal Club: Part II.

    PubMed

    Moonan, Marilyn; Bukoye, Bola; Clapp, Alison; Shermont, Herminia; O'Sullivan Oliveira, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In a pediatric inpatient setting, an interdisciplinary team designed and implemented an online journal club to discuss current nursing trends and research, as well as to foster evidence-based practice. This article is Part II of a two-part series in which the implementation process is described. PMID:26790492

  16. Nurse staffing in a decentralized organization: part II.

    PubMed

    Althaus, J N; Hardyck, N M; Pierce, P B; Rodgers, M S

    1982-04-01

    It must be emphasized that none of the steps described in this planning process emerged overnight. Rather, they were achieved through a process of evolution, sometimes through trial and error, and always with consultation and participation by many members of the hospital nursing staff. Participation by many in the process of planning for a workable staffing system has been essential to its success. Indeed, creative scheduling by the head nurse is possible because of the way in which the system has been organized. The fact that head nurses are responsible for staffing their own units makes it infinitely easier for them to see what they need to make their units operate effectively and efficiently. Creative scheduling includes the possibility of arranging nurses' hours outside the rigid three-shift schedule used by so many hospitals. Many El Camino nurses now report for work at different hours. In addition, the use of flexible work weeks has proven valuable. Some head nurses now allow for a ten-hour, four-day work week; in emergency staffing situations there have, on occasion, been twelve-hour days. Even as this system evolves, it faces change. Just as the requirements for staff cannot be rigid, so must problem solving be flexible and constantly under review. The fact that El Camino believes in constant monitoring of its system is essential to its success. A key philosophical foundation of decentralization is that it must be subject to change. This is no less true in staffing than in other parts of the decentralization structure. By agreeing that change is constant and necessary and that participation is required at all levels of the staffing planning process, we have constructed the outlines of a system that will work in the future as well as it does in the present. Our system centers around the head nurses. It involves their planning; thus it also involves the support of those members of the nursing staff who can provide essential information. But the decisions

  17. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: Part II.

    PubMed

    Biglands, John D; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ridgway, John P

    2012-09-20

    This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques

  19. Hybrid porous phosphate heterostructures as adsorbents of Hg(II) and Ni(II) from industrial sewage.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, J; Algarra, M; Rodríguez-Castellón, E; Jiménez-López, A; da Silva, J C G Esteves

    2011-06-15

    Porous phosphate heterostructures (PPH), functionalized with different ratios of aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups, labelled as N(x=5,25,50)-PPH and S(x=5,25,50)-PPH, respectively, were tested as adsorbents for Ni(II) and Hg(II) found in industrial sewage from electroplating processes and button battery recycling. X-ray diffraction was used to study the structures. The specific surface area of the pristine material (PPH) was 620 m(2)g(-1), whereas the specific surface areas of the modified mercaptopropyl (S(5)-PPH) and aminopropyl (N(5)-PPH) were 472 and 223 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The adsorption data were fitted to a Langmuir isotherm model. The S(5)-PPH material was saturated by 120 mmol Hg(II) per 100g of material, whereas for Ni(II) adsorption, N(25)-PPH material displayed the highest adsorption with a saturation value of 43.5 mmol per 100g. These results suggest that functionalized PPH materials may be promising toxic metal scavengers and that they may provide an alternative environmental technology.

  20. Hybrid porous phosphate heterostructures as adsorbents of Hg(II) and Ni(II) from industrial sewage.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, J; Algarra, M; Rodríguez-Castellón, E; Jiménez-López, A; da Silva, J C G Esteves

    2011-06-15

    Porous phosphate heterostructures (PPH), functionalized with different ratios of aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups, labelled as N(x=5,25,50)-PPH and S(x=5,25,50)-PPH, respectively, were tested as adsorbents for Ni(II) and Hg(II) found in industrial sewage from electroplating processes and button battery recycling. X-ray diffraction was used to study the structures. The specific surface area of the pristine material (PPH) was 620 m(2)g(-1), whereas the specific surface areas of the modified mercaptopropyl (S(5)-PPH) and aminopropyl (N(5)-PPH) were 472 and 223 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The adsorption data were fitted to a Langmuir isotherm model. The S(5)-PPH material was saturated by 120 mmol Hg(II) per 100g of material, whereas for Ni(II) adsorption, N(25)-PPH material displayed the highest adsorption with a saturation value of 43.5 mmol per 100g. These results suggest that functionalized PPH materials may be promising toxic metal scavengers and that they may provide an alternative environmental technology. PMID:21536377

  1. Efficacy of histopathology in detecting petrochemical-induced toxicity in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Lochmiller, R L; Stair, E L; Lish, J W; Rafferty, D P; Qualls, C W

    2001-01-01

    A variety of chemical mixtures exist in the soil of petrochemical waste sites, and many of these compounds are known immunotoxicants that have been observed to induce immune alterations in wild rodents inhabiting many of these petrochemical waste sites. Conventional histopathological assessments have been widely used with considerable success to investigate immunotoxicity of various agents under laboratory conditions. We hypothesized that histopathologic assessments would be equally sensitive for detecting exposure to complex mixtures of toxicants in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) residing in contaminated habitats. Histopathological parameters were examined from a total of 624 cotton rats that were seasonally collected from 13 petrochemical-contaminated waste sites and 13 ecologically matched reference sites in Oklahoma over a 3-year period. Histopathological examination did not reveal any lesion associated with exposure to petrochemical wastes except renal inclusion bodies. Prevalence and severity of histologic lesions in liver and kidneys of cotton rats were significantly influenced by season, where prevalence and severity were lower in winter than summer on all study sites. These results suggest that the evaluation of toxicity from exposure to contaminants in the soil of industrial waste sites using histopathological assessments is not sensitive enough to detect exposure to the low levels of environmental contaminants present on most waste sites.

  2. Study of different pretreatments for reverse osmosis reclamation of a petrochemical secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Benito-Alcázar, C; Vincent-Vela, M C; Gozálvez-Zafrilla, J M; Lora-García, J

    2010-06-15

    Conventionally treated petrochemical wastewaters contain substantial quantities of hazardous pollutants. In addition, wastewater reuse is being enhanced as a consequence of the shortage of fresh water. Advanced petrochemical wastewater treatment for water reuse will reduce hazardous pollutants discharges as well as water consumption. Reverse osmosis is a suitable technology to obtain pure water. This work studies the adequacy of different pretreatments applied to a petrochemical secondary effluent to produce a suitable feeding for reverse osmosis treatment. The permeate obtained can be used in the petrochemical industry for different processes. In this work, several experiments (granulated activated carbon filtration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with nanofiltration) were performed to improve the conventional pretreatment. Total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and silt density index were used to evaluate water quality for reverse osmosis feeding. In granulated activated carbon filtration, all the measured parameters but silt density index indicated a good filtrate quality to feed reverse osmosis membranes. Although the ultrafiltration permeate obtained was suitable for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with NF provided a better effluent quality for reverse osmosis than the other pretreatments studied.

  3. Treatment of a petrochemical wastewater in sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, E.H.

    1986-05-01

    The response of sequencing batch reactors (SBR's) in an industrial application was investigated. Four bench-scale SBR's and a bench-scale conventional activated sludge unit were operated with wastewater from a petrochemical complex. In terms of the degradation of BOD material and nitrification, the performance of the SBR's was comparable or slightly superior to that of the conventional activated sludge unit. However, for high strength wastes with BOD/sub 5/ > 300 mg/l and under organic shock loading conditions, effluent from an SBR may have a high solids content as a result of abundant dispersed-cells growth. The SBR reacted well to a series of phenolic shock loadings; phenols were degraded from initial concentrations ranging from 200 to 950 mg/l to <0.1 mg/l. A model of the SBR, which incorporated the Monod kinetics, was presented as a design aid.

  4. Guidelines for clinical engineering programs--Part I: guidelines for electrical isolation; Part II: performance evaluation of clinical engineering programs.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, M

    1980-01-01

    This series presents guidelines for: electrically isolated inputs and outputs; measuring the performance of hospital biomedical engineering programs; evaluating the risk of electric shock in hospitals; and for isolated power in anesthetizing locations. In Part I, specific recommendations are given for the use of insulated approach, battery-powered monitors in surgery, and for isolation requirements for devices connected to cardiac leads. In Part II, checklists are provided for the self-evaluation of an in-house, biomedical engineering staff. Parts III and IV, in future issues of this Journal, will include discussion of the theoretical electrical hazard potential in reference to the use of isolated power systems. The question of whether isolated power should be required in all anesthetizing locations will be discussed in Part IV.

  5. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayake, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Bridging the Skills Gap. Working Paper Part II: High Technology and Related Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Christine E.

    This part of a 2-part working paper identifies and describes major occupational groups that are characteristic of high technology manufacturing and service industries as well as employment sectors that use high technology products in their provision of goods and services. The paper is based on a review of a wide range of employment projections…

  7. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts. PMID:27359151

  9. Mycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhiza associated bacteria isolated from an industrial desert soil protect pine seedlings against Cd(II) impact.

    PubMed

    Kozdrój, Jacek; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Krupa, Piotr

    2007-08-01

    Effects of mycorrhization with Amanita rubescens or Hebeloma sinapizans and dual inoculation with the fungi and ectomycorrhiza associated bacteria (EMAB) Pseudomonas putida or Bacillus cereus on seedling growth and accumulation of Cd(II) in Pinus sylvestris were studied. Both fungal and bacterial species were isolated from roots of pines growing in an industrial area polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. During mycorrhization, A. rubescens colonized higher number of pine seedlings than H. sinapizans, especially when EMAB were co-inoculated. In addition, the seedling biometric characteristics (i.e. root and shoot lengths and biomass) were stimulated by treatment with the fungal species alone and dual inoculation with the fungi and EMAB. Amanita rubescens was more efficient in this stimulation than H. sinapizans. The increased growth of pine seedlings was especially seen for co-inoculation with P. putida. Furthermore, elevated accumulation of Cd(II), ranging from 56 microg g(-1) to 72 microg g(-1) dry weight, in underground parts of the inoculated seedlings was found. The seedlings treated with A. rubescens accumulated higher concentrations of the metal than those inoculated with H. sinapizans. Additional treatment of pine seedlings with P. putida resulted in the higher accumulation of Cd(II) in the roots as compared with those inoculated with B. cereus. The results suggest that the growth of pine seedlings in Cd(II)-polluted soil may depend on fungal species forming ectomycorrhizae, species-specific co-inoculation with EMAB and specificity of fungal-EMAB interactions. PMID:17541824

  10. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  11. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  12. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  13. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1993-94, Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1993-94. Part I covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes,…

  14. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties.

  15. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  16. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section 419.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section 419.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section 419.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section 419.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petrochemical subcategory. 419.30 Section 419.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.30 Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  2. Microbial ecology and performance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological processes treating petrochemical wastewater with high strength of ammonia: effect of Na(2)CO(3) addition.

    PubMed

    Whang, L M; Yang, K H; Yang, Y F; Han, Y L; Chen, Y J; Cheng, S S

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated nitrification performance and microbial ecology of AOB in a full-scale biological process, powder activated carbon treatment (PACT), and a pilot-scale biological process, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), treating wastewater collected from a petrochemical industry park. The petrochemical influent wastewater characteristics showed a relative low carbon to nitrogen ratio around 1 with average COD and ammonia concentrations of 310 mg/L and 325 mg-N/L, respectively. The average nitrification efficiency of the full-scale PACT process was around 11% during this study. For the pilot-scale MBBR, the average nitrification efficiency was 24% during the Run I operation mode, which provided a slightly better performance in nitrification than that of the PACT process. During the Run II operation, the pH control mode was switched from addition of NaOH to Na(2)CO(3), leading to a significant improvement in nitrification efficiency of 51%. In addition to a dramatic change in nitrification performance, the microbial ecology of AOB, monitored with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular methodology, was found to be different between Runs I and II. The amoA-based TRFLP results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the dominant AOB population during Run I operation, while Nitrosospira-like AOB was dominant during Run II operation. To confirm the effects of Na(2)CO(3) addition on the nitrification performance and AOB microbial ecology observed in the MBBR process, batch experiments were conducted. The results suggest that addition of Na(2)CO(3) as a pH control strategy can improve nitrification performance and also influence AOB microbial ecology as well. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear at this time, the results showing the effects of adding different buffering chemicals such as NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) on AOB populations have never been demonstrated until this study. PMID:19182331

  3. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME II, A. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION, B. TECHNICAL APPENDICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    IN PHASE II OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) SURVEY TO FIND OUT HOW SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ACQUIRE INFORMATION, SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY WERE INTERVIEWED TO DETERMINE THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INHERENT IN SATISFYING THESE…

  4. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  5. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  6. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    PubMed

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 235 - Official Board Commentary on Regulation II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... II (12 CFR part 235) provides background material to explain the Board's intent in adopting a... or code that can be used to access funds in an account to make Internet purchases. Similarly, the...'s account. For example, if an account holder buys goods or services over the Internet using...

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Pristine and Doped Graphene Nanosheets and Graphene Nanoribbons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muley, Sarang V.; Ravindra, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    In Part II of this study, approaches to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) of graphene nanosheets and nanoribbons is discussed. The presence of vacancies in graphene is found to increase the ZT of zigzag graphene nanoribbons significantly. Graphene can be a promising material with much better thermoelectric performance than conventional thermoelectrics.

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 235 - Official Board Commentary on Regulation II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... II (12 CFR part 235) provides background material to explain the Board's intent in adopting a... transactions would warrant further scrutiny. 5. In determining which fraud-prevention technologies to implement or retain, an issuer must consider the cost-effectiveness of the technology, that is, the...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 235 - Official Board Commentary on Regulation II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... II (12 CFR part 235) provides background material to explain the Board's intent in adopting a... transactions would warrant further scrutiny. 5. In determining which fraud-prevention technologies to implement or retain, an issuer must consider the cost-effectiveness of the technology, that is, the...

  11. Fort Lewis College Indian Tuition Grants: Part II. Legislative Council Report to the Colorado General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State General Assembly, Denver. Legislative Council.

    The objective of Part II of the Colorado Legislative Council's Committee on American Indian Enrollment Problems report is to recommend policies and procedures for dealing with American Indian tuitions and Indian education at Fort Lewis College. The committee members worked with the Colorado congressional delegation and representatives of the U.S.…

  12. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  13. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 390 - Sample Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... II to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER..., represented by the Maritime Administrator, Department of Transportation (“Maritime Administrator”), and ___, a... described in Schedule B hereof; 4. The Maritime Administrator and the Party desire to enter into...

  14. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  15. Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

    2013-04-01

    as talc, but it has discontinuities and inversion of the silica sheets, which give rise to structural tunnels and blocks. In the inner blocks, all corners of the silica tetrahedral are connected to adjacent blocks, but in the outer blocks, some of the corners are Si atoms bound to hydroxyls (Si-OH). This unique structure allows the penetration of organic and inorganic species into the structure and assigns sepiolite an industrial importance in adsorption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using sepiolite for the adsorptive removal of Cu (II) from the industrial waste leachate. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies are determined. The pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra particle diffusion kinetic models are used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The adsorption of Cu (II) from the aqueous leachate of industrial wastes onto sepiolite was performed using a batch equilibrium technique. At first stage, one-factor-at-a-time experiments were performed to see the individual effects of initial pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The adsorption of Cu (II) was favorably influenced by an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum percent removal of Cu (II) were observed at pH>6, and significantly decreased at lower pH value. The optimum contact time is found as 10 min. for the removal of Cu (II). The increment in contact time from 10 min. to 120 min. did not show a significant effect on efficiency. The maximum Cu (II) adsorption efficiencies were obtained at 94.45%. The pseudo second order kinetic model agrees very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous leachate of industrial waste onto sepiolite. The results indicate that the use of sepiolite that is locally available and almost free of cost as an adsorbent could be a viable alternative to activated carbon for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  16. Treatment of hazardous petrochemical and petroleum wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.J. ); Ravishankar, K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book is a comparison of twenty-eight emerging technologies for the treatment of petrochemical wastes. It covers the full range of thermal, physical, chemical, and biological methods, providing information about processes, vendors, applications, state of development, and known or anticipated problems with each The most significant aspect of the book, however, is the detailed cost analysis and comparison. Each technology is evaluated in a table outlining: vendor and address, waste characteristics, system capacity, labor and supervision requirements, operating costs, capital costs, revenues generated, and total costs of operation on an annualized and a per unit basis.

  17. Petrochemical processes '95: A special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    This data compilation describes application, synthesis process, yields, economics, commercial plants, and licensor for the following chemicals: alkylbenzene, methyl amines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butene-1, butylene, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, cyclohexane, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethers, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, isobutane, isobutylene, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, polycaproamide, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, propylene, PVC, styrene, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers. Also included is the licensor index, an inclusive listing of all petrochemical licensors and their technologies.

  18. Hours, Wages and Related Payments in the Ontario Construction Industry, 1973. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Labour, Toronto. Research Branch.

    This is the first part of a study directed at supplying information about labor relations in the construction industry in Ontario. Presented in tables by occupations are data pertaining to: (1) straight time hourly wage rates, (2) employee payments for vacations and other fringe benefits, (3) daily and weekly hours paid at straight time rates, (4)…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NPDES Primary Industry Categories A Appendix A to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NPDES Primary Industry Categories A Appendix A to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical...