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Sample records for petrochemical industry part ii

  1. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  2. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  3. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W. )

    1994-04-01

    The manager of a petrochemical enterprise, to survive the competitive 1990s, must have a good understanding of the industry's cyclicality, and a good grasp of coping alternatives. To select the best strategies and tactics calls for a familiarity with such concepts as the hockey-stick profile for profitability and the experience curve for cost reductions at both ends of the supply curve. The manager must carefully weigh advantages of build-and-scrap policies and differentiation vs. diversification and recognize the pitfalls associated with the prisoner's dilemma. With these elements well understood, the manager is in an improved position to cope with the industry's boom-and-bust characteristics. The paper discusses practicalities, the prisoner's dilemma in game theory, individual company actions, leveraging cyclicability, differentiation and diversification/integration, improvement of competitiveness, and structure as part of the problem.

  4. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  5. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  6. Membrane separation processes in the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.N.; Funk, E.W.; Chang, Y.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Swamikannu, A.X.; White, L.S.

    1987-09-30

    This report provides an overview of a project with Allied-Signal which focused on developing new membrane technology with potential for energy conservation in the petrochemical industry. Three applications were investigated: (1) bulk removal of polar (sour) gases from natural gas using spiral-wound, cellulose acetate membranes; (2) recovery of solvent from solvent/heavy oil mixtures using polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) separation of polar gases (e.g., H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} from H{sub 2}) using mixed-matrix, facilitated-transport membranes. This report summarizes laboratory research results performed in an earlier phase of this project and provides results from pilot-scale, field test studies and economic assessments.

  7. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  8. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  9. Cancer mortality and residence near petrochemical industries in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chiu, Jeng-Fen

    1997-02-21

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between cancer risks and residence in communities adjacent to petrochemical industrial counties (PICs). Directly age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among 16 counties characterized by a heavy concentration of petrochemical industries were compared to rates among 16 matched counties with similar concentration of nonpetrochemical manufacturing industries, urbanization level, and demographic characteristics. An excess rate for liver cancer among males was found in the so-called PICs. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, socioeconomic class, or employment in nonpetrochemical industries. No other increased cancer risks were found to be associated with residence near petrochemical industries. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Aryanasl, Amir; Ghodousi, Jamal; Arjmandi, Reza; Mansouri, Nabiollah

    2017-06-01

    Sustainability comprises three pillars of social, environmental, and economic aspects. Petrochemical industry has a great inter-related complex impact on social and economic development of societies and adverse impact on almost all environmental aspects and resource depletion in many countries, which make sustainability a crucial issue for petrochemical industries. This study was conducted to propose components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.A combination of exploratory study-to prepare a preliminary list of components of sustainable business in petrochemical industries based on review of literature and Delphi-to obtain experts' view on this preliminary list and provide a detailed list of components and sub-components that should be addressed to bring sustainability to petrochemical industries, were used.Two sets of components were provided. First general components, which include stakeholders (staffs, society, and environment) with four sub-components, financial resources with 11 sub-components, improvement of design and processes with nine sub-components, policy and strategy of cleaner production with seven sub-components and leadership with seven sub-components. The second operational components included raw material supply and preparation with five, synthesis with ten, product separation and refinement with nine, product handling and storage with five, emission abatement with eight, and improvement of technology and equipment with 16 sub-components.

  11. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P < 0.05). The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers' job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  12. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  13. Investment planning model of the world petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Manouchehri Adib, P.

    1985-01-01

    The world petrochemical industry is faced with an overcapacity in traditionally producing areas such as the United States, Western Europe, and Japan. At the same time, an increasing amount of new capacities are either planned or almost complete in energy-rich regions such as Canada, Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and the Far East and Oceania. Such a conflicting move may add significantly to the existing problems of the world petrochemical industry. A multi-period, multi-region, multi-product, multi-process linear programming model is developed to analyze investment decisions under selected scenarios. Embodied in the model are detailed technical information about processes and products as well as economic information on different regions. Based on this theoretical model for the world petrochemical industry, both a static and a dynamic model are developed. The static model covers nine regions, thirty-one products, and a five-year period, 1988 to 1992, while the dynamic model includes eight regions, eleven products, and three five-year periods, 1988 to 2002. A variety of different cases are examined including one in which product demand is decreased. Two other cases considered are (1) stricter import policies by traditional producers and (2) adjustment in base-year capacity to include possible new productive units added before 1988.

  14. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  15. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  16. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W. )

    1994-03-01

    Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects.

  17. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  18. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  19. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  20. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  1. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.210 Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to,...

  2. Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

    2014-10-01

    The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation.

  3. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter Oil (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  4. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.

    A MORE FORMAL STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY (SEE VT 002 152 AND VT 002 153) RESULTED IN IMPRESSIONS OF THE WORKERS AND WORKING CONDITIONS. THERE ARE TWO GENERAL TYPES OF EMPLOYEE--(1) THOSE VIEWING LUMBERING AS STOPGAP EMPLOYMENT WHICH SERVES AS A SOURCE OF WAGES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES OR AS AN INTERIM JOB WHILE BETTER EMPLOYMENT IS SOUGHT, AND…

  5. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. METHODS: Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. RESULTS: Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for

  7. Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Divine, B J; Hartman, C M; Wendt, J K

    1999-03-01

    To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for mesothelioma, any of these increases in

  8. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  9. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  10. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  11. Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, R. F.

    A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and process technology.

  12. Petrochemical industry in the Middle East: current status, uncertainties, global impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The situation and perspective of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, IR Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, SP Libyan AJ, Algeria, and Egypt are reviewed. Special attention is given to the budgetary constraints, foreign partners, the costs, the markets, and the impact of falling oil prices.

  13. Safety and health in the petrochemical industry in Map Ta Phut, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Langkulsen, Uma; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taptagaporn, Sasitorn

    2011-01-01

    Petrochemical industries are known as sources of many toxic chemicals. Safety and health risks of the petrochemical workers employed at Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, located in Rayong, Thailand, are potentially high. The research materials consisted of documents emanating from statutory reports on safety in working with toxic chemicals and the results of interviews by questionnaire among 457 petrochemical workers regarding occupational health and safety issues. Most of workers who were working with toxic chemicals had knowledge and awareness of health risks and chemical hazards at work. We found that safe behavior at work through read the safety information among operational workers less than non-operational workers around 10%. Most of workers had perceived occupational health and safety management in their companies. Some companies revealed that they had not been performing biological monitoring of blood or urine for their health examination reports and that workplace exposure monitoring had not correlated well with health examination of workers. Our study suggested that occupational health and safety for petrochemical industries requires standards and guidelines for workers' health surveillance aimed at protection of workers.

  14. Economic viability of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry: methanol as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salem, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the pursuit of the diversification strategy, Saudi planners invested a sizable amount of oil surplus in export-oriented petrochemical projects at Jubail and Yanbu. For this strategy to be realized, the projects must be economically viable. Economic viability entails the presence of petrochemical plants that are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating in the long run without state subsidies. In view of the projects, heavy reliance on state subsidies along with their location in a remote area, far from the source of demand, it is hypothesized that, barring a significant shift in the development strategy, a dynamic industrial sector focusing on the development of the petrochemical industry is unlikely to emerge in Saudi Arabia and that the export-led growth strategy that accords it a key role in the nation's development is not likely to prove viable. In verifying the hypothesis, a comparative cost analysis was conducted comparing the cost structure at the Ibn-Sina methanol plant to a similar plant in Alberta, Canada. According to the authors forecast of methanol revenues and costs, the Saudi petrochemical industry exemplified by the methanol project emerges to be as a net absorber of rather than contributor to the nation's financial resources and in this regard appears to impede the process of capital formation and economic growth.

  15. Devising an integrated methodology for analyzing energy use and CO2 emissions from Taiwan's petrochemical industries.

    PubMed

    Lee, C F; Lin, S J; Lewis, C

    2001-12-01

    Input-output modeling and multiplier analysis are used to assess Taiwan's five petrochemical industries, based upon their economic contribution and potential impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emission. In addition, a consolidated index system was developed for evaluating energy and economic efficiencies as well as targets for CO2 reduction. Results indicate that petrochemical materials (PM) make a major contribution to economic development, with lesser contributions from plastic materials (PL) and artificial fibres (AF). PM has the highest energy multiplier while PL has the largest induced potential for energy consumption. Plastic and rubber products (PP, RP) are relatively insignificant energy consumers. AF has the highest CO2 multiplier, and its induced potential for CO2 emission is the most significant. The consolidated index shows that the upstream petrochemical industries perform rather poorly in an integrated view of economic, energy, and CO2 emission, and should be seen as the primary targets for CO2 reduction. Investment of the petrochemical industries in Taiwan should be adjusted to improve energy efficiency, economic bases, and lower CO2 emissions.

  16. Viability of industrial integration within the Gulf Cooperation Council: the case of petrochemical industries

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabban, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates - was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. These countries, with their great though declining financial capability arising from oil as the main source of income, had already tried individually to diversify their economies in order to decrease their total reliance on crude oil income in the wake of the world oil glut. Their limited base of natural resources other than oil is a major constraint. Industrialization, and specifically, industrialization through oil-based industries, seems to be the most-viable approach they have toward their successful economic development. This study concentrates on the issues of regional economic and industrial development as the main factor for economic gain that may result from the GCC scheme. The experience of different integration schemes provides some beneficial lessons for the GCC. The GCC region has a comparative advantage in petrochemical industries, which suit the region's factor endowments, arising from the availability of cheap energy feedstock.

  17. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  18. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-16

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand.

  19. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  20. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  1. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  2. [Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].

    PubMed

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions.

  3. Risk factors affecting visual-motor coordination deficit among children residing near a petrochemical industrial estate.

    PubMed

    Aungudornpukdee, P; Vichit-Vadakan, N

    2009-12-01

    Thailand has been changed to rapid urbanization and industrialization since 1980s. During 1992 through 1996, the number of industrial factories in Rayong province increased very sharply. The major types of industries are petrol-chemical and plastic production. However, after the petrochemical industry boomed, the higher demand led to an industrial area expansion. The establishment of factories in this area leads to serious environmental and health impacts. The study aims to investigate the factors that affect visual-motor coordination deficit among children, 6-13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Symbol Test. The study found one-third of 2,956 children presented with visual-motor coordination deficits. Three factors were identified that caused children to have a higher risk of visual-motor coordination deficits: gender (adjusted OR 1.934), monthly parental income (range of adjusted OR 1.977 - 2.612), and household environmental tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.284), while age (adjusted OR 0.874) and living period (adjusted OR 0.954) in study areas were reversed effects on visual-motor coordination deficit among children. The finding indicated that children with visual-motor coordination deficit were affected by gender, monthly parental income, age of children, length of living period, and household environmental tobacco smoke.

  4. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  5. The sequencing batch reactor as an excellent configuration to treat wastewater from the petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Caluwé, Michel; Daens, Dominique; Blust, Ronny; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of a changing feeding pattern from continuous to pulse feeding on the characteristics of activated sludge was investigated with a wastewater from the petrochemical industry from the harbour of Antwerp. Continuous seed sludge, adapted to the industrial wastewater, was used to start up three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. After an adaptation period from the shift to pulse feeding, the effect of an increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and volume exchange ratio (VER) were investigated one after another. Remarkable changes of the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), microscopic structure, sludge volume index (SVI), SVI30/SVI5 ratio, and settling rate were observed during adaptation. sOUR increased two to five times and treatment time decreased 43.9% in 15 days. Stabilization of the SVI occurred after a period of 20 days and improved significantly from 300 mL·g(-1) to 80 mL·g(-1). Triplication of the OLR and VER had no negative influence on sludge settling and effluent quality. Adaptation time of the microorganisms to a new feeding pattern, OLR and VER was relatively short and sludge characteristics related to aerobic granular sludge were obtained. This study indicates significant potential of the batch activated sludge system for the treatment of this industrial petrochemical wastewater.

  6. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  7. Petrochemical industry standards activity aimed at improving the mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will cover numerous changes being made to existing standards and several new standards being created, all focusing on increasing mechanical integrity of petrochemical industry process piping. Those new standards include ones for (1) Risk-Based Inspection (2) Fitness for Service Analysis, (3) Positive Material Identification, and (4) In-service Inspection and Maintenance for Process Piping. A progress report is included for the Process Industry Practices (PIP) being created to consolidate individual company piping standards into one consistent industry set. And finally, recent initiatives toward standards cooperation/coordination between the American Petroleum Institute(API), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO) and National Board are highlighted.

  8. Novel technology for flame and gas detection in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Yechiel; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-01-01

    A reliable and high performance novel method of flame and gas optical spectral analysis was developed to meet the specific flame and gas detection of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical industries, especially the offshore and unmanned areas in onshore refineries, pose a major safety hazard with respect to potential explosions and fire events. Unwanted fuel spills or fugitive flammable vapor clouds, migrating along congested pipe lines and hot production areas may cause upon ignition significant loss or damage. To help prevents events like the catastrophic fire that destroyed the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in July 1988, a reliable and fast gas and flame detection system can be used to trigger effective risk management actions. The present paper describes a patented method of Triple Optical Spectral Analysis employed for the detection of various gases in the air according to their unique 'spectral finger print' absorption characteristics of radiation, as well as for analysis of emission and absorption radiation from combustion processes for flame detection purpose. The method has been applied in the development of unique gas and flame monitoring system designed for 'high risk - harsh/extreme weather conditions continuous operation'. These systems have been recently installed on several offshore platforms and oil rigs as well as on 'floating production Storage and Offloading' - FPSO vessels. The systems advantages and limitations as well as several installations and test data are presented. Various atmospheric conditions as well as false alarm stimulus are discussed.

  9. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  10. Membrane separation processes for liquid hydrocarbons and gases in the petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    OIP and Allied Signal Corporation have completed a joint project exploring new applications of membrane separation technology for the petrochemical and related industries. These applications have the potential for major energy savings compared to more traditional distillation and chemical absorption processes. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-Allied Signal membrane development project. It highlights the field testing of modified cellulose acetate membrane systems for acid gas removal at two commercial natural gas plants. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry in a timely manner. This case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.

  11. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  12. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemical company participated. The data were collected using the demographic questionnaire, Osipow occupational stress questionnaire to investigate the level of job stress, Job Descriptive Index to examine job satisfaction, and Hersey and Goldsmith questionnaire to investigate productivity in the study population. The levels of employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively. Also, their productivity was evaluated as moderate. Although the relationship between job stress and productivity indices was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between job satisfaction and productivity indices was statistically significant. The regression modeling demonstrated that productivity was significantly associated with shift schedule, the second and the third dimensions of job stress (role insufficiency and role ambiguity), and the second dimension of job satisfaction (supervision). Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. "Role insufficiency" and "role ambiguity" should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.

  13. Control of ammonia and urea emissions from urea manufacturing facilities of Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Khan, A R; Al-Awadi, L; Al-Rashidi, M S

    2016-06-01

    Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has mitigated the pollution problem of ammonia and urea dust by replacing the melting and prilling units of finished-product urea prills with an environmentally friendly granulation process. PIC has financed a research project conducted by the Coastal and Air Pollution Program's research staff at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the impact of pollution control strategies implemented to maintain a healthy productive environment in and around the manufacturing premises. The project was completed in three phases: the first phase included the pollution monitoring of the melting and prilling units in full operation, the second phase covered the complete shutdown period where production was halted completely and granulation units were installed, and the last phase encompassed the current modified status with granulation units in full operation. There was substantial decrease in ammonia emissions, about 72%, and a 52.7% decrease in urea emissions with the present upgrading of old melting and prilling units to a state-of-the-art technology "granulation process" for a final finished product. The other pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have not shown any significant change, as the present modification has not affected the sources of these pollutants. Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has ammonia urea industries, and there were complaints about ammonia and urea dust pollution. PIC has resolved this problem by replacing "melting and prilling unit" of final product urea prills by more environmentally friendly "granulation unit." Environmental Pollution and Climate Program has been assigned the duty of assessing the outcome of this change and how that influenced ammonia and urea dust emissions from the urea manufacturing plant.

  14. 2012 in review - part II: overcoming the obstacles in the pharma/biotech industry.

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M

    2013-02-01

    As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™.

  15. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  16. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  17. Dental laboratory technology in crisis, part II: Potential solutions to the challenges facing the industry.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J; Yancey, William

    2005-06-01

    The dental laboratory industry appears to need immediate change to face many challenges, the four most significant of which are described in this column and in our column in May JADA. The first article on this subject described the current challenges facing the laboratory industry, as determined by conference attendees representing all aspects of the dental industry and related professions. This article reports on the suggestions made by attendees of this conference to solve the identified challenges.

  18. On the Hydrogen Embrittlement of Commercially Pure Alpha Titanium: An Example from the Petrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    Grade 2 of commercially pure Ti consisting of α-phase has many applications in the petrochemical industry such as floaters of gauges used to indicate liquid levels in tanks and reaction vessels. A floater fabricated by welding of 3.5-mm-thick sheet of grade 2 Ti into a thick-walled cylinder to indicate the level of a liquid mixture of isobutane, neobutane and neopentane in a petrochemical plant has lost its structural integrity by puncturing, cracking and blistering particularly at the section in contact with the liquid. The damage has been most severe in the base metal adjacent to the weld. Detailed microstructural characterization of the damaged floater and unwelded section of the same material has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the results have been complemented by stress analysis and microhardness measurements. It is shown that the mechanical strength of the floater has been degraded by a combination of excessive absorption of hydrogen during welding and rapid cooling from the β-phase field aided by the stresses generated by the liquid pressure. Absorption of hydrogen and rapid cooling are found to alter the desirable morphology of equiaxed grains of α-phase into a multi-phase structure with fine platelet-type morphology. The base metal adjacent to the weld is found to contain the brittle δ-phase of titanium hydride in a low-ductility matrix of α-Ti with some β-Ti. However, β-Ti is found to be the predominant constituent of the weld.

  19. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries: October 2009 to December 2012.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, A R; Daneshmandi, H; Aghabeigi, M; Haghayegh, A

    2013-10-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. To determine the prevalence rate of MSDs, assessment of ergonomics working conditions and identification of major risk factors associated with MSDs symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries between October 2009 and December 2012. In this study, we studied 1184 randomly selected employees of 4 Iranian petrochemical companies with at least one year of work experience in office or operational units. For those with office jobs, data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and ergonomics checklist for the assessment of working conditions. For those with operational jobs, NMQ and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) method were used for data collection. The most prevalent MSD symptoms were reported in lower back (41.5%) and neck (36.5%). The prevalence of MSDs in all body regions but elbows and thighs of the office staff was significantly higher than that of operational workers. Assessment of working conditions in office staff revealed that the lowest index was attributed to workstation. QEC technique among operational workers showed that in 73.8% of the workers studied, the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was "high" or "very high." MSDs were associated with type of job, age, body mass index, work experience, gender, marital status, educational level and type of employment. The prevalence of MSDs in the office staff was higher than that of operational workers. Level of exposure to MSDs risk was high in operational workers. Corrective measures are thus necessary for improving working conditions for both office and operational units.

  20. On the Hydrogen Embrittlement of Commercially Pure Alpha Titanium: An Example from the Petrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Grade 2 of commercially pure Ti consisting of α-phase has many applications in the petrochemical industry such as floaters of gauges used to indicate liquid levels in tanks and reaction vessels. A floater fabricated by welding of 3.5-mm-thick sheet of grade 2 Ti into a thick-walled cylinder to indicate the level of a liquid mixture of isobutane, neobutane and neopentane in a petrochemical plant has lost its structural integrity by puncturing, cracking and blistering particularly at the section in contact with the liquid. The damage has been most severe in the base metal adjacent to the weld. Detailed microstructural characterization of the damaged floater and unwelded section of the same material has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the results have been complemented by stress analysis and microhardness measurements. It is shown that the mechanical strength of the floater has been degraded by a combination of excessive absorption of hydrogen during welding and rapid cooling from the β-phase field aided by the stresses generated by the liquid pressure. Absorption of hydrogen and rapid cooling are found to alter the desirable morphology of equiaxed grains of α-phase into a multi-phase structure with fine platelet-type morphology. The base metal adjacent to the weld is found to contain the brittle δ-phase of titanium hydride in a low-ductility matrix of α-Ti with some β-Ti. However, β-Ti is found to be the predominant constituent of the weld.

  1. [Asbestos exposure in the petrochemical industry and interaction with other occupational risk factors: analysis of the last ten years INAIL data].

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Mariano; Saldutti, Elisa; Bindi, Luciano; Di Giacobbe, Andrea; Mercadante, Lucina; Innocenzi, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the trend of occupational diseases, in particular those asbestos-related, in the petrochemical industry from 2002 to 2011, taking into account the number of diseases claimed to and compensated by the National Institute for Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL), assessing risk factors and possible interactions. To identify the research areas, we selected INAIL cost codes, related to the petrochemical industry. In the last five years, over the total claims submitted by industrial workers, 54% of claims for asbestosis, 76.7% of claims for neoplastic diseases, and 78.6% of claims for pleural plaques have been compensated. In the petrochemical industry, such percentages are respectively 59.2%, 81.6% and 82.7%. These data suggest possible interactions between asbestos and other risk factors, particularly significant in the petrochemical industry, although difficult to identify, as well as an initial underestimation of asbestos exposure in this industry.

  2. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the companies in the petrochemical industry around the world. Listings include more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Special surveys featured in the Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey which appears in its entirety only in this directory. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. Also included is the newly updated plant construction survey.

  3. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  4. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  5. Factors related to short-term memory dysfunction in children residing near a Petrochemical Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Aungudornpukdee, Piraya; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect short-term memory dysfunction among children, 6 to 13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut sub-district, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Span Test. The present study found one-third of 2,158 children presented with short-term memory dysfunction. It was found an inverse association between short-term memory dysfunction with 2 out of 25 communities; Islam (adjusted OR 0.382) and Taladmabtaput (adjusted OR 0.297). In addition, short-term memory dysfunction was also found an inverse association with distance from residential areas to the industrial park (adjusted OR 0.871). It was also found that an association between short-term memory dysfunction and length of living period in study areas was not clear The finding on short-term memory dysfunction indicated that children with short-term memory dysfunction were affected by the distance from residential areas to source of pollution and community.

  6. Genotoxicity of river water under the influence of petrochemical industrial complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, C.T.; Vargas, V.M.F. ); Henriques, J.A.P.; Mattevi, M.S. )

    1994-06-01

    The toxic effects of industrial wastes discharged into natural waters should be intensively investigated since they may affect the survival, behavior or genetic composition of aquatic organisms, as well as the health of the population drinking this water. Most mutagenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic-carcinogenic substances can be detected by tests which evaluate alterations in DNA sequence in combination with at least one in vitro test. Among the methods used to determine the genotoxicity of a substance, the Ames test on bacteria and analysis of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes are considered to be classic. The Ames test has been extensively used to determine the mutagenicity of environmental samples, among them river water and industrial effluents. SCE analysis has shown considerable potential for the detection of mutagens and carcinogens in human populations exposed to different genotoxic conditions, including polluted natural waters. The present report presents the results obtained using these two methods for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of water from the Cai River, in the area affected by the Petrochemical Complex of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After treatment, the wastes of the complex are discharged into the Cai River, an important tributary of the Guaiba River, which provides the drinking water used by the approximately 1,200,000 inhabitants of Porto Alegre, capital city of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries

    PubMed Central

    Indhushree, R.; Monica, R.; Coral, K.; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy; Punitham, R.; Subburathinam, B. M.; Krishnakumar, R.; Santanam, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries. Materials and Methods: Thirty workers from the petroleum refinery and 30 age-matched controls (mean age) were recruited. Visual functions and occupational exposure levels were assessed among both the groups. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual fields were evaluated at the workplace. The biological samples, namely blood and urine, were collected at the workplace and transported to the laboratory for analysis. The urinary excretion of hippuric and methylhippuric acid as well as creatinine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean age of the workers and controls were 39.7 ± 7.6 years and 38.6 ± 8.1, years respectively. The mean years of experience of the workers were 15.6 ± 6.8 years. Visual acuity was >0.01 LogMAR among both the control and case groups. The contrast sensitivity was reduced at 12cpd among workers. Comparison between groups was done using independent sample t-test. The mean difference in color confusion index was 0.11 ± 0.05 (P = 0.037*). The mean difference in visual fields was −0.31 ± 0.36 dB (P = 0.933). The mean difference in urinary hippuric acid level (urinary metabolite of toluene) between the groups was 0.19 ± 0.96 g/g creatinine (P = 0.049FNx01). The mean difference in the excretion of methylhippuric acid (urinary metabolite of xylene) was 0.06 ± 0.04g/g creatinine (P = 0.154). We also found that exposure was a significant risk factor for color vision defect with an odds ratio of 4.43 (95% CI: 1.36–14.4); P = 0.013. Conclusion: The study results showed that contrast sensitivity and color vision were affected among workers in petrochemical industry. PMID:28446838

  8. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  9. The effect of social trust on citizens’ health risk perception in the context of a petrochemical industrial complex.

    PubMed

    López-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-21

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust - both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions - affects citizens' health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens' health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies).

  10. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area.

  11. The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part II : The Association between Wealth and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Sear, Rebecca; Schaffnit, Susan B; Mills, Melinda C; Barrett, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the association between wealth and fertility in industrial populations have a rich history in the evolutionary literature, and they have been used to argue both for and against a behavioral ecological approach to explaining human variability. We consider that there are strong arguments in favor of measuring fertility (and proxies thereof) in industrial populations, not least because of the wide availability of large-scale secondary databases. Such data sources bring challenges as well as advantages, however. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these by examining the association between wealth and reproductive success in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979. We conduct a broad-based exploratory analysis of the relationship between wealth and fertility, employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, and multiple measures of both wealth (income and net worth) and fertility (lifetime reproductive success and transitions to first, second and third births). We highlight the kinds of decisions that have to be made regarding sample selection, along with the selection and construction of explanatory variables and control measures. Based on our analyses, we find a positive effect of both income and net worth on fertility for men, which is more pronounced for white men and for transitions to first and second births. Income tends to have a negative effect on fertility for women, while net worth is more likely to positively predict fertility. Different reproductive strategies among different groups within the same population highlight the complexity of the reproductive ecology of industrial societies. These results differ in a number of respects from other analyses using the same database. We suggest this reflects the impossibility of producing a definitive analysis, rather than a failure to identify the "correct" analytical strategy. Finally, we discuss how these findings inform us about (mal)adaptive decision-making.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in jewellery industry. Part II: quantitative characterisation of goldfilled interface.

    PubMed

    Jurado-López, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2003-02-06

    A new application of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) and multivariate data analysis, namely partial least-squares regression (PLS) in the jewellery industry is reported. The method was designed for the quantitative characterisation of the interface of goldfilled, a material widely used in costume jewellery fabrication, by monitoring the emission lines of the elements present in the sample, while subjecting the piece to a number of laser pulses. The method also provides quantitative information about the composition of a given layer of the material of a special interest at the interface in order to know the existence of diffusion phenomena.

  13. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  14. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical industries by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring of exposure of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petrochemical industries was performed by the measurement of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene. In 121 of the 462 workers studied (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAHs a median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration of 0.21 micrograms/g creatinine was found. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval in these workers of 0.99 micrograms/g creatinine was used as the upper normal value for industrial workers. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured in workers involved in manufacture and maintenance operations in oil refineries (13 studies in eight different settings), in workers manufacturing or handling products containing PAHs in chemical plants (five studies in three settings) and laboratories (four studies), and in workers digging soil contaminated with PAHs (three studies). In most studies in oil refineries 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally greater than the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAHs. This was also the case in maintenance operations with higher potential exposure to PAHs, indicating that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. The studies in chemical plants also showed that exposure to PAHs is low. An exception was the workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, where increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the operators and maintenance workers of this plant was investigated in relation to potential methods of exposure to PAHs. Dermal and inhalatory exposure were both significant determinants of exposure to PAHs. PMID:8199667

  15. Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Voss, Paul B.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Fortner, Edward; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Valente, Ralph J.; Tanner, Roger L.; Holcomb, Daniel; Hartley, Thomas P.; Baran, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300 km to the north over 8 h. The aged plume around sunset was well mixed within a 1600 m residual layer, and was characterized by enhanced levels of aerosol, O3, CO, olefins, acetaldehyde, total odd nitrogen compounds (NOy), and relatively small amounts (<1 ppbv) of NOx. The plume experienced appreciable shearing overnight due to the development of a low-altitude nocturnal jet between 300 and 500 m above mean sea level (MSL). However, the plume above 600 m MSL remained largely undiluted even after 8 h of transport due to lack of turbulent mixing above the jet. About 40-60% of the NOx present in the aged plume around sunset was found to be depleted over this 8 h period. A constrained plume modeling analysis of the quasi-Lagrangian aircraft observations suggested that by dawn this NOx was converted to nitric acid, organic nitrates, and peroxy acyl nitrates via reactions of NO3 radicals with enhanced levels of olefins and aldehydes in the plume. Sensitivity of NOx depletion to heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosols was examined. These results have significant implications for the impacts of urban and industrial pollution on far downwind regions.

  16. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p < 0.05). Contamination factors (CFs) indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, and Sb, which have severe health impacts, heavily contaminated at most industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  17. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  18. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  19. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fluidized and fixed bed incinerators disposing petrochemical industrial biological sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Long-Full; Lai, Soon-Onn

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two fluidized bed incinerators (FLBI_A and FLBI_B) and one fixed bed incinerator (FIBI) disposing biological sludge generated from the petrochemical industries in Taiwan. The results of 21 individual PAHs (including low (LM-PAHs), middle (MM-PAHs) and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs)) were reported. The LM-PAHs mainly dominated the total-PAHs in the stack flue gases, whereas the LM- and HM-PAHs dominated the total-PAHs in the bottom fly, fly ash and WSB effluent. Due to high carcinogenic potencies (=total-BaP(eq) concentrations) in the bottom ash (195 ng g(-1)) and WSB effluent (20,600 ng L(-1)) of the FIBI, cautious should be taken in treating them to avoid second contamination. Lower combustion efficiency and elevated fuel/feedstock (F/W) ratio for the FIBI led to the highest total emission factor of total-PAHs (38,400 microg kg(-1)). Lower total-PAH removal efficiencies of wet scrubber (WSB) (0.837-5.89%), cyclone (0.109-0.255%) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (0.032%) than those reported elsewhere resulted in high fraction in PAH contributions from the stack flue gases. Lower total-PAH emission factor was found for FLBI_A (2380 microg kg(-1) biological sludge) with higher combustion efficiency compared to those for FLBI_B (11,500 microg kg(-1)) and FIBI (38,400 microg kg(-1) biological sludge), implying that combustion efficiency plays a vital role in PAH emissions.

  20. PAH characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang

    1995-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the PAH samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-PAH composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-PAH composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-PAH composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase PAHs had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.

  1. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  2. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  3. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  4. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  5. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated

  6. Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater.

  7. Pollution and health risk assessment of industrial and residential area based on metal and metalloids contents in soil and sediment samples from and around the petrochemical industry, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relic, Dubravka; Sakan, Sanja; Andjelkovic, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Within this study the investigation of pollution state of metal and metalloids contamination in soils and sediments samples of the petrochemical and nearby residential area is present. The pseudo-total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were monitored with ICP/OES. The pollution indices applied in this work, such as the enrichment factor, the pollution load index, the total enrichment factor, and the ecological risk index showed that some of the soil and sediment samples were highly polluted by Hg, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr Cu and Zn. The highest pollution indices were calculated for Hg in samples from the petrochemical area: chloralkali plant, electrolysis factory, mercury disposal area, and in samples from the waste channel. The pollution indices of the samples from the residential area indicated that this area is not polluted by investigated elements. Besides the pollution indices, the metal and metalloids concentrations were used in the equations for calculating the health risk criteria. We calculate no carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for the composite worker and residential people by usage adequate equations. In analyzed samples, the no carcinogenic risks were lower than 1. The highest values of carcinogenic risk were obtained in sediment samples from the waste channel within the petrochemical industry and the metal that mostly contributes to the highest carcinogenic risk is Cr. Correlation analysis of pollution indices and carcinogenic risks calculated from the residential area samples showed good correlations while this is not the case for an industrial area.

  8. Characterization of ozone precursor volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres and around the petrochemical industry in the Tarragona region.

    PubMed

    Ras, Maria Rosa; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an assessment of volatile organic compound (VOCs) levels in ambient air in samples collected at urban and industrial sites in southern Catalonia, which is home to one of the most important petrochemical complexes in southern Europe. This study contains data from a total of 192 samples collected in 2007, from May to October, at six air pollution measurement stations within the area of influence of several chemical and petrochemical industrial plants. The ambient air concentrations of a group of 65 VOCs, some of them ozone precursors, were determined by active sampling into sorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the same time, several meteorological parameters were also recorded, and levels of NO, NO(2) and O(3) measured by the automatic stations, have been included in the study as well. Ambient air profiles of the different areas were studied, and the ozone formation dependent on VOCs and NO(2) levels was also analysed, taking into account the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) for different groups of VOCs.

  9. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  11. A Moral (Normative) Framework for the Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering: Part II.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Omar J

    2016-12-02

    The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for moral judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The moral framework provides the basis of judging actions as "moral" or "immoral" based on three levels of moral accountability: personal, professional, and social. The social aspect of the proposed framework is developed primarily from the essential attributes of normative business decision-making models identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes related to professional and personal moral values. The normative decision-making models reviewed are based primarily on social attributes as related to moral theories (e.g., utilitarianism, duty, rights, virtue, etc.). The professional and moral attributes are established by identifying a set of common moral values recognized by professionals in the construction industry and required to prevent common construction breaches. The moral framework presented here is the complementary part of the ethical framework developed in Part I of this article and is based primarily on the personal behavior or the moral aspect of professional responsibility. The framework can be implemented as a form of preventive personal ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral implications in the first place

  12. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  13. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Moffatt, S.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Phillimore, P. R.; Foy, C.; Dunn, C. E.; Tate, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate concern that local industrial air pollution in Teesside, England, was causing poor health, several areas there were compared with parts of the City of Sunderland. METHODS: Populations in similar social and economic circumstances but varying in their proximity to major industries were compared. Study populations lived in 27 housing estates in Teesside and Sunderland, north east England, with some data from subsets of estates. The estates were aggregated into zones (designated as A, B, and C in Teesside where A is closest to and C furthest from industry, and S in Sunderland). Zone S provided a reference area. The hypothesis was that a health gradient both within Teesside (A > B > C) and between Teesside and Sunderland (ABC > S) would indicate a possible health effect of local industrial air pollution. Data presented were: mortality (1981-91) from 27 housing estates; population self completion questionnaire survey data (1993, 9115 subjects) from 15 housing estates; and general practitioner (GP) consultation data (1989-94) from 2201 subjects in 12 Teesside estates. RESULTS: The populations in the four zones were comparable for indicators including smoking habits, residential histories, and unemployment. All cause and cause specific mortalities were high compared with England and Wales. Mortality in all Teesside zones (ABC) combined was mostly higher than in zone S. In people aged 0-64, lung cancer and respiratory disease showed gradients with highest mortality in areas closest to industry (A > B > C and ABC > S). The association was clearest for lung cancer in women (0-64 years old, trend across zones ABC, p = 0.07, directly standardised rate ratio relative to zone S was 169 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 116-122)). There were no important, consistent gradients in the hypothesised direction between zones in consultation rates in general practice, and self reported respiratory and nonrespiratory health including asthma. CONCLUSIONS: There

  14. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part I.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This report on the pharmaceutical industry will be published in two parts. Part I begins with a summary of the study and its conclusions. The authors then provide an overview of the characteristics of the industry and current trends in its growth and structure: production and consumption, employment, research and development, capital investment, firm and product concentration and product competition, and pricing. A discussion of international trade follows, covering intra- and inter-regional, intra-firm, and intra-industry trade. The report will continue in the next issue of the Journal (Part II) with a look at foreign direct investment, inter-firm networks, and governmental policies.

  15. Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used.

  16. Chromosomal aberration frequencies determined by conventional methods: Parallel increases over time in the region of a petrochemical industry and throughout the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Rössner, Pavel; Beskid, Olena; Bavorova, Hana; Ocadlikova, Dana; Solansky, Ivo; Albertini, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    The rationale for cytogenetic monitoring to determine if safe maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of genotoxic chemicals are being maintained in a workplace is that exposure levels that do not increase chromosomal aberration frequencies are without harmful effects. Such monitoring, widely used in occupational health programs in the Czech Republic (CR), includes workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene (BD) or other chemicals. Studies of BD exposed workers in the years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1998, and 2004 compared mean frequencies of cells carrying chromosomal aberrations (frequency of aberrant cells=%AB.C.) in exposed workers with those in non-exposed matched controls in the same plant or in other individuals living in the region of the same petrochemical industry. Workers potentially exposed to acrylonitrile at this site were also evaluated in 2000, along with another unexposed matched control group. The %AB.C. values of exposed workers and their controls were also compared with reference values determined for normal individuals (ages 20-59 years) throughout the CR. Substantial discrepancies were noted between subjects in the region of the petrochemical industry (exposed workers and controls) for the years 2000 and 2004 and the reference CR-wide normal values that had been determined during an earlier time period. The matched non-exposed controls at the petrochemical industry site showed a mean %AB.C. value of 1.56+/-1.23% (N=25) in 1998; this rose to a mean of 2.65+/-2.29% (N=33) in 2000. In 2004, values for non-exposed matched controls at the industry site were 2.64+/-1.75% for males (N=25) and 2.38+/-1.74% (N=26) for females. However, the earlier determined CR-wide %AB.C. mean reference values for normal individuals were 1.77+/-1.16% (N=1305) for the interval 1977-1988 and 1.45+/-1.17% (N=2140) for the interval 1991-1999. As both reference values are substantially lower than those determined in 2000 and 2004 for the non-exposed matched controls at the petrochemical

  17. Safety culture assessment in petrochemical industry: a comparative study of two algerian plants.

    PubMed

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance.

  18. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  19. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Laboratory scale and pilot plant study on treatment of toxic wastewater from the petrochemical industry by UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Stergar, V; Zagorc-Koncan, J; Zgajnar-Gotvanj, A

    2003-01-01

    This research concentrates on the development of an integrated approach to evaluate the possibility of treating very concentrated (COD = 15-20 g/l) and toxic wastewater (nitro-organic effluent) from the petrochemical industry in UASB reactors. A newly developed method utilising a modified Micro-Oxymax respirometer was used to (1) evaluate the inhibitory effects of varying concentrations of nitro-organic effluent on anaerobic granular sludge and (2) to make the proposal of operational parameters for the start up of the continuous process. Subsequently, the continuous tests were undertaken using laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors to test gradual adaptation of anaerobic biomass to nitro-organic effluent. Practical application of the experimental results of the laboratory-scale continuous tests was evaluated by running the UASB pilot plant. Acceptable COD removal efficiencies were obtained when nitro-organic effluent was diluted with a readily biodegradable substrate up to 80 vol % of nitro-organic effluent in the inlet. The COD removal was 90% and the methane production rate was 4.5 l/d. Wastewater was detoxified and no acute toxicity of the treated wastewater to the anaerobic biomass was detected. This research indicates that anaerobic digestion of the undiluted nitro-organic effluent was not feasible. However, it is possible to blend the nitro-organic effluent with another effluent stream and co-treat these effluents.

  1. Destruction of some more and less hydrophobic PAHs and their toxicities in a petrochemical industry wastewater with sonication in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye

    2010-11-01

    The effects of increasing sonication time (60-150min), NaCl (2-18g/l), S(2)O(8)(2-) (2-10mg/l) and 1-butanol (200-600mg/l) concentrations on the destructions of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity in a petrochemical industry wastewater in Izmir (Turkey) were investigated. The yields in more hydrophobic PAHs (DahA and BghiP) were as high as in less hydrophobic PAHs (CHR, PHE, PY, BbF and ANT) at 60 degrees C after 150min sonication. The removals in all PAHs increased from 72-78% to 97-99% as the NaCl administration was increased from 1.5 to 12g/l. The degradation efficiency of seven PAHs was enhanced by 36% with 6mg/l S(2)O(8)(2-) after 150min. OH(*) is the major process for complete sonodegradation of less hydrophobic PAHs while pyrolysis is the major process for complete degradation of more hydrophobic PAHs.

  2. Selection of optimized air pollutant filtration technologies for petrochemical industries through multiple-attribute decision-making.

    PubMed

    Moridi, Parvin; Atabi, Farideh; Nouri, Jafar; Yarahmadi, Rasoul

    2017-07-15

    Selecting cost-effective and efficient air filtration technologies that ensure sustainable development is a challenge to national, regional and local policy makers. Various factors such as efficiency, maintainability, and design of the developed devices can affect the selection of optimized technologies. The present study aimed to select optimal technologies for air filtration devices in petrochemical industries through a multi-criteria decision-making (MADM) method based on a fuzzy model of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Five criteria (filtration efficiency, cost, maintainability, designability, and size) were used to rank air pollution control technologies designed to eliminate particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia (NH3). According to the results, the research criteria had different weights for different air pollutants. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA + pre collector) filters, plasma chemistry, and chemical absorption were identified as the most appropriate filtration methods for PM, VOCs, and NH3, respectively (coefficients = 0.923, 0.9586, and 0.867, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological anoxic treatment of O₂-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

    2013-09-15

    An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  4. High Temperature Properties Test and Research of 9Cr1Mo (P9) Seamless Pipe Used in Petrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qijiang; Zhou, Yedong; Zhang, Qinglian

    Production technical process of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe is presented, and creep property of isothermal annealed state of that steel is studied under the temperatures of 550 °C, 600 °C, 650 °C, 700 °C. Also, isothermal extrapolation method and Larson-Miller method are employed to extrapolate creep rupture strength of the steel at the creep time of 20000h, 40000h, 60000h and 100000h. The results show that high temperature properties of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe meets the API 530 standard of USA and the SH/T3037 standard of China's petrochemical industry, and the steel can be used in large scale petroleum cracking equipment. Meantime, the comparison of creep properties at 650 °C and transient elevated temperature properties at different temperatures between isothermal annealed state and normalized + tempered state of 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe as well as the microstructure analysis show that the normalized + tempered 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe presents better high temperature properties.

  5. Conventional, microwave, and ultrasound sequential extractions for the fractionation of metals in sediments within the Petrochemical Industry, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Relić, Dubravka; Dorđević, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; Anđelković, Ivan; Pantelić, Ana; Stanković, Ratomir; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the main objective was fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, and K in certificate material and sediment samples gathered from and around the Petrochemical Industry using the conventional, microwave and ultrasonic sequential extraction. Microwave oven and ultrasound bath were used as an energy source for achieving faster extraction. Additional heating and boiling of samples were avoided by using lower power and shorter time for microwave and ultrasound extraction. Precision and accuracy of procedure were evaluated by using certificate material (BCR701). Acceptable accuracy of metals (87.0-111.3 %) was achieved for all three-step sequential of conventional extraction protocol. An accuracy of the fourth step has been verified with two certificate materials: BCR143R and 146R. The range of total extracted metal concentrations from sediments was similar for all three extraction techniques. A significant high percentage of Cd, Cu, and Zn were obtained after extraction of the exchangeable and acid soluble sediment fraction. Principal component analysis of values obtained after determination of risk assessment code using conventional and ultrasound sequential extraction show similarity of these values. Accuracy, recovery, and risk assessment code values imply that ultrasound sequential extraction is a more suitable, accelerated sequential extraction procedure (30 min per extraction step) than microwave extraction in applied conditions.

  6. [The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility.

  7. Fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in carbon-0.5molybdenum steel and weldments applied in petroelum and petrochemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng

    High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) is a form of surface decarburization, internal decarburization, and/or intergranular cracking in steels exposed to high temperature (>400°F) and high hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen attack is an irreversible process which can cause permanent damage resulting in degradation of mechanical properties and failures such as leakage, bursting, fire, and/or explosion. The continuous progression of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments below the C-0.5Mo Nelson Curve has caused a significant concern for the integrity and serviceability of C-0.5Mo steel utilized for pressure vessels and piping in the petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries. A state-of-the-art literature review was implemented to provide a comprehensive overview of the published research efforts on hydrogen attack studies. The evolution of "Nelson Curves" for carbon steel, C-0.5Mo, and Cr-Mo steels was historically reviewed in regard to design applications and limitations. Testing techniques for hydrogen attack assessment were summarized under the categories of hydrogen exposure testing, mechanical evaluation, and dilatometric swelling testing. In accord with the demands of these industries, fundamental studies of hydrogen attack in C-0.5Mo steel and weldments were accomplished in terms of quantitative methodologies for hydrogen damage evaluation; hydrogen damage assessment of service exposed weldments and autoclave exposed materials; effects of carbon and alloying elements, heat treatments, hot and cold working, welding processes and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on hydrogen attack susceptibility; development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for C-0.5Mo base metals and the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ); carbide evaluation for the C-0.5Mo steel after service exposure and heat treatment; methane evolution by the reaction of hydrogen and carbides; hydrogen diffusion and methane pressure through the wall thickness of one

  8. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  9. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  10. America's Nomads (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Evidence suggests that living and labor conditions have improved very little among agricultural laborers and are particularly hopeless among migrants. Since the government, food producers, industry, and consumers are all beneficiaries of the present farm system, it is unlikely that farm workers will be able to unionize and control their own…

  11. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds).

  12. [Petrochemical industry and health risk perception: a research carried out by means of focus groups].

    PubMed

    Gatto, Elisa; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Saitta, Pietro; Faberi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative analysis aimed at collecting new and useful elements for a questionnaire prepared to be submitted to a representative sample of the population residing in the industrial areas of Sicily. The study employed four focus groups and addressed adults selected among the population living in the area called Valle del Mela (Sicily) in order to investigate customs, images and perception of risks related to living conditions in a complex industrial area. The area under investigation is characterized by the presence of a large refinery process plants, a power plant and a number of small factories operating in various highly polluting sectors. The study investigates the specific perceptions expressed by conveyed people according to their sex, age and parental status. The authors suggest that their findings are useful in order to implement communication actions aimed at targeting broader strata of the local population.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  14. Rickets: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shore, Richard M; Chesney, Russell W

    2013-01-01

    This is the continuation of a two-part review of rickets. This part emphasizes the specific pathophysiology, clinical features, pathoanatomy and radiographic findings of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Other forms of rickets, differential diagnostic considerations and the potential relationship between low levels of vitamin D metabolites and unexplained fractures in infants are also discussed.

  15. AERMOD: A DISPERSION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCE APPLICATIONS PART II: MODEL PERFORMANCE AGAINST 17 FIELD STUDY DATABASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) are described. This is the second in a series of three articles. Part I describes the model's methods for characterizing the atmospheric boundary layer and complex ter...

  16. AERMOD: A DISPERSION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCE APPLICATIONS PART II: MODEL PERFORMANCE AGAINST 17 FIELD STUDY DATABASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) are described. This is the second in a series of three articles. Part I describes the model's methods for characterizing the atmospheric boundary layer and complex ter...

  17. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  18. Understanding Math - Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the second remedial workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students at the secondary level. It covers fractions, geometry formulas, decimals and percents, and time. For the first workbook, see SE 015 827, and for the teacher's guide, see SE 015 829. (DT)

  19. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  20. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  1. Stimulus control: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations. PMID:22478222

  2. [Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss in workers exposed to industrial noise of the turbogenerated electric plant of a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Montiel-López, María; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Rojas-González, Liliana; Quevedo, Ana; Rendiles, Hernando

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss in the electric plant workers of a petrochemical industry of the west of Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included sonometry tests, carried out according to the established methodology by COVENIN rules, and the occupational medical evaluation and liminal tonal audiometrics test in 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) was quantified in different workplaces. It was found out that most of the workers are exposed to high noise levels [>85 dB(A)] and during more time than the recommended. All workers use hearing protectors appropriately. The hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, there were not noise-induced hearing losses. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometrics test was diminished, but inside the normal threshold values. We diagnosed 12 cases of conductive hearing loss, all grade I; there were not sensorial or mixed hearing losses. There was not a relationship between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. It is suggested the design and implantation of a program of auditory conservation to protect the health and security of the workers and to conduct a longitudinal study considering the findings of the present study as it basis.

  3. Field and petrochemical studies of pegmatites in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omada, J. I.; Kolawole, M. S.; Odoma, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Field, petrological and geochemical studies of pegmatite bodies in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria, have been undertaken with a view to characterizing them and determining the rare earth mineralization potentials. Pegmatite bodies which are zoned or poorly zoned occur as dykes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE consisting dominantly of feldspar-quartz, feldspar-quartz-mica, and feldspar-mica-quartz, respectively. Trace elements concentration in the Na-rich and K-rich feldspars is such that Rb > Ba > Sr > Pb > Ga and the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high contents of Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs. The muscovite samples have enrichment pattern of Rb > Nb > Sn > Gn > Ta > Cs: each of the elements has concentration values that are higher than those in either the K-rich or Na-rich feldspars suggesting that muscovite and to a lesser extent feldspars, are the possible carriers of Ta, Sn and REE that are associated with the pegmatite bodies in the Lokoja area. The mineralogy and composition of the pegmatite bodies are indicative of post tectonic anorogenic acidic igneous protolith which underwent alkali metasomatism involving selective enrichment of trace elements and REE, fractionation and rock-fluid interactions.

  4. Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sena, Shirley Feitosa Machado; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Scale-up of anodic oxidation system is critical to the practical application of electrochemical treatment in bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment. In this study, the scale-up of electrochemical flow system was investigated by treating petrochemical wastewater using platinized titanium (Ti/Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. It was demonstrated that flow cell was successfully scaled-up because when it was compared with batch mode (Rocha et al. 2012b), higher performances on organic matter removal were achieved. Under the suitable operating conditions and better anode material, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petrochemical wastewater was reduced from 2,746 to 200 mg L(-1) within 5 h with an energy consumption of only 56.2 kWh m(-3) in the scaled-up BDD anode system. These results demonstrate that anode flow system is very promising in practical bio-refractory organic wastewater treatment.

  5. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  6. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  7. Remediation System Evaluation, Mattiace Petrochemical Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mattiace Petrochemical Superfund Site, located in an industrial area near the harbor of Glen Cove, isapproximately 1.9 acres and has extensive soil and groundwater contamination of volatile organiccompounds stemming from the operations of...

  8. SABIC developing key role in petrochemical markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-07

    This paper reports that Sabic, Saudi Arabia's state petrochemical company, has emerged as a major player in that industry. Sabic was created in 1976 mainly to add value to Saudi hydrocarbon resources by using associated gas, formerly mostly flared, as feedstock for basic petrochemical products. Its role expanded to include downstream petrochemical products, fertilizer, and metals, essentially creating an industrial base in Saudi Arabia. Since then, Sabic has developed with joint venture partners 15 companies, each representing a world scale industrial plant. The first 12 of those were on stream by yearend 1985. Total industrial output, mainly petrochemicals, has increased to more than 11 million metric tons in 1989 from almost 3 million tons in 1984.

  9. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  10. Study on mechanics of bodies under the action of sound pollution in industrial halls. Part II: Analysis of sound pressure inside the hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghir, M.; Lăpuşan, I. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, it is taking into account all these phenomena of sounds propagation in given space. Within the framework of the given research is a study in industrial park "Teraplast" from Bistriţa-Năsăud county. This is industrial products for pvc constructions. From the submissions made to the workshops of processing industrial park "Teraplast" has been found, that noise is produced mainly in the power pumps hall. The registrations were made during a normal working days. The recorders made, for one minute, with recorder (NL32, Japanese society RION) in the pump's hall 12 positions were introduced in a high- capacity computer. This second part of the paper contains a natural continuation of the study conducted in the first part. Through the composition of sound waves for each pump in part according to the construction of the hall, gives the sound field generated by sources of power pumps during simultaneous operation. Field of noise sources inside the hall of power pumps determines an acoustic pressure on the walls of the hall. Taking into consideration the frequencies that are threatening the construction of the hall, will be presented successively acoustic pressure what special expertise to the hall walls the pressures of 230Hz, 350Hz, 800Hz and 1400Hz. This study is important for the acoustic pressure made from the "Teraplast" enterprise inside, and outside the halls.

  11. Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

  12. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry--Part II: Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A.; Legator, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart hemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumors, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukemias, and other cancers of hematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure.29 references.

  13. [Effects of dissolved oxygen in the oxic parts of A/O reactor on degradation of organic pollutants and analysis of microbial community for treating petrochemical wastewater].

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng-Yuan; Chu, Li-Bing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Jian-Long

    2015-02-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the biodegradation of organic pollutants were investigated using A/O reactors for the treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater. Two A/O reactors, DO were controlled at 2-3 mg x L(-1) in the oxic parts of reactor A and 5-6 mg x L(-1) of reactor B, were operated in parallel for comparison. The nearly a half of year operation results showed that the effluent COD in reactor A (72.5 ± 14.8 mg x L(-1)) was slightly higher than that in reactor B (68.7 ± 14.6 mg x L(-1)) at a HRT of 20 h. The average COD removal efficiencies were 67.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The effluent ammonium concentration was maintained at 0.8 mg x L(-1) and approximately 95% of ammonium removal was achieved. The effluent BOD, concentration was lower than 5 mg x L(-1). This indicated that the organic pollutants could be degraded thoroughly by the A/O processes, which were affected slightly by DO. Results of 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in oxic parts showed that at the phylum levels, sequences belonged to Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant with 58.7% and 59.2%, 14.7% and 12.7%, 10.8% and 12.4% of total bacterial sequences in reactor A and B, respectively. Ammonium oxidation bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and obligate aerobic bacteria were highly enriched in reactor B with high DO levels, while the anaerobic denitrifiers Azospira and Acidovora were highly enriched in reactor A with low DO levels. The identified bacteria belonged to genera Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Sphingobium and Altererythrobacter were reported to degrade PAHs, chloronitrobenzene, pesticides and petroleum, which contributed to the degradation of petrochemical wastewater.

  14. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  15. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  16. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    PubMed Central

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  17. Biomass in a petrochemical world

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2013-01-01

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted. PMID:24427511

  18. Biomass in a petrochemical world.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Dermot J

    2013-02-06

    The world's increasingly voracious appetite for fossil fuels is driven by fast-growing populations and ever-rising aspirations for the lifestyles and standard of living exemplified in the developed world. Forecasts for higher electricity consumption, more comfortable living environments (via heating or cooling) and greater demand for transport fuels are well known. Similar growth in demand is projected for petrochemical-based products in the form of man-made fibres for clothing, ubiquitous plastic artefacts, cosmetics, etc. All drawing upon the same finite oil, gas and coal feedstocks. Biomass can, in principle, substitute for all of these feedstocks. Although ultimately finite, biomass resources can be expanded and renewed if this is a societal priority. This paper examines the projected growth of an energy-intensive international petrochemicals industry, considers its demand for both utilities and feedstocks, and considers the extent to which biomass can substitute for fossil fuels. The scope of this study includes biomass component extraction, direct chemical conversion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion. Noting that the petrochemicals industry consumes around 10 per cent of the world's fossil fuels as feedstocks and almost as much again in utilities, various strategies for addressing future demand are considered. The need for long-term infrastructure and logistics planning is highlighted.

  19. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  20. A Petrochemical Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Informs the reader of the pervasiveness of petrochemicals in everyday life. Discusses the petroleum-to-petrochemical transformation at the refinery and issues related to how petroleum products will be utilized for fuel or nonfuel needs such as lubricants, computers, and medicine in the future. (MDH)

  1. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  2. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  3. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  4. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    PubMed

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  5. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  6. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Zheng-Bin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Ning, Shu-Kuang

    2016-01-15

    Receptor and dispersion models both provide important information to help understand the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and develop effective management strategies. In this study, differences between the predicted concentrations of two models and the associated impacts on the estimated health risks due to different theories behind two models were investigated. Two petrochemical industrial complexes in Kaohsiung city of southern Taiwan were selected as the sites for this comparison. Although the study compares the approaches by applying the methods to this specific area, the results are expected to be adopted for other areas or industries. Ninety-nine VOC concentrations at eight monitoring sites were analyzed, with the effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations being considered. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was used for source apportionment, while the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict the VOC concentrations at receptor sites. In the results of receptor modeling, 54% ± 11% and 49% ± 20% of the monitored concentrations were contributed by process emissions in two complexes, whereas the numbers increased to 78% ± 41% and 64% ± 44% in the results of dispersion modeling. Significant differences were observed between two model predictions (p < 0.05). The receptor model was more reproducible given the smaller variances of its results. The effect of seasonal humidity variation on two model predictions was not negligible. Similar findings were observed given that the cancer and non-cancer risks estimated by the receptor model were lower but more reproducible. The adverse health risks estimated by the dispersion model exceeded and were 75.3%-132.4% of the values estimated by using the monitored data, whereas the percentages were lowered to the range from 27.4% to 53.8% when the prediction was performed by using the receptor model. As the results of different models could be

  7. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  8. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  9. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  10. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  11. [Part II: Recognising facial expressions].

    PubMed

    Krolak-Salmon, P; Hénaff, M A; Bertrand, O; Vighetto, A; Mauguière, F

    2006-11-01

    In this second part, we address particularly the question of the neural mechanisms and structures involved in the recognition of facial emotional expressions that are crucial in social cognition. Emotion recognition in others can be critically impaired in some neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. That dysfunction sometimes correlated to disabling behavioural disorders and interpersonal communication impairment must be further understood. The results of a series of scalp and intracranial event related potential recordings, as well as recent advances in the literature, are reported. ERPs to facial emotional expressions were thus recorded in multiple subcortical and cortical areas in drug refractory epileptical patients implanted with depth electrodes. The roles of amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex located at crossroads between perceptive analysis and emotional conceptual knowledge are particularly underlined. Altogether, these studies demonstrate that facial expressions are widely processed in space and time, some structures reacting very early and automatically, others providing a sustained reaction depending on the attention.

  12. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    PubMed

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  13. Sports Concussion Management: part II.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Thomas R; Cox, Conrad B; Bielak, Ken; Casmus, Robert; Laskowitz, Daniel; Nichols, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    Millions of concussions occur every year in the United States. The public interest in concussion has increased after a number of high-profile deaths in high school athletes from sports-related head trauma and in some professional athletes from chronic traumatic encephalopathy. One of the most active areas of research in sports medicine during the last decade has been the evaluation and management of concussion. In this second article of a two-part series, we provide an overview of the latest scientific advances in concussion research. This overview includes an update on the pathobiological changes that occur during concussion and the results of biomechanical studies. In addition, to aid the practicing clinician, we review the literature on proven and currently studied concussion risk factors, including a history of concussion, fatigue, and age. Genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers may provide risk-prediction capability, but at present the research remains inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging are promising technologies that reveal more sophisticated data about the impact of concussion on the brain. We review the existing literature on the application of these neuroimaging modalities to sports concussion. An update from the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport, with highlights of new recommendations, and the presentation of the third edition of the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool to evaluate acute concussion, concludes our review.

  14. Laser repairing of parts in metallurgical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xichen; Wang, Yunshan; Zhao, Xin

    1999-09-01

    A new repair system for hardfacing of parts in metallurgical industries has been developed. The system can produce single pass quenching or cladding width of 10 - 35 mm, thickness of 0.5 - 10 mm. The wide range of powder materials can be deposited to provide hardfacing layers against wear, corrosion and oxidation. Comparing with welding and flame spraying, it presents clear advantages with low distortion, low dilution, low cost and small postclad machining. It has been successfully used to repair some of parts, for example, roll, drawing wire wheel in high speed wire, and so on.

  15. Tubing extrusion made easier, Part II.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Mike

    2004-11-01

    An increased understanding of the primary elements will lead to greater control of the extrusion process. In the ongoing quest to produce tubing with consistent properties. Part II of this two-part article makes recommendations on best practice in barrel and screw design, compression ratios and dies.

  16. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  17. New Raman spectrometer using a digital micromirror device and a photomultiplier tube detector for rapid on-line industrial analysis. Part II: Choice of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Quyen, Nguyen The; Jouan, Michel D; Dao, Nguyen Quy; Da Silva, Edouard; Ai Phuong, Duong

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the performances of four improved analytical methods (backward stepwise selection of peak intensities, sum of characteristic peaks of a component, moving window partial least squares, and genetic algorithms) using wavelength selection for the analysis of xylene mixtures by Raman spectroscopy are tested for further use on the new "digital micromirror device associated with a photomultiplier tube" Raman spectrometer. It is shown that the errors of prediction using only a few selected points (from 4 to 49 depending on the method) are almost the same as when using the whole spectral range (1050 points). Compared to the last two methods, the "backward stepwise selection of peak intensities" and "sum of characteristic peaks of a component" methods are robust under industrial conditions and appear to be well suited for chemical quantitative analysis with the new Raman spectrometer, which allows the measurements of the total intensity to be made simultaneously for a number of pre-selected frequencies. Results show that the errors of prediction can be near to or even lower than 2%.

  18. Multi-compartmental environmental surveillance of a petrochemical area: levels of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Mari, Montse; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2009-02-01

    Since 2002, the chemical/petrochemical industrial zone of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) is being annually monitored. As part of the environmental surveillance program, in this study the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and V) were determined in soil and vegetation samples collected in 4 areas of Tarragona County (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential, and unpolluted). Moreover, the airborne concentrations of the same micropollutants were determined in each area. In soil samples, significant higher levels of PCNs and higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PAHs were found in the urban zone. PCDD/F levels in vegetation samples significantly decreased from 2002. The concentrations of Cr in soil samples, as well as V levels in vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of an oil refinery were significantly higher than those found in the unpolluted zones. A significant and progressive increase in V concentrations was also noted. The current results clearly indicate that the petrochemical industry is still being an important focus of inorganic pollution for the surrounding environment. In air, the higher amount of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs suggests a relatively greater impact on the petrochemical and urban areas. The temporal trend of the global pollution was also studied an Integral Risk Index was applied.

  19. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    SciTech Connect

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  20. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2009-08-01

    Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment.

  1. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  2. 88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Part 257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... from 60 days at 15 °C to 40 days at 20 °C, with a volatile solids reduction of at least 38 percent. Air...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Part 257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... from 60 days at 15 °C to 40 days at 20 °C, with a volatile solids reduction of at least 38 percent. Air...

  5. Directional drilling allows quick exit from petrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Halderman, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    Horizontal directional drilling uses specialty tools and techniques largely taken from the oil field and the mining industry to very accurately install pipelines, utilities and other conduits under obstacles such as rivers, beaches, environmentally sensitive areas, roadways, railroads, airfields, and congested pipeline corridors. In the early part of 1990, a particularly interesting problem confronted the pipeline engineers at Union Carbides 2,500-acre Seadrift plant near Port Lavaca, Texas. Having started up in 1954, the plant today is a major supplier of chemicals and plastics to industry, shipping more than two billion pounds per year. Since very large volumes of cooling water are needed for the operation of a petrochemical complex of this magnitude, years of expansion and modifications have caused the plant to become nearly surrounded by a number of rather large segmented ponds.

  6. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene by the mixed culture of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus vireti isolated from the petrochemical industry.

    PubMed

    Mohandass, Ramya; Rout, Pallabi; Jiwal, Sonia; Sasikala, Chitrambalam

    2012-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds that pose threat to humans and animal life. Methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The bacterial consortium capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from petrochemical soil. The isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus viretibased on morphological characterization, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. About 58.98% of benzo(a)pyrene at concentration of 500 mg l(-1) in mineral salts medium were removed by bacterial consortium. GC mass spectral analysis showed the presence of metabolite cis-4-(7-hydroxypyren-8-yl)-2-oxobut-3enoic acid. The results indicate that the bacterial consortium is a new bacterial resource for biodegrading benzo(a)pyrene and might be used for bioremediation of sites heavily contaminated by benzo[a]pyrene and its derivatives.

  7. Photosensitivity disorders in children: part II.

    PubMed

    Chantorn, Rattanavalai; Lim, Henry W; Shwayder, Tor A

    2012-12-01

    Photosensitivity disorders in children encompass a diverse group of diseases. Some inherited disorders manifest with photosensitivity early in life. Specific extracutaneous association may be the clue to diagnosis in this group of pediatric photodermatoses. Part II of this 2-part review covers hereditary photodermatoses caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair, or localized or systemic biochemical abnormalities. Diagnosis and management of photoaggravated dermatoses are also discussed. Sun protection strategies are required in all patients with evidence of photosensitivity. Early recognition and prompt diagnosis is essential to minimize the long-term complications associated with inadequate photoprotection. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  12. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Jackson, Roderick K; Cox, Matthew; Cortes, Rodrigo; Deitchman, Benjamin H

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  13. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  14. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  15. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  16. Prediction of periventricular leukomalacia. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Biswanath; Bird, Geoffrey L.; Kuijpers, Marijn; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Wernovsky, Gil; Clancy, Robert R.; Licht, Daniel J.; Gaynor, J. William; Nataraj, Chandrasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of Part II is to analyze the dataset of extracted hemodynamic features (Case 3 of Part I) through computational intelligence (CI) techniques for identification of potential prognostic factors for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) occurrence in neonates with congenital heart disease. Methods The extracted features (Case 3 dataset of Part I) were used as inputs to CI based classifiers, namely, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) in combination with genetic algorithms (GA) for selection of the most suitable features predicting the occurrence of PVL. The selected features were next used as inputs to a decision tree (DT) algorithm for generating easily interpretable rules of PVL prediction. Results Prediction performance for two CI based classifiers, MLP and PNN coupled with GA are presented for different number of selected features. The best prediction performances were achieved with 6 and 7 selected features. The prediction success was 100% in training and the best ranges of sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP) and accuracy (AC) in test were 60-73%, 74-84% and 71-74%, respectively. The identified features when used with the DTalgorithm gave best SN, SP and AC in the ranges of 87-90% in training and 80-87%, 74-79% and 79-82% in test. Among the variables selected in CI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and pCO2 figured prominently similar to Part I. Decision tree based rules for prediction of PVL occurrence were obtained using the CI selected features. Conclusions The proposed approach combines the generalization capability of CI based feature selection approach and generation of easily interpretable classification rules of the decision tree. The combination of CI techniques with DT gave substantially better test prediction performance than using CI and DT separately. PMID:19162456

  17. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-04-17

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ``next Asia,`` if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region`s enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261 ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261 ...

  20. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  1. DICOM: key concepts--part II.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two installments of IT World was to give a general overview of DICOM and to take a look at different parts of the standard to get a sense of its main themes. We found that the standard provides a common reference for all developers but does not impose a single type of implementation. This allows for innovation. The standard is also built for flexibility, able to adapt to new modalities that have a need to communicate. The speedy acceptance of DICOM by the medical imaging industry is opening new possibilities for healthcare organizations to increase the quality while decreasing the cost of patient care. All of the DICOM networked supporting medical equipment as well as the organization's computer systems made by multiple original equipment manufacturers and located at one site or many sites can communicate by means of DICOM. This gives us the opportunity for medical images to be captured and communicated quicker. The result enables physicians to make diagnoses and treatment decisions sooner. It's all good stuff and even more reason why we should endeavor to understand the basics of DICOM. DICOM is here to stay!

  2. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob

    This student manual contains the following six units for classroom and laboratory experiences in high school industrial electronics: (1) introduction and review of DC and AC circuits; (2) semiconductors; (3) integrated circuits; (4) digital basics; (5) complex digital circuits; and (6) computer circuits. The units include unit objectives, specific…

  4. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob

    This student manual contains the following six units for classroom and laboratory experiences in high school industrial electronics: (1) introduction and review of DC and AC circuits; (2) semiconductors; (3) integrated circuits; (4) digital basics; (5) complex digital circuits; and (6) computer circuits. The units include unit objectives, specific…

  5. Greek petrochemicals finds buyers for plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-17

    Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively.

  6. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  10. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  11. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  16. Consular Reports on Continuation Schools in Prussia: I. Vocational Training in Magdeburg; II. Part-Time Schools for Industrial Workers; III. The City Continuation and Trade School of Brunswick; IV. The Continuation Schools of Barmen; V. Part-Time Shoe Schools in Breslau. Bulletin, 1913, No. 9. Whole Number 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Ernest L.; Busser, Ralph C.; Albert, Talbot J.; Eager, Eugene; Potts, Frank G.

    1913-01-01

    This bulletin contains a compilation of consular reports on continuation schools in Prussia. It is presented in five sections, as follows: (1) Vocational Training in Magdeburg; (2) Part-Time Schools for Industrial Workers; (3) The City Continuation and Trade School of Brunswick; (4) The Continuation Schools of Barmen; and (5) Part-Time Shoe…

  17. Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part I. Analysis of overall patterns of mortality among refining, research, and petrochemical workers

    PubMed Central

    Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update information on the workers of the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns of mortality have changed with 16 additional years of follow up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All workers were employed for > or = 5 years at company refineries, petrochemical plants, and research laboratories from 1947-93. The cohort now consists of 28,480 employees with an average of > or = 20 years of follow up. RESULTS: The overall mortality, and most cause specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those for the general population of the United States. For white men (86% of the cohort), there were 8873 observed deaths and 11,181 expected resulting in a significantly lower standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 79. There were significant deficits for all the leading causes of death in the United States including all cancers, cancer of the lung, stroke, heart disease, respiratory disease, and accidents. Slightly increased mortality was found for cancer of the pancreas, cancer of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. For cancer of the bone, the SMR was 162 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 86 to 278), and for benign and unspecified neoplasms, it was 152 (95% CI 109 to 206). Overall mortality patterns for non-white men and women were similar to those for white men. Mortality patterns for white men were also examined by duration of employment, time first employed, location, and by job and process unit. There were significantly increased SMRs for brain cancer for those people employed as laboratory workers and on units with motor oil and for cancer of other lymphatic tissue for people employed on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the updated study showed a favourable mortality experience for employees in the Texaco mortality study compared with the United States population. There were a few increases found consistently including, but not limited to, brain cancer and cancer of other

  18. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  19. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  20. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  1. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  2. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  3. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  4. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  5. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  6. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  7. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Susan L

    2002-03-05

    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships.

  8. Greed in the Groves: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rise of an academic-industrial complex through which American and multinational corporations siphon the publicly created resources of universities and thereby convert publicly financed research into private gain. Asserts that this new corporate dominance represents an unprecedented intrusion into the heart of academic freedom which…

  9. Disks for the Laboratory Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Part 1 presents the chemistry, physics, and engineering technology associated with magnetic and optical disks. This part explores the subjects of archiving, security, validation and certification, and protection. Questions and issues are raised in each of the areas that both users and vendors should be aware. (JN)

  10. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of ADINA. Part II. Operating Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-08

    Mooney Rivlin material, small/ large deformation i) static ii) dynamic iii) frequency (linear) 3. Spherical shell; elastic, plastic, concrete, small...Neighborhood of Buckling Zone 13 11-8 Typical Negative Stiffness Generated in Neighborhood of Buckling Zone 14 III-1 Rubber Sheet Geometry Material...Properties and Element Model 26 111-2 Global Energy Increment of Rubber Sheet (1st Load Step) 28 111-3 Global Energy Increment of Rubber Sheet (1st Load

  12. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  13. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  14. Prescription pricing across Canada (Part II).

    PubMed

    Archer, F

    1984-09-01

    The first of a two part article entitled "Prescription Pricing Across Canada" appeared in the June issue of CPJ. The article was prompted by recent press reports of a prescription drug study commissioned by the Saskatchewan government, and the consequent attention-getting headlines. The first article dealt with the Western provinces. The second part discusses prescription pricing in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories.

  15. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  16. English for Petrochemical Plant Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Henri Sue

    The development of a program and curriculum for instruction in technical English for Saudi Arabian petrochemical plant operator trainees studying in the United States for two years was undertaken by the University of South Alabama's English Language Center. The program was designed to accommodate (1) the degree of skills and prior learning of the…

  17. Searching LEXIS and WESTLAW: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This second of a three-part series compares search features (i.e., truncation symbols, boolean operators, proximity operators, phrase searching, save searches) of two databases providing legal information. Search tips concerning charges and effective searching and tables listing functions of commands and proximity operators for both databases are…

  18. The Metis Nation--Part Two II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, John

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with historical events involving the Metis people from the time Manitoba entered the Confederation to the conclusion of the 1885 battle at Fish Creek near Batoche, Saskatchewan. Part I is in the Summer, 1978 issue of the Northian. (Author/RTS)

  19. Cutting out the Middleman: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley; Crittenden, Chris

    1985-01-01

    The second part of the article published in "American School and University," December 1984 (EA 518 236), outlines specific steps administrators need to take to determine whether or not a direct purchase of natural gas is going to benefit their schools. (MLF)

  20. Cutting out the Middleman: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley; Crittenden, Chris

    1985-01-01

    The second part of the article published in "American School and University," December 1984 (EA 518 236), outlines specific steps administrators need to take to determine whether or not a direct purchase of natural gas is going to benefit their schools. (MLF)

  1. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  2. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  3. Cardiac Electrophysiology in Lebanon—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Kossaify, Antoine; Refaat, Marwan; Khoury, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Systematic national effort to improve cardiac electrophysiology practice in Lebanon is lacking, and the quality improvement program mainly relates to individual efforts along with regulations, which are set as a “Road Map” by the Lebanese Arrhythmia Working Group. Lebanon currently has five electrophysiology laboratories. The “Road Map” mainly consists of creating a registry and a National Card for Electronic Device Holder, centralization of complex electrophysiology procedures in institutions where electrophysiologists are available, setting regulations to conform to international guidelines, and creating a National Arrhythmia Website and E-Journal. Most importantly, we emphasize that the practice of device checking must be performed by physicians with expertise and not by industry technicians. PMID:24046513

  4. Microbial degradation of petrochemical waste-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Fulekar, M H

    2017-01-01

    Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment. Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the potential microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds. Indigenous microorganism as a consortium has been found effective and efficient source for remediation of organic compound-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and this will also be applicable to remediate the toxic compounds to clean up the environment.

  5. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  6. Corporate liability: security and violence--Part II.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1996-04-01

    A hospital can be held liable for injuries resulting from failure to provide adequate, reasonable security Part II of "corporate Liability: Security and Violence" addresses negligent hiring and supervision practices, injury and domestic violence in the workplace and communication procedures.

  7. Managing changes during a clinical investigation, Part II.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2003-10-01

    What are the European requirements for managing changes that may occur during a clinical investigation? Part II of this article discusses these requirements and the development of a standard operating procedure to help ensure consistent compliance.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  9. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  10. Magnet hospitals: Part II. Institutions of excellence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Schmalenberg, C

    1988-02-01

    The oft repeated charge today is to "focus on those who are succeeding!" That's what this report does. Using the eight characteristics identified by Peters and Waterman in their book In Search of Excellence, the study analyzes 16 magnet hospitals to ascertain to what extent they possess characteristics similar to the 'best run' companies in the corporate community. The authors suggest that these magnet hospitals may be dealing effectively with the nursing shortage by creating organizational conditions conducive to eliminating internal nurse shortage. Part I of this article appeared the January 1988 issue of JONA.

  11. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    PubMed

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  12. Emerging trends in photodegradation of petrochemical wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pardeep; Ojha, Ankita; Borthakur, Anwesha; Singh, Rishikesh; Lahiry, D; Tiwary, Dhanesh; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Various human activities like mining and extraction of mineral oils have been used for the modernization of society and well-beings. However, the by-products such as petrochemical wastes generated from such industries are carcinogenic and toxic, which had increased environmental pollution and risks to human health several folds. Various methods such as physical, chemical and biological methods have been used to degrade these pollutants from wastewater. Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are evolving techniques for efficient sequestration of chemically stable and less biodegradable organic pollutants. In the present review, photocatalytic degradation of petrochemical wastes containing monoaromatic and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons has been studied using various heterogeneous photocatalysts (such as TiO2, ZnO and CdS. The present article seeks to offer a scientific and technical overview of the current trend in the use of the photocatalyst for remediation and degradation of petrochemical waste depending upon the recent advances in photodegradation of petrochemical research using bibliometric analysis. We further outlined the effect of various heterogeneous catalysts and their ecotoxicity, various degradation pathways of petrochemical wastes, the key regulatory parameters and the reactors used. A critical analysis of the available literature revealed that TiO2 is widely reported in the degradation processes along with other semiconductors/nanomaterials in visible and UV light irradiation. Further, various degradation studies have been carried out at laboratory scale in the presence of UV light. However, further elaborative research is needed for successful application of the laboratory scale techniques to pilot-scale operation and to develop environmental friendly catalysts which support the sustainable treatment technology with the "zero concept" of industrial wastewater. Nevertheless, there is a need to develop more effective methods which consume less energy and are

  13. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part II.

    PubMed

    Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.

  14. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  15. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  16. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  17. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part II.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics - pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy - started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning - as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder - 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  18. Adhesive-composite incompatibility, part II.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina P; e Silva, Safira M A; Castro, Fabrício L A

    2005-01-01

    Apart from some questions related to the repairability of resin composite restorations, dentists have always assumed that methacrylate-based resins are compatible with each other. For example, there is no clinically relevant problem in using a microfilled composite to laminate a Class IV restoration made with a hybrid composite, even if they are not of the same brand or manufacturer. In the context of adhesive systems, we have always believed that resin composites, regardless of their type or composition, bond well to all types of bonding agents. However, unexpected debonding of self-cured, core buildup composites that had been bonded with single-bottle adhesive systems was reported about 5 years ago. Subsequent studies demonstrated that there were, indeed, compatibility problems between simplified adhesive systems and self- or dual-cured resin composites. Apparently, when such combinations are used, reduced bond strengths and subsequent failures at the resin-adhesive interface can occur because of adverse reactions between the acidic resin monomers, an integral part of the simplified adhesive systems, and the chemicals involved in the polymerization mechanism of the self- or dual-cured composites, particularly the basic tertiary amines.

  19. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  20. Wave Propagation in Polymers, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newlander, David C.; Charest, Jacques A.; Lilly, Martin D.; Eisler, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    Work reported in a previous study (Wave Propagations in Polymers, Part I, J.A. Charest, M.D. Lilly, 44th ARA Meeting Munich, Germany Sept. 17-20, 1993) discussed gas gun plane wave impact work and the measurements of stress wave profiles in Polycarbonate at around 2 kbars. The wave profiles were obtained using combined carbon and PVDF thin film stress gauges. The results showed amplitude attenuation and dispersion effects which were neither expected nor predictable from available hydrocode models. The data have been revisited using a modified material model and the PUFF74 computer code. These new wave profile calculations show remarkable agreement with the previous experiments in Polycarbonate. The model treats the material as viscoelastic-plastic using methods developed by Bade (Dynamic Response Model for PMMA, W. L. Bade, AVCO Systems Division, TR K500-74-WLB-204, Oct. 1, 1974). The measured and calculated results are quite different from those exhibited by PMMA at similar impact conditions. This work is expected to further our understanding of the processes that control wave propagation in highly-compressible and viscoelastic/viscoplastic media. It is also expected to provide clues on the effects of high strain rates on properties such as the modulus of elasticity, strength, and material loading behavior.

  1. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    PubMed

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  3. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  4. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  5. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  6. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  7. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  8. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Corporate Library Impact, Part II: Methodological Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, William

    2004-01-01

    This article and its accompanying one address the corporate library's contribution to its parent firm. Part I reviews the literature on determining this contribution, revealing the need for a more theoretical approach to this problem. It then presents this approach. This article, Part II, reviews methodological trade-offs in pursuing this new…

  10. Improvement of dewatering capacity of a petrochemical sludge.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Kucukselek, Emrah

    2007-06-01

    Oily sludge produced from a petrochemical industry was used to investigate the improvement of its dewatering properties. The oil content (OC) and the dry solid content (DS) of the raw sludge were respectively, 15% and 3.6% by weight. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the raw petrochemical industrial sludge were found to be 2000s and approximately 5.5x10(16)m/kg, respectively. Conventional chemical conditioners such as alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte, and less conventional ones like fly ash, gypsum, and bentonite were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Conventional chemical conditioners gave better results for the enhancement of the dewatering capacity of the sludge. The best result was obtained by using 0.9% cationic polyelectrolyte by weight, and a decrease of 99%-95% were achieved for CST and SRF, respectively, when this dosage of cationic polyelectrolyte was used.

  11. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  12. EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-RESIDENCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, PART I, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELICAN, ROBERT L.; PURCELL, FRANCIS P.

    THE TWO PARTS OF THIS DISCUSSION CONSIDER THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FOR VOCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TRAINING TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF THE LOW-INCOME SCHOOL DROPOUT. PART I REVIEWS THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RESIDENCY PROGRAMS IN SUCH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, CHURCHES, AND SUMMER CAMPS. PART II DEALS WITH THE…

  13. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1991-92. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report, which combined Part I and Part II of a benefit study, presents data from a survey of Ontario universities concerning fringe benefits offered in 1991-92. Part I is made up of a series of tables displaying the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution. The first five tables cover general aspects of benefits,…

  14. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  15. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  16. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  17. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  18. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  20. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  1. Observations on medical device design, Part II: Good practice.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K; Clarkson, J; Bishop, D

    1999-10-01

    Current guidance on design is inadequate. This second article in a two-part series presents a framework for good design practice that attempts to improve designers' awareness of manufacturing and validation issues. Seven design tactics, derived from observations of current industry practice and design literature, seek to encourage good practice and achieve safer, more profitable devices.

  2. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  3. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  4. An analysis of the lumber planning process: Part II

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1956-01-01

    This study is part II of an investigation pertaining to the peripheral-milling process of planing lumber. Some relationships were determined between cutterhead horsepower and various combinations of specimen, cutterhead, and feed factors. Power demand curves were interpreted through comparison with simultaneously taken one micro-second photos of the forming chips....

  5. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  6. Petrochemicals from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    The development of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME) process has established a means to effectively convert CO-rich syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, in-situ produced methanol may be converted to DME, thereby alleviating the chemical equilibrium limitation imposed on the methanol synthesis reaction. As a result, higher syngas conversions and methyl productivities are seen over methanol synthesis alone. This effective route to DME production over methanol has led to the development of conversion technologies based on a DME feedstock. Oxygenates, in particular, ethers and their precursors, are very important as potential clean fuel additives and have been postulated through vinylation/hydrogenation and oxidative coupling reactions. Specialty chemicals such as methyl acetate and acetic acid have widescale industrial importance in the conversion to ethanol from a non-agricultural feedstock. Vapor phase oxidative dimerization of DME over tin based catalysts produced precursors of ethylene glycol. Finally, DME has been extensively used as a feedstock for hydrocarbon synthesis including olefins, paraffins and gasoline range hydrocarbons, over zeolite based catalysts with a 46% increase in product selectivity over methanol. The efficient production of DME in the liquid phase has given it widescale industrial significance as a potential replacement for methanol and as a keystone for more important petrochemicals.

  7. Midstream modulation in biotechnology industry: redefining what is 'part of the job' of researchers in industry.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    In response to an increasing amount of policy papers stressing the need for integrating social and ethical aspects in Research and Development (R&D) practices, science studies scholars have conducted integrative research and experiments with science and innovation actors. One widely employed integration method is Midstream Modulation (MM), in which an 'embedded humanist' interacts in regular meetings with researchers to engage them with the social and ethical aspects of their work. While the possibility of using MM to enhance critical reflection has been demonstrated in academic settings, few attempts have been made to examine its appropriateness in industry. This paper describes the outcomes of a case study aiming to find out firstly whether MM can effectively be deployed to encourage and facilitate researchers to actively include social and ethical aspects in their daily R&D practice, and secondly to what extent the integration activities could form an integral part of the engaged industrial researchers' professional activities. Our data show that after MM, researchers display increased reflexive awareness on the social and ethical aspects of their work and acknowledge the relevance and utility of such aspects on their daily practice. Also, all participants considered actively reflecting on social and ethical aspects to be part of their work. Future research on the role of MM in industrial settings could focus on how to embed social and ethical integration as a regular part of innovation practice. We suggest that one possibility would be through aligning social and ethical aspects with innovation Key Performance Indicators.

  8. Characterization of NOx, SO2, ethene, and propene from industrial emission sources in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; de Gouw, J. A.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Holloway, J. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Schauffler, S. M.; Walega, J. G.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Zheng, W.

    2010-08-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria urban area contains industrial petrochemical sources that emit volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, resulting in rapid and efficient ozone production downwind. During September to October 2006, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted research flights as part of the second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II). We use measurements of NOx, SO2, and speciated hydrocarbons from industrial sources in Houston to derive source emission ratios and compare these to emission inventories and the first Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2000. Between 2000 and 2006, NOx/CO2 emission ratios changed by an average of -29% ± 20%, while a significant trend in SO2/CO2 emission ratios was not observed. We find that high hydrocarbon emissions are routine for the isolated petrochemical facilities. Ethene (C2H4) and propene (C3H6) are the major contributors to ozone formation based on calculations of OH reactivity for organic species including C2-C10 alkanes, C2-C5 alkenes, ethyne, and C2-C5 aldehydes and ketones. Measured ratios of C2H4/NOx and C3H6/NOx exceed emission inventory values by factors of 1.4-20 and 1-24, respectively. We examine trends in C2H4/NOx and C3H6/NOx ratios between 2000 and 2006 for the isolated petrochemical sources and estimate a change of -30% ± 30%, with significant day-to-day and within-plume variability. Median ambient mixing ratios of ethene and propene in Houston show decreases of -52% and -48%, respectively, between 2000 and 2006. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and peroxyacetyl nitrate products produced by alkene oxidation are observed downwind, and their time evolution is consistent with the rapid photochemistry that also produces ozone.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  12. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  13. Biomanagement of petrochemical sludge using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae.

    PubMed

    Banu, J Rajesh; Esakkiraj, S; Nagendran, R; Logakanthi, S

    2005-01-01

    Petrochemical industry have severe problem in disposing effluent and semisolid sludge despite repeated recycling. It requires further treatment prior to disposal of sludge. In recent years biological treatment methods received much attention and considered as an efficient low-cost treatment. One such method is vermiculture treatment The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential micro and macronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding cast, not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increase their yield. The present study was carried out to dispose the petrochemical sludge biologically using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae. The petrochemical sludge at various concentrations 25, 50 and 75% were subjected to vermicomposting treatment for a period of 60 days. During the period of study, data were collected on life form of earthworm and chemical analysis of the sludge before and after treatment. The microbial analysis was carried out fortnightly. The results indicate that 25 and 50% concentration of sludge was ideal for the vermicomposting, whereas the higher concentration inhibits the vermicomposting.

  14. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  15. Probabilistic finite-state machines--part II.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrique; Thollard, Frank; de la Higuera, Colin; Casacuberta, Francisco; Carrasco, Rafael C

    2005-07-01

    Probabilistic finite-state machines are used today in a variety of areas in pattern recognition or in fields to which pattern recognition is linked. In Part I of this paper, we surveyed these objects and studied their properties. In this Part II, we study the relations between probabilistic finite-state automata and other well-known devices that generate strings like hidden Markov models and n-grams and provide theorems, algorithms, and properties that represent a current state of the art of these objects.

  16. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:22807605

  18. Feedback Flow Control for a Pitching Turret (Part II) (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    imposes no penalty on the control input. VII. Closed-loop Control Run with an Advanced Controller Three compensators ( LQR regulators with Kalman...AFRL-RB-WP-TP-2010-3024 FEEDBACK FLOW CONTROL FOR A PITCHING TURRET (PART II) (POSTPRINT) T. Vaithianathan and H.A. Carlson Clear...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3

  19. Feasibility of Screening for Antibiotic Resistance-Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    antibiotic resistance - T +31 15 28 43000 F +31 152843991 part II Info-DenV@tno.nl Date August 2005 Author(s) M.P. Broekhuijsen, W.C.M. van Dijk...ciprofloxacineresistentie. Beide, De ontworpen methode kan nog verder methoden werden getest op kunstmatig worden verbeterd, en worden toegepast op een resistent ...resultaat te zettn. c otworen ethd erken ood behalen is. Deze mutatie-analysemethode is op de twee kunstmatig resistent gemaalcte tevens geschikter voor

  20. Asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children living near a petrochemical site.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Enric; Cuadras, Anna; Aguilar, Xavier; Esteban, Leonardo; Borràs-Santos, Alícia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Residential proximity to environmental hazards has been related to adverse health outcomes. Respiratory health and allergies in children living near petrochemical sites have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to the petrochemical site of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and the prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children. Children aged 6-7 (n=2672) and adolescents aged 13-14 (n=2524) residing near two large petrochemical sites and those living in a city with medium vehicular traffic were cross-sectionally compared with children from an area with low vehicular traffic and without industry. The prevalence of symptoms was measured using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written and video questionnaires. Lung function measurements were done in a subsample of 959 adolescents in the four areas. Multivariable analyses were done to estimate the effects of the residential area on symptoms and lung function adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of symptoms was similar across the studied areas. After adjustment, children and adolescents living near a petrochemical site had a statistically significant higher prevalence of respiratory hospitalizations in the previous year (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.49; 95%CI, 1.06-2.09) and of nocturnal cough (PR=1.29; 95%CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Reduced lung function values among adolescents residing near the petrochemical areas were not observed. Although a higher prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents living near the petrochemical sites could not be demonstrated, as described in other studies, respiratory hospitalizations and nocturnal cough could be related to short-term exposures to pollutants. Other clinical and sub-clinical respiratory health effects in the petrochemical industry areas should be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  2. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum Powder: Part II. Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-12-01

    The optimal processing parameters that are required to atomize amorphous Al were established on the basis of numerical simulations in part I of this study. In this part II, the characterization of cooling rate experienced by gas-atomized, Al-based amorphous powders was studied via experiments. An experimental investigation was implemented to validate the numerical predictions reported in part I of this study. The cooling rate experienced by the powders, for example, was experimentally determined on the basis of dendrite arm spacing correlations, and the results were compared with the numerical predictions. The experimental studies were completed using commercial Al 2024 as a baseline material and Al90Gd7Ni2Fe1 metallic glass (MG). The results showed that the cooling rate of droplets increases with decreasing particle size, with an increasing proportion of helium in the atomization gas and with increasing melt superheat. The experimental results reported in this article suggest good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  4. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  5. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    PubMed

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Repair of articular cartilage defects: part II. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S; Frenkel, S R; Di Cesare, P E

    1999-02-01

    Articular cartilage injuries result in numerous clinical symptoms, such as pain and decreased functional levels. Current therapeutic options being used include articular surface debridement, such as chondral shaving, abrasion chondroplasty, and subchondral perforation; soft-tissue arthroplasties, such as perichondrial and periosteal grafts; and osteochondral transplantation. None of these therapies, however, has resulted in the successful regeneration of a hyaline-like tissue that withstands normal joint loading and activity over prolonged periods. As a result, research is also being conducted on alternative therapeutic procedures to enhance the repair process and to stimulate the regeneration of a repair tissue with hyaline-like structural and biologic properties. Part I of this paper, which was published in January, discussed the basic science of cartilage healing. Part II presents the treatment options.

  7. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  8. Kinetics of the zinc slag-Fuming process: Part i. industrial measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, G. G.; Brimacombe, J. K.; Toop, G. W.

    1985-09-01

    A study involving industrial measurements and mathematical modeling has been conducted to eluci-date kinetic phenomena in the zinc slag fuming process. In the first part of this three-part paper, the results of industrial measurements and observations are presented. In Part II a mathematical model of the process is developed, and finally in Part III the implications of a kinetic conception of the process for process improvement are explored. The industrial work consisted primarily of slag sampling through the fuming cycles of five different fuming operations. In addition, tuyere back-pressure mea-surements, tuyere photography using a tuyerescope, and sampling of the fume product were under-taken at one operation. Analysis of the slag samples has shown that, in general, the zinc elimination curve is linear with time and that a portion of the injected coal entrains in the slag. Analysis of tuyere back-pressure fluctuations and movie photographs of the tuyere tip indicate that the coal-air mixture enters the slag in the form of discrete bubbles. From these results it can be deduced that the fuming furnace consists of two reaction zones which are created by the division of coal between the slag and the tuyere gas stream. The coal entrained in the slag reduces ZnO and Fe3O4 in a “reduction zone” which is responsible for fuming. The coal remaining in the tuyere gas stream combusts in an “oxidation zone” although a fraction passes through the bath unconsumed and reports to the solid products. The oxidation zone supplies heat to the endothermic reduction reactions and heat losses.

  9. [The Mexican consensus on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Part II].

    PubMed

    Huerta-Iga, F; Tamayo-de la Cuesta, J L; Noble-Lugo, A; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres-Villalobos, G; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Pantoja-Millán, J P

    2013-01-01

    To update the themes of endoscopic and surgical treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) from the Mexican Consensus published in 2002. Part I of the 2011 Consensus dealt with the general concepts, diagnosis, and medical treatment of this disease. Part II covers the topics of the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD. In this second part, an expert in endoscopy and an expert in GERD surgery, along with the three general coordinators of the consensus, carried out an extensive bibliographic review using the Embase, Cochrane, and Medline databases. Statements referring to the main aspects of endoscopic and surgical treatment of this disease were elaborated and submitted to specialists for their consideration and vote, utilizing the modified Delphi method. The statements were accepted into the consensus if the level of agreement was 67% or higher. Twenty-five statements corresponding to the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD resulted from the voting process, and they are presented herein as Part II of the consensus. The majority of the statements had an average level of agreement approaching 90%. Currently, endoscopic treatment of GERD should not be regarded as an option, given that the clinical results at 3 and 5 years have not demonstrated durability or sustained symptom remission. The surgical indications for GERD are well established; only those patients meeting the full criteria should be candidates and their surgery should be performed by experts. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    PubMed

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions.

  12. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  13. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that... disputes and sound industrial relations by developing approaches in cooperation with trade unions/worker...

  14. Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela; Dongarrà, Gaetano

    Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal using sequential extraction. The samples were sieved into six particle size ranges: 500-250, 250-125, 125-63, 63-40, 40-20 and <20 μm and then analysed for 15 trace elements by ICP-MS. Sequential extraction of metals was performed on each subsample. A principal component analysis was also carried out to define the possible origin of metals in dusts. A comparison was made between the trace metal concentrations in road dust and those in main local outcropping rocks. The obtained results, indicate, that the road dust samples contain non-soil-derived elements, whose primary contributors appear to be vehicular traffic and the nearby petrochemical plant. Traffic appears to be responsible for the high levels of Ba, Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb and Zn. High concentrations of Ni, V and, partly, Ba and Cr were associated with emissions from the petrochemical plant. With respect to the local background, Sb was the most highly enriched trace element in the road dusts. Results of sequential extraction analysis show that most metals are mainly distributed in the non-residual fractions and particularly in the organic/sulphide and Fe-Mn oxides fractions. They also point to superficial adsorption as an important transfer mechanism of trace metals from their sources to the environment.

  15. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information for Government Monitoring Purposes II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. II Appendix II to Part 27—Information for Government...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 92 - Interpretive Ruling for § 92.705-Remedial Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Remedial Plans II Appendix II to Part 92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., App. II Appendix II to Part 92—Interpretive Ruling for § 92.705—Remedial Plans The following is an... manufacturers to better enable them to submit acceptable remedial plans. (2) Section 207(c)(1) requires the...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  11. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  12. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  13. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  14. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  17. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040... Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Schedule F... Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040). Abstract: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)...

  18. Challenges of Implementing a Joint Industrial-Academic Research Project as Part of a Nontraditional Industrial Ph.D. Dissertation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution will address the challenges of implementing a collaborative research project between industry and academia as part of an industrial Ph.D. dissertation. The research project is a collaboration between Evonik Degussa, Auburn University, and the University of South Alabama. This work will outline the challenges of integrating all…

  19. Fast transforms for acoustic imaging--part II: applications.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávio P; Nascimento, Vítor H

    2011-08-01

    In Part I ["Fast Transforms for Acoustic Imaging-Part I: Theory," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing], we introduced the Kronecker array transform (KAT), a fast transform for imaging with separable arrays. Given a source distribution, the KAT produces the spectral matrix which would be measured by a separable sensor array. In Part II, we establish connections between the KAT, beamforming and 2-D convolutions, and show how these results can be used to accelerate classical and state of the art array imaging algorithms. We also propose using the KAT to accelerate general purpose regularized least-squares solvers. Using this approach, we avoid ill-conditioned deconvolution steps and obtain more accurate reconstructions than previously possible, while maintaining low computational costs. We also show how the KAT performs when imaging near-field source distributions, and illustrate the trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. Finally, we show that separable designs can deliver accuracy competitive with multi-arm logarithmic spiral geometries, while having the computational advantages of the KAT.

  20. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part II: HIV.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV--zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy--a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of HIV blood concentration and often results in substantial recovery of impaired immunologic function. At present, there are over 20 drugs licensed and used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, and these drugs are divided into one of six classes. Investigational agents include GS-7340, the prodrug of tenofovir and BMS-663068--the first in a novel class of drugs that blocks the binding of the HIV gp120 to the CD4 receptor.

  1. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2017-07-06

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  2. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L; Decoufle, P; Moure-Eraso, R

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however, risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  3. What's new in pediatric dermatology?: part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pride, Howard B; Tollefson, Megha; Silverman, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The field of pediatric dermatology has been rich in new developments. Part II of this continuing medical education article will focus on new therapeutic modalities for several entities encountered in pediatric dermatology. The treatment of atopic dermatitis, exciting advances in the use of propranolol and other beta-blockers for the use of infantile hemangiomas, the use of rapamycin for vascular anomalies, the use of biologics in children, the central nervous system risks of general anesthesia in young children, side effects in the use of isotretinoin, the treatment of tinea capitis, treatment of herpes simplex infections, and the use of technologies such as texting and social media in medicine will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Choice and validation of a near infrared spectroscopic application for the identity control of starting materials. practical experience with the EU draft Note for Guidance on the use of near infrared spectroscopy by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization.

    PubMed

    Vredenbregt, M J; Caspers, P W J; Hoogerbrugge, R; Barends, D M

    2003-11-01

    Recently the CPMP/CVMP sent out for consultation the draft Note for Guidance (dNfG) on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization. We explored the practicability of this dNfG with respect to the verification of the correct identity of starting materials in a generic tablet-manufacturing site. Within the boundaries of the dNfG, a release procedure was developed for 12 substances containing structurally related compounds and substances differing only in particle size. For the method development literature data were also taken into consideration. Good results were obtained with wavelength correlation (WC), applied on raw spectra or second derivative spectra both without smoothing. The defined threshold of 0.98 for raw spectra differentiated between all molecular structures. Both methods were found to be robust over a period of 1 year. For the differentiation between the different particle sizes a subsequent second chemometric technique had to be used. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) with a probability level of 0.01 proved suitable. Internal and external validation I according to the dNfG showed no incorrect rejections or false acceptances. External validation II according to the dNfG was carried out with 95 potentially interfering substances from which 46 were tested experimentally. Macrogol 400 was not distinguished from macrogol 300. For the complete verification of the identity of macrogol 300 test A of the European Pharmacopoeia is needed in addition to the NIRS application. A release procedure developed with WC applied on raw spectra and SIMCA as a second method, which is different from the preferred method of the dNfG, was tested in practice with good results. We conclude that the dNfG has good practicability and that deviations from the preferred methods of the dNfG can also give good differentiation.

  5. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  6. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  7. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  8. Design/Drafting (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a design/drafting course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  10. Photography (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a photography course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  11. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  12. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  13. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  14. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  15. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience. Part II: Ceramic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Makenas, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is Part II of a review focusing on the United States experience with oxide, carbide, and nitride fast reactor fuel fabrication. Over 60 years of research in fuel fabrication by government, national laboratories, industry, and academia has culminated in a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate these fuel types. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies in the United States for each of these fuel types, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  16. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  17. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  18. Violence in the emergency department: an ethnographic study (part II).

    PubMed

    Lau, Jacqui Bee Chuo; Magarey, Judy; Wiechula, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a significant and complex problem worldwide. This is a part II of a 2-part series on an ethnographic study. The study which aimed at exploring the cultural aspects of violence was carried out at a major metropolitan ED for 3 months. This paper presents the findings and discussions of the study. One hundred and three violent incident questionnaires were completed. A total of 242.5h of observation and 34 (33%) interviews with nurses were conducted. From the data analysis, three critical cultural themes (i.e. 'problems and solutions', 'requests and demands' and 'them and us') were identified. The study indicated that the cultural meanings of violence were complex and highly subjective. Factors such as environment, conflicting messages regarding waiting time, and the nurse-patient/relative behaviours and the resulting reciprocal relationships were critical. Nurses' efforts to establish rapport with patients was crucial and needed to occur early. There was usually a 'turning point' that provided an opportunity for the nurse to avoid violence. While violence is a complex issue with many paradoxes, the study indicates that effective interpersonal empathetic communication has a significant role in reducing violence in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. A Appendix A to Part 510—Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of all manufacturing industries...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. A Appendix A to Part 510—Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of all manufacturing industries...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. A Appendix A to Part 510—Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of all manufacturing industries...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. A Appendix A to Part 510—Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of all manufacturing industries...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 510 - Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. A Appendix A to Part 510—Manufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of all manufacturing industries...

  5. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  6. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  7. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Yoon, Yong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Seok; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between exposure of Korean workers to petrochemicals in the refinery/petrochemical industry and lymphohematopoietic cancers. Methods The cohort consisted of 8,866 male workers who had worked from the 1960s to 2007 at one refinery and six petrochemical companies located in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea that produce benzene or use benzene as a raw material. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 1992-2007 and 1997-2005 based on the death rate and cancer incidence rate of the Korean male population according to job title (production, maintenance, laboratory, and office workers). Results The overall mortality and most cause-specific mortalities were lower among these workers than those of the general Korean population. Increased SMRs were observed for leukemia (4/1.45; SMR 2.77, 95% CI: 0.75-7.09) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/2.51; SMR 2, 95% CI: 0.65-4.66) in production workers, and increased SIRs were also observed in leukemia (3/1.34; SIR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.46-6.54) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/3.39; SIR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.48-3.44) in production workers, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates. PMID:22953184

  8. Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion.

    PubMed

    Cutchin, Malcolm P; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V; Goodwin, James S

    2008-06-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N= 315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups' concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies.

  9. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... II to Part 1039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 1039, App. II Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for...

  11. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  14. Part II--Management of pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

    PubMed

    Pinchefsky, Elana; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Friedman, Debbie; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Post-traumatic headache is one of the most common symptoms occurring after mild traumatic brain injury in children. This is an expert opinion-based two-part review on pediatric post-traumatic headaches. In part II, we focus on the medical management of post-traumatic headaches. There are no randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of therapies specifically for pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Thus, the algorithm we propose has been extrapolated from the primary headache literature and small noncontrolled trials of post-traumatic headache. Most post-traumatic headaches are migraine or tension type, and standard medications for these headache types are used. A multifaceted approach is needed to address all the possible causes of headache and any comorbid conditions that may delay recovery or alter treatment choices. For acute treatment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories can be used. If the headaches have migrainous features and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are not effective, triptans may be beneficial. Opioids are not indicated. Medication overuse should be avoided. For preventive treatments, some reports indicate that amitriptyline, gabapentin, or topiramate may be beneficial. Amitriptyline is a good choice because it can be used to treat both migraine and tension-type headaches. Nerve blocks, nutraceuticals (e.g. melatonin), and behavioral therapies may also be useful, and lifestyle factors, especially adequate sleep hygiene and strategies to cope with anxiety, should be emphasized. Improved treatment of acute post-traumatic headache may reduce the likelihood of developing chronic headaches, which can be especially problematic to effectively manage and can be functionally debilitating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    PubMed

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  16. Part 3: Pharmacogenetic Variability in Phase II Anticancer Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response to anticancer therapy. Known determinants that may affect the pharmacological response to a drug are, among others, nongenetic factors, including age, gender, use of comedication, and liver and renal function. Nonetheless, these covariates do not explain all the observed interpatient variability. Differences in genetic constitution among patients have been identified to be important factors that contribute to differences in drug response. Because genetic polymorphism may affect the expression and activity of proteins encoded, it is a key covariate that is responsible for variability in drug metabolism, drug transport, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability. This third part in the series of reviews is focused on genetic variability in phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases, methyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and N-acetyltransferases) and discusses the effects of genetic polymorphism within the genes encoding these enzymes on anticancer drug therapy outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are proposed. PMID:21659608

  17. Stem cells in dentistry--Part II: Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-10-01

    New technologies that facilitate solid alveolar ridge augmentation are receiving considerable attention in the field of prosthodontics because of the growing requirement for esthetic and functional reconstruction by dental implant treatments. Recently, several studies have demonstrated potential advantages for stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are now an excellent candidate for tissue replacement therapies, and tissue engineering approaches and chair-side cellular grafting approaches using autologous MSCs represent the clinical state of the art for stem-cell-based alveolar bone regeneration. Basic studies have revealed that crosstalk between implanted donor cells and recipient immune cells plays a key role in determining clinical success that may involve the recently observed immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Part II of this review first overviews progress in regenerative dentistry to consider the implications of the stem cell technology in dentistry and then highlights cutting-edge stem-cell-based alveolar bone regenerative therapies. Factors that affect stem-cell-based bone regeneration as related to the local immune response are then discussed. Additionally, pre-clinical stem cell studies for the regeneration of teeth and other oral organs as well as possible applications of MSC-based immunotherapy in dentistry are outlined. Finally, the marketing of stem cell technology in dental stem cell banks with a view toward future regenerative therapies is introduced. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Was Part D a giveaway to the pharmaceutical industry?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; Seiguer, Erica; Frank, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) prohibited the government from negotiating drug prices, a feature that the act's critics characterize as a giveaway to the drug industry. Instead of the government negotiating to keep prices down, the act relies on competition among drug companies to obtain business from private insurers; yet, competition cannot be effective when there are no close clinical substitutes. In the past few years, the rate of introduction of first-in-class drugs has been low; if this continues, the prohibition on negotiation may be only a minor problem. However, if the prior rate of introduction resumes, the government may find itself with unacceptable expenditure levels.

  19. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Instructor's Guide and Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob; Notgrass, Troy

    This manual is designed to help instructors guide students through their manuals and laboratory training stations in the field of industrial electronics. The manual consists of the following nine sections: (1) suggestions for teaching the course; (2) an instructional delivery outline; (3) lists of essential elements common to all trade and…

  20. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Instructor's Guide and Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob; Notgrass, Troy

    This manual is designed to help instructors guide students through their manuals and laboratory training stations in the field of industrial electronics. The manual consists of the following nine sections: (1) suggestions for teaching the course; (2) an instructional delivery outline; (3) lists of essential elements common to all trade and…

  1. Industrial Cooperative Training II. Curriculum Guide. General Related Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    Basic guidelines are offered for the teacher or coordinator who is working with second year Industrial Cooperative Training students (generally students at the twelfth grade level). The contents are organized into 12 units, with each unit including two to five lesson plans, transparencies (coded "T"), handouts (coded "H"), and a bibliography…

  2. A Review of Industrial Relations Research, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    This report, with Volume I previously released, appraises selected research in industrial relations since 1956-57. Experts analyze the character and contributions of the research output in their areas of expertise. Contents include: (1) "Public Policy and Labor-Management Relations" by Benjamin Aaron and Paul Seth Meyer, (2) "Manpower Research and…

  3. Real World of Industrial Chemistry. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Completes a report from a previous article by presenting the important manufacture and uses of industrial chemicals. Gives structural formulas and percentages of each major use as well as the typical method of manufacture. (CW)

  4. Industrial Relations and Training--Part 1: On Beginning to Change the Industrial Relations Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, John

    1973-01-01

    Authoritarian management from above can no longer impose controls on subordinates. Participative management is now essential to improve organizational efficiency, release individual and group initiative, and make a fundamental improvement in the climate of British industrial relations. (MS)

  5. IPCC Working Group II: Impacts and Adaptation Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    The IPCC (as opposed to the UN Framework Convention) defines climate change as" any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity". The IPCC Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability) was charged with assessing the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of vulnerability to climate change, and, the negative and positive consequences for ecological systems, socio-economic sectors, and human health. The Working Group II report focused on the following issues for different sectors and regions (e.g. water, agriculture, biodiversity) and communities (coastal, island, etc.): · The role of adaptation in reducing vulnerability and impacts, · Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints, and · Enhancing adaptation practice and operations. This presentation will address the following questions in the context of the results of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG II: · What are the barriers, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for impacts assessments? · How are decisions about adaptation being made, and what types of adaptation strategies are being undertaken? · What are good adaptation practices and how are they learned over time? Examples will be drawn from the freshwater resources, small islands and adaptation chapters to which the presenter contributed. Many lessons have been identified but few have been implemented or evaluated over time. Adaptation occurs in the context of multiple stresses. Adaptation will be important in coping with early impacts in the near-term and continue to be important as our climate changes, regardless of how that change is derived. It is important to note that unmitigated climate change could, in the long term, exceed the capacity of different natural, managed and human systems to adapt. The assessment leads to the following conclusions: · Adaptation to climate change is already taking place, but on a limited basis · Adaptation measures

  6. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R; Sage, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures

  7. Municipal and Industrial Needs (MAIN II). St. Paul District Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    11isconsin. It is an invaluable tool for assessing the need for water supply and treatment facilities, and is a first step in evaluating the effect of...supply demand for the city of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. This model is an invaluable tool in assessing the need for water supply and treatment facilities. It...APPAREL INDUSTRY 339 PRIME METAL INOUSTRIES 242 SAW-PLANING MILLS 341 METAL CANS 243 MILLWORK 342 CUTLERY, HARDWARE 244 WOOD CONTAINERS 343 PLUMBING

  8. Discovery of Quantum structure and A Theory of Everything Part I and Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2012-10-01

    (Part I) During my research I discovered logical errors in the logic of science and in mathematics. These errors caused scientists missed out important information when interpreting data. This led me to revisit the method of science and the existing results and able to find new information, which lead to the discovery of photon's structure. A ``particle collision illumination'' experiment then provided direct evidence supported the structure. Analysis of the properties of the structure suggested an organized but not-continuous multi-dimension (n-D) space within. Therefore I formed a hypothesis of a not-continuous n-D space structure. In search for evidence, I turned into crystal technology, and found direct evidence supported the hypotesis, then further particle collision found more evidence support this finding. (Part II) Analysis of single electron buildup revealed star and galaxy formation is from a single particle following a predictable pattern. This pattern is also common in matter formation. Analysis of the quantum structure suggested the formation of a larger structure through the space expansion within the structure. Further experiment results support the finding and result revealed the expansion is through space folding. Result also suggested a violation of energy conservation law that energy is created during the formation of matter, and matter itself is moving from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. When putting all information together, I arrived to a theory of everything which gives explanations to all existing phenomenon in the universe including black hole, dark energy, star formation, consciousness.

  9. Study of different pretreatments for reverse osmosis reclamation of a petrochemical secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Benito-Alcázar, C; Vincent-Vela, M C; Gozálvez-Zafrilla, J M; Lora-García, J

    2010-06-15

    Conventionally treated petrochemical wastewaters contain substantial quantities of hazardous pollutants. In addition, wastewater reuse is being enhanced as a consequence of the shortage of fresh water. Advanced petrochemical wastewater treatment for water reuse will reduce hazardous pollutants discharges as well as water consumption. Reverse osmosis is a suitable technology to obtain pure water. This work studies the adequacy of different pretreatments applied to a petrochemical secondary effluent to produce a suitable feeding for reverse osmosis treatment. The permeate obtained can be used in the petrochemical industry for different processes. In this work, several experiments (granulated activated carbon filtration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with nanofiltration) were performed to improve the conventional pretreatment. Total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and silt density index were used to evaluate water quality for reverse osmosis feeding. In granulated activated carbon filtration, all the measured parameters but silt density index indicated a good filtrate quality to feed reverse osmosis membranes. Although the ultrafiltration permeate obtained was suitable for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with NF provided a better effluent quality for reverse osmosis than the other pretreatments studied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  11. Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of a petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pariente, M I; Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Gallego, A I

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation (CWHPO) for the treatment of a petrochemical industry wastewater has been studied on a pilot plant scale process. The installation, based on a catalytic fixed bed reactor (FBR) coupled with a stirred tank reactor (STR), shows an interesting alternative for the intensification of a continuous CWHPO treatment. Agglomerated SBA-15 silica-supported iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15) was used as Fenton-like catalyst. Several variables such as the temperature and hydrogen peroxide concentration, as well as the capacity of the pilot plant for the treatment of inlet polluted streams with different dilution degrees were studied. Remarkable results in terms of TOC reduction and increased biodegradability were achieved using 160 degrees C and moderate hydrogen peroxide initial concentration. Additionally, a good stability of the catalyst was evidenced for 8 hours of treatment with low iron leaching (less than 1 mg/L) under the best operating conditions.

  12. Biotreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater: A Case Study from Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jemli, Meryem; Zaghden, Hatem; Rezgi, Fatma; Kchaou, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-01

      A full-scale study has been conducted to assess the bioaugmentation efficiency of trickling filter process to treat petrochemical wastewater from a lubricant industry recycling waste oils. During 45 weeks, the organic loading rate (OLR) in the trickling filter was increased stepwise from 0.9 to 4 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3·day) at the end of the upgrading period as the flow rate (FR) reached the value of 30 m3/day. The removal, obtained in terms of percentage, for COD ranged from 60 to 84.5 and greater than 98 for total n-alkane (TNA), while those of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphor (TP) were about 32 and 55, respectively. The analytical profile index (API) of trickling biofilm has confirmed that 5 strains are closely related to Acinobacter junii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio metschnikovi, Pseudomona slulzeri and Trichosporon spp2.

  13. The year's new drugs & biologics, 2013: Part II.

    PubMed

    Graul, A I; Navarro, D; Dulsat, C; Cruces, E; Tracy, M

    2014-02-01

    The demise of the pharmaceutical industry, so pessimistically predicted by many in recent years, has not come to pass and in fact the patient is alive and well. New programs enacted by drug regulators have been enthusiastically taken up by the industry, including the FDA's breakthrough therapy and qualified infectious disease product (QIDP) designations, as well as the now-consolidated orphan drug programs in many countries. Pharma companies pragmatically wean nonperformers from the pipeline in an efficient manner, resulting in somewhat leaner but higher-quality pipelines. Mergers and acquisitions also continue to drive consolidation and efficiency in the industry, a trend that continued during 2013. This article provides an updated review of these and other trends in the pharmaceutical industry in the year just passed.

  14. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  19. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  20. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  1. Coping With the Problems of a Technological Age, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…

  2. Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Bill D., Comp.

    These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

  3. Personnel reliability impact on petrochemical facilities monitoring system's failure skipping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    The paper dwells upon urgent issues of evaluating impact of actions conducted by complex technological systems operators on their safe operation considering application of condition monitoring systems for elements and sub-systems of petrochemical production facilities. The main task for the research is to distinguish factors and criteria of monitoring system properties description, which would allow to evaluate impact of errors made by personnel on operation of real-time condition monitoring and diagnostic systems for machinery of petrochemical facilities, and find and objective criteria for monitoring system class, considering a human factor. On the basis of real-time condition monitoring concepts of sudden failure skipping risk, static and dynamic error, monitoring systems, one may solve a task of evaluation of impact that personnel's qualification has on monitoring system operation in terms of error in personnel or operators' actions while receiving information from monitoring systems and operating a technological system. Operator is considered as a part of the technological system. Although, personnel's behavior is usually a combination of the following parameters: input signal - information perceiving, reaction - decision making, response - decision implementing. Based on several researches on behavior of nuclear powers station operators in USA, Italy and other countries, as well as on researches conducted by Russian scientists, required data on operator's reliability were selected for analysis of operator's behavior at technological facilities diagnostics and monitoring systems. The calculations revealed that for the monitoring system selected as an example, the failure skipping risk for the set values of static (less than 0.01) and dynamic (less than 0.001) errors considering all related factors of data on reliability of information perception, decision-making, and reaction fulfilled is 0.037, in case when all the facilities and error probability are under

  4. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties.

  5. Study of the Utah uranium milling industry. Volume II. Utah energy resources: uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Volume II provides an overview of Utah's uranium industry including its history and present status. Uranium production peaked in 1958, then declined until 1976. A second production boom has begun and ore production could reach more than 1.3 million tons by 1985. Utah's milling industry has the capacity to produce 1600 tons of yellow cake per year. Uranium ores are mined by both conventional surface and underground techniques. (DMC)

  6. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to be...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1. This statement is to...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  11. The Value of Upward Evaluation in Libraries--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen

    1995-01-01

    Examines the value of upward evaluation by reviewing historical outcomes of upward evaluations in industrial psychology/business literature and library literature. Also discusses the utilization of upward evaluation in libraries and focuses on results of the Western Kentucky University Libraries' annual process of supervisor evaluation. Appendixes…

  12. Emerging trends in salmonid RAS - Part II. System enhancements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dozens of land-based, closed containment systems are coming on line to produce salmon. New projects are bringing new principles into the salmon industry. Depuration systems maximize the removal of earthy and musty flavors in harvested fish. An emerging trend has been to apply technologies that incre...

  13. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  14. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific "philosophy" of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with…

  15. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  16. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  17. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  18. Team effort: the nuclear medicine decision making process. Part II.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, S

    1991-06-01

    This two part article examines the nuclear medicine purchase of Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis, the largest private hospital in the nation. Part I (May 1991) focused on what their needs were. This concluding installment looks at the committee mechanism itself and the reasoning that went behind their decisions.

  19. Effects of petrochemical contamination on caged marine mussels using a multi-biomarker approach: Histological changes, neurotoxicity and hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Natalotto, Antonino; Vitale, Valeria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Giannetto, Alessia; Oliva, Sabrina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Cappello, Simone; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    This work was designed to evaluate the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on marine mussels. Mytilus galloprovincialis, widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies, were caged at the "Augusta-Melilli-Priolo" industrial site (eastern Sicily, Italy), chosen as one of the largest petrochemical areas in Europe, and Brucoli, chosen as reference site. Chemical analyses of sediments at the polluted site revealed high levels of PAHs and mercury, exceeding the national and international guideline limits. In mussels from the polluted site, severe morphological alterations were observed in gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake and gas exchange. Changes in serotonergic and cholinergic systems, investigated through immunohistochemical, metabolomics and enzymatic approaches, were highlighted in gills, as well as onset of hypoxic adaptive responses with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor transcript. Overall, the application of a multi-biomarker panel results effective in assessing the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on the health of aquatic organisms.

  20. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  1. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  2. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  3. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  4. Designing SoTL Studies--Part II: Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests solutions to common practical problems in designing SoTL studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of designs are discussed. [Part I available at EJ1029363.

  5. 40 CFR 419.30 - Applicability; description of the petrochemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... topping, cracking, and petrochemical operations whether or not the facility includes any process in addition to topping, cracking, and petrochemical operations. The provisions of this subpart shall not...

  6. Predictors of performance on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Parts I and II*

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Angela R.; Harvey, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for success on Parts I and II of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) written examinations. Methods Two validity studies were conducted to examine the criterion validity of Logan College assessments for Part I and II NBCE scores. Both studies consisted of a longitudinal design to examine the validity of entrance grade point average (GPA), in-program chiropractic course content GPA, and an institutional practice exam on Parts I and II of the NBCE. Results Analyses revealed that Part I GPA and practice exam scores combined accounted for 72% of the variance within Part I NBCE scores. Furthermore, every subtest of the Part I NBCE could be reliably predicted by course performance. In the 2nd study, Part I GPA, Part I NBCE score, and Part II GPA accounted for 75% of the variance within Part II NBCE scores. Conclusions Internal training and educational assessments (eg, course grades and practice exams) proved to be strong determinants of NBCE performance above and beyond initial levels of preparedness, thus validating the impact of the chiropractic curriculum on NBCE test achievement. PMID:24611459

  7. Microbial ecology and performance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological processes treating petrochemical wastewater with high strength of ammonia: effect of Na(2)CO(3) addition.

    PubMed

    Whang, L M; Yang, K H; Yang, Y F; Han, Y L; Chen, Y J; Cheng, S S

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated nitrification performance and microbial ecology of AOB in a full-scale biological process, powder activated carbon treatment (PACT), and a pilot-scale biological process, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), treating wastewater collected from a petrochemical industry park. The petrochemical influent wastewater characteristics showed a relative low carbon to nitrogen ratio around 1 with average COD and ammonia concentrations of 310 mg/L and 325 mg-N/L, respectively. The average nitrification efficiency of the full-scale PACT process was around 11% during this study. For the pilot-scale MBBR, the average nitrification efficiency was 24% during the Run I operation mode, which provided a slightly better performance in nitrification than that of the PACT process. During the Run II operation, the pH control mode was switched from addition of NaOH to Na(2)CO(3), leading to a significant improvement in nitrification efficiency of 51%. In addition to a dramatic change in nitrification performance, the microbial ecology of AOB, monitored with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular methodology, was found to be different between Runs I and II. The amoA-based TRFLP results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the dominant AOB population during Run I operation, while Nitrosospira-like AOB was dominant during Run II operation. To confirm the effects of Na(2)CO(3) addition on the nitrification performance and AOB microbial ecology observed in the MBBR process, batch experiments were conducted. The results suggest that addition of Na(2)CO(3) as a pH control strategy can improve nitrification performance and also influence AOB microbial ecology as well. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear at this time, the results showing the effects of adding different buffering chemicals such as NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) on AOB populations have never been demonstrated until this study.

  8. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process.

  9. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  10. Mental Retardation Grants; Part II, Research and Demonstration. Fiscal Year 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Part II of a two-part publication listing mental retardation grants awarded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in fiscal year 1968 (July 1, 1967, to June 30, 1968), the text includes grants awarded in the areas of research and demonstration. (Part I covers grants in training and construction.) Grants are arranged according to…

  11. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  12. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  13. Managing risks in professional and clinical performance dilemmas: Part II.

    PubMed

    Schwab, N C; Pohlman, K J

    2000-08-01

    The primary purpose of the second article in this 2-part series is to describe and illustrate the use of an analytical framework that may assist school nurses to approach and resolve the dilemmas they may face in practice. Part I of the article was published in the April issue of this journal. It defined the terms "professional performance issue" and "clinical performance issue" and described a 5-step framework for analyzing practice dilemmas related to clinical and performance issues. In this article, the framework will be applied to a specific case scenario involving unsafe staffing and delegation.

  14. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  15. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... CFR Part 20 Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request... FTC's ``Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry.'' DATES... used parts (e.g., engines and transmissions). The Commission first addressed the used automobile...

  16. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  17. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  18. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  19. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  20. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  1. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  2. Report cards: Part II--Providers rating MCOs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J G

    1998-01-01

    Report cards on health plans and on physicians are becoming an increasingly important way of comparing health care quality from the perspective of consumers and the government. In the conclusion of a two-part article, the author suggests another side of the coin: physicians' own rating of health plans to guide their choices in health plan contracting.

  3. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a Positive Self-Concept. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibrowski, Lee; Slater, Shirley

    This publication supplements an earlier publication, "What Do You Like about Yourself? Developing a Positive Self-Concept" that presented an introduction to self-concept and included activities that could be used with students of all ages. This particular document, divided into two parts, includes additional ideas and activities that relate to…

  5. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  6. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  7. Brief Internet and NREN Glossary: Part II (M-Z).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the second and final part of a selected glossary of terms commonly used in discussions relating to the Internet and the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include various network names; organizations; acronyms; user interfaces; network research testbeds; various protocols; remote login; and Wide Area Information…

  8. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  9. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  10. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  11. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  12. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  13. Diagnosis and local management of breast cancer: part II.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R

    2011-08-01

    This is the second of a two-part conference report and covers the other main themes of the Second Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC) including ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy and therapeutic algorithms for local management of breast cancer. Once again, this report emphasizes conclusions from the consensus sessions that were a key feature of the KBCCC.

  14. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  15. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  16. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  17. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  18. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part II.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This article is the second in a series about business intelligence (BI) in a medical practice. The first article reviewed the evolution of data reporting within the industry and provided some examples of how BI concepts differ from the reports available in the menus of our software systems, or the dashboards and scorecards practices have implemented. This article will discuss how to begin a BI initiative for front-end medical practice staffers that will create tools they can use to reduce errors and increase efficiency throughout their workday. This type of BI rollout can allow practices to get started with very little financial investment, gain enthusiasm from end users, and achieve a quick return on investment. More examples of successful BI projects in medical practices are discussed to help illustrate BI concepts.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of metal ions and petrochemicals on bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in aerobic sequencing batch bioreactor (ASBR).

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Jamal Khan, Sher; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Nasir, Habib

    2016-10-01

    Application of chlorpyrifos (CP) has increased its environmental concentration. Increasing CP concentration has increased chances of adverse health effects. Its removal from environment has attained researcher's attention. CP degrading bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater and agricultural soil. Finally, selected five bacterial strains were identified using 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis as Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1, Serratia marcescens SRK2, Bacillus pumilus SRK4, Achromobacter xylosoxidans SRK5, and Klebsiella sp. T13. Interaction studies among bacterial strains demonstrated possibility for development of five membered bacterial consortium. Biodegradation potential of bacterial consortium was investigated in the presence of petrochemicals and trace metals. About 98 % CP removal was observed in sequencing batch reactors at inoculum level, 10 %; pH, 7; CP concentration, 400 mgL(-1), and HRT, 48 h. Experimental data has shown an excellent fit to first order growth model. Among all petrochemicals only toluene (in low concentration) has stimulatory effect on biodegradation of CP. Addition of petrochemicals (benzene, toluene, and xylene) in high concentration (100 mg L(-1)) inhibited bacterial activity and decreased CP removal. At low concentration i.e., 1 mg L(-1) of inorganic contaminants (Cu, Hg, and Zn) >96 % degradation was observed. Addition of Cu(II) in low concentration has stimulated CP removal efficiency. Hg(II) in all concentrations has strongly inhibited biodegradation rate except at 1 mgL(-1). In simulated pesticide, wastewater CP removal efficiency decreased to 77.5 %. Outcomes of study showed that both type and concentration of petrochemicals and trace metals influenced biodegradation of CP.

  1. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  2. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  3. Wideband, low-frequency springless vibration energy harvesters: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendame, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Soliman, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    This paper concludes a two-part investigation of a novel architecture for vibration energy harvesting (VEH), the springless VEH. In this part, we study vertical springless electromagnetic VEHs where the direction of motion is aligned with the gravitational field. Experimental results show the existence of three topologies in the response of vertical springless VEHs; linear, single-impact, and double-impact. A model, encompassing all three topologies, was developed and validated by comparison to experimental results. We found that vertical springless VEHs demonstrate low frequency harvesting (<20 Hz), widebeand harvesting (bandwidths up to \\text{BW}=11.2 Hz), and an optimal output power of P  =  7.52 mW at a base acceleration of 0.6 g. While horizontal springless VEHs typically offer more output power, the single-impact regime of the vertical springless VEHs offers the simultaneous advantages of wider harvesting bandwidths at lower operating frequencies.

  4. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jaimie B; Kaur, Ravneet R; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  5. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Treesearch

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  6. Ada Integrated Environment II Computer Program Development Specification. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    No. 6, Part 2, July-August 1978. 18. Rochkind, M. J., The Source Code Control System, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-i, December 1975...TRACT (Continue an, reere side It noleearel and identfir &Y block number) The Ada Integrated Environment (AIE) consists of a set of software tools...intended to support design, development and maintenance of embedded computer software . A significant portion of an AIE includes software systems and

  7. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  8. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  9. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... Accounting Office at such reasonable times and places as may be mutually agreed upon by said...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix II to Part 1042 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  13. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance: Part 1: Paper manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    elimination 85% in 7 days). Thus, the algae toxicity of the respective paper mill cannot be explained with the TMP partial stream; presumably other raw materials such as biocides might be the source of algae toxicity. Comparative data from wastewater surveillance of authorities confirmed the range of ecotoxicity observed in the study. Wastewater from paper mills generally has no or a moderate ecotoxicity (median LID 1 and 2) while the maximum LID values, especially for the algae and daphnia tests, are considerably elevated (LIDA up to 128, LIDD up to 48). Wastewater from paper mills generally is low to moderately ecotoxic to aquatic organisms in acute toxicity tests. Some samples show effects in the chronic algae growth inhibition test which cannot be explained exclusively with colouration of the samples. The origin of elevated algae ecotoxicity could not be determined. In the algae test, often flat dose-response relationships and growth promotion at higher dilution factors have been observed, indicating that several effects are overlapping. At least one bioassay should be included in routine wastewater control of paper mills because the paper manufacturing industry is among the most water consuming. Although the algae test was the most sensitive test, it might not be the most appropriate test because of the complex relationship of colouration and inhibition and the smooth dose-effect relationship or even promotion of algae growth often observed. The Lemna test would be a suitable method which also detects inhibitors of photosynthesis and is not disturbed by wastewater colouration.

  14. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  15. Cancer Chemotherapy: Past, Present, and Future—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer is of major concern today because of its high mortality. It is estimated that 66 million people in this country will eventually develop cancer; 1983 estimates were 855,000 new cases and 440,000 deaths from cancer. Because of limitations of surgery and radiation therapy in effecting a cure for cancer, chemotherapy has become increasingly important. The developments in the chemical control of cancer in man are encouraging. This two-part paper* covers the historical milestones in the development of the chemical and hormonal control of cancer, present successes with the use of polychemotherapy, and the hopeful trend in research. PMID:6492179

  16. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed.

  17. Alkali cold gelation of whey proteins. Part II: Protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2009-05-19

    The effect of the whey protein isolate (WPI) concentration on the sol-gel-sol transition in alkali cold gelation was investigated at pH 11.6-13 using oscillatory rheometry. The elastic modulus increases quickly with time to reach a local maximum (G'max), followed by a degelation step where the modulus decreases to a minimum value (G'min). Depending on the pH, a second gelation step will occur. At the end of the first gelation step around G'max, the system fulfilled the Winter-Chambon criterion of gelation. The analysis of the maximum moduli with the protein concentration shows that (i) there is a percolation concentration above which an elastic response is observed (approximately 6.8 wt %); (ii) there are two concentration regimes for G''max and G''max above this concentration, where we have considered power-law and percolation equations; (iii) there is a crossover concentration between the two regimes (at approximately 8 wt %) for both G'max and G''max when both moduli are equal, and this value is constant under all conditions tested (G'max=G''max approximately 4 Pa). Therefore, alkali cold gelation is better represented using two concentrations regimes than one, as observed for other biopolymers.

  18. Dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solids part II: modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kondiparty, Kirtiprakash; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh

    2012-11-27

    Recent studies on the spreading phenomena of liquid dispersions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) have revealed that the self-layering and two-dimensional structuring of nanoparticles in the three-phase contact region exert structural disjoining pressure, which drives the spreading of nanofluids by forming a continuous wedge film between the liquid (e.g., oil) and solid surface. Motivated by the practical applications of the phenomenon and experimental results reported in Part I of this two-part series, we thoroughly investigated the spreading dynamics of nanofluids against an oil drop on a solid surface. With the Laplace equation as a starting point, the spreading process is modeled by Navier-Stokes equations through the lubrication approach, which considers the structural disjoining pressure, gravity, and van der Waals force. The temporal interface profile and advancing inner contact line velocity of nanofluidic films are analyzed through varying the effective nanoparticle concentration, the outer contact angle, the effective nanoparticle size, and capillary pressure. It is found that a fast and spontaneous advance of the inner contact line movement can be obtained by increasing the nanoparticle concentration, decreasing the nanoparticle size, and/or decreasing the interfacial tension. Once the nanofluidic film is formed, the advancing inner contact line movement reaches a constant velocity, which is independent of the outer contact angle if the interfacial tension is held constant.

  19. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  20. Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.

  1. Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jane M; Barrett, Terry L

    2004-07-01

    A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).

  2. Solar System: Surfing the Edge of Chaos Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Danforth, C. M.

    2008-05-01

    The orbital positions and masses of the Jovian planets are known only to a few parts in 107. At the 2006 DDA meeting in Halifax, I presented results, recently published in Nature Physics and MNRAS, which demonstrated the existence of both chaotic and near-regular orbits within the current observational error volume. In this talk, joint work with Chris Danforth of the University of Vermont, we present results demonstrating extremely rich structure of Lyapunov times within the uncertainty volume across many two-dimensional slices through initial-condition space. These slices include the Cartesian product of every pair of orbital semi-major axes ap, plus Cartesian products between ap and eccentricity ep for each Jovian planet p. Some of the observed structure is reminiscent of Guzzo's "Web of 3-body resonances", although it is not clear that 3-body resonances are the cause in this case since the structure extends several orders of magnitude below the scale at which Murray + Holman's 3-body resonance theory has been explored. Some of the structure is entirely unlike that seen in Guzzo's Web, and may require further theoretical development to understand. Finally, several "zoom-in” plots, reminiscent of those done for the Mandelbrot set, demonstrate that the structure continues down, at least, to scales of about one part in 109. In all cases, we verify the reliability of our integrations using convergence tests to demonstrate that the picture does not change even when the integration timestep is decreased significantly.

  3. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects.

  4. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects. PMID:23730696

  5. Modified sprint interval training protocols. Part II. Psychological responses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Logan K; Islam, Hashim; Dunn, Emily; Eys, Mark; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Hazell, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Sprint-interval training (SIT) is a viable method to improve health and fitness. However, researchers have questioned the utility of SIT because of its strenuous nature. The current study aimed to determine if manipulating the sprint and recovery duration, while maintaining the 1:8 work to rest ratio, could uncover a more favourable SIT protocol. Nine healthy active males (age, 23.3 ± 3.0 years; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2); maximal oxygen consumption, 48.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in 3 experimental running SIT sessions: (i) 30:240 (4 × 30-s efforts, 240-s recovery), (ii) 15:120 (8 × 15-s efforts, 120-s recovery), (iii) 5:40 (24 × 5-s efforts, 40-s recovery), and (iv) a final behavioural choice follow-up session. Affect, intentions, task self-efficacy, enjoyment, and preference were evaluated. Midway through exercise, affect became more positive for 5:40 compared with 30:240 (p < 0.05) and postexercise affect was greater for both 5:40 (p = 0.014) and 15:120 (p = 0.015) compared with 30:240. Participants expressed greater intentions to perform 5:40 3 and 5 times/week compared with 15:120 and 30:240 (p < 0.05). Participants felt more confident in their ability to perform 5:40 (p = 0.001) and 15:120 (p = 0.008) compared with 30:240. The 5:40 session was also rated as more enjoyable than 15:120 (p = 0.025) and 30:240 (p = 0.026). All participants preferred the 5:40 protocol. These data suggest that shorter sprints with more repetitions are perceived as more enjoyable and lead to greater intentions to engage in SIT.

  6. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George; Abel, David

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  7. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    PubMed

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  8. Theory of edge radiation. Part II: Advanced applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we exploit a formalism to describe edge radiation, which relies on Fourier optics techniques [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, Theory of edge radiation. Part I: foundations and basic applications, submitted for publication]. First, we apply our method to develop an analytical model to describe edge radiation in the presence of a vacuum chamber. Such model is based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Second, we consider the use of edge radiation as a tool for electron-beam diagnostics. We discuss coherent edge radiation, extraction of edge radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of edge radiation on X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) setups and we discuss recent results.

  9. Solar box-cooker: Part II-analysis and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasi Das, T.C. ); Karmakar, S. ); Rao, D.P. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model proposed in the companion paper (Part I), a method is outlined simulation of the solar box-cookers loaded with one, two, or four vessels. The relative importance of various heat-exchange rates in the cooker were examined. The effect of parameters such as the thickness and size of the absorber plate, emissivity of the vessel, insulation thickness, and cooking time were studied. Cookers of three sizes were simulated to assess their adequacy in cooking. The studies indicate that the black paint on the vessels could be avoided if weathered stainless steel or aluminum vessels are used. The cooker with inner dimensions of 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.1 m[sup 3] was found to be adequate to cook lunch and dinner on a clear day even in the winter months. Experimental studies carried out to obtain the heat-transfer coefficients, required for simulation, are presented.

  10. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Part II: clinical and imaging considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Burns, SH; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA

    1991-01-01

    In this, the second of a two part series, we continue to review the recent literature pertaining to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Caused by the compromise of the spinal canal resulting from the superimposition of spondylotic changes upon a congenitally narrowed canal, CSM has a predictable radiographic and clinical presentation. The clinical presentation frequently includes both upper and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Careful analysis of the plain film images usually reveals a spinal canal measuring 12 mm or less. Additional imaging modalities confirm the diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical and imaging characteristics underlying CSM and stresses the importance of including CSM in the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of neck and leg dysfunctions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.

    SciTech Connect

    SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a

  12. Hours, Wages and Related Payments in the Ontario Construction Industry, 1973. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Labour, Toronto. Research Branch.

    This is the first part of a study directed at supplying information about labor relations in the construction industry in Ontario. Presented in tables by occupations are data pertaining to: (1) straight time hourly wage rates, (2) employee payments for vacations and other fringe benefits, (3) daily and weekly hours paid at straight time rates, (4)…

  13. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  14. MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART II. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 37, PART 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPEN, ROBERT A.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY DIRECTLY SUPPLEMENTS AND IS INTENDED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF "MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART I." THE RANGE OF SUBJECT MATTER, HOWEVER, GOES FAR BEYOND THE SPECIFIC CONCERNS OF THE FIRST VOLUME, COVERING GENERAL AND SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHIES, UNSIGNED REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, OFFICIAL HISTORIES,…

  15. A Linear Stochastic Dynamical Model of ENSO. Part II: Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. J.; Battisti, D. S.

    2001-02-01

    In this study the behavior of a linear, intermediate model of ENSO is examined under stochastic forcing. The model was developed in a companion paper (Part I) and is derived from the Zebiak-Cane ENSO model. Four variants of the model are used whose stabilities range from slightly damped to moderately damped. Each model is run as a simulation while being perturbed by noise that is uncorrelated (white) in space and time. The statistics of the model output show the moderately damped models to be more realistic than the slightly damped models. The moderately damped models have power spectra that are quantitatively quite similar to observations, and a seasonal pattern of variance that is qualitatively similar to observations. All models produce ENSOs that are phase locked to the annual cycle, and all display the `spring barrier' characteristic in their autocorrelation patterns, though in the models this `barrier' occurs during the summer and is less intense than in the observations (inclusion of nonlinear effects is shown to partially remedy this deficiency). The more realistic models also show a decadal variability in the lagged autocorrelation pattern that is qualitatively similar to observations.Analysis of the models shows that the greatest part of the variability comes from perturbations that project onto the first singular vector, which then grow rapidly into the ENSO mode. Essentially, the model output represents many instances of the ENSO mode, with random phase and amplitude, stimulated by the noise through the optimal transient growth of the singular vectors.The limit of predictability for each model is calculated and it is shown that the more realistic (moderately damped) models have worse potential predictability (9-15 months) than the deterministic chaotic models that have been studied widely in the literature. The predictability limits are strongly correlated with the stability of the models' ENSO mode-the more highly damped models having much shorter

  16. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  18. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  19. Simulation of Slag Freeze Layer Formation: Part II: Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Fernando J.; Irons, Gordon A.

    2011-08-01

    The experiments from Part I with CaCl2-H2O solidification in a differentially heated, square cavity were simulated in two dimensions using a control volume technique in a fixed grid. The test conditions and physical properties of the fluid resulted in Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range of 50 and 2.1 × 108, respectively, and the solidification was observed to be planar with dispersed solid particles. In the mathematical model, temperature-dependent viscosity and density functions were employed. To suppress velocities in the solid phase, various models were tested, and a high effective viscosity was found most appropriate. The results compare well with the experiments in terms of solid layer growth, horizontal and vertical velocities, heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions. Hydrodynamic boundary layers on the solidified front and on the hot vertical wall tend to be nonsymmetric, as well on the top and bottom adiabatic walls. The high viscosity value imposed on the two-phase zone affects the velocity profile close to the solid front and modifies the heat transfer rate.

  20. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.