Science.gov

Sample records for petrographic occurrences os

  1. Petrographic methods of examining hardened concrete : a petrographic manual.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-11-01

    This manual was undertaken to record for all persons wishing to do concrete : petrography the petrographic procedures that have been found useful at the : Virginia Transportation Research Council. The manual is made up of an : introduction and chapte...

  2. Using artificial intelligence to predict permeability from petrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Maqsood; Chawathé, Adwait

    2000-10-01

    Petrographic data collected during thin section analysis can be invaluable for understanding the factors that control permeability distribution. Reliable prediction of permeability is important for reservoir characterization. The petrographic elements (mineralogy, porosity types, cements and clays, and pore morphology) interact with each other uniquely to generate a specific permeability distribution. It is difficult to quantify accurately this interaction and its consequent effect on permeability, emphasizing the non-linear nature of the process. To capture these non-linear interactions, neural networks were used to predict permeability from petrographic data. The neural net was used as a multivariate correlative tool because of its ability to learn the non-linear relationships between multiple input and output variables. The study was conducted on the upper Queen formation called the Shattuck Member (Permian age). The Shattuck Member is composed of very fine-grained arkosic sandstone. The core samples were available from the Sulimar Queen and South Lucky Lake fields located in Chaves County, New Mexico. Nineteen petrographic elements were collected for each permeability value using a combined minipermeameter-petrographic technique. In order to reduce noise and overfitting the permeability model, these petrographic elements were screened, and their control (ranking) with respect to permeability was determined using fuzzy logic. Since the fuzzy logic algorithm provides unbiased ranking, it was used to reduce the dimensionality of the input variables. Based on the fuzzy logic ranking, only the most influential petrographic elements were selected as inputs for permeability prediction. The neural net was trained and tested using data from Well 1-16 in the Sulimar Queen field. Relying on the ranking obtained from the fuzzy logic analysis, the net was trained using the most influential three, five, and ten petrographic elements. A fast algorithm (the scaled conjugate

  3. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  4. Petrographic manual : petrographic methods of examining hardened concrete, including introduction, sample preparation, questions and suggestions, and reading list.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    This manual was undertaken to record for all persons wishing to do concrete petrography the petrographic procedures that have been found useful here at the Virginia Transportation Research Council. This interim report is made up of the introduction, ...

  5. Petrographic and geochemical data for Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; John, David A.; Box, Stephen E.; Vikre, Peter G.; Fleck, Robert J.; Cousens, Brian L.

    2013-04-23

    Petrographic and geochemical data for Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada // // This report presents petrographic and geochemical data for samples collected during investigations of Tertiary volcanism in the Bodie Hills of California and Nevada. Igneous rocks in the area are principally 15–6 Ma subduction-related volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field but also include 3.9–0.1 Ma rocks of the bimodal, post-subduction Aurora volcanic field. Limited petrographic results for local basement rocks, including Mesozoic granitoid rocks and their metamorphic host rocks, are also included in the compilation. The petrographic data include visual estimates of phenocryst abundances as well as other diagnostic petrographic criteria. The geochemical data include whole-rock major oxide and trace element data, as well as limited whole-rock isotopic data.

  6. A modification of procedures for petrographic analysis of tertiary Indonesian coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. A.; Ferm, J. C.

    A study undertaken to characterize the Eocene coals from southeast Kalimantan has shown that standard preparation procedures fail to capture some basic petrographic properties of the coal. Modification of these procedures permits recognition of distinct plant parts and tissues embedded in finer grained matrix components. Plant parts and tissues can be classified on the basis of morphology and degree of degradation. The highest concentration and best preservation of plant parts and tissues occurs in banded coal and is lowest in the non-banded coal. Use of these procedures, which relates megascopic appearance to petrographic character, should allow more precise utilization of the coal.

  7. Novel Methods of Determining Urinary Calculi Composition: Petrographic Thin Sectioning of Calculi and Nanoscale Flow Cytometry Urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Carson T; Ali, Sohrab N; Tailly, Thomas; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Alenezi, Husain; Power, Nicholas E; Hou, Jinqiang; St. Amant, Andre H; Luyt, Leonard G; Wood, Stephen; Wu, Charles; Razvi, Hassan; Leong, Hon S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate determination of urinary stone composition has significant bearing on understanding pathophysiology, choosing treatment modalities and preventing recurrence. A need exists for improved methods to determine stone composition. Urine of 31 patients with known renal calculi was examined with nanoscale flow cytometry and the calculi collected during surgery subsequently underwent petrographic thin sectioning with polarized and fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescently labeled bisphosphonate probes (Alendronate-fluorescein/Alendronate-Cy5) were developed for nanoscale flow cytometry to enumerate nanocrystals that bound the fluorescent probes. Petrographic sections of stones were also imaged by fluorescent and polarized light microscopy with composition analysis correlated to alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts in corresponding urine samples. Urine samples from patients with Ca2+ and Mg2+ based calculi exhibited the highest alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts, ranging from 100–1000 nm in diameter. This novel urine based assay was in agreement with composition determined by petrographic thin sections with Alendronate probes. In some cases, high alendronate +ve nanocrystal counts indicated a Ca2+ or Mg2+ composition, as confirmed by petrographic analysis, overturning initial spectrophotometric diagnosis of stone composition. The combination of nanoscale flow cytometry and petrographic thin sections offer an alternative means for determining stone composition. Nanoscale flow cytometry of alendronate +ve nanocrystals alone may provide a high-throughput means of evaluating stone burden. PMID:26771074

  8. Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    ER D C TR -X X- D R AF T Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42 E n gi n ee r R es ea rc h a n d D ev el op m en t C en te r...E. Rae Reed-Gore, Kyle Klaus, and Robert D. Moser October 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army...ORIGINATOR. ii Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. Test location map of AF Plant 42 with core number locations. ............................. 2

  9. The Effect of Petrographic Characteristics on Engineering Properties of Conglomerates from Famenin Region, Northeast of Hamedan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanlari, G. R.; Heidari, M.; Noori, M.; Momeni, A.

    2016-07-01

    To assess relationship between engineering characteristics and petrographic features, conglomerates samples related to Qom formation from Famenin region in northeast of Hamedan province were studied. Samples were tested in laboratory to determine the uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength index, modulus of elasticity, porosity, dry and saturation densities. For determining petrographic features, textural and mineralogical parameters, thin sections of the samples were prepared and studied. The results show that the effect of textural characteristics on the engineering properties of conglomerates supposed to be more important than mineralogical composition. It also was concluded that the packing proximity, packing density, grain shape and mean grain size, cement and matrix frequency are as textural features that have a significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the studied conglomerates. In this study, predictive statistical relationships were developed to estimate the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks based on the results of petrographic features. Furthermore, multivariate linear regression was used in four different steps comprising various combinations of petrographical characteristics for each engineering parameters. Finally, the best equations with specific arrangement were suggested to estimate engineering properties of the Qom formation conglomerates.

  10. Rock Physics and Petrographic Parameters Relationship Within Siliciclastic Rocks: Quartz Sandstone Outcrop Study Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafriyono, S.; Caesario, D.; Swastika, A.; Adlan, Q.; Syafri, I.; Abdurrokhim, A.; Mardiana, U.; Mohamad, F.; Alfadli, M. K.; Sari, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Rock physical parameters value (Vp and Vs) is one of fundamental aspects in reservoir characterization as a tool to detect rock heterogenity. Its response is depend on several reservoir conditions such as lithology, pressure and reservoir fluids. The value of Vp and Vs is controlled by grain contact and contact stiffness, a function of clay mineral content and porosity also affected by mineral composition. The study about Vp and Vs response within sandstone and its relationship with petrographic parameters has become important to define anisotrophy of reservoir characteristics distribution and could give a better understanding about local diagenesis that influence clastic reservoir properties. Petrographic analysis and Vp-Vs calculation was carried out to 12 core sample which is obtained by hand-drilling of the outcrop in Sukabumi area, West Java as a part of Bayah Formation. Data processing and interpretation of sedimentary vertical succession showing that this outcrop comprises of 3 major sandstone layers indicating fluvial depositional environment. As stated before, there are 4 petrographic parameters (sorting, roundness, clay mineral content, and grain contact) which are responsible to the differences of shear wave and compressional wave value in this outcrop. Lithology with poor-sorted and well- roundness has Vp value lower than well-sorted and poor-roundness (sub-angular) grain. For the sample with high clay content, Vp value is ranging from 1681 to 2000 m/s and could be getting high until 2190 to 2714 m/s in low clay content sample even though the presence of clay minerals cannot be defined neither as matrix nor cement. The whole sample have suture grain contact indicating telogenesis regime whereas facies has no relationship with Vp and Vs value because of the different type of facies show similar petrographic parameters after diagenesis.

  11. Petrographic and geochemical characteristic of volcanic rocks from Tasik Kenyir and Kampung Awah, East Malaya block, Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselee, Muhammad Hatta; Umor, Mohd Rozi; Ghani, Azman Abdul; Badruldin, Muhamad Hafifi; Quek, Long Xiang

    2018-04-01

    Kampung Awah and Tasik Kenyir are geologically located in East Malaya Blocks. These block is also known as western margin of Indochina terrane. Apart from sedimentary formations, East Malaya Blocks is also dominated by plutonic and volcanic rocks of mafic to rhyolitic compositions. Petrography and geochemical data suggest that Kampung Awah and Tasik Kenyir are one of locations which consists of volcanic rocks of generally basaltic to basaltic andesite compositions. Volcanic rocks from both area consists of plagioclcase, clinopyroxene, orthpyroxene as main mineral constituents with minor occurrences of hornblende. Geochemical data also indicate that volcanic rocks from both area were formed during subduction of the Paleo-tethys oceanic underneath the East Malaya Block or Indochina terrane. Most of the samples are metaluminous which indicate the volcanics are derived from igneous origin. This paper will contribute new geochemical data of mafic volcanics from Kampung Awah and Tasik Kenyir with the support of petrographic and field evidence to deduce the magma evolution and the tectonic setting.

  12. Integrated ultrasonic and petrographical characterization of carbonate building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligas, Paola; Fais, Silvana; Cuccuru, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    petrographical and petrophysical study of the investigated stone materials to correlate their petrographical-petrophysical features with the elastic ones. From this integrated study results that the modifications in the elasto-mechanical and petrographical-petrophysical features of the investigated carbonate materials are the main causes which reduce their quality as building materials. The use of the ultrasonic method integrated with information on petrography and petrophysics of the rocks has been successful to assess the rock quality and better understanding their alteration process. Acknowledgments: This work was financially supported by Sardinian Local Administration (RAS - LR 7 August 2007, n.7, Promotion of Scientific Research and Innovation in Sardinia - Italy, Responsible Scientist: S. Fais).

  13. Statistical analyses on sandstones: Systematic approach for predicting petrographical and petrophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stück, H. L.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Sandstones are a popular natural stone due to their wide occurrence and availability. The different applications for these stones have led to an increase in demand. From the viewpoint of conservation and the natural stone industry, an understanding of the material behaviour of this construction material is very important. Sandstones are a highly heterogeneous material. Based on statistical analyses with a sufficiently large dataset, a systematic approach to predicting the material behaviour should be possible. Since the literature already contains a large volume of data concerning the petrographical and petrophysical properties of sandstones, a large dataset could be compiled for the statistical analyses. The aim of this study is to develop constraints on the material behaviour and especially on the weathering behaviour of sandstones. Approximately 300 samples from historical and presently mined natural sandstones in Germany and ones described worldwide were included in the statistical approach. The mineralogical composition and fabric characteristics were determined from detailed thin section analyses and descriptions in the literature. Particular attention was paid to evaluating the compositional and textural maturity, grain contact respectively contact thickness, type of cement, degree of alteration and the intergranular volume. Statistical methods were used to test for normal distributions and calculating the linear regression of the basic petrophysical properties of density, porosity, water uptake as well as the strength. The sandstones were classified into three different pore size distributions and evaluated with the other petrophysical properties. Weathering behavior like hygric swelling and salt loading tests were also included. To identify similarities between individual sandstones or to define groups of specific sandstone types, principle component analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis were applied. Our results show that composition and porosity

  14. A petrographic thin sectioning technique for evaluating composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. S.; Yee, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Petrographic thin sectioning by a low-speed diamond saw has been used in conjunction with transmission polarized light microscopy for the characterization of the microstructure and deformation mechanisms of a variety of polymer systems. It has proven possible by these means to study three types of thermoplastic matrices for composite applications: PEEK, BPA-based polycarbonate (PC), and a rubber-modified PC. The reinforcing fibers for these matrices were in all cases AS4 carbon fibers, unidirectionally arrayed. Superior analyzability of matrix morphology and subsurface fracture processes is achieved by thin sectioning.

  15. Metamorphism and aqueous alteration in low petrographic type ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, T.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Guimon, R. K.; Jie, Lu; Benoit, P. H.; O'D. Alexander, C. M.; Wright, Ian; Pillinger, C.; Morse, A. D.; hide

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the relative importance of dry metamorphism and aqueous alteration in the history of chondruies, chondruies were hand-picked from the Semarkona (petrographic type 3.0), Bishunpur (3. 1), Chainpur (3.4), Dhajala (3.8) and Allegan (5) chondrites, and matrix samples were extracted from the first three ordinary chondrites. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of all the samples were measured, and appropriate subsets of the samples were analyzed by electron-microprobe and radiochemical neutron activation and the water and H-isotopic composition determined. The TL data for chondrules from Semarkona and Bishunpur scatter widely showing no unambiguous trends, although group B1 chondrules tend to have lower sensitivities and lower peak temperatures compared with group A5 chondrules. It is argued that these data reflect the variety of processes accompanying chondrule formation. The chondrules show remarkably uniform contents of the highly labile elements, indicating mineralogical control on abundance and volatile loss from silicates and loss and recondensation of mobile chalcophiles and siderophiles in some cases. Very high D/H values (up to approx. 8000% SMOW) are observed in certain Semarkona chondrules, a confirmation of earlier work. With increasing petrographic type, mean TL sensitivities of the chondrules increase, the spread of values within an individual meteorite decreases, and peak temperatures and peak widths show trends indicating that the TL is mainly produced by feldspar and that dry, thermal metamorphism is the dominant secondary process experienced by the chondrules. The TL sensitivities of matrix samples also increase with petrographic type. Chainpur matrix samples show the same spread of peak temperatures and peak widths as Chainpur chondruies, indicating metamorphism-related changes in the feldspar are responsible for the TL of the matrix. The TL data for the Semarkona and Bishunpur matrix samples provide, at best, only weak

  16. Occurrence of OsHV-1 in Crassostrea gigas Cultured in Ireland during an Exceptionally Warm Summer. Selection of Less Susceptible Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Darmody, Grainne; Hutton, Stephen; O'Reilly, Amy; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of OsHV-1, a herpes virus causing mass mortality in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was investigated with the aim to select individuals with different susceptibility to the infection. Naïve spat transferred to infected areas and juveniles currently being grown at those sites were analyzed using molecular and histology approaches. The survey period distinguishes itself by very warm temperatures reaching up to 3.5°C above the average. The virus was not detected in the virus free area although a spread of the disease could be expected due to high temperatures. Overall mortality, prevalence of infection and viral load was higher in spat confirming the higher susceptibility in early life stages. OsHV-1 and oyster mortality were detected in naïve spat after 15 days of cohabitation with infected animals. Although, infection was associated with mortality in spat, the high seawater temperatures could also be the direct cause of mortality at the warmest site. One stock of juveniles suffered an event of abnormal mortality that was significantly associated with OsHV-1 infection. Those animals were infected with a previously undescribed microvariant whereas the other stocks were infected with OsHV-1 μVar. Cell lesions due to the infection were observed by histology and true infections were corroborated by in situ hybridization. Survivors from the natural outbreak were exposed to OsHV-1 μVar by intramuscular injection and were compared to naïve animals. The survival rate in previously exposed animals was significantly higher than in naïve oysters. Results derived from this study allowed the selection of animals that might possess interesting characteristics for future analysis on OsHV-1 resistance. PMID:27877131

  17. Petrographic microscope investigation of mortar and ceramic technologies for the conservation of the built heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavia, S.; Caro, S.

    2007-07-01

    Polarised-light (or petrographic) microscopy has been widely applied to heritage materials to assess composition and diagnose damage. However, instead, this paper focuses on the petrographic investigation of brick and mortar technologies for the production of quality repair materials compatible with their adjacent fabrics. Furthermore, the paper relates production technologies to the physical properties of the materials fabricated, and thus their final quality and durability. According to Cesare Brandi´s theory of compatibility (the 20th century architect on whose work modern conservation theory and practice are largely based) existing historic materials should be replaced with their equivalent. This paper demonstrates that polarised-light microscopy provides data on the origin and nature of raw materials, and processing parameters such as blending, mixing, firing, calcination and slaking, and how these relate to the quality of the final product. In addition, this paper highlights the importance of production technologies as these directly impact the physical properties of the materials fabricated and thus determine their final quality and durability. In this context, the paper investigates mortar calcination and slaking, two important operations in the manufacture of building limes that govern the reactivity, shrinkage and water retention of a lime binder which will impact mortar's properties such as workability, plasticity and carbonation speed, and these in turn will determine the ease of execution, durability and strength of a lime mortar. Petrographic analysis also provides evidence of ceramic technology including identification of local or foreign production and processing parameters such as sieving, blending, mixing and firing. A petrographic study of the ceramic matrix coupled to the diagnosis of mineral phases formed during firing allows to quantify sintering and vitrification and thus determine firing temperatures. Finally, certain features of the raw

  18. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of the Cambumbia STOCK in Andean Central Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Lequerica, S.; Jaramillo Mejía, J.; Concha Perdomo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes. The goals of this study were to petrographic and geochemically characterize the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenetic history. 41 samples were collected, 28 for petrographic analysis and 14 for elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS. Petrographically the samples were classified as hornblende and pyroxene-gabbros varying to diorites, gabbronorites and tonalites, the rock texture varies from medium to coarse granular grain, with local microporfiritic texture. It was concluded from the major elements analysis that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series, within the gabbros and diorites fields. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2 (Jaramillo, 1980), Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb (Pearce, 1984) (Fig. 1) and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 (Wood, 1979) diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (Giraldo, 2009) (located about 25 km to the north-west) may postulate a possible genetic link between them. Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 ± 3.4 Ma (Middle Triassic). This age is consistent with the global event of the extension and fragmentation of Pangea supercontinent. In addition, the mantle nature of the source and the petrogenetic evolution of the magmatic system were established. References GIRALDO, M.I., (2009): Esquema geodinámica de la parte noroccidental de la cordillera Central de Colombia. (Thesis). p.56-68. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín. JARAMILLO, J.M. (1980): Petrology and geochemistry of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano northern Andes, Colombia (Thesis). 167 p. University of Houston

  19. The petrographic microscope: Evolution of a mineralogical research instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The petrographic microscope, designed to observe and measure the optical properties of minerals as a means of identifying them, has provided a foundation for mineralogical and petrological research for more than 120 years. Much of what is known today in these fields is attributable to this instrument, the development of which paralleled an evolution of fundamental optical theory and its correlation with mineral structure and composition. This instrument and its related accessories have evolved through a range of models and designs, which are in themselves distinctive for their scientific function and elegant construction, and are today prized by collectors of scientific instruments.

  20. The Petrographic Distinction between Basalt and Andesite Based upon the Arrested Fractionation of Plagioclase Phenocrysts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, G. Donald; Garlick, Benjamin J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need to take into account the effects of arrested fractional crystallization in the petrographic classification of volcanic rocks containing plagioclase phenocrysts. Describes the development and use of a computer program to accomplish this task graphically. (TW)

  1. Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, Jeremy P., E-mail: inghamjp@halcrow.com

    The number of building fires has doubled over the last 50 years. There has never been a greater need for structures to be assessed for fire damage to ensure safety and enable appropriate repairs to be planned. Fortunately, even after a severe fire, concrete and masonry structures are generally capable of being repaired rather than demolished. By allowing direct examination of microcracking and mineralogical changes, petrographic examination has become widely used to determine the depth of fire damage for reinforced concrete elements. Petrographic examination can also be applied to fire-damaged masonry structures built of materials such as stone, brick andmore » mortar. Petrography can ensure accurate detection of damaged geomaterials, which provides cost savings during building repair and increased safety reassurance. This paper comprises a review of the role of petrography in fire damage assessments, drawing on a range of actual fire damage investigations.« less

  2. Preliminary petrographic description and geologic implications of the Apollo 17 Station 7 boulder consortium samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary petrographic description and mineral composition of four hand samples (77135, 77115, 77075 and 77215) are presented. 77135, 77115, and 77075 all crystallized from fragment-laden melts; they are similar in textures but differ in grain size. 77135 and 77115 are pigeonite feldspathic basalts. On the basis of geologic and petrographic evidence, 77115 and 77075 are related; they formed, cooled, and consolidated before being engulfed in the vesicular 77135. The impact or igneous origin of the melts from which these rocks crystallized cannot be determined. 77215 is a shocked, strongly sheared and granulated microbreccia consisting of three major lithologies dominated by mineral clasts of orthopyroxene and calcic plagioclase. The orthopyroxene clasts contain coarse exsolved blebs of augite, suggesting a deep-seated origin. The major, minor, and trace element compositions of 77135, 77115, and 77075 are in general similar. They represent a major highland rock type, perhaps more important than anorthosites. ?? 1974.

  3. Selecting candidate structures for lithium treatment : what to provide the petrographer along with concrete specimens : tech brief.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-02-01

    The process of selecting candidate structures (and : appropriate components of structures) for lithium treatment : invariably involves sampling one or several components : of the structures for laboratory investigations, particularly : petrographic e...

  4. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the granitic rocks of the Araguainha impact crater, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dailto; Lana, Cristiano; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data obtained on the Araguainha impact crater (Goiás/Mato Grosso States, Brazil) indicate the existence of several molten products that originated during impact-induced congruent melting of an alkali-granite exposed in the inner part of the central uplift of the structure. Although previous studies have described these melts to some extent, there is no detailed discussion on the petrographic and geochemical variability in the granite and its impactogenic derivatives, and therefore, little is known about the geochemical behavior and mobility of trace elements during its fusion in the central part of the Araguainha crater. This paper demonstrates that the preserved granitoid exposed in the core of the structure is a magnesium-rich granite, similar to postcollisional, A-type granites, also found in terrains outside the Araguainha crater, in the Brasília orogenic belt. The molten products are texturally distinct and different from the original rock, but have very similar geochemical composition, making it difficult to separate these lithotypes based on concentrations of major and minor elements. This also applies for trace and rare earth elements (REE), thus indicating a high degree of homogenization during impact-induced congruent melting under high pressure and postshock temperature conditions. Petrographic observations, along with geochemical data, indicate that melting occurs selectively, where some of the elements are transported with the melt. Simultaneously, there is an effective dissolution of the rock (granite), which leads to entrainment of the most resistant solid phases (intact or partially molten minerals) into the melt. Minerals more resistant to melting, such as quartz and oxides, contribute substantially to a chemical balance between the preserved granite and the fusion products generated during the meteoritic impact.

  5. Black and red granites in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum of Turin. A minero-petrographic and provenance study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, M.; Borghi, A.; Vaggelli, G.; D'Amicone, E.; Vigna, L.

    2009-04-01

    The University of Turin, in cooperation with the Egyptian Antiquity Museum, has recently undertaken several projects aimed at developing a scientific approach to the analysis of ancient Egyptian finds. In particular, a straightforward project to investigate the stony handcrafts preserved in the statuary rooms started in 2006 to obtain their systematic petrographic classification and their possible geological sources. The main intent of the project was to understand the provenance of the materials used in Pharaonic period, setting the base for the identification of the ancient quarry sites and for a correct interpretation of the extraction and working techniques, in order to provide fundamental information about economical and social development of Egyptian civilization through historical times. The choice to focus attention on black and red granites came from the statement of the percentage relevance (40 of the 54 sculptures actually exposed) of these materials in the statuary rooms. Moreover, especially for black granites, the need of detailed minero-petrographic analysis arose from the difficulty in making a macroscopic classification of the fine-grained dark-coloured rock varieties. Therefore, five black granite statues, belonging to the Drovetti collection were sampled in a micro-invasive way: three sculptures of goddess Sekhmet (cat. 260, 251, 247), the statue of Ramses II (cat. 1380) and the statue of goddess Hathor (cat. 694). The choice to analyse even three of the twenty-one statues of goddess Sekhmet (cat. 247, cat. 251, cat. 260), originally located in the same Egyptian temple but ichnographically different, derived from the need of answering the archaeological questions about their provenance. On the other hand, the opportunity of studying the fine-grained black rocks used for the sculptures of goddess Hathor (cat. 694) and of Ramses II in Majesty (cat. 1380), symbol of the Egyptian museum of Turin, provided the opportunity to analyse and classify the

  6. Iodine-xenon studies of petrographically and chemically characterized Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Taylor, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    INAA, noble gas, and petrographic studies conducted on samples of 18 chondrules and matric material from the Chainpur (LL3) indicate that the I-129/I-127 ratio, R(0), varies by a factor of more than 10 among the chondrules. This corresponds to a greater-than-50 Ma span in apparent I-Xe ages. Models which invoke either gas-dust mixing or nebular heterogeneity cannot satisfactorily explain these data, any more than can hypotheses which attribute the variations to differences in formation age, metamorphic rate, or time of aqueous alteration. It is alternatively suggested that the variations represent periods of low-grade shock events.

  7. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M.; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples.

  8. 187Os/188Os in Spinel Peridotites from Borée, Massif Central, France: Seeing through the Effects of Melt Infiltration in the Sub-continental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, C. J.; Harvey, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Re-Os isotope system can be used to model the timing of melt extraction in peridotites, although secondary metasomatic processes can obscure primary melt depletion signatures, implying that bulk-rock Os model ages should be treated with caution.1Spinel peridotites from the volcanic Maar de Borée (French Massif Central) have equigranular to protogranular and occasionally poikilitic textures. Their bulk-rock chemistry are consistent with moderate degrees of partial melting, but elevated incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. La/YbN) are indicative of subsequent secondary processes. Petrographic observation reveals no infiltration of host basalt, but melt infiltration unrelated to the host basalt has occurred, most likely within the sub-continental lithospheric mantle prior to entrainment as xenoliths. The peridotites have a mean [Os] concentration of 2.35 ng g-1 and 187Os/188Os values from 0.12081 ± 16 to 0.12639 ± 14 (cf. PUM = 0.1296 ± 00082), with rhenium depletion model ages (TRD) ranging from 0.48 to 1.30 Ga. Silicate melt contains up to 2 orders of magnitude less Os than peridotites3 but the 187Os/188Os of melt infiltrated peridotite can be skewed by the precipitation of immiscible sulfide when an infiltrating melt reaches S-saturation4. The Borée peridotites retain an unradiogenic Os-isotope signature despite silicate melt infiltration; this may be due to primary base metal sulfides enclosed in silicate minerals and therefore protected from interaction with infiltrating melts. TRD of enclosed sulphides should therefore be able to 'see through' any secondary metasomatic events and reveal melt depletion ages significantly older than those obtained from bulk-rock analyses (cf. 4). 1. Rudnick & Walker (2009) Lithos 112S, 1083-1095. 2. Meisel et al. (2001) Geochim Cosmochim Ac 65, 1311-1323. 3. Day, J.M.D. (2013) Chem Geol 341, 50-74. 4. Harvey et al. (2010) Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74, 293-320.

  9. Implications of new petrographic analysis for the Olmec "mother culture" model.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Kent V; Balkansky, Andrew K; Feinman, Gary M; Grove, David C; Marcus, Joyce; Redmond, Elsa M; Reynolds, Robert G; Sharer, Robert J; Spencer, Charles S; Yaeger, Jason

    2005-08-09

    Petrographic analysis of Formative Mexican ceramics by J. B. Stoltman et al. (see the companion piece in this issue of PNAS) refutes a recent model of Olmec "one-way" trade. In this paper, we address the model's more fundamental problems of sampling bias, anthropological implausibility, and logical non sequiturs. No bridging argument exists to link motifs on pottery to the social, political, and religious institutions of the Olmec. In addition, the model of unreciprocated exchange is implausible, given everything that the anthropological and ethnohistoric records tell us about non-Western societies of that general sociopolitical level.

  10. Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from Bělkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain

  11. The Apollo 16 regolith - A petrographically-constrained chemical mixing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempa, M. J.; Papike, J. J.; White, C.

    1980-01-01

    A mixing model for Apollo 16 regolith samples has been developed, which differs from other A-16 mixing models in that it is both petrographically constrained and statistically sound. The model was developed using three components representative of rock types present at the A-16 site, plus a representative mare basalt. A linear least-squares fitting program employing the chi-squared test and sum of components was used to determine goodness of fit. Results for surface soils indicate that either there are no significant differences between Cayley and Descartes material at the A-16 site or, if differences do exist, they have been obscured by meteoritic reworking and mixing of the lithologies.

  12. Quality and petrographic characteristics of Paleocene coals from the Hanna basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.

  13. Sandstone petrographic evidence and the Chugach-Prince William terrane boundary in southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1988-01-01

    The contact between the Upper Cretaceous Valdez Group and the Paleocene and Eocene Orca Group has been inferred to be the boundary between the Chugach and the Prince William tectonostratigraphic terranes. Sandstone petrographic data from the Prince William Sound area show no compositional discontinuity across this contact. These data are best explained by considering the Valdez and Orca Groups to be part of a single terrane - a thick flysch sequence derived primarily from a progressively unroofing magmatic arc with increasing input from subduction-complex sources through time.

  14. Relationships between rainfall and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, A.; Talbot, G.; Lavallée, B.

    2015-04-01

    Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) has been recognized as a major environmental issue in many countries. In Canada, the proposed reinforcement of the CSO frequency regulations will result in new constraints on municipal development. Municipalities will have to demonstrate that new developments do not increase CSO frequency above a reference level based on historical CSO records. Governmental agencies will also have to define a framework to assess the impact of new developments on CSO frequency and the efficiency of the various proposed measures to maintain CSO frequency at its historic level. In such a context, it is important to correctly assess the average number of days with CSO and to define relationships between CSO frequency and rainfall characteristics. This paper investigates such relationships using available CSO and rainfall datasets for Quebec. CSO records for 4285 overflow structures (OS) were analyzed. A simple model based on rainfall thresholds was developed to forecast the occurrence of CSO on a given day based on daily rainfall values. The estimated probability of days with CSO have been used to estimate the rainfall threshold value at each OS by imposing that the probability of exceeding this rainfall value for a given day be equal to the estimated probability of days with CSO. The forecast skill of this model was assessed for 3437 OS using contingency tables. The statistical significance of the forecast skill could be assessed for 64.2% of these OS. The threshold model has demonstrated significant forecast skill for 91.3% of these OS confirming that for most OS a simple threshold model can be used to assess the occurrence of CSO.

  15. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of a section through the Tiva Canyon Tuff at Antler Ridge, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, F.R.; Widmann, B.L.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of the Paintbrush Group of Miocene age caps much of Yucca Mountain, Nevada and is a compositionally zoned, compound cooling, pyroclastic flow that ranges from a dominantly high-silica rhyolitic base to a quartz-latitic caprock. Petrographic and geochemical studies have focused on rigorously defining the internal stratigraphy of this unit to support the detailed mapping of the Ghost Dance fault and other structures in the central fault block of Yucca Mountain. This study shows that devitrification textures and vapor phase mineralogy, in addition to other physical attributes such as pumice variability (flattening) and crystal content, can bemore » used as distinguishing criteria to better define lithologic zones within the Tiva Canyon Tuff. In addition, the study also shows that the petrographic textures and chemistry of the groundmass vary systematically within recognizable lithologic zones and may be used to characterize and vertically divide litho-stratigraphic zones within the Tiva Canyon Tuff.« less

  16. The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: A microscale 187Os/188Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae Craton (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragagni, A.; Luguet, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Pearson, D. G.; Lorand, J.-P.; Nowell, G. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report detailed petrographic investigations along with 187Os/188Os data in Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) on four cratonic mantle xenoliths from Somerset Island (Rae Craton, Canada). The results shed light on the processes affecting the Re-Os systematics and provide time constraints on the formation and evolution of the cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton. When devoid of alteration, BMS grains mainly consist of pentlandite + pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite. The relatively high BMS modal abundance of the four investigated xenoliths cannot be reconciled with the residual nature of these peridotites, but requires addition of metasomatic BMS. This is especially evident in the two peridotites with the highest bulk Pd/Ir and Pd/Pt. Metasomatic BMS likely formed during melt/fluid percolation in the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) as well as during infiltration of the host kimberlite magma, when djerfisherite crystallized around older Fe-Ni-sulfides. On the whole-rock scale, kimberlite metasomatism is visible in a subset of bulk xenoliths, which defines a Re-Os errorchron that dates the host magma emplacement. The 187Os/188Os measured in the twenty analysed BMS grains vary from 0.1084 to >0.17 and it shows no systematic variation depending on the sulfide mineralogical assemblage. The largest range in 187Os/188Os is observed in BMS grains from the two xenoliths with the highest Pd/Ir, Pd/Pt, and sulfide modal abundance. The whole-rock TRD ages of these two samples underestimate the melting age obtained from BMS, demonstrating that bulk Re-Os model ages from peridotites with clear evidence of metasomatism should be treated with caution. The TRD ages determined in BMS grains are clustered around 2.8-2.7, ∼2.2 and ∼1.9 Ga. The 2.8-2.7 Ga TRD ages document the main SCLM building event in the Rae craton, which is likely related to the formation of the local greenstone belts in a continental rift setting. The Paleoproterozoic TRD ages can be explained by

  17. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  18. Quantification of the effects of secondary matrix on the analysis of sandstone composition, and a petrographic-chemical technique for retrieving original framework grain modes of altered sandstones.

    PubMed

    Cox, R; Lowe, D R

    1996-05-01

    Most studies of sandstone provenance involve modal analysis of framework grains using techniques that exclude the fine-grained breakdown products of labile mineral grains and rock fragments, usually termed secondary matrix or pseudomatrix. However, the data presented here demonstrate that, when the proportion of pseudomatrix in a sandstone exceeds 10%, standard petrographic analysis can lead to incorrect provenance interpretation. Petrographic schemes for provenance analysis such as QFL and QFR should not therefore be applied to sandstones containing more than 10% secondary matrix. Pseudomatrix is commonly abundant in sandstones, and this is therefore a problem for provenance analysis. The difficulty can be alleviated by the use of whole-rock chemistry in addition to petrographic analysis. Combination of chemical and point-count data permits the construction of normative compositions that approximate original framework grain compositions. Provenance analysis is also complicated in many cases by fundamental compositional alteration during weathering and transport. Many sandstones, particularly shallow marine deposits, have undergone vigorous reworking, which may destroy unstable mineral grains and rock fragments. In such cases it may not be possible to retrieve provenance information by either petrographic or chemical means. Because of this, pseudomatrix-rich sandstones should be routinely included in chemical-petrological provenance analysis. Because of the many factors, both pre- and post-depositional, that operate to increase the compositional maturity of sandstones, petrologic studies must include a complete inventory of matrix proportions, grain size and sorting parameters, and an assessment of depositional setting.

  19. Petrographic analysis of prehistoric ceramics from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. S.; Yi-Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous stone artifacts, ceramics, bone tools, metal objects, and etc., had been unearthed from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan, during the excavations of 2008-2010 and 2012. Of particular importance is more than ten thousands of potsherds were discovered. A stratigraphic sequence spanning the late Early Neolithic (ca. 5000 BP) through to the prehistoric of Taiwan (300 BP) was excavated. This study focuses on potteries from the Late Neolithic (ca. 3500-2800 BP), owing to some ceramics exhibiting distinct stylistic motifs and morphological attributes were recognized to be not produced locally. Have these wares been brought to the area by exchange trade and/or by immigrants? Or had they been made by local potters through the imitation of exotic styles? It is still unclear and is one of the most important archaeological issues in eastern Taiwan. To clarify this subject, understanding the raw material compositions and sources, manufacturing techniques, and etc. are considered to be the best ways. Thus, 21 potsherds from excavations and 6 river sand samples near the site were studied by petrographic analysis. The results of petrographic study show that temper components in the potsherds are quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, sedimentary rock fragments (sandstone), igneous rock fragments (andesite), and metamorphic rock fragments (metasandstone, slate, schist), and the contents and proportions are different in these samples. Petrography shows that the ceramic have multiple origins. A ternary plot of rock fragments shows three compositional groups. This result discriminates two types of ceramics from the others and confirms those ceramics producing non-locally. However, one type of potsherds have local origins through they were recognized to be exotic ones.

  20. Petrographic evidence shows that pottery exchange between the Olmec and their neighbors was two-way

    PubMed Central

    Stoltman, James B.; Marcus, Joyce; Flannery, Kent V.; Burton, James H.; Moyle, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Petrographic thin sections of pottery from five Formative Mexican archaeological sites show that exchanges of vessels between highland and lowland chiefly centers were reciprocal, or two-way. These analyses contradict recent claims that the Gulf Coast was the sole source of pottery carved with iconographic motifs. Those claims were based on neutron activation, which, by relying on chemical elements rather than actual minerals, has important limitations in its ability to identify nonlocal pottery from within large data sets. Petrography shows that the ceramics in question (and hence their carved motifs) have multiple origins and were widely traded. PMID:16061796

  1. Integrated geomechanical, petrographical and petrophysical study of the sandstones of the Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed

    2018-07-01

    The Cambro-Permian siliciclastic succession in southwestern Saudi Arabia is represented by the Wajid Group, which consists mainly of fluvial, shallow marine, aeolian, and glacial sandstones. The Wajid Group comprises the Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Qalibah, Khusayyayn, and Juwayl Formations. It is exposed in the Wadi Al-Dawasir area and extends to Najran City. The sandstones of the Wajid Group serve as groundwater aquifers in the Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas and host hydrocarbon (mainly gas) reservoirs in the Rub' Al-Khali Basin. This study aims to characterize the geomechanical properties (rock strength and Young's modulus) of the sandstones of the Wajid Group using field and experimental techniques. A further objective is to investigate the relationships between the geomechanical properties and the petrographical and petrophysical properties of the studied sandstones. The geomechanical properties of the studied sandstones vary from glacial to non-glacial sandstones, as the glacial sandstones display high values of the geomechanical properties with high variability indices. Four geological factors including grain size, cement content, porosity and permeability were observed as the main controls on the geomechanical behaviour of the studied sandstones except for the Khusayyayn sandstone, where the mineral composition was also important. Significant correlations were observed between the petrographical and petrophysical properties and the geomechanical properties of the glacial sandstones. Predictive models of the geomechanical properties (RN, UCS, and E) were generated using regression analysis to account for the glacial sandstones.

  2. Morphological and Petrographic Analysis of the Volcanic Products (Ashes, Bombs, and Blocks) from Poás Volcano: April-June 2017 Eruptive Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Madrigal Quesada, P.

    2017-12-01

    During the first semester of 2017, Poas Volcano, in the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) initiated a period of volcanic unrest that included high energy phreatomagmatic to magmatic eruptions. The eruptions that occurred on April 14th and April 22nd of 2017 produced abundant ashes and ballistic materials. Here we present results from the morphological and petrographic analyses conducted in the collected material from the largest eruptions of April 2017. Mineral textures observed on the petrographic analyses show evidence of reactivation and fragmentation of a crystal mush in the magma chamber, triggering re-melting episodes, volatile exsolution, and an increase in the pressure of the system, all of which are expected conditions during an eruption episode. Our analyses done on junvenile and non-juvenile material suggest that processes of magma mingling and injections of new batches of material of different compositions have played an important role throughout previous historical eruptions and likely in the current phase of volcanic activity in Poas.

  3. Petrographic Evidence for Rapid Heating and Cooling During Chrondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The chondrule cooling rates used in most chondrule-formation models appear to be too low. Recent petrographic evidence indicates that the amount of crystal (especially olivine) growth that occurred after the last melting event was about 30 smaller than the grain sizes simulated in order to estimate cooling rates. The smaller amount of growth leads to an upwards revision of cooling rates by about a factor of 1000. Most chondrules are porphyritic. They consist of large and small crystals of olivine and, less commonly, pyroxene immersed in a mesostasis having a plagioclase-rich composition. In the most primitive chondrites the mesostasis is often vitreous. Because the large majority of chondrules contain FeS, it is clear that the nebula had cooled below the FeS condensation temperature (ca. 650 K) before chondrule formation occurred. The high FeO/(FeO+MgO) ratios of some chondrules require still lower nebular temperatures (less than 500 K). The traditional view has been that porphyritic chondrules formed in a single heating/cooling event and many laboratory experiments have been carried out in various kinds of kinds of furnaces to try to simulate the formation of chondrules textures in a single heating/cooling cycle. These furnace experiments have been used to infer the cooling rates of chondrules during the temperature range at which olivine crystallized from the melt. Most of these inferred values are in the range 0.01-1 K per second. These low cooling rates are problematical because there is no long-term nebular environment that yields such values. In transparent regions chondrules would cool at rates orders of magnitude higher, whereas in an opaque nebular disk the cooling rates would be many orders of magnitude lower. And these latter conditions are not suitable locations for chondrule formation because such high temperatures would cause the complete evaporation of chondrules (which have melting temperatures about 600 K higher than their evaporation temperatures

  4. Geochemical and petrographic studies of melt-rich breccias from the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Soler-Arechalde, A.; Reyes-Salas, M.; Lozano-Santamaria, R.; Linares-Lopez, C.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2003-04-01

    The proposal by Alvarez et al. (1980) for an extraterrestrial bolide impact marking the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary was based on the anomalous Ir content in Italian and Danish K/T clay layers. The clay layer with a worldwide distribution and enriched in platinum group elements, shocked quartz and other impact-generated features has come to be interpreted as the global ejecta layer produced by a large impact that formed the Chicxulub crater. The ~200 km diameter crater is located in the carbonate platform of northwestern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. The crater is covered by a thick sequence of Tertiary sediments, with no surface exposures. The National University of Mexico conducted a drilling program with continuous core recovery, in which three boreholes (UNAM wells 5, 6 and 7) sampled the impact breccia sequences. Deeper drilling inside the carter has been carried out as part of the ICDP program with drilling of the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, which also cored a section of the impact breccias. The Yaxcopoil-1 borehole has been completed as part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. In this work, we report on the geochemical and petrographic studies of selected samples from the impact breccia sequence recovered in the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole inside the Chicxulub crater. One of the major questions emerging after the interpretation of Chicxulub as the K/T boundary impact site and its link to the global ejecta layer has been the nature of the impacting body. Studies have addressed this question from distinct fields, including investigation of the ejecta deposits near and far from the crater, from the crater itself, from impact records on the Moon and other bodies, searching for surviving fragments in K/T boundary sections, etc. The search for material with a possible small component associated to the impactor could open unique research opportunities to further understand the impact event. The melt breccia samples examined exhibit different textures and chemical

  5. A petrographical and geochemical study of quartzose nodules, country rocks, and dike rocks from the Upheaval Dome structure, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Plescia, J. B.; Hayward, Chris L.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-11-01

    Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA, is a unique structure on the Colorado Plateau. It has earlier been interpreted as an impact structure or as a pinched-off salt diapir. Some subrounded quartzose fragments were found in a ring depression near the eastern margin of the structure and, based on vesicularity and apparent flow structure, the fragments were earlier interpreted researchers as "impactites". Our petrographic studies show no indication of a high-temperature history and are in agreement with a slow, low-temperature formation of the quartz nodules. Compositionally, the lag deposit samples are almost pure SiO2. They show no chemical similarity to any of the possible target rocks (e.g., Navajo Sandstone), from which they should have formed by melting if they were impactites. Instead, the samples have relatively high contents of elements that indicate fluid interaction (e.g., hydrothermal growth), such as As, Sb, Ba, and U, and show positive Ce anomalies. Thus, we interpret the "lag deposit samples" as normal low-temperature (hydrothermally-grown?) quartz that show no indication of being impact-derived. In addition, a petrographic and geochemical analysis of a series of dike samples yielded no evidence for shock metamorphism or a meteoritic component.

  6. A petrographical and geochemical study of quartzose nodules, country rocks, and dike rocks from the Upheaval Dome structure, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeberl, C.; Plescia, J.B.; Hayward, C.L.; Reimold, W.U.

    1999-01-01

    Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA, is a unique structure on the Colorado Plateau. It has earlier been interpreted as an impact structure or as a pinched-off salt diapir. Some subrounded quartzose fragments were found in a ring depression near the eastern margin of the structure and, based on vesicularity and apparent flow structure, the fragments were interpreted by early researchers as 'impactites.' Our petrographic studies show no indication of a high-temperature history and are in agreement with a slow, low-temperature formation of the quartz nodules. Compositionally, the lag deposit samples are almost pure SiO2. They show no chemical similarity to any of the possible target rocks (e.g., Navajo Sandstone), from which they should have formed by melting if they were impactites. Instead, the samples have relatively high contents of elements that indicate fluid interaction (e.g., hydrothermal growth), such as As, Sb, Ba, and U, and show positive Ce anomalies. Thus, we interpret the 'lag deposit samples' as normal low-temperature (hydrothermally-grown?) quartz that show no indication of being impact-derived. In addition, a petrographic and geochemical analysis of a series of dike samples yielded no evidence for shock metamorphism or a meteoritic component.

  7. Os zygomaticum bipartitum: frequency distribution in major human populations

    PubMed Central

    HANIHARA, TSUNEHIKO; ISHIDA, HAJIME; DODO, YUKIO

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of the Os zygomaticum bipartitum was examined in major human populations around the world. Eastern Asians have a higher frequency of the bipartite zygomatic bone than any other geographical groups. The arctic peoples, Amerindians and the Oceanians, who all may have derived from eastern Asian population stocks, have a considerably low frequency of this trait. The frequency distribution from East/Southeast Asia to Africa and Europe through South/Central/West Asia suggests some clinality for the bipartite zygomatic bone. The second peak in the frequency is seen in Subsaharan Africa. The clinal variation with no identifiable regulation by subsistence patterns and environmental factors suggested a genetic background for the occurrence of the Os zygomaticum bipartitum. PMID:9723981

  8. Contexts of occurrence of child malnutrition in the district of Villaguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina. A multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nutritional status is anthropologically important to address the complex interaction of biological, social, political, economic and cultural factors. To deepen the knowledge about contexts of occurrence of child malnutrition, we analyzed nutritional status in relation to socio-environmental conditions of residence in children between three and six years from Villaguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,435 school children of both sexes. Body weight and height were measured and prevalence of low height/age (LH/A), low weight/age (LW/A), low BMI/age (LBMI/A), overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was calculated using World Health Organization reference charts. Socio-environmental information was obtained through a semi-structured survey and processed by Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA). Anthropometric data showed 1.5% LW/A, 5.2% LH/A; 0.6% LBMI/A, 20.9% Ow and 10.9% Ob. CatPCA allowed us to define four groups (G1-G4) with better (G2), middle (G1) and worst (G4) urban socio-environmental conditions and one with rural characteristics (G3). G4 presented the highest LH/A prevalence and G2 the highest Ow and Ob prevalence (P<0.05). It is concluded that since the distribution of malnutrition was not even it may dependent on the context in which children grow up. Thus, the higher the socio-economic level, the higher the incidence of overweight and obesity. Conversely, at the other end of the social scale, undernutrition and increasing weight excess remained major health problems. PMID:28441444

  9. Contexts of occurrence of child malnutrition in the district of Villaguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina. A multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Cesani, María Florencia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nutritional status is anthropologically important to address the complex interaction of biological, social, political, economic and cultural factors. To deepen the knowledge about contexts of occurrence of child malnutrition, we analyzed nutritional status in relation to socio-environmental conditions of residence in children between three and six years from Villaguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,435 school children of both sexes. Body weight and height were measured and prevalence of low height/age (LH/A), low weight/age (LW/A), low BMI/age (LBMI/A), overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was calculated using World Health Organization reference charts. Socio-environmental information was obtained through a semi-structured survey and processed by Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA). Anthropometric data showed 1.5% LW/A, 5.2% LH/A; 0.6% LBMI/A, 20.9% Ow and 10.9% Ob. CatPCA allowed us to define four groups (G1-G4) with better (G2), middle (G1) and worst (G4) urban socio-environmental conditions and one with rural characteristics (G3). G4 presented the highest LH/A prevalence and G2 the highest Ow and Ob prevalence (P<0.05). It is concluded that since the distribution of malnutrition was not even it may dependent on the context in which children grow up. Thus, the higher the socio-economic level, the higher the incidence of overweight and obesity. Conversely, at the other end of the social scale, undernutrition and increasing weight excess remained major health problems.

  10. Mercury content and petrographic composition in Pennsylvanian coal beds of Indiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Filippelli, G.

    2006-01-01

    A suite of high volatile bituminous coals of Pennsylvanian age from Indiana has been studied for their mercury (Hg) concentration and relationship between mercury content and maceral and lithotype composition. The coals ranged in Hg content from 0.02 in the Danville Coal Member to 0.31 ppm in the Upper Block Coal Member. Our study indicates that relationships between petrographic composition of coal and mercury content are site specific. This lack of a consistent relationship is explained by the fact that most Hg occurs in pyrite and not in the organic matter itself. Comparison of Hg content in durain/vitrain pairs shows that durain has more frequently a higher Hg content than vitrain, but the difference in frequency is inconsequential and shows no consistent pattern for a single coal bed or a single location. We suggest that increased concentration of Hg in vitrain is related to the presence of epigenetic pyrite in cleats. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of continental Os/Os values by using Os/Os and Nd/Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules.

    PubMed

    Turekian, K K; Luck, J M

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between (187)Os/(186)Os and (143)Nd/(144)Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the (187)Os/(186)Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield (187)Os/(186)Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of "ultramafic rocks" (high Os concentration, low (187)Os/(186)Os) and "granite" with only radiogenic (187)Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics.

  12. Evaluating the Relationships Between NTNU/SINTEF Drillability Indices with Index Properties and Petrographic Data of Hard Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Lashkaripour, Gholam Reza; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Azali, Sadegh Tarigh

    2017-11-01

    Thorough and realistic performance predictions are among the main requisites for estimating excavation costs and time of the tunneling projects. Also, NTNU/SINTEF rock drillability indices, including the Drilling Rate Index™ (DRI), Bit Wear Index™ (BWI), and Cutter Life Index™ (CLI), are among the most effective indices for determining rock drillability. In this study, brittleness value (S20), Sievers' J-Value (SJ), abrasion value (AV), and Abrasion Value Cutter Steel (AVS) tests are conducted to determine these indices for a wide range of Iranian hard igneous rocks. In addition, relationships between such drillability parameters with petrographic features and index properties of the tested rocks are investigated. The results from multiple regression analysis revealed that the multiple regression models prepared using petrographic features provide a better estimation of drillability compared to those prepared using index properties. Also, it was found that the semiautomatic petrography and multiple regression analyses provide a suitable complement to determine drillability properties of igneous rocks. Based on the results of this study, AV has higher correlations with studied mineralogical indices than AVS. The results imply that, in general, rock surface hardness of hard igneous rocks is very high, and the acidic igneous rocks have a lower strength and density and higher S20 than those of basic rocks. Moreover, DRI is higher, while BWI is lower in acidic igneous rocks, suggesting that drill and blast tunneling is more convenient in these rocks than basic rocks.

  13. Petrographic and major elements results as indicator of the geothermal potential in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.; Kausar, A.; Permana, dan H.

    2018-02-01

    Geothermal manifestations existed in West Java (Cilayu, Papandayan Mountain, Telagabodas, Karaha, Tampomas Mountain), Central Java (Slamet Mountain, Dieng) and East Java (Argopuro Mountain) show a difference in their mineral and geochemical compositions. The petrographic analysis of volcanic rocks from Garut (West Java) are basalt, andesite basaltic and andesite. However, based on SiO2 vs K2O value, those volcanic rocks have wide ranges of fractionated magma resulting basalt - basaltic andesite to dacitic in composition rather than those of Slamet Mountain, Dieng, and Argopuro Mountain areas which have a narrower range of fractionation magma resulting andesite basaltic and andesite in compositions. The volcanic rocks from Garut show tholeiitic affinity and calc-alkaline affinity. The geothermal potential of Java is assumed to be related to the magma fractionation level. Geothermal potential of West Java (Garut) is higher than that of Central Java (Slamet Mountain, Dieng) and East Java (Argopuro Mountain).

  14. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  15. Us army corps of engineers - Engineering research and development center - Petrographic analysis of section 3 personnel tunnel concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. M.

    The Concrete and Materials Branch (CMB) of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory was requested to perform an analysis on concrete cores collected from the north and south walls of the H-Canyon Section 3 Personnel Tunel, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina to determine the cause of the lower than expected compressive strength. This study examined five cores provided to the ERDC by the Department of Energy. The cores were logged in as CMB No. 170051-1 to 170051-5 and subjected to petrographic examination, air void analysis, chemical sprays, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction.

  16. Mini-Ckpts: Surviving OS Failures in Persistent Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fiala, David; Mueller, Frank; Ferreira, Kurt Brian

    Concern is growing in the high-performance computing (HPC) community on the reliability of future extreme-scale systems. Current efforts have focused on application fault-tolerance rather than the operating system (OS), despite the fact that recent studies have suggested that failures in OS memory are more likely. The OS is critical to a system's correct and efficient operation of the node and processes it governs -- and in HPC also for any other nodes a parallelized application runs on and communicates with: Any single node failure generally forces all processes of this application to terminate due to tight communication in HPC. Therefore,more » the OS itself must be capable of tolerating failures. In this work, we introduce mini-ckpts, a framework which enables application survival despite the occurrence of a fatal OS failure or crash. Mini-ckpts achieves this tolerance by ensuring that the critical data describing a process is preserved in persistent memory prior to the failure. Following the failure, the OS is rejuvenated via a warm reboot and the application continues execution effectively making the failure and restart transparent. The mini-ckpts rejuvenation and recovery process is measured to take between three to six seconds and has a failure-free overhead of between 3-5% for a number of key HPC workloads. In contrast to current fault-tolerance methods, this work ensures that the operating and runtime system can continue in the presence of faults. This is a much finer-grained and dynamic method of fault-tolerance than the current, coarse-grained, application-centric methods. Handling faults at this level has the potential to greatly reduce overheads and enables mitigation of additional fault scenarios.« less

  17. High-precision measurement of (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os: isobaric oxide corrections with in-run measured oxygen isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhu-Yin; Li, Chao-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Xu, Jun-Jie; Di, Yan-Kun; Guo, Jing-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for high precision measurement of (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os ratios, applying isobaric oxide interference correction based on in-run measurements of oxygen isotopic ratios. For this purpose, we set up a static data collection routine to measure the main Os(16)O3(-) ion beams with Faraday cups connected to conventional 10(11) amplifiers, and (192)Os(16)O2(17)O(-) and (192)Os(16)O2(18)O(-) ion beams with Faraday cups connected to 10(12) amplifiers. Because of the limited number of Faraday cups, we did not measure (184)Os(16)O3(-) and (189)Os(16)O3(-) simultaneously in-run, but the analytical setup had no significant influence on final (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os data. By analyzing UMd, DROsS, an in-house Os solution standard, and several rock reference materials, including WPR-1, WMS-1a, and Gpt-5, the in-run measured oxygen isotopic ratios were proven to present accurate Os isotopic data. However, (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os data obtained with in-run O isotopic compositions for the solution standards and rock reference materials show minimal improvement in internal and external precision, compared to the conventional oxygen correction method. We concluded that, the small variations of oxygen isotopes during OsO3(-) analytical sessions are probably not the main source of error for high precision Os isotopic analysis. Nevertheless, use of run-specific O isotopic compositions is still a better choice for Os isotopic data reduction and eliminates the requirement of extra measurements of the oxygen isotopic ratios.

  18. Recommended procedures and techniques for the petrographic description of bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    bed. The use of bulk-specific-gravity determinations is alo recommended for identification and characterization of the distinctive lithologic units. The availability of an AIAS also enhances the capability to acquire textural information. Ranges of size of maceral and mineral grains can be quickly and precisely determined by use of an AIAS. We assume that shape characteristics of coal particles can also be readily evaluated by automated image analysis, although this evaluation has not yet been attempted in our laboratory. Definitive data on the particulate mineral content of coal constitute another important segment of petrographic description. Characterization of mineral content may be accomplished by optical identification, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Individual mineral grains in place in polished blocks or polished this sections, or separated from the coal matrix by sink-float methods are studied by analytical techniques appropriate to the conditions of sampling. Finally, whenever possible, identification of the probable genus or plant species from which a given coal component is derived will add valuable information and meaning to the petrographic description. ?? 1982.

  19. Osmium uptake, distribution, and 187Os/188Os and 187Re/188Os compositions in Phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus: Implications for determining the 187Os/188Os composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racionero-Gómez, B.; Sproson, A. D.; Selby, D.; Gannoun, A.; Gröcke, D. R.; Greenwell, H. C.; Burton, K. W.

    2017-02-01

    The osmium isotopic composition (187Os/188Os) of seawater reflects the balance of input from mantle-, continental- and anthropogenic-derived sources. This study utilizes the Phaeophyceae, Fucus vesiculosus, to analyse its Os abundance and uptake, as well as to assess if macroalgae records the Os isotope composition of the seawater in which it lives. The data demonstrates that Os is not located in one specific biological structure within macroalgae, but is found throughout the organism. Osmium uptake was measured by culturing F. vesiculosus non-fertile tips with different concentrations of Os with a known 187Os/188Os composition (∼0.16), which is significantly different from the background isotopic composition of local seawater (∼0.94). The Os abundance of cultured non-fertile tips show a positive correlation to the concentration of the Os doped seawater. Moreover, the 187Os/188Os composition of the seaweed equalled that of the culture medium, strongly confirming the possible use of macroalgae as a biological proxy for the Os isotopic composition of the seawater.

  20. Estimation of continental 187Os/186Os values by using 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules

    PubMed Central

    Turekian, Karl K.; Luck, Jean-Marc

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the 187Os/186Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield 187Os/186Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of “ultramafic rocks” (high Os concentration, low 187Os/186Os) and “granite” with only radiogenic 187Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics. PMID:16578780

  1. Petrographic and reservoir features of Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) Shatlyk horizon in the Malay gas field, Amu-Darya basin, east Turkmenia

    SciTech Connect

    Naz, H.; Ersan, A.

    1996-08-01

    Malay gas field in Amu-Darya basin, eastern Turkmenia, is located on the structural high that is on the Malay-Bagadzha arch north of the Repetek-Kelif structure zone. With 500 km{sup 2} areal coverage, 16 producing wells and 200 billion m{sup 3} estimated reserves, the field was discovered in 1978 and production began in 1987 from 2400-m-deep Hauterivian-age (Early Cretaceous) Shatlyk horizon. The Shatlyk elastic sequence shows various thickness up to 100 m in the Malay structural closure and is studied through E-log, core, petrographic data and reservoir characteristics. The Shatlyk consists of poorly indurated, reddish-brown and gray sandstones, and sandy graymore » shales. The overall sand-shale ratio increases up and the shales interleave between the sand packages. The reservoir sandstones are very fine to medium grained, moderately sorted, compositionally immature, subarkosic arenites. The framework grains include quartz, feldspar and volcanic lithic fragments. Quartz grains are monocrystalline in type and most are volcanic in origin. Feldspars consist of K- Feldspar and plagioclase. The orthoclases are affected by preferential alteration. The sandstones show high primary intergranular porosity and variations in permeability. Patch-like evaporate cement and the iron-rich grain coatings are reducing effects in permeability. The coats are pervasive in reddish-brown sandstones but are not observed in the gray sandstones. The evaporate cement is present in all the sandstone samples examined and, in places, follows the oxidation coats. The petrographic evidences and the regional facies studies suggest the deposition in intersection area from continental to marine nearshore deltaic environment.« less

  2. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  3. Determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by ICP-MS with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spikes.

    PubMed

    Qu, W; Du, A; Zhao, D

    2001-10-31

    The article describes a method for the determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spike. The spike used in the present work was prepared in line with the principle by which artificial nuclides are produced in a nuclear reaction. The concentration and isotopic composition of osmium in the prepared spike were evaluated accurately with the isotope dilution method, using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). The advantage of this method is that using (186)Os and (188)Os double spikes can effectively compensate for the mass discrimination effects of ICP-MS. Thus, the common correction practice for mass bias in the isotope dilution method with a single spike is unnecessary. In addition, the method enables one to reduce the determined error arising from instrumental instability. The precision for the (187)Os/((186)Os+(188)Os) ratio was approximately 2% (2sigma, RSD), but in the case of (187)Os/(186)Os, (187)Os/(188)Os and (186)Os/(188)Os, precision ranged from 2.0 to 8% (2sigma, RSD). The results for (187)Os concentration in a molybdenite sample determined with this method showed good agreement with reference values.

  4. Re-Os evidence used to link regional mineralization process to the Chesapeake Bag Bolig's impact in the northeastern United States.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    Re-Os isotope measurements of sulfide minerals from 10 occurrences that span a radial distance of over 200 Km : serve to geochemically link epithermal mineralization in Pennsylvania to an Eocene event. The most likely geologic : event that could have...

  5. Impact of petrographic properties on the burning behavior of pulverized coal using a drop tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    S. Biswas; N. Choudhury; S. Ghosal

    The combustion behavior of three Indian coals of different rank with wide variation in ash content and maceral compositions were studied using a drop tube furnace (DTF). Each coal was pulverized into a specific size (80% below 200 mesh) and fed into the DTF separately. The DTF runs were carried out under identical conditions for all of the coals. The carbon burnout was found out from the chemical analyses of the feed coals and the char samples collected from different ports of the DTF. Char morphology analyses was carried on the burnout residues of the top port. The top portmore » results show better burnout of the lower rank coals which however was not observed in the last port. An attempt has been made to account for this variation in terms of rank and petrographic parameters of the respective coals. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.« less

  6. Synthesis of petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data for the Boulder batholith, southwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith in southwest Montana consists of the Butte Granite and a group of associated smaller intrusions emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and into the Late Cretaceous Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The Boulder batholith is dominated by the voluminous Butte Granite, which is surrounded by as many as a dozen individually named, peripheral intrusions. These granodiorite, monzogranite, and minor syenogranite intrusions contain varying abundances of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, and opaque oxide minerals. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic subsets of the Boulder batholith intrusions are defined principally on the basis of color index. Most Boulder batholith plutons have inequigranular to seriate textures although several are porphyritic and some are granophyric (and locally miarolitic). Most of these plutons are medium grained but several of the more felsic and granophyric intrusions are fine grained. Petrographic characteristics, especially relative abundances of constituent minerals, are distinctive and foster reasonably unambiguous identification of individual intrusions. Seventeen samples from plutons of the Boulder batholith were dated by SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) zircon U-Pb geochronology. Three samples of the Butte Granite show that this large pluton may be composite, having formed during two episodes of magmatism at about 76.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2 samples) and 74.7 ± 0.6 million years ago (Ma) (1 sample). However, petrographic and chemical data are inconsistent with the Butte Granite consisting of separate, compositionally distinct intrusions. Accordingly, solidification of magma represented by the Butte Granite appears to have spanned about 2 million year (m.y.). The remaining Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced during a 6-10 m.y. span (81.7 ± 1.4 Ma to 73.7 ± 0.6 Ma). The compositional characteristics of these plutons are similar to those

  7. Petrographic and C & O isotopic characteristics of the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves; Villeneuve, Johan; Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    CM chondrites form the largest group of hydrated meteorites and span a wide range of alteration states, with the Paris meteorite being the least altered CM described to date. Ca-Carbonates are powerful proxies for the alteration conditions of CMs because they are direct snapshots of the chemical and isotopic compositions of the parent fluids. Here, we report a petrographic and a C isotope and O isotope survey of Ca-carbonates in Paris in order to better characterize the earliest stages of aqueous alteration. Petrographic observations show that Paris contains two distinct populations of Ca-carbonates: Type 1a Ca-carbonates, which are surrounded by rims of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs), and new Type 0 Ca-carbonates, which do not exhibit the TCI rims. The TCI rims of Type 1a Ca-carbonates commonly outline euhedral crystal faces, demonstrating that these Ca-carbonates were (i) partially or totally pseudomorphosed by TCI and (ii) precipitated at the earliest stages of aqueous alteration, before Type 0 Ca-carbonates. Isotopic measurements show that Paris' Ca-carbonates have δ13C values that range from 19 to 80‰ (PDB), δ18O values that range from 29 to 41%, and δ17O values that range from 13 to 24‰ (SMOW). According to the δ13C-δ18O values of Paris' Ca-carbonates, we developed a new alteration model that involves (i) the equilibration of a primordial 17,18O-rich water (PW) with 16O-rich anhydrous silicates and (ii) varying contribution of 12C- and 13C-rich soluble organic matter (SOMs). It also suggests that many parameters control the C and O isotopic composition of Ca-carbonates, the principles being the degree of isotopic equilibration between the PW and the anhydrous silicates, the respective contribution of 12C and 13C-rich SOMs as well as the thermal evolution of CM parent bodies. Consequently, we suggest that CM Ca-carbonates could record both positive and negative δ13C-δ18O relationships, but a systematic correspondence is probably absent

  8. The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit (Ceará, Brazil) new petrographic, geochemistry and isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de; Cavalcanti, José Adilson Dias; Nogueira Neto, José de Araújo

    2016-10-01

    The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit is located in Santa Quitéria, in central Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Mineralization has occurred in different stages and involves quartz leaching (episyenitization), brecciation and microcrystalline phase formation of concretionary apatite. The last constitutes the main mineral of Itatiaia uranium ore, namely collophane. Collophanite ore occurs in massive bodies, lenses, breccia zones, veins or episyenite in marble layers, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses of the Itataia Group. There are two accepted theories on the origin of the earliest mineralization phase of Itataia ore: syngenetic (primary) - where the ore is derived from a continental source and then deposited in marine and coastal environments; and epigenetic (secondary) - whereby the fluids are of magmatic, metamorphic and meteoric origin. The characterization of pre- or post-deformational mineralization is controversial, since the features of the ore are interpreted as deformation. This investigation conducted isotopic studies and chemical analyses of minerals in marbles and calc-silicate rocks of the Alcantil and Barrigas Formations (Itataia Group), as well as petrographic and structural studies. Analysis of the thin sections shows at least three phosphate mineral phases associated with uranium mineralizaton: (1) A prismatic fluorapatite phase associated with chess-board albite, arfvedsonite and ferro-eckermannite; (2) a second fluorapatite phase with fibrous radial or colloform habits that replaces calcium carbonate in marble, especially along fractures, with minerals such as quartz, chlorite and zeolite also identified in calc-silicate rocks; and (3) an younger phosphate phase of botryoidal apatite (fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) related with clay minerals and probably others calcium and aluminum phosphates. Detailed isotopic analysis carried out perpendicularly to the mineralized levels and veins in the marble revealed significant variation in isotopic

  9. Timing of compaction and quartz cementation from integrated petrographic and burial-history analyses, Lower Cretaceous Fall River Formation, Wyoming and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated petrographic and burial-history studies of Fall River sandstones from outcrop and the subsurface provide insight into the timing of compaction and quartz cementation, the two main porosity-reducing processes in quartzose sandstones. Petrographic study of 95 thin sections of Fall River fluvial valley-fill sandstones from outcrop, Donkey Creek field at 2 km burial depth, and Buck Draw field at 3.8 km indicates that reservoir quality differs significantly in these three areas. Fall River sandstones at the surface contain an average of 31% intergranular volume (IGV) and 2% quartz cement. In both Donkey Creek and Buck Draw fields, the sandstones averagemore » 22% IGV, but quartz-cement volume averages 8% in the shallower field and 12% in the deeper. Geometric mean permeability at the surface is 4,700 md, compared with 42 md at 2 km and 2 md at 3.8 km. Burial history of the Fall River sandstone differs greatly in the three areas. The outcropping sandstones were buried to 2 km and had reached 80 C by the end of the Cretaceous. They were then uplifted and have remained at near-surface temperatures since the Paleocene; the calculated time-temperature index (TTI) of these sandstones is 1. Fall River sandstones at Donkey Creek were also buried to 2 km and had reached 80 C by the end of the Cretaceous but remained at that depth during the Tertiary; TTI is 14. In Buck Draw field, Fall River sandstones were buried to 2.5 km during the Cretaceous and then continued to subside during the Tertiary, reaching depths of 4 km and temperatures of 140 C; TTI is 512.« less

  10. Evidence of Metasomatism in the Lowest Petrographic Types Inferred from A Na(-), K, Rich Rim Around A LEW 86018 (L3.1) Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Marhas, Kuljeet Kaur; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, Daniel Kent

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites (OCs) represent the most abundant extraterrestrial materials and also record the widest range of alteration of primary, pristine minerals of early Solar system material available for study. Relatively few investigations, however, address: (1) the role of fluid alteration, and (2) the relationship between thermal metamorphism and metasomatism in OCs, issues that have been extensively studied in many other meteorite groups e.g., CV, CO, CR, and enstatite chondrites. Detailed elemental abundances profiles across individual chondrules, and mineralogical studies of Lewis Hills (LEW) 86018 (L3.1), an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC) of low petrographic type of 3.1 returned from Antarctica, provide evidence of extensive alteration of primary minerals. Some chondrules have Na(-), K(-), rich rims surrounded by nepheline, albite, and sodalite-like Na(-), Cl(-), Al-rich secondary minerals in the near vicinity within the matrices. Although, limited evidences of low temperature (approximately 250 C) fluid-assisted alteration of primary minerals to phyllosilicates, ferroanolivine, magnetite, and scapolite have been reported in the lowest grades (less than 3.2) Semarkona (LL3.00) and Bishunpur (LL3.10), alkali-rich secondary mineralization has previously only been seen in higher grade greater than 3.4 UOCs. This preliminary result suggests highly localized metamorphism in UOCs and widens the range of alteration in UOCs and complicates classification of petrographic type and extent of thermal metamorphism or metasomatism. The work in progress will document the micro-textures, geochemistry (Ba, Ca, REE), and isotopic composition (oxygen, Al(-)- 26 Mg-26) of mineral phases in chondrules and adjoining objects to help us understand the formation scenario and delineate possible modes of metamorphism in UOCs.

  11. OsNAC2 positively affects salt-induced cell death and binds to the OsAP37 and OsCOX11 promoters.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chanjuan; Ding, Jialin; Zhang, Bin; Xi, Dandan; Ming, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Plant development and adaptation to environmental stresses are intimately associated with programmed cell death (PCD). Although some of the mechanisms regulating PCD [e.g., accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] are common among responses to different abiotic stresses, the pathways mediating salt-induced PCD remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report that overexpression of OsNAC2, which encodes a plant-specific transcription factor, promotes salt-induced cell death accompanied by the loss of plasma membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and changes to caspase-like activity. In OsNAC2-knockdown lines, cell death was markedly decreased in response to severe salt stress. Additionally, OsNAC2 expression was enhanced in rice seedlings exposed to a high NaCl concentration. Moreover, the results of quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase, and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that OsNAC2 targeted genes that encoded an ROS scavenger (OsCOX11) and a caspase-like protease (OsAP37). Furthermore, K + -efflux channels (OsGORK and OsSKOR) were clearly activated by OsNAC2. Overall, our results suggested that OsNAC2 accelerates NaCl-induced PCD and provide new insights into the mechanisms that affect ROS accumulation, plant caspase-like activity, and K + efflux. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 186Os-187Os and highly siderophile element abundance systematics of the mantle revealed by abyssal peridotites and Os-rich alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Walker, Richard J.; Warren, Jessica M.

    2017-03-01

    Abyssal peridotites are oceanic mantle fragments that were recently processed through ridges and represent residues of both modern and ancient melting. To constrain the nature and timing of melt depletion processes, and the composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Os isotope data for abyssal peridotites from three ocean basins, as well as for Os-rich alloys, primarily from Mesozoic ophiolites. These data are complemented by whole-rock highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), trace- and major-element abundances for the abyssal peridotites, which are from the Southwest Indian (SWIR), Central Indian (CIR), Mid-Atlantic (MAR) and Gakkel Ridges. The results reveal a limited role for melt refertilization or secondary alteration processes in modifying abyssal peridotite HSE compositions. The abyssal peridotites examined have experienced variable melt depletion (2% to >16%), which occurred >0.5 Ga ago for some samples. Abyssal peridotites typically exhibit low Pd/Ir and, combined with high-degrees of estimated total melt extraction, imply that they were relatively refractory residues prior to incorporation into their present ridge setting. Recent partial melting processes and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) generation therefore played a limited role in the chemical evolution of their precursor mantle domains. The results confirm that many abyssal peridotites are not simple residues of recent MORB source melting, having a more complex and long-lived depletion history. Peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge, SWIR, CIR and MAR indicate that the depleted MORB mantle has 186Os/188Os of 0.1198356 ± 21 (2SD). The Phanerozoic Os-rich alloys yield an average 186Os/188Os within uncertainty of abyssal peridotites (0.1198361 ± 20). Melt depletion trends defined between Os isotopes and melt extraction indices (e.g., Al2O3) allow an estimate of the primitive mantle (PM) composition, using only abyssal peridotites. This yields 187Os/188Os (0.1292 ± 25), and 186Os

  13. Petrographic and chemical reconnaissance study of some granitic and gneissic rocks near the San Andreas fault from Bodega Head to Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald C.

    1972-01-01

    This petrographic and chemical study is based on reconnaissance sampling of granitic and related gneissic rock in the California Coast and Transverse Ranges. In the Coast Ranges, granitic rocks are restricted to an elongate belt, the Salinian block, between the San Andreas and Sur-Nacimiento fault zones. These rocks have a considerable compositional range, but are dominantly quartz monzonite and granodiorite. Moist of the Salinian block seems to be a structurally coherent basement block of chemically related granitic rocks. However, on both the east and the west sides of the block, gneiss crops out in abundance; these rocks may be structurally separate from the main part of the Salinian block. In the Transverse Ranges, the granitic and related rocks are dominantly of granodiorite composition, and in many areas granitic and gneissic rocks are intimately intermixed.Chemically the rocks of the California Coast and Transverse Ranges are somewhat intermediate in character between those of the east-central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith and those of the western part of the Sierra Nevada batholith and the southern California batholith. Probably the closest similarity is to the east-central Sierra Nevada rocks, but the rocks of the Coast and Transverse Ranges are somewhat higher in Al2O3 and lower in K2O than Sierran rocks of the comparable SiO2 content.Granitic basement rocks of the Salinian block are now anomalously sandwiched between Franciscan terranes. The petrographic and chemical data are compatible with the concept that the Salinian rocks were originally part of the great batholithic belt along the west coast, which is exemplified by the Sierra Nevada hatholith. It also seems most likely that the Salinian block was transported from somewhere south of the Sierra Nevada batholith by large-scale right-lateral movement along the San Andreas fault zone.

  14. Iodine-xenon, chemical, and petrographic studies of Semarkona chondrules - Evidence for the timing of aqueous alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Grossman, J. N.; Olinger, C. T.; Garrison, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of the I-Xe system of the Semarkona meteorite to other measured properties is investigated via INAA, petrographic, and noble-gas analyses on 17 chondrules from the meteorite. A range of not less than 10 Ma in apparent I-Xe ages is observed. The three latest apparent ages fall in a cluster, suggesting the possibility of a common event. It is argued that the initial I-129/I-127 ratio (R0) is related to chondrule type and/or mineralogy, with nonporphyritic and pyroxene-rich chondrules showing evidence for lower R0s than porphyritic and olivine-rich chondrules. Chondrules with sulfides on or near the surface have lower R0s than other chondrules. The He-129/Xe-132 ratio in the trapped Xe component anticorrelates with R0, consistent with the evolution of a chronometer in a closed system or in multiple systems. It is concluded that the variations in R0 represent variations in ages, and that later events, possibly aqueous alteration, preferentially affected chondrules with nonporphyritic textures and/or sulfide-rich exteriors about 10 Ma after the formation of the chondrules.

  15. Petrographic and geochemical investigation of magma chamber processes beneath small Quaternary volcanic centers between Mt. Jefferson and Mt. Hood volcanoes, Cascade Range Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, E.; Cribb, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Oregon Cascade Range has been dominated by andesite to rhyodacite lavas at both Mt. Jefferson (Conrey, 1991) and at Mt. Hood (Cribb and Barton, 1996) during the Quaternary period. Eruptive sequences at both Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson have been attributed to open-system mama mixing (Kent et al., 2010) (Ferrell et al., 2015), and the narrow range of lavas erupted at both centers has been derived from repeated cycles of magma mixing-fractionation (Cribb and Barton, 1996). This research examines major and trace element geochemistry as well as the petrographic characteristics of Clear Lake Butte (CLB), Pinhead Butte (PB), and Olallie Butte (OB), all of which are located between Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson, and have ben active in the Quaternary period. The research investigates whether the same type of open-system magma mixing known to have occurred at Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson has also occurred at CLB, PB, or OB, or whether those systems were closed to mixing and dominated by fractional crystallization. One of the main goals of this project is to highlight the similarities and differences exhibited by neighboring magmatic systems of similar age, but different scale. Disequilibrium textures observed in thin sections from CLB, OB, and PB suggest open-system magma mixing is likely occurring beneath all three buttes. This petrographic evidence includes plagioclase and pyroxene zoning, embayed margins, sieving, and reaction rims. Major element oxide trends at all three buttes are consistent with fractional crystallization, but show narrow concentrations and non-overlapping compositions between PB, CLB, and OB. All three buttes are characterized by narrow ranges of incompatible and compatible trace element concentrations. CLB, PB, and OB all exhibit LREE enrichment and lack significant HFSE depletions, with PB exhibiting greatest enrichment in REE.

  16. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Gorgona Island komatiites: implications for early growth of the inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Walker, Richard J.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Becker, Harry; Humayun, Munir; Revillon, Sidonie

    2003-02-01

    The presence of coupled enrichments in 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os in some mantle-derived materials reflects long-term elevation of Pt/Os and Re/Os relative to the primitive upper mantle. New Os data for the 89 Ma Gorgona Island, Colombia komatiites indicate that these lavas are also variably enriched in 186Os and 187Os, with 186Os/ 188Os ranging between 0.1198397±22 and 0.1198470±38, and with γOs correspondingly ranging from +0.15 to +4.4. These data define a linear trend that converges with the previously reported linear trend generated from data for modern Hawaiian picritic lavas and a sample from the ca. 251 Ma Siberian plume, to a common component with a 186Os/ 188Os of approximately 0.119870 and γOs of +17.5. The convergence of these data to this Os isotopic composition may imply a single ubiquitous source in the Earth's interior that mixes with a variety of different mantle compositions distinguished by variations in γOs. The 187Os- and 186Os-enriched component may have been generated via early crystallization of the solid inner core and consequent increases in Pt/Os and Re/Os in the liquid outer core, with time leading to suprachondritic 186Os/ 188Os and γOs in the outer core. The presence of Os from the outer core in certain portions of the mantle would require a mechanism that could transfer Os from the outer core to the lower mantle, and thence to the surface. If this is the process that generated the isotopic enrichments in the mantle sources of these plume-derived systems, then the current understanding of solid metal-liquid metal partitioning of Pt, Re and Os requires that crystallization of the inner core began prior to 3.5 Ga. Thus, the Os isotopic data reported here provide a new source of data to better constrain the timing of inner core formation, complementing magnetic field paleo-intensity measurements as data sources that constrain models based on secular cooling of the Earth.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance dashboard application for mapping environmental occurrence and resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Williams, Maggie R.; Fakher, Umama; Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Wang, Fang; Khalife, Walid T.; Hughes, Mary; Etchebarne, Brett E.; Tiedje, James M.; Hashsham, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    An antibiotic resistance (AR) Dashboard application is being developed regarding the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and bacteria (ARB) in environmental and clinical settings. The application gathers and geospatially maps AR studies, reported occurrence and antibiograms, which can be downloaded for offline analysis. With the integration of multiple data sets, the database can be used on a regional or global scale to identify hot spots for ARGs and ARB; track and link spread and transmission, quantify environmental or human factors influencing presence and persistence of ARG harboring organisms; differentiate natural ARGs from those distributed via human or animal activity; cluster and compare ARGs connections in different environments and hosts; and identify genes that can be used as proxies to routinely monitor anthropogenic pollution. To initially populate and develop the AR Dashboard, a qPCR ARG array was tested with 30 surface waters, primary influent from three waste water treatment facilities, ten clinical isolates from a regional hospital and data from previously published studies including river, park soil and swine farm samples. Interested users are invited to download a beta version (available on iOS or Android), submit AR information using the application, and provide feedback on current and prospective functionalities. PMID:26850162

  18. The causes for geographical variations in OS187/OS186 at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turekian, K. K.; Esser, B. K.; Ravizza, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at Yale has approached the problem of the osmium isotopic composition of marine deposits formed in contact with both oxidized and reduced bottom waters. The measured (187) Os/(186) Os ratios of modern bulk sediment can be explained using mixing equations involving continental detrital, volcaniclastic, cosmogenic and hydrogeneous components. These studies show that sediments deposited under reducing marine conditions contain a hydrogenous component which is enriched in Re and has a radiogenic (187) Os/(186) Os ratio. The presence of such a hydrogenous component in the marine fish clay at Stevns Klint can account for the elevation of its (187) Os/(186) Os ration above the expected meteoritic value. Mass balance considerations require the Re/Os ratio of the phase precipitated from the terminal Cretaceous sea at Stevns Klint to have been about one tenth the value observed in contemporary deposits in the Black Sea, assuming Re has not been lost (or Os gained) subsequent to precipitation. In continental sections, the elevation of the (187) Os/(186) Os ratio in boundary layers may be due to precipitation from continental waters of crustally-derived radiogenic osmium either contemporaneous with the meteoritic (or mantle) osmium deposition or later during diagenesis.

  19. 187Re - 187Os Nuclear Geochronometry: A New Dating Method Applied to Old Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2015-04-01

    187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry is a newly developed dating method especially (but not only) for PGE hosting magmatic ore deposits. It combines ideas of nuclear astrophysics with geochronology. For this, the concept of sudden nucleosynthesis [1-3] is used to calculate so-called nucleogeochronometric Rhenium-Osmium two-point-isochrone (TPI) ages. Here, the method is applied to the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) and the Stillwater Complex (SC), using a set of two nuclear geochronometers. They are named the BARBERTON ( Re/Os = 0.849, 187Os/186Os = 10.04 ± 0.015 [4]) and the IVREA (Re/Os = 0.951, 187Os/186Os = 1.9360 ± 0.0015 [5]) nuclear geochronometer. Calculated TPI ages are consistent with results from Sm-Nd geochronology, a previously published Re-Os Molybdenum age of 2740 ± 80 Ma for the G-chromitite of the SC [6] and a Re-Os isochrone age of 1689 ± 160 Ma for the Strathcona ores of the SIC [7]. This leads to an alternative explanation of the peculiar and enigmatic 187Os/186Osi isotopic signatures reported from both ore deposits. For example, for a TPI age of 2717 ± 100 Ma the Ultramafic Series of the SC contains both extremely low (subchrondritic) 187Os/186Osi ratios (187Os/186Osi = 0.125 ± 0.067) and extremely radiogenic isotopic signatures (187Os/186Osi = 6.55 ± 1.7, [6]) in mineral separates (chromites) and whole rock samples, respectively. Within the Strathcona ores of the SIC, even more pronounced radiogenic 187Os/186Os initial ratios can be calculated for TPI ages between 1586 ± 63 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.998 ± 0.045) and 1733 ± 84 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.901 ± 0.059). These results are in line with the recalculated Re-Os isochrone age of 1689 ± 160 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.8 ± 2.3 [7]). In the light of nuclear geochronometry, the occurrence of such peculiar isotopic 187Os/186Osi signatures within one and the same lithological horizon are plausible if explained by mingling of the two nucleogeochronometric (BARBERTON and IVREA) reservoirs containing

  20. The Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion: Chemostratigraphy, cosmic dust flux and the Early Oligocene glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Tarun K.; Ravizza, Gregory E.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution records (ca. 100 kyr) of Os isotope composition ( 187Os / 188Os) in bulk sediments from two tropical Pacific sites (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219) capture the complete Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion and confirm that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum, earlier reported by Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210 (2003) 151-165], is a global feature. Using the astronomically tuned age models available for these sites, it is suggested that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum can be placed at 34.5 ± 0.1 Ma in the marine records. In addition, two other distinct features of the 187Os / 188Os excursion that are correlatable among sections are proposed as chemostratigraphic markers which can serve as age control points with a precision of ca. ± 0.1 Myr. We propose a speculative hypothesis that higher cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene may have contributed to global cooling and Early Oligocene glaciation (Oi-1) by supplying bio-essential trace elements to the oceans and thereby resulting in higher ocean productivity, enhanced burial of organic carbon and draw down of atmospheric CO 2. To determine if the hypothesis that enhanced cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene was a cause for the 187Os / 188Os excursion can be tested by using the paired bulk sediment and leachate Os isotope composition; 187Os / 188Os were also measured in sediment leachates. Results of analyses of leachates are inconsistent between the south Atlantic and the Pacific sites, and therefore do not yield a robust test of this hypothesis. Comparison of 187Os / 188Os records with high resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O records across the Eocene-Oligocene transition suggests that 187Os flux to the oceans decreased during cooling and ice growth leading to the Oi-1 glaciation, whereas subsequent decay of ice-sheets and deglacial weathering drove seawater 187Os / 188Os to higher values. Although the precise timing and magnitude of these changes in weathering fluxes

  1. Declining occurrence and low colonization probability in freshwater mussel assemblages: A dynamic occurrence modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Heise, Ryan J.; Nichols, Robert B.; Pacifici, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Mussel monitoring data are abundant, but methods for analyzing long-term trends in these data are often uninformative or have low power to detect changes. We used a dynamic occurrence model, which accounted for imperfect species detection in surveys, to assess changes in species occurrence in a longterm data set (1986–2011) for the Tar River basin of North Carolina, USA. Occurrence of all species decreased steadily over the time period studied. Occurrence in 1986 ranged from 0.19 for Utterbackia imbecillis to 0.60 for Fusconaia masoni. Occurrence in 2010–2011 ranged from 0.10 for Lampsilis radiata to 0.40 for F. masoni. The maximum difference between occurrence in 1986 and 2011 was a decline of 0.30 for Alasmidonta undulata. Mean persistence for all species was high (0.97, 95% CI ¼ 0.95–0.99); however, mean colonization probability was very low (,0.01, 95% CI ¼ ,0.01–0.01). These results indicate that mussels persisted at sites already occupied but that they have not colonized sites where they had not occurred previously. Our findings highlight the importance of modeling approaches that incorporate imperfect detection in estimating species occurrence and revealing temporal trends to inform conservation planning.

  2. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Araújo, Thelma Leite de; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    To identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of hormonal contraceptive use and the occurrence of stroke. Integrative review of the literature, through database search using the descriptors "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" and "Stroke". Original studies in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and available online were included. Studies that did not answer our guiding questions and duplicated studies were excluded. Women using combined oral contraceptives have higher risk of stroke, even with a lower hormonal dosage and different types of progestogen, regardless of the duration of use. The use of contraceptives associated with smoking, hypertension, migraine, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and sedentary lifestyle increases the chance of stroke. Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are associated to increased risk. Use of combined hormonal contraceptives, except for the injectable and the transdermal ones, increases the chance of occurrence of the event. Progestogen-only contraceptives were considered safe. Identificar evidências científicas acerca da influência do uso de anticoncepcionais hormonais na ocorrência do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Revisão integrativa da literatura, com pesquisa em bases de dados, utilizando os descritores "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" e "stroke". Foram incluídos artigos originais nos idiomas português, espanhol e inglês, publicados na íntegra e disponíveis eletronicamente. Foram excluídos artigos que não respondiam às questões norteadoras e repetidos. Usuárias de anticoncepcional oral combinado apresentam risco maior de AVC, mesmo com dosagem hormonal menor e diferentes tipos de progestágeno, independente do tempo de uso. A presença associada de tabagismo, hipertensão arterial, enxaqueca, hipercolesterolemia, obesidade e sedentarismo aumenta a chance desse desfecho. Adesivo anticoncepcional e anel vaginal s

  3. Demonstration of monolignol β-glucosidase activity of rice Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 in Arabidopsis thaliana bglu45 mutant.

    PubMed

    Baiya, Supaporn; Mahong, Bancha; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2018-06-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 1 members Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 were proposed to be rice monolignol β-glucosidases. In vitro studies demonstrated that the Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 hydrolyze the monolignol glucosides coniferin and syringin with high efficiency compared to other substrates. The replacement of the conserved catalytic acid/base glutamate residue by a nonionizable glutamine residue in Os4BGlu14 suggested that it may be inactive as a β-glucosidase. Here, we investigated the activities of Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 in planta by recombinant expression of their genes in the Arabidopsis bglu45-2 (monolignol β-glucosidase) mutant and analysis of monolignol glucosides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The bglu45-2 line exhibits elevated monolignol glucoside levels, but lower amounts of coniferin, syringin, and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside were seen in Arabidopsis bglu45-2 rescued lines complemented by the Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 genes. These data suggest that the bglu45-2 mutant has a broader effect on monolignols than previously reported and that the Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 proteins act as monolignol β-glucosidases to complement the defect. An OsBGlu16-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell wall. This apoplastic localization and the effect of these enzymes on monolignol glucoside levels suggest monolignol glucosides from the vacuole may meet the monolignol β-glucosidases, despite their different localization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Eclogitic breccia from the Monviso ophiolite complex: new field and petrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Michele; Verlaguet, Anne; Federico, Laura; Agard, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The Monviso meta-ophiolite complex (Northern Italy, Western Alps) represents a coherent portion of oceanic lithosphere metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during the Alpine orogeny (2.6 GPa - 550°C, Lago Superiore Unit, Angiboust et al., 2011), and exhibits from bottom to top a thick serpentinite sole locally capped by metasediments, Mg-Al-rich metagabbros, then Fe-Ti-metagabbros capped by metabasalts. This section is disrupted by three main shear zones. Our study focusses on the Lower Shear Zone (LSZ), situated between the serpentinite sole (to the East) and the Mg-metagabbro bodies (to the West), and composed of blocks of both Fe-Ti and Mg-Al metagabbros embedded in a talc and tremolite-rich serpentinite matrix. Among these blocks, some were described as eclogitic breccias and interpreted as the result of a seismic rupture plane (Angiboust et al., 2012). These breccias correspond to blocks of Fe-Ti-metagabbros that were brecciated in eclogitic facies conditions (as attested by the omphacite + garnet ± lawsonite cement of the breccia) in a fluid-rich environment, as suggested by the abundance of lawsonite in the cement. Here we present new field data on the distribution and petrographic characterization of these eclogitic blocks in the LSZ. The aim of this work is twofold: (I) detailed mapping of the eclogitic block distribution along the LSZ, in order to determine precisely the extent and representativity of the breccias and (II) characterization of the brecciated blocks, at the outcrop scale, to explore the brecciation processes and structures. Between Pian del Re and Colle di Luca localities, the occurrence of eclogite blocks is uniform along the strike of the shear-zone, resulting in a 16 km-long belt of outcropping eclogitic bodies embedded in serpentinite matrix. The shear-zone width, by contrast, varies from 1.3 km to 0.8 km. Three types of eclogitic blocks can be distinguished: (1) intact (i.e., not brecciated) blocks of Fe

  5. Integration of terrestrial laser scanner, ultrasonic and petrographical data in the diagnostic process on stone building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Fais, Silvana; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a modern contactless non-destructive technique (NDT) useful to 3D-model complex-shaped objects with a few hours' field survey. A TLS survey produces very dense point clouds made up of coordinates of point and radiometric information given by the reflectivity parameter i.e. the ratio between the amount of energy emitted by the sensor and the energy reflected by the target object. Modern TLSs used in architecture are phase instruments where the phase difference obtained by comparing the emitted laser pulse with the reflected one is proportional to the sensor-target distance expressed as an integer multiple of the half laser wavelength. TLS data are processed by registering point clouds i.e. by referring them to the same reference frame and by aggregation after a fine registration procedure. The resulting aggregate point cloud can be compared with graphic primitives as single or multiple planes, cylinders or spheres, and the resulting residuals give a morphological map that affords information about the state of conservation of the building materials used in historical or modern buildings, in particular when compared with other NDT techniques. In spite of its great productivity, the TLS technique is limited in that it is unable to penetrate the investigated materials. For this reason both the 3D residuals map and the reflectivity map need to be correlated with the results of other NDT techniques such as the ultrasonic method, and a complex study of the composition of building materials is also necessary. The application of a methodology useful to evaluate the quality of stone building materials and locate altered or damaged zones is presented in this study based on the integrated application of three independent techniques, two non destructive such as the TLS and the ultrasonic techniques in the 24-54 kHz range, and a third to analyze the petrographical characteristics of the stone materials, mainly the texture, with optical and

  6. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Kap; Park, Hyo-Young; Jang, Yun Hee; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-03-01

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  7. An Index to PGE-Ni-Cr Deposits and Occurrences in Selected Mineral-Occurrence Databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Galloway, John P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Databases of mineral deposits and occurrences are essential to conducting assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. In the USGS's (U.S. Geological Survey) global assessment of undiscovered resources of copper, potash, and the platinum-group elements (PGE), only a few mineral deposit types will be evaluated. For example, only porphyry-copper and sediment-hosted copper deposits will be considered for the copper assessment. To support the global assessment, the USGS prepared comprehensive compilations of the occurrences of these two deposit types in order to develop grade and tonnage models and delineate permissive areas for undiscovered deposits of those types. This publication identifies previously published databases and database records that describe PGE, nickel, and chromium deposits and occurrences. Nickel and chromium were included in this overview because of the close association of PGE with nickel and chromium mineralization. Users of this database will need to refer to the original databases for detailed information about the deposits and occurrences. This information will be used to develop a current and comprehensive global database of PGE deposits and occurrences.

  8. Nanoscale variations in 187Os isotopic composition and HSE systematics in a Bultfontein peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, A. N.; Luguet, A.; Schreiber, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Nowell, G. M.; Lorand, J.-P.; Wirth, R.; Janney, P. E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the mineralogical controls on radiogenic chronometers is a fundamental aspect of all geochronological tools. As with other common dating tools, it has become increasingly clear that the Re-Os system can be impacted by multiple mineral formation events. The accessory and micrometric nature of the Re-Os-bearing minerals has made assessing this influence complex. This is especially evident in cratonic peridotites, where long residence times and multiple metasomatic events have created a complex melting and re-enrichment history. Here we investigate a harzburgitic peridotite from the Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa) which contains sub-micron Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions within base metal sulphides (BMS). Through the combination of the focused ion beam lift-out technique and low blank mass spectrometry we were able to remove and analyse the Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions for their Re-Os composition and highly siderophile element (HSE) systematics. Six repeats of the whole-rock yield 187Os/188Os compositions of 0.10893-0.10965, which correspond to Re depletion model ages (TRD) of 2.69-2.79 Ga. The Os, Ir and Pt concentrations are slightly variable across the different digestions, whilst Pd and Re remain constant. The resulting HSE pattern is typical of cratonic peridotites displaying depleted Pt and Pd. The Pt-Fe-alloys have PUM-like 187Os/188Os compositions of 0.1294 ± 24 (2-s.d.) and 0.1342 ± 38, and exhibit a saw-tooth HSE pattern with enriched Re and Pt. In contrast, their BMS hosts have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os of 0.1084 ± 6 and 0.1066 ± 3, with TRD ages of 2.86 and 3.09 Ga, similar to the whole-rock systematics. The metasomatic origin of the BMS is supported by (i) the highly depleted nature of the mantle peridotite and (ii) their Ni-rich sulphide assemblage. Occurrence of Pt-Fe-alloys as inclusions within BMS grains demonstrates the genetic link between the BMS and Pt-Fe-alloys and argues for formation during a single but continuous event of silicate melt

  9. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  10. 187Os/188Os of boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, IODP Exp 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, D. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Godard, M.; Shervais, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone is an ideal laboratory in which to study the evolution of a subduction zone from its initiation to the development of modern-day arc volcanism. Boninite lavas were produced in the IBM forearc region during the early stages of subduction and are thought to have been generated by flux melting the previously depleted mantle wedge. Mariana forearc mantle peridotites record unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signatures (0.1193-0.1273) supporting the existence of variably depleted mantle in this region (Parkinson et al., 1998). In order to understand the connection between the regional mantle, slab-derived fluids, and the generation of boninites, Re-Os isotopic data were measured on subset of boninite-series lavas obtained during IODP Expedition 352. Preliminary age-corrected (48 Ma) 187Os/188Os isotopic data for boninite-series lavas (sites U1439C and U1442A) are unradiogenic to modestly radiogenic (0.1254-0.1390) compared to primitive mantle (0.1296), consistent with Os isotopic data from boninite sands from the Bonin Islands (0.1279-0.1382; Suzuki et al., 2011). The least radiogenic boninites have 187Os/188Os (< 0.1296) values consistent with average MORB mantle recorded globally by abyssal peridotites (0.1238 ± 0.0042; Rudnick & Walker, 2009). However, boninite lavas were not derived from the most refractory ancient mantle recorded by Mariana peridotites. Unradiogenic boninites generally have higher Os abundances (0.043-0.567 ppb), whereas more radiogenic boninites have low Os abundances (0.015-0.036). Due to their low Os abundances, the moderately radiogenic isotopic signatures may be the result of interaction with highly radiogenic seawater or incorporation of radiogenic sediment (e.g. Suzuki et al. 2011). However, the radiogenic values could also be the result of fluid flux from the subducting Pacific plate.

  11. OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 play critical roles in rice defense signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Li, Jian-Feng; Ao, Ying; Li, Zhangqun; Liu, Jun; Feng, Dongru; Qi, Kangbiao; He, Yanming; Zeng, Liexian; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2013-02-01

    Plant innate immunity relies on successful detection of trespassing pathogens through recognizing their microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the cell surface. We recently reported two rice lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin. Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance dashboard application for mapping environmental occurrence and resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stedtfeld, Robert D; Williams, Maggie R; Fakher, Umama; Johnson, Timothy A; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M; Wang, Fang; Khalife, Walid T; Hughes, Mary; Etchebarne, Brett E; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2016-03-01

    An antibiotic resistance (AR) Dashboard application is being developed regarding the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and bacteria (ARB) in environmental and clinical settings. The application gathers and geospatially maps AR studies, reported occurrence and antibiograms, which can be downloaded for offline analysis. With the integration of multiple data sets, the database can be used on a regional or global scale to identify hot spots for ARGs and ARB; track and link spread and transmission, quantify environmental or human factors influencing presence and persistence of ARG harboring organisms; differentiate natural ARGs from those distributed via human or animal activity; cluster and compare ARGs connections in different environments and hosts; and identify genes that can be used as proxies to routinely monitor anthropogenic pollution. To initially populate and develop the AR Dashboard, a qPCR ARG array was tested with 30 surface waters, primary influent from three waste water treatment facilities, ten clinical isolates from a regional hospital and data from previously published studies including river, park soil and swine farm samples. Interested users are invited to download a beta version (available on iOS or Android), submit AR information using the application, and provide feedback on current and prospective functionalities. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  14. Phosphate transporters OsPHT1;9 and OsPHT1;10 are involved in phosphate uptake in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs, and lateral roots, with the expression being specifically induced by Pi-starvation. In leaves, the expression of the two ...

  15. Nursing workload and occurrence of adverse events in intensive care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andrea Carvalho de; Garcia, Paulo Carlos; Nogueira, Lilia de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identifyevidences of the influence of nursing workload on the occurrence of adverse events (AE) in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic literature review was conducted in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF, and Cochrane from studies in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, published by 2015. The analyzed AE were infection, pressure ulcer (PU), patient falls, and medication errors. Of 594 potential studies, eight comprised the final sample of the review. TheNursing Activities Score (NAS; 37.5%) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System(TISS; 37.5%) were the instruments most frequently used for assessing nursing workload. Six studies (75.0%) identified the influence of work overload in events of infection, PU, and medicationerrors. An investigation found that the NAS was a protective factor for PU. The nursing workload required by patients in the ICU influenced the occurrence of AE, and nurses must monitor this variable daily to ensure proper sizing of staff and safety of care. Identificar evidências sobre a influência da carga de trabalho de enfermagem na ocorrência de eventos adversos (EA) em pacientes adultos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e Cochrane deestudosem inglês, português ou espanhol, publicados até 2015. Os EA analisados foram infecção, úlcera por pressão (UPP), quedas e erros associados a medicamentos. Das 594 pesquisas potenciais identificadas, oito compuseram a amostra final da revisão. O NursingActivities Score -NAS (37,5%) e o TherapeuticInterventionScoring System -TISS (37,5%) foram os instrumentos mais utilizados para avaliação da carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Seis pesquisas (75,0%) identificaram influência da sobrecarga de trabalho na ocorrência de infecção, UPP e uso de medicamentos. Uma investigação identificou que o NAS foi fator de prote

  16. Os isotope systematics in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, Laurie; Zindler, Alan; Marcantonio, Franco; White, William; Wyman, Derek; Weaver, Barry

    1993-12-01

    New Re-Os isotopic results for Os-poor basalts from St. Helena, the Comores, Samoa, Pitcairn and Kerguelen dramatically expand the known range of initial Os-186/Os-187 ratios in Ocean Island Basalts (OIBs) to values as high as 1.7. In contrast to the Os isotopic uniformity of Os-rich basalts from the HIMU islands of Tubuai and Mangaia found by Hauri and Hart, our values for St. Helena span most of the known range of Os isotopic variability in oceanic basalts (initial O-187/Os-186 ranges from 1.2 to 1.7). Generation of such radiogenic Os in the mantle requires melting of source materials that contain large proportions of recycled oceanic crust. The very low Os concentrations of most of the basalts analyzed here, however, leave them susceptible to modification via interaction with materials containing radiogenic Os in the near-surface environment. Thus the high Os-186/Os-187 ratios may result from assimilation of radiogenic Os-rich marine sediments, such as Mn oxides, within the volcanic piles traversed by these magmas en route to the surface. Furthermore, the Os isotopic signatures of Os-rich, olivine-laden OIBs may reflect the accumulation of lithospheric olivine, rather than simply their mantle source characteristics. The extent to which these processes alter the view of the mantle obtained via study of Re-Os systematics in oceanic basalts is uncertain. These effects must be quantified before Re-Os systematics in OIBs can be used with confidence to investigate the nature of mantle heterogeneity and its causes.

  17. OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 Function as Arsenate Reductases and Regulate Arsenic Accumulation1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Tang, Zhong; Wu, Zhongchang; Salt, David E.; Chao, Dai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a major dietary source of the toxic metalloid arsenic (As). Reducing its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grain is of critical importance to food safety. Rice roots take up arsenate and arsenite depending on the prevailing soil conditions. The first step of arsenate detoxification is its reduction to arsenite, but the enzyme(s) catalyzing this reaction in rice remains unknown. Here, we identify OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 as arsenate reductases in rice. OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 are able to complement an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the endogenous arsenate reductase and to reduce arsenate to arsenite. OsHAC1:1 and OsHAC1;2 are predominantly expressed in roots, with OsHAC1;1 being abundant in the epidermis, root hairs, and pericycle cells while OsHAC1;2 is abundant in the epidermis, outer layers of cortex, and endodermis cells. Expression of the two genes was induced by arsenate exposure. Knocking out OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 decreased the reduction of arsenate to arsenite in roots, reducing arsenite efflux to the external medium. Loss of arsenite efflux was also associated with increased As accumulation in shoots. Greater effects were observed in a double mutant of the two genes. In contrast, overexpression of either OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 increased arsenite efflux, reduced As accumulation, and enhanced arsenate tolerance. When grown under aerobic soil conditions, overexpression of either OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 also decreased As accumulation in rice grain, whereas grain As increased in the knockout mutants. We conclude that OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 are arsenate reductases that play an important role in restricting As accumulation in rice shoots and grain. PMID:27702843

  18. Ba3CuOs2O9 and Ba3ZnOs2O9, a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hai L.; Jansen, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Ba3CuOs2O9 and Ba3ZnOs2O9 were synthesized by solid-state reactions. Ba3CuOs2O9 crystallizes in Cmcm, while Ba3ZnOs2O9 adopts the hexagonal space group P63/mmc. Both the crystal structures consist of face-sharing Os-centered octahedra forming dimer-like Os2O9 units, which are interconnected by corner-sharing CuO6, or ZnO6 octahedra, respectively. In Ba3CuOs2O9, the CuO6 octahedra show a characteristic Jahn-Teller distortion. Both, Ba3CuOs2O9 and Ba3ZnOs2O9, are electrically insulating. Magnetic and specific heat measurements confirm that Ba3CuOs2O9 is antiferromagnetically ordered below 47 K. Analysis of the magnetic data indicated that its magnetic properties are dominated by Cu2+ ions. The magnetic susceptibility of Ba3ZnOs2O9 is weakly temperature-dependent with a broad maximum ≈ 280 K, indicating the presence of strong exchange interactions within the Os2O9 dimer. The residual magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures also suggests the presence of appreciable exchange coupling between the dimers.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of Indian primates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Global and regional species conservation efforts are hindered by poor distribution data and range maps. Many Indian primates face extinction, but assessments of population status are hindered by lack of reliable distribution data. We estimated the current occurrence and distribution of 15 Indian primates by applying occupancy models to field data from a country-wide survey of local experts. We modeled species occurrence in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics, and human influences), which we believe are critical to determining species occurrence in India. We found evidence that protected areas positively influence occurrence of seven species and for some species are their only refuge. We found evergreen forests to be more critical for some primates along with temperate and deciduous forests. Elevation negatively influenced occurrence of three species. Lower human population density was positively associated with occurrence of five species, and higher cultural tolerance was positively associated with occurrence of three species. We find that 11 primates occupy less than 15% of the total land area of India. Vulnerable primates with restricted ranges are Golden langur, Arunachal macaque, Pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Phayre's leaf monkey, Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed macaque. Only Hanuman langur and rhesus macaque are widely distributed. We find occupancy modeling to be useful in determining species ranges, and in agreement with current species ranking and IUCN status. In landscapes where monitoring efforts require optimizing cost, effort and time, we used ecological and social covariates to reliably estimate species occurrence and focus species conservation efforts. ?? Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A thermoanalytical, X-ray diffraction and petrographic approach to the forensic assessment of fire affected concrete in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Alqassim, M A; Jones, M R; Berlouis, L E A; Nic Daeid, N

    2016-07-01

    For most fires, forensic investigation takes place well after building materials have cooled and knowledge of the structural damage due to heat exposure can reveal the temperature reached during an incident. Recently, there have been significant changes in the types and hence characteristics of cementitious materials used in the United Arab Emirates. Few studies focus on the application of thermo-analytical, X-ray diffraction and petrographic techniques on newly developed structures and this work aims to address this deficiency by utilising a series of parametric laboratory-based tests to assess the effects of heat on hardened concrete. Specimens were made with a design mix typically used for low-rise residential homes and storage facilities. The key constituents were: Portland cement (PC), crushed gabbro stone and dune sand with water/cement ratios of 0.4-0.5. Portland cement substitutes included ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), and silica fume (SF) at replacement percentages of up to 50% and 4%, respectively. The concrete cubes of 100-mm size were produced and standard cured to 28 days and then exposed to heat inside an electric furnace with pre-determined temperature regimes of 150°C, 300°C, 600°C and 900°C. Petrographic examination was utilised to compare the discolouration of the cooled concrete. Data derived from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are reported in order to assess the usefulness of these techniques in fire scene investigation to differentiate between these temperature regimes. The results from the TGA indicate that the majority of the percentage weight loss for all the mixtures occurred in the range 650-700°C, which corresponds to the decarbonation of calcium carbonate, mainly from the aggregates. The endothermic DSC peak at 70-120°C relates to the loss of evaporable water. Since both of these reactions are irreversible, this information can help fire investigators estimate the

  1. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stastna, A., E-mail: astastna@gmail.com; Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.

    2012-03-15

    Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism,more » based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.« less

  2. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, aremore » omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items.« less

  3. Petrographic, biological, and chemical techniques used to characterize two tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Malagodi, M.; Barca, D.; Cirrincione, R.; Pezzino, A.; Crisci, G. M.; Miriello, D.

    2010-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary contribution, several diagnostic tests were carried out in order to characterize the stone materials, forms of alteration, and protective products applied in the past to two monumental tombs located in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy). The Protestant Cemetery is a very important historic site, and has been included in the List of 100 Most Endangered Sites in the World since 2005. In this work, two of its tombs were studied: those of Karl (or Charles) Brjullov, a Russian painter who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and of Lady Elisa Temple, wife of the artist Sir Grenville Temple. The tombs are both made of white marble and travertine, and the same forms of alteration and degradation, such as blackish biological patinas, black crusts, and chromatic alterations, were found on both monuments. Petrographic analysis of the different lithotypes made it possible to determine textural characteristics, evaluate the state of preservation, and formulate some hypotheses about their provenance by means of oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios, and evaluation of maximum grain size (MGS) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) of calcite grains. Laboratory culture analysis identified autotrophic species and, in some cases, black patinas caused by fungal species were found. Lastly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that some synthetic protective products had been used in previous, undocumented restoration processes on some portions of both graves.

  4. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) and the Raman spectra of (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2009-05-18

    The adduct, (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), was synthesized by dissolution of the infinite chain polymer, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), in XeOF(4) solvent at room temperature followed by removal of excess XeOF(4) under dynamic vacuum at 0 degrees C. Continued pumping at 0 degrees C resulted in removal of associated XeOF(4), yielding (OsO(3)F(2))(2), a new low-temperature phase of OsO(3)F(2). Upon standing at 25 degrees C for 1(1)/(2) h, (OsO(3)F(2))(2) underwent a phase transition to the known monoclinic phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The title compounds, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) have been characterized by low-temperature (-150 degrees C) Raman spectroscopy. Crystallization of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) from XeOF(4) solution at 0 degrees C yielded crystals suitable for X-ray structure determination. The structural unit contains the (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer in which the OsO(3)F(3) units are joined by two Os---F---Os bridges having fluorine bridge atoms that are equidistant from the osmium centers (2.117(5) and 2.107(4) A). The dimer coordinates to two XeOF(4) molecules through Os-F...Xe bridges in which the Xe...F distances (2.757(5) A) are significantly less than the sum of the Xe and F van der Waals radii (3.63 A). The (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer has C(i) symmetry in which each pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3) unit has a facial arrangement of oxygen ligands with XeOF(4) molecules that are only slightly distorted from their gas-phase C(4v) symmetry. Quantum-chemical calculations using SVWN and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the gas-phase geometries, natural bond orbital analyses, and vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), XeOF(4), OsO(2)F(4), and (mu-FOsO(3)F(2))(2)OsO(3)F(-) to aid in the assignment of the experimental vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The vibrational modes of the low-temperature polymeric phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), have been

  5. PGE abundance and Re-Os isotope Systematics of Native-Fe-Bearing Basaltic Rocks and Their Carbonaceous Crustal Contaminants: Insights into magma plumbing-system dynamics in LIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, G. H.; Day, J. M.; Goodrich, C. A.; Pernet-Fisher, J.; Pearson, D. G.; Taylor, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Native-Fe grains form in basaltic melts at highly reducing conditions (occurrences exist: 1) ~60 Ma basalts at Disko Island, Greenland; 2) ~20 Ma Bühl basalts, Germany, and 3) intrusions of the ~250 Ma Siberian Large Igneous Province (LIP). The reducing conditions recorded are the direct result of assimilation of carbonaceous crustal material during emplacement of the basaltic magmas at or near the surface. Native Fe-bearing basalts are useful natural analogues for studying PGE pre-concentration mechanisms, and the potential for PGE additions to magmas from crustal sources. Here, we present PGE LA-ICP-MS data for Fe-alloy, cohenite, and sulfide for a suite of Siberian and Disko Island native-Fe basalts, in combination with whole-rock PGE data for all known occurrences. The Siberian native-Fe alloys are characterized by highly variable PGE concentrations (1-30 ppm total PGEs), distinct low Os abundances, and PGE profiles similar to those of the nearby Noril'sk sulfide ores. In contrast, the Disko Island alloys are characterized by total PGE concentrations of 1-10 ppm and distinct positive Os and Re anomalies in extended PGE profiles. The Bühl basalts contain low PGE concentrations (~20 ppb). In order to understand contamination contributions, Os-isotopes analyses have been performed. Preliminary whole-rock 187Os/188Os data for high metal content samples from Siberia (0.33606 ± 37) and Disko (0.15402 ± 15) indicate high-time integrated Re/Os. The Re anomalies observed in extended PGE profiles of the Disko Island samples may reflect a potential crustal contribution to the overall PGE budget, through the addition of carbonaceous material. Whereas the Siberian samples contain abundant carbonaceous xenoliths, there is no apparent PGE contribution from crustal materials. Therefore, the role of crustal contamination is important in forming the native-Fe alloys, but the interaction

  6. Lithological and Petrographic Analyses of Carbonates and Sandstones From the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Avendaño, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of sedimentological and petrological studies of drill cores from the Bay of Campeche in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Based on reports on drill cores obtained from oil exploratory wells in the Cantarell Complex located 80 kilometres offshore in the Bay of Campeche and studies related to regional geology composite simplified stratigraphic columns for offshore Campeche region have been constructed up to depths of approximately 5000 m. The stratigraphic column is formed by a thick sediment sequence of Middle Jurassic age (evaporites, Callovian), Late Jurassic (terrigenous, calcareous clays and calcareous layers), Lower Cretaceous (carbonates), Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene (calcareous breccias), Paleogene-Neogene (terrigenous-carbonates intercalations) and Quaternary (terrigenous). The core samples studied come from wells in the Sihil and Akal fields in Cantarell. Analysis of reports on lithological descriptions indicates that these wells sample dolomitized sedimentary breccias from the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene and fine-grained sandstones from the Late Jurassic Tithonian, respectively. Based on results of petrographic studies, the texture, cementing material and porosity of the units have been documented. The thin sections for carbonates were classified based on their texture according to Dunham (1962) for carbonate rocks, classified according to their components using the ternary diagrams of Folk (1974). Percentages refer to the data presented in tables, which were obtained by point-counting technique (with a total 250). Photomicrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) provide magnification for easy documentation of crystalline arrangements and description of micro-porous for different types of carbonates such as dolomite, in addition to the morphology of authigenic clays. Results of these studies and previous works in the area permit characterization of diagenetic processes of the carbonate sediments in the Campeche Bay, and provide

  7. A Petrographic History of Martian Meteorite ALH84001: Two Shocks and an Ancient Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1995-01-01

    ALH84001 is an igneous meteorite, an orthopyroxenite of martian origin. It contains petrographic evidence of two shock metamorphic events, separated by thermal and chemical events. The evidence for two shock events suggests that ALH84001 is ancient and perhaps a sample of the martian highlands. From petrography and mineral chemistry, the history of ALH84001 must include: crystallization from magma, a first shock (impact) metamorphism, thermal metamorphism, low-temperature chemical alteration, and a second shock (impact) metamorphism. Originally, ALH84001 was igneous, an orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate. In the first shock event, the igneous rock was cut by melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets, now bands of equigranular fine-grained pyroxene and other minerals (crush zones). Intact fragments of the cumulate were fractured and strained (now converted to polygonized zones). The subsequent thermal metamorphism (possibly related to the first shock) annealed the melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets to their present granoblastic texture and permitted chemical homogenization of all mineral species present. The temperature of metamorphism was at least 875 C, based on mineral thermometers. Next, Mg-Fe-Ca carbonates and pyrite replaced plagioclase in both clasts and granular bands, producing ellipsoidal carbonate globules with sub-micron scale compositional stratigraphy, repeated identically in all globules, The second shock event produced microfault offsets of carbonate stratigraphy and other mineral contacts, radial fractures around chromite and maskelynite, and strain birefringence in pyroxene. Maskelynite could not have been preserved from the first shock event, because it would have crystallized back to plagioclase. The martian source area for ALH84001 must permit this complex, multiple impact history. Very few craters on young igneous surfaces are on or near earlier impact features. It is more likely that ALH84001 was ejected from an old igneous unit (Hesperian or

  8. Stable isotopic, petrographic and trace element analyses of two stalagmites from Sirtlanini Cave, SW Turkey: insights into Mid-Late Holocene environmental and climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckover, Emily; Mason, Jennifer; Ozbek, Onur; Marca, Alina; Rowe, Peter; Andrews, Julian; Noble, Steve; Brindle, John; Baba, Alper; Kendall, Alan; Al-Omari, Sa'ad

    2015-04-01

    Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from two Holocene stalagmites (HY-8 and HY-9) from Sirtlanini Cave, southwest Turkey have been created using petrographic, stable isotope and trace element analyses where the stratigraphy of the stalagmites overlaps from ~6 ka. The cave elevation is 830 metres a.s.l., located 100 km northwest of Lake Golhisar, which has yielded a low resolution Holocene isotopic record (Eastwood et al. 2007), and 120 km northwest of Caltilar Höyük, the site of one of the earliest urban settlements in the region (Momigliano et al., 2011). Both stalagmites contain prominent dark grey-blue layers up to a few mm thick. Trace element analysis reveals that these layers contain elevated Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations suggesting enhanced mobilization of these elements, possibly adsorbed to organic matter on 100 nm to 1 μm soil particles (Hartland et al. 2012). Raman spectroscopy identifies the presence of soot within the layers and evidence for plant material has been identified by SEM along with detritus (clay, quartz). This suggests increased infiltration though the karst, probably due to decreased vegetation cover, a conclusion supported by positive δ13C excursions associated with some grey layers. It is likely that episodes of burning occurred above the cave either due to natural wild fires or anthropogenic activity. The δ18O record of HY-8 shows no long term trend but fluctuates about a mean of -6.3 oḢowever it is punctuated by several shorted lived excursions of 1 o - 2.5 o amplitude. δ13C decreases steadily (-6o to -10 ) through the Mid/Late Holocene with numerous short lived excursions, many >2o and some (not exclusively) associated with grey layers . Carbon and oxygen are poorly correlated, although sympathetic trends are seen during some excursions. δ18O values have probably responded to changes in winter rainfall amounts with δ13C likely reflecting fluctuating vegetation density above the cave, particularly when

  9. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  10. Auxin regulated OsRGP1 and OsSuS are involved in the gravitropic bending of rice shoot bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liwei; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    The gravitropic bending of rice shoot in horizontal position results from differential elongation of cells between two halves of shoot bases. In our experiment, reversibly glycosylated polypeptide (OsRGP1), sucrose synthase (OsSuS) genes which related to sugar metabolism were identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in gravitropism in rice shoot bases. Realtime RT-PCR were used to study the expression of two genes in detail. OsRGP1 and OsSuS were differentially induced in the abaxial (lower) side of rice shoot bases during gravitropism. The OsRGP1 and OsSuS expression were regulated by auxin. The sequence analysis of their promoters was in concurrence. TIBA treatment could inhibit the asymmetrical expression of OsRGP1 and OsSuS in gravitropism in rice shoot bases. In addition, there was more hexose in the lower side of rice shoot bases in gravitropism. Our data suggested that asymmetric redistribution of auxin following gravistimulation resulted in the different localized expression of OsRGP1 and OsSuS. It is possible that asymmetrical expression of OsSuS resulted in the asymmetrical distribution of hexose and asymmetrical expression of OsRGP1 induced the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in the lower half of rice shoot bases. Hexose and cell wall polysaccharides accumulation in lower side of rice shoot bases might contribute to the cell expansion, thus leading to gravitropic bending.

  11. pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 expression enhances nitrogen uptake efficiency and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Fan, Xiaoru; Qian, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yong; Song, Miaoquan; Liu, Yu; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2017-10-01

    The nitrate (NO3-) transporter has been selected as an important gene maker in the process of environmental adoption in rice cultivars. In this work, we transferred another native OsNAR2.1 promoter with driving OsNAR2.1 gene into rice plants. The transgenic lines with exogenous pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 constructs showed enhanced OsNAR2.1 expression level, compared with wild type (WT), and 15 N influx in roots increased 21%-32% in response to 0.2 mm and 2.5 mm 15NO3- and 1.25 mm 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 . Under these three N conditions, the biomass of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 transgenic lines increased 143%, 129% and 51%, and total N content increased 161%, 242% and 69%, respectively, compared to WT. Furthermore in field experiments we found the grain yield, agricultural nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE), and dry matter transfer of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 plants increased by about 21%, 22% and 21%, compared to WT. We also compared the phenotypes of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines in the field, found that postanthesis N uptake differed significantly between them, and in comparison with the WT. Postanthesis N uptake (PANU) increased approximately 39% and 85%, in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines, respectively, possibly because OsNRT2.1 expression was less in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 lines than in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines during the late growth stage. These results show that rice NO 3 - uptake, yield and NUE were improved by increased OsNAR2.1 expression via its native promoter. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Nelia, E-mail: nelia.castro@ntnu.no; Sorensen, Bjorn E.; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.

    The mineral content of 5 aggregate samples from 4 different countries, including reactive and non-reactive aggregate types, was assessed quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using polished sections. Additionally, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the opal-CT identified in one of the aggregate samples. Critical review of results from polished sections against traditionally powdered specimen has demonstrated that for fine-grained rocks without preferred orientation the assessment of mineral content by XRD using polished sections may represent an advantage over traditional powder specimens. Comparison of data on mineral content and silica speciation with expansion data frommore » PARTNER project confirmed that the presence of opal-CT plays an important role in the reactivity of one of the studied aggregates. Used as a complementary tool to RILEM AAR-1, the methodology suggested in this paper has the potential to improve the strength of the petrographic method.« less

  13. Petrographic characterization and provenance determination of the white marbles used in the Roman sculptures of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Fabrizio; Columbu, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Miriello, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    The Roman municipium of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche) was located along the `Via Consolare Flaminia', in the stretch of road where it ran along the final sector of the valley of the River Metauro ( Mataurus). The ancient colony of Forum Sempronii, which is cited by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, was found in the second century BC, probably on the site of an earlier community and its activity continued until the end of the fifth century AD. During ancient and more recent archaeological excavations, many fragments of coloured stones and marbles, and some white marble sculptures have been unearthed. In this paper, we report the results of the provenance identification of the white marbles used for the sculptures found in the archaeological site of Forum Sempronii and now displayed at the local archaeological museum. The determination of the source origin of the white marbles used for the sculptures has been established by mineralogical-petrographic and geochemical analyses. Microscopic study of thin sections together with carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios indicate that more than one type of white marbles was used: Pentelikon, Lunense, and Thasian.

  14. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  15. OCCURRENCE AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR THE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and other pathogens in the raw and finished water of public water systems (PWS) based on modeling of source water survey data. Analysis of microbial occurrence data to support LT2ESWTR microbial risk assessment

  16. The OsO(3)F(+) and mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)(+) cations: their syntheses and study by Raman and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and electron structure calculations and X-ray crystal structures of [OsO(3)F][PnF(6)] (Pn = As, Sb), [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)], and [OsO(3)F][Sb(3)F(16)].

    PubMed

    Gerken, Michael; Dixon, David A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2002-01-28

    The fluoride ion donor properties of OsO(3)F(2) have been investigated. The salts [OsO(3)F][AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)], mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)[AsF(6)], [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[SbF(6)], and [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)] have been prepared by reaction of OsO(3)F(2) with AsF(5) and SbF(5) in HF solvent and have been characterized in the solid state by Raman spectroscopy. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of [OsO(3)F][AsF(6)] (P2(1)/n, a = 7.0001(11) A, c = 8.8629(13) A, beta = 92.270(7) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0401 at -126 degrees C), [OsO(3)F][SbF(6)] (P2(1)/c, a = 5.4772(14) A, b = 10.115(3) A, c = 12.234(3) A, beta = 99.321(5) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0325 at -173 degrees C), [OsO(3)F][HF](2)[AsF(6)] (P2(1)/n, a = 5.1491(9) A, b = 8.129(2) A, c = 19.636(7) A, beta = 95.099(7) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0348 at -117 degrees C), and [OsO(3)F][HF][SbF(6)] (Pc, a = 5.244(4) A, b = 9.646(6) A, c = 15.269(10) A, beta = 97.154(13) degrees, Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0558 at -133 degrees C) have shown that the OsO(3)F(+) cations exhibit strong contacts to the anions and HF solvent molecules giving rise to cyclic, dimeric structures in which the osmium atoms have coordination numbers of 6. The reaction of OsO(3)F(2) with neat SbF(5) yielded [OsO(3)F][Sb(3)F(16)], which has been characterized by (19)F NMR spectroscopy in SbF(5) and SO(2)ClF solvents and by Raman spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state (P4(1)m, a = 10.076(6) A, c = 7.585(8) A, Z = 2, and R(1) = 0.0858 at -113 degrees C). The weak fluoride ion basicity of the Sb(3)F(16)(-) anion resulted in an OsO(3)F(+) cation (C(3)(v) point symmetry) that is well isolated from the anion and in which the osmium is four-coordinate. The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies of OsO(3)F(+), ReO(3)F, mu-F(OsO(3)F)(2)(+), (FO(3)Os--FPnF(5))(2), and (FO(3)Os--(HF)(2)--FPnF(5))(2) (Pn = As, Sb) have been calculated using density functional theory methods.

  17. Local Moment Instability of Os in Honeycomb Li 2.15Os 0.85O 3

    DOE PAGES

    Wallace, M. K.; LaBarre, P. G.; Li, Jun; ...

    2018-04-26

    Compounds with honeycomb structures occupied by strong spin orbit coupled (SOC) moments are considered to be candidate Kitaev quantum spin liquids. Here we present the first example of Os on a honeycomb structure, Li 2.15(3)Os 0.85(3)O3 (C2/c, a = 5.09 Å, b = 8.81 Å, c = 9.83 Å, β = 99.3°). Neutron diffraction shows large site disorder in the honeycomb layer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a valence state of Os (4.7 ± 0.2), consistent with the nominal concentration. We observe a transport band gap of Δ = 243 ± 23 meV, a large van Vleck susceptibility, and anmore » effective moment of 0.85 μ B, much lower than expected from 70% Os(+5). No evidence of long range order is found above 0.10 K but a spin glass-like peak in ac-susceptibility is observed at 0.5 K. The specific heat displays an impurity spin contribution in addition to a power law ∝T (0.63±0.06). Applied density functional theory (DFT) leads to a reduced moment, suggesting incipient itineracy of the valence electrons, and finding evidence that Li over stoichiometry leads to Os(4+)–Os(5+) mixed valence. Lastly, this local picture is discussed in light of the site disorder and a possible underlying quantum spin liquid state.« less

  18. Local Moment Instability of Os in Honeycomb Li 2.15Os 0.85O 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M. K.; LaBarre, P. G.; Li, Jun

    Compounds with honeycomb structures occupied by strong spin orbit coupled (SOC) moments are considered to be candidate Kitaev quantum spin liquids. Here we present the first example of Os on a honeycomb structure, Li 2.15(3)Os 0.85(3)O3 (C2/c, a = 5.09 Å, b = 8.81 Å, c = 9.83 Å, β = 99.3°). Neutron diffraction shows large site disorder in the honeycomb layer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a valence state of Os (4.7 ± 0.2), consistent with the nominal concentration. We observe a transport band gap of Δ = 243 ± 23 meV, a large van Vleck susceptibility, and anmore » effective moment of 0.85 μ B, much lower than expected from 70% Os(+5). No evidence of long range order is found above 0.10 K but a spin glass-like peak in ac-susceptibility is observed at 0.5 K. The specific heat displays an impurity spin contribution in addition to a power law ∝T (0.63±0.06). Applied density functional theory (DFT) leads to a reduced moment, suggesting incipient itineracy of the valence electrons, and finding evidence that Li over stoichiometry leads to Os(4+)–Os(5+) mixed valence. Lastly, this local picture is discussed in light of the site disorder and a possible underlying quantum spin liquid state.« less

  19. iOS and OS X Apps for Exploring Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies rapidly provide information following earthquakes. This timely information garners great public interest and provides a rich opportunity to engage students in discussion and analysis of earthquakes and tectonics. In this presentation I will describe a suite of iOS and Mac OS X apps that I use for teaching and that Penn State employs in outreach efforts in a small museum run by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. The iOS apps include a simple, global overview of earthquake activity, epicentral, designed for a quick review or event lookup. A more full-featured iPad app, epicentral-plus, includes a simple global overview along with views that allow a more detailed exploration of geographic regions of interest. In addition, epicentral-plus allows the user to monitor ground motions using seismic channel lists compatible with the IRIS web services. Some limited seismogram processing features are included to allow focus on appropriate signal bandwidths. A companion web site, which includes background material on earthquakes, and a blog that includes sample images and channel lists appropriate for monitoring earthquakes in regions of recent earthquake activity can be accessed through the a third panel in the app. I use epicentral-plus at the beginning of each earthquake seismology class to review recent earthquake activity and to stimulate students to formulate and to ask questions that lead to discussions of earthquake and tectonic processes. Less interactive OS X versions of the apps are used to display a global map of earthquake activity and seismograms in near real time in a small museum on the ground floor of the building hosting Penn State's Geoscience Department.

  20. The Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Catanzarite, Joseph; Batalha, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    As the first kind of exoplanet to be discovered, hot Jupiters have always been objects of interest. Despite being prevalent in radial velocity and ground-based surveys, they were found to be much rarer based on Kepler observations. These data show a pile-up at radii of 9-22 Rearth and orbital periods of 1-10 days. Computing accurate occurrence rates can lend insight into planet-formation and migration-theories. To get a more accurate look, the idea of reliability was introduced. Each hot Jupiter candidate was assigned a reliability based on its location in the galactic plane and likelihood of being a false positive. Numbers were updated if ground-based follow-up indicated a candidate was indeed a false positive. These reliabilities were introduced into an occurrence rate calculation and yielded about a 12% decrease in occurrence rate for each period bin examined and a 25% decrease across all the bins. To get a better idea of the cause behind the pileup, occurrence rates based on parent stellar metallicity were calculated. As expected from previous work, higher metallicity stars yield higher occurrence rates. Future work includes examining period distributions in both the high metallicity and low metallicity sample for a better understanding and confirmation of the pile-up effect.

  1. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alan D; Macdonald, Francis A; Strauss, Justin V; Dudás, Francis Ö; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-07

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post-Snowball Earth hothouse.

  2. Tectonic implications of Archean anorthosite occurrences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.; Maczuga, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrences of megacrystic anorthosite and basalt in a variety of geologic settings were reviewed and it was found that these rock types occur in a variety of tectonic settings. Anorthosites and megacrystic basalts are petrogenetically related and are found in oceanic volcanic crust, cratons, and shelf environments. Although megacrystic basalts are most common in Archean terranes, similar occurrences are observed in rocks of early Proterozoic age, and even in young terranes such as the Galapagos hotspot. Based on inferences from experimental petrology, all of the occurrences are apparently associated with similar parental melts that are relatively Fe-rich tholeiites. The megacrystic rocks exhibit a two- (or more)-stage development of plagioclase, with the megacrysts having relatively uniform composition produced under nearly isothermal and isochemical conditions over substantial periods of time. The anorthosites appear to have intruded various crustal levels from very deep to very shallow. The petrogenetic indicators, however, suggest that conditions of formation of the Precambrian examples were different from Phanerozoic occurrences.

  3. Petrographic maturity parameters of a Devonian shale maturation series, Appalachian Basin, USA. ICCP Thermal Indices Working Group interlaboratory exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Cardott, Brian; das Chagas, Renata Brenand A.; Flores, Deolinda; Goncalves, Paula; Hackley, Paul C.; Hower, James C.; Kern, Marcio Luciano; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; de Oliveira Mendonça, Joalice; Rego Menezes, Taissa; Newman, Jane; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sobrinho da Silva, Frederico; Viegas de Souza, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an interlaboratory exercise on organic matter optical maturity parameters using a natural maturation series comprised by three Devonian shale samples (Huron Member, Ohio Shale) from the Appalachian Basin, USA. This work was conducted by the Thermal Indices Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) Commission II (Geological Applications of Organic Petrology). This study aimed to compare: 1. maturation predicted by different types of petrographic parameters (vitrinite reflectance and spectral fluorescence of telalginite), 2. reproducibility of the results for these maturation parameters obtained by different laboratories, and 3. improvements in the spectral fluorescence measurement obtained using modern detection systems in comparison with the results from historical round robin exercises.Mean random vitrinite reflectance measurements presented the highest level of reproducibility (group standard deviation 0.05) for low maturity and reproducibility diminished with increasing maturation (group standard deviation 0.12).Corrected fluorescence spectra, provided by 14 participants, showed a fair to good correspondence. Standard deviation of the mean values for spectral parameters was lowest for the low maturity sample but was also fairly low for higher maturity samples.A significant improvement in the reproducibility of corrected spectral fluorescence curves was obtained in the current exercise compared to a previous investigation of Toarcian organic matter spectra in a maturation series from the Paris Basin. This improvement is demonstrated by lower values of standard deviation and is interpreted to reflect better performance of newer photo-optical measuring systems.Fluorescence parameters measured here are in good agreement with vitrinite reflectance values for the least mature shale but indicate higher maturity than shown by vitrinite reflectance for the two more mature shales. This red shift in

  4. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  5. An alternative method for sampling and petrographically characterizing an Eocene coal bed, southeast Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    A study undertaken on an Eocene age coal bed in southeast Kalimantan, Indonesia determined that there was a relationship between megascopically determined coal types and kinds and sizes of organic components. The study also concluded that the most efficient way to characterize the seam was from collection of two 3 cm blocks from each layer or bench defined by megascopic character and that a maximum of 125 point counts was needed on each block. Microscopic examination of uncrushed block samples showed the coal to be composed of plant parts and tissues set in a matrix of both fine-grained and amorphousmore » material. The particulate matrix is composed of cell wall and liptinite fragments, resins, spores, algae, and fungal material. The amorphous matrix consists of unstructured (at 400x) huminite and liptinite. Size measurements showed that each particulate component possessed its own size distribution which approached normality when transformed to a log{sub 2} or phi scale. Degradation of the plant material during peat accumulation probably controlled grain size in the coal types. This notion is further supported by the increased concentration of decay resistant resin and cell fillings in the nonbanded and dull coal types. In the sampling design experiment, two blocks from each layer and two layers from each coal type were collected. On each block, 2 to 4 traverses totaling 500 point counts per block were performed to test the minimum number of points needed to characterize a block. A hierarchical analysis of variance showed that most of the petrographic variation occurred between coal types. The results from these analyses also indicated that, within a coal type, sampling should concentrate on the layer level and that only 250 point counts, split between two blocks, were needed to characterize a layer.« less

  6. Diagenesis and evolution of microporosity of Middle-Upper Devonian Kee Scarp reefs, Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada: Petrographic and chemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Aasm, I.S.; Azmy, K.K.

    The Middle-Upper Devonian Kee Scarp reef complexes of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, are oil-producing, stromatoporoid-dominated carbonates. Episodic increases in the rate of sea level rise produced multiple cycles of reef growth that exhibit backstepping characteristics. These carbonates, composed of invariably altered limestones, have original interskeletal, intraskeletal, and intergranular porosity, mostly occluded by nonferroan, dull luminescent cements. Secondary porosity, represented by micropores of various types, developed during diagenesis by aggrading neomorphism and dissolution. The micropores represent the main reservoir porosity in the Kee Scarp limestone. Petrographic, chemical, and isotopic studies of Kee Scarp reef components reveal a complex diagenetic historymore » involving marine fluids modified by increasing water/rock interaction and burial. Neomorphic stabilization of skeletal components caused further depletion in {gamma}{sup 18}O but very little change in {gamma}{sup 13}C, an argument for modification of the original marine fluids with increasing burial. Variations in magnitude of water/rock interaction with depth, facies changes, and porosity modifications probably exerted some control on fractionation and distribution of stable isotopes and trace elements in reef components.« less

  7. Palynologic and petrographic intervals in the upper Pennsylvanian McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Helfrich, C.T.; Williams, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    overlies the McLeansboro Group. The palynologic/petrographic intervals appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Stephanian, which was itself drier than the Westphalian D. ?? 1994.

  8. Biogeographical Analysis of Chemical Co-Occurrence Data to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A challenge with multiple chemical risk assessment is the need to consider the joint behavior of chemicals in mixtures. To address this need, pharmacologists and toxicologists have developed methods over the years to evaluate and test chemical interaction. In practice, however, testing of chemical interaction more often comprises ad hoc binary combinations and rarely examines higher order combinations. One explanation for this practice is the belief that there are simply too many possible combinations of chemicals to consider. Indeed, under stochastic conditions the possible number of chemical combinations scales geometrically as the pool of chemicals increases. However, the occurrence of chemicals in the environment is determined by factors, economic in part, which favor some chemicals over others. We investigate methods from the field of biogeography, originally developed to study avian species co-occurrence patterns, and adapt these approaches to examine chemical co-occurrence. These methods were applied to a national survey of pesticide residues in 168 child care centers from across the country. Our findings show that pesticide co-occurrence in the child care center was not random but highly structured, leading to the co-occurrence of specific pesticide combinations. Thus, ecological studies of species co-occurrence parallel the issue of chemical co-occurrence at specific locations. Both are driven by processes that introduce structure in the pattern of co-o

  9. Multitasking scheduler works without OS

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, D.M.

    1982-09-15

    Z80 control applications requiring parallel execution of multiple software tasks can use the executive routine described and listed in this article when multitasking is not available via an operating system (OS). Although the routine is not as capable or as transparent to software as the multitasking in a full-scale OS, it is simple to understand and use.

  10. Demonstrating microbial co-occurrence pattern analyses within and between ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan J.; Howe, Adina; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence patterns are used in ecology to explore interactions between organisms and environmental effects on coexistence within biological communities. Analysis of co-occurrence patterns among microbial communities has ranged from simple pairwise comparisons between all community members to direct hypothesis testing between focal species. However, co-occurrence patterns are rarely studied across multiple ecosystems or multiple scales of biological organization within the same study. Here we outline an approach to produce co-occurrence analyses that are focused at three different scales: co-occurrence patterns between ecosystems at the community scale, modules of co-occurring microorganisms within communities, and co-occurring pairs within modules that are nested within microbial communities. To demonstrate our co-occurrence analysis approach, we gathered publicly available 16S rRNA amplicon datasets to compare and contrast microbial co-occurrence at different taxonomic levels across different ecosystems. We found differences in community composition and co-occurrence that reflect environmental filtering at the community scale and consistent pairwise occurrences that may be used to infer ecological traits about poorly understood microbial taxa. However, we also found that conclusions derived from applying network statistics to microbial relationships can vary depending on the taxonomic level chosen and criteria used to build co-occurrence networks. We present our statistical analysis and code for public use in analysis of co-occurrence patterns across microbial communities. PMID:25101065

  11. PGE in fresh basalt, hydrothermal alteration products, and volcanic incrustations of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocket, James H.

    2000-05-01

    The concentrations of Os, Ir, Pd, and Au in fresh unaltered Kilauean tholeiite were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. For a suite of 18 samples, averages were: Os = 0.38 ± 0.23, Ir = 0.38 ± 0.14, Pd = 2.40 ± 1.04, and Au = 1.78 ± 0.57 (in ppb with a 1σ SD). Correlations of these metals with Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and MgO in fresh basalts, and petrographic observations, indicate that Os and Ir are carried mainly in chromite, much of which occurs as inclusions in olivine phenocrysts. Palladium correlations suggest its occurrence partly in olivine and partly in the matrix whereas Au seems to be predominantly a matrix constituent. Altered basalts were analyzed for Ir, Pd, and Au in a suite of 19 samples from five different locations. Minor changes only in either concentrations or element ratios were found for Ir and Pd when fresh and altered rock data were compared. However, Au was consistently enriched in altered relative to fresh rocks. These results imply that Pd and Ir, in contrast to Au, will likely retain their eruptive signatures upon burial in a subaerial eruptive setting. High-temperature sulfate-dominated condensates generate incrustations enriched in Ir, Os, Au, and Pd by approximately 50, 20, 10, and 3×, respectively, relative to fresh rocks. In contrast, low-temperature native sulfur deposits are the most depleted material found in the study with Ir, Pd, and Au lower by factors of 10, 4, and 5 compared with fresh rock averages. The strong enrichments of Os and Ir in the high-temperature suite are attributed mainly to enhanced volatility in highly oxygenated magmatic hydrothermal fluids contaminated by meteoric water near the structural top of volcanic conduits. The relatively smaller Pd enrichment, which is dependent on the chloride content of fluids, implies that PGE partitioning into volcanic fume may fractionate these metals (e.g., Pd versus Ir) relative to host basalt in the eruptive process.

  12. No association of moon phase with stroke occurrence.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Jori O; Sipilä, Jussi O T; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    2018-05-23

    Stroke occurrence shows strong correlations with sleep disorders and even subtle sleep disturbances have been shown to affect ischemic stroke (IS) occurrence. Chronobiology also exerts effects, like the morning surge in IS occurrence. Lunar cycles have also been shown to affect sleep and other physiological processes, but studies on moon phases and its possible association with occurrence of stroke are rare and nonconclusive. Therefore, we studied the effects of moon phases on stroke hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality nationwide in Finland in 2004-2014. All patients aged ≥18 years with IS or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) as primary discharge diagnosis were included. Daily number of admissions was treated as a response variable while moon phase, year and astronomical season were independent variables in Poisson regression modeling. We found no association between moon phases and stroke occurrence. The overall occurrence rates did not vary between different moon phases for IS or ICH (p = 0.61 or higher). There were no differences between moon phases in daily admission rates among men, women, young and old patients for any of the stroke subtypes. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality with regard to moon phase for IS or ICH overall (p = 0.19 or higher), nor in subgroup analyses. There were no significant interactions between moon phase and astronomical season for stroke occurrence or in-hospital mortality. To conclude, in this over a decade-long nationwide study including a total of 46 million person years of follow-up, we found no association between moon phases and occurrence or in-hospital mortality rates of IS or intracerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    PubMed

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p < .05) higher than that in the young and aged horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  14. Os-186 and Os-187 Enrichments and High-He-3/He-4 sources in the Earth's Mantle: Evidence from Icelandic Picrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Graham, David W.; Waight, Tod; Gautason, Bjarni

    2007-01-01

    Picrites from the neovolcanic zones in Iceland display a range in Os-187/Os-188O from 0.1297 to 0.1381 ((gamma)Os = 0.0 to 6.5) and uniform Os-186/Os-188 of 0.1198375+/-32 (2 (sigma)). The value for Os-186/Os-188 is within uncertainty of the present-day value for the primitive upper mantle of 0.1198398+/-16. These Os isotope systematics are best explained by ancient recycled crust or melt enrichment in the mantle source region. If so, then the coupled enrichments displayed in Os-186/Os-188 and Os-187/Os-188 from lavas of other plume systems must result from an independent process, the most viable candidate at present remains core-mantle interaction. While some plumes with high He-3/He-4, such as Hawaii, appear to have been subjected to detectable addition of Os (and possibly He) from the outer core, others such as Iceland do not. A positive correlation between Os-187/Os-188 and He-3/He-4 from 9.6 to 19 RA in Iceland picrites is best modeled as mixtures of 500 Ma or older ancient recycled crust mixed with primitive mantle, creating a hybrid source region that subsequently mixes with the convecting MORB mantle during ascent and melting. This multistage mechanism to explain these isotope systematics is consistent with ancient recycled crust juxtaposed with more primitive, relatively He-rich mantle, in convective isolation from the upper mantle, most likely in the lowermost mantle. This is inconsistent with models that propose random mixing between heterogeneities in the convecting upper mantle as a mechanism to explain the observed isotopic variation in oceanic lavas or models that produce a high He-3/He-4 signature in melt depleted and strongly outgassed, He-poor mantle. Instead these systematics require a deep mantle source to explain the 3He/4He signature in Iceland lavas. The He-3/He-4 of lavas derived from the Iceland plume changed over time, from a maximum of 50 RA at 60 Ma, to approximately 25-27 RA at present. The changes are coupled with distinct

  15. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  16. Dissecting the Re-Os molybdenite geochronometer.

    PubMed

    Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur; Reich, Martin; Kilburn, Matt R; Guagliardo, Paul; Roberts, Malcolm P

    2017-11-22

    Rhenium and osmium isotopes have been used for decades to date the formation of molybdenite (MoS 2 ), a common mineral in ore deposits and the world's main source of molybdenum and rhenium. Understanding the distribution of parent 187 Re and radiogenic daughter 187 Os isotopes in molybdenite is critical in interpreting isotopic measurements because it can compromise the accurate determination and interpretation of mineralization ages. In order to resolve the controls on the distribution of these elements, chemical and isotope mapping of MoS 2 grains from representative porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits were performed using electron microprobe and nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Our results show a heterogeneous distribution of 185,187 Re and 192 Os isotopes in MoS 2 , and that both 187 Re and 187 Os isotopes are not decoupled as previously thought. We conclude that Re and Os are structurally bound or present as nanoparticles in or next to molybdenite grains, recording a complex formation history and hindering the use of microbeam techniques for Re-Os molybdenite dating. Our study opens new avenues to explore the effects of isotope nuggeting in geochronometers.

  17. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  18. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  19. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  20. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  1. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  2. Survey of rice proteins interacting with OsFCA and OsFY proteins which are homologous to the Arabidopsis flowering time proteins, FCA and FY.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Hee; Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Soon-Kap; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Suh, Mi Chung; Chung, Young Soo; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2009-08-01

    The FCA protein is involved in controlling flowering time and plays more general roles in RNA-mediated chromatin silencing in Arabidopsis. It contains two RNA-binding domains and a WW domain. The FCA protein interacts with FY, a polyadenylation factor, via its WW domain. We previously characterized a rice gene, OsFCA, which was homologous to FCA. Here, we found that the OsFCA protein could interact through its WW domain with the following proteins: OsFY, a protein containing a CID domain present in RNA-processing factors such as Pcf11 and Nrd1; a protein similar to splicing factor SF1; a protein similar to FUSE splicing factor; and OsMADS8. The FY protein is associated with the 3' end processing machinery in Arabidopsis. Thus, we examined interactions between OsFY and the rice homologs (OsCstF-50, -64 and -77) of the AtCstF-50, -64 and -77 proteins. We found that OsFY could bind OsCstF50, whereas the OsCstF77 protein could bridge the interaction between OsCstF50 and OsCstF64. Taken together, our data suggest that OsFCA could interact with several proteins other than OsFY through its WW domain and may play several roles in rice.

  3. On the distribution of species occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buzas, Martin A.; Koch, Carl F.; Culver, Stephen J.; Sohl, Norman F.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of species abundance (number of individuals per species) is well documented. The distribution of species occurrence (number of localities per species), however, has received little attention. This study investigates the distribution of species occurrence for five large data sets. For modern benthic foraminifera, species occurrence is examined from the Atlantic continental margin of North America, where 875 species were recorded 10,017 times at 542 localities, the Gulf of Mexico, where 848 species were recorded 18,007 times at 426 localities, and the Caribbean, where 1,149 species were recorded 6,684 times at 268 localities. For Late Cretaceous molluscs, species occurrence is examined from the Gulf Coast where 716 species were recorded 6,236 times at 166 localities and a subset of this data consisting of 643 species recorded 3,851 times at 86 localities.Logseries and lognormal distributions were fitted to these data sets. In most instances the logseries best predicts the distribution of species occurrence. The lognormal, however, also fits the data fairly well, and, in one instance, better. The use of these distributions allows the prediction of the number of species occurring once, twice, ..., n times.Species abundance data are also available for the molluscan data sets. They indicate that the most abundant species (greatest number of individuals) usually occur most frequently. In all data sets approximately half the species occur four or less times. The probability of noting the presence of rarely occurring species is small, and, consequently, such species must be used with extreme caution in studies requiring knowledge of the distribution of species in space and time.

  4. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually triggered by an injury, such as an ankle sprain. The syndrome is also frequently caused by repeated ... other conditions, such as an Achilles tendon injury, ankle sprain or talus fracture. Diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome ...

  5. "Juntos pero no revueltos": microaggressions and language in the mathematics education of non-dominant Latinas/os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LópezLeiva, Carlos A.; Khisty, Lena Licón

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of microaggressions based on minority language(s) as a form of discriminatory practice against non-dominant students in the mathematics context. Microaggressions are subtle, brief, and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or visual negative slights or insults toward people of color. We extend the concept of microaggression to include discrimination based on a minority language. We draw on our work with Latinas/os in the USA to demonstrate the occurrence of microaggressions in the teaching act. Revealing microaggressions based on language has the potential of creating more equitable learning environments for non-dominant students and can point to possible directions for future research and improvements in the preparation of teachers who serve non-dominant students who speak a language other than the school's official language.

  6. Evaluation of the Role of the LysM Receptor-Like Kinase, OsNFR5/OsRLK2 for AM Symbiosis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kana; Hayafune, Masahiro; Kobae, Yoshihiro; Kaku, Hanae; Nishizawa, Yoko; Masuda, Yoshiki; Shibuya, Naoto; Nakagawa, Tomomi

    2016-11-01

    In legume-specific rhizobial symbiosis, host plants perceive rhizobial signal molecules, Nod factors, by a pair of LysM receptor-like kinases, NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP, and activate symbiotic responses through the downstream signaling components also required for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Recently, the rice NFR1/LYK3 ortholog, OsCERK1, was shown to play crucial roles for AM symbiosis. On the other hand, the roles of the NFR5/NFP ortholog in rice have not been elucidated, while it has been shown that NFR5/NFP orthologs, Parasponia PaNFR5 and tomato SlRLK10, engage in AM symbiosis. OsCERK1 also triggers immune responses in combination with a receptor partner, OsCEBiP, against fungal or bacterial infection, thus regulating opposite responses against symbiotic and pathogenic microbes. However, it has not been elucidated how OsCERK1 switches these opposite functions. Here, we analyzed the function of the rice NFR5/NFP ortholog, OsNFR5/OsRLK2, as a possible candidate of the OsCERK1 partner for symbiotic signaling. Inoculation of AM fungi induced the expression of OsNFR5 in the rice root, and the chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of LjNFR5 and the intracellular domain of OsNFR5 complemented the Ljnfr5 mutant for rhizobial symbiosis, indicating that the intracellular kinase domain of OsNFR5 could activate symbiotic signaling in Lotus japonicus. Although these data suggested the possible involvement of OsNFR5 in AM symbiosis, osnfr5 knockout mutants were colonized by AM fungi similar to the wild-type rice. These observations suggested several possibilities including the presence of functionally redundant genes other than OsNFR5 or involvement of novel ligands, which do not require OsNFR5 for recognition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Petrographic and Facies Properties of the Evaporites in the Cihanbeyli-Yeniceoba Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami Us, Muhammed; Tekin, Erdoǧan

    2016-04-01

    The Cihanbeyli-Yeniceoba Tertiary basin and other neighbouring basins such as Haymana on the NW and Tuzgölü on the east were formed after ophiolite emplacement and then evolved as tectonic controlled basins bordered with normal and oblique-slip fault systems NW-SE in extending. Where sedimentation commenced with Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene marine transgression and ended by late Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene regression that involved thick evaporite sedimentation just before the onset of the terrestrial regime through the early Late Oligocene-Pliocene time. This study mainly was focused on the evaporitic sediments of the Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene aged Gökdaǧ Formation which unconformably overlain by fluvial and alluvial units of the Cihanbeyli Formation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene). Typical outcrops have been seen around the Yeniceoba-Kütükuşaǧı-Kuşca region located in the western part of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake). The study includes several targets. These are stratigraphical contact and relationship between evaporite and non-evaporite units, evaporite environments and mineralogical, petrographical and microtextural features of the evaporites. The following five evaporite facies were described: a) massive gypsum (F1), b) laminated-banded gypsum (F2), c) nodular gypsum (F3), d) clastic gypsum (F4), e) satin-spar gypsum (F5). On the other hand polarized microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that secondary gypsums are represented by alabastrine and porfiroblastic textures. Primary anhydrite relicts, euhedral celestine crystals accompanied with the secondary gypsum. Clastic gypsum is rich in fragment fossils (mostly nummulites) and kaolinite clay minerals. All data suggest that evaporites were widely deposited as basin margin evaporite that temporally underwent atmospheric conditions gave rise to detrital gypsum ranging from gypsarenite to gypsum conglomerate. Acknowledgement:This presentation was prepared MS thesis to financially

  8. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and § 840...

  9. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and § 840...

  10. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and § 840...

  11. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and § 840...

  12. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and § 840...

  13. Modeling fire occurrence as a function of landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Carroll, M.; DiMiceli, C.

    2011-12-01

    Wildland fire is a prominent component of ecosystem functioning worldwide. Nearly all ecosystems experience the impact of naturally occurring or anthropogenically driven fire. Here, we present a spatially explicit and regionally parameterized Fire Occurrence Model (FOM) aimed at developing fire occurrence estimates at landscape and regional scales. The model provides spatially explicit scenarios of fire occurrence based on the available records from fire management agencies, satellite observations, and auxiliary geospatial data sets. Fire occurrence is modeled as a function of the risk of ignition, potential fire behavior, and fire weather using internal regression tree-driven algorithms and empirically established, regionally derived relationships between fire occurrence, fire behavior, and fire weather. The FOM presents a flexible modeling structure with a set of internal globally available default geospatial independent and dependent variables. However, the flexible modeling environment adapts to ingest a variable number, resolution, and content of inputs provided by the user to supplement or replace the default parameters to improve the model's predictive capability. A Southern California FOM instance (SC FOM) was developed using satellite assessments of fire activity from a suite of Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity fire perimeters, and auxiliary geospatial information including land use and ownership, utilities, transportation routes, and the Remote Automated Weather Station data records. The model was parameterized based on satellite data acquired between 2001 and 2009 and fire management fire perimeters available prior to 2009. SC FOM predictive capabilities were assessed using observed fire occurrence available from the MODIS active fire product during 2010. The results show that SC FOM provides a realistic estimate of fire occurrence at the landscape level: the fraction of

  14. The OsmiR396c-OsGRF4-OsGIF1 regulatory module determines grain size and yield in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangcheng; Gao, Fengyan; Xie, Kailong; Zeng, Xiuhong; Cao, Ye; Zeng, Jing; He, Zhongshan; Ren, Yun; Li, Wenbo; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Zheng, Aiping; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Huainian; Wang, Lingxia; Li, Ping

    2016-11-01

    Grain weight is the most important component of rice yield and is mainly determined by grain size, which is generally controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Although numerous QTLs that regulate grain weight have been identified, the genetic network that controls grain size remains unclear. Herein, we report the cloning and functional analysis of a dominant QTL, grain length and width 2 (GLW2), which positively regulates grain weight by simultaneously increasing grain length and width. The GLW2 locus encodes OsGRF4 (growth-regulating factor 4) and is regulated by the microRNA miR396c in vivo. The mutation in OsGRF4 perturbs the OsmiR396 target regulation of OsGRF4, generating a larger grain size and enhanced grain yield. We also demonstrate that OsGIF1 (GRF-interacting factors 1) directly interacts with OsGRF4, and increasing its expression improves grain size. Our results suggest that the miR396c-OsGRF4-OsGIF1 regulatory module plays an important role in grain size determination and holds implications for rice yield improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Petrographic Analyses of Lonestones from ODP Drill Sites Leg 188 Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detterman, K.; Warnke, D. A.; Richter, C.

    2006-12-01

    ODP Leg 188 was drilled in 2000 to sample the first advances of the Antarctic ice sheet and to document further cryospheric development. Continental shelf Site 1166 documented the earliest stages of glaciation during the Eocene-Oligocene and continental slope Site 1167 documented rapid deposition by debris flows during the Pliocene-Pleistocene and a subtle change in onshore erosion areas. Site 1165, located on the continental rise, documented long-term transition from wet-based lower Miocene glaciers to dry-based upper Miocene glaciers, including short-term fluctuations starting in the early Miocene. Source areas for all drill sites are the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf drainage area, encompassing the Northern and Southern Prince Charles Mountains, the Gamburtsev Sub-glacial Mountains, and the Grove Mountains. Lonestones occur in most of the cores from all sites of Leg 188 prompting research for potential source areas and transportation modes of the lonestones. One-hundred and seventeen thin sections of lonestones were prepared from Sites 1166, 1167, and 1165 for petrographic analyses. Metamorphic lonestones outnumber igneous and sedimentary lonestones at all three sites. Sedimentary lonestones were not found in the thin sections of Site 1166. Extrusive igneous lonestones were found only at Site 1165 and comprised 5.1 percent of Leg 188's lithology. The anorthite content of igneous and metamorphic lonestones represented at all three sites was albite-oligoclase plagioclase. Albite oligoclase plagioclase has been documented in the Southern Prince Charles Mountains. The results of this study of a selection of lonestones from Site 1167 supports a hypothesis first proposed by the Shipboard Scientific Party in 2001 that as time elapsed, the source area for Site 1167 lonestones shifted slightly from a largely sandstone source to a largely granitic source within the drainage area. One potential source area for the Site 1167 sandstone lonestones is the Permian to Triassic

  16. 46 CFR 326.4 - Reports of accidents and occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports of accidents and occurrences. 326.4 Section 326... MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.4 Reports of accidents and occurrences. The Agent shall report every accident or occurrence of a P&I nature promptly to both the Director...

  17. 46 CFR 326.4 - Reports of accidents and occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of accidents and occurrences. 326.4 Section 326... MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.4 Reports of accidents and occurrences. The Agent shall report every accident or occurrence of a P&I nature promptly to both the Director...

  18. OsBRI1 Activates BR Signaling by Preventing Binding between the TPR and Kinase Domains of OsBSK3 via Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baowen; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhiying; Wang, Ruiju; Huang, Xiahe; Zhu, Yali; Yuan, Li; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Xiaodong; Burlingame, Alma L; Gao, Yingjie; Sun, Yu; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-02-01

    Many plant receptor kinases transduce signals through receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs); however, the molecular mechanisms that create an effective on-off switch are unknown. The receptor kinase BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) transduces brassinosteroid (BR) signal by phosphorylating members of the BR-signaling kinase (BSK) family of RLCKs, which contain a kinase domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BSKs is conserved in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that the TPR domain of BSKs functions as a "phospho-switchable" autoregulatory domain to control BSKs' activity. Genetic studies revealed that OsBSK3 is a positive regulator of BR signaling in rice, while in vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that OsBRI1 interacts directly with and phosphorylates OsBSK3. The TPR domain of OsBSK3, which interacts directly with the protein's kinase domain, serves as an autoinhibitory domain to prevent OsBSK3 from interacting with bri1-SUPPRESSOR1 (BSU1). Phosphorylation of OsBSK3 by OsBRI1 disrupts the interaction between its TPR and kinase domains, thereby increasing the binding between OsBSK3's kinase domain and BSU1. Our results not only demonstrate that OsBSK3 plays a conserved role in regulating BR signaling in rice, but also provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which BSK family proteins are inhibited under basal conditions but switched on by the upstream receptor kinase BRI1. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Effects of mother lode-type gold mineralization on 187Os/188Os and platinum group element concentrations in peridotite: Alleghany District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Li, Ji

    2007-01-01

    Osmium isotope compositions and concentrations of Re, platinum group elements (PGE), and Au were determined for host peridotites (serpentinites and barzburgites) and hydrothermally altered ultramafic wall rocks associated with Mother Lode-type hydrothermal gold-quartz vein mineralization in the Alleghany district, California. The host peridotites have Os isotope compositions and Re, PGE, and Au abundances typical of the upper mantle at their presumed formation age during the late Proterozoic or early Paleozoic. The hydrothermally altered rocks have highly variable initial Os isotope compositions with ??os, values (% deviation of 187OS/188OS from the chondritic average calculated for the approx. 120 Ma time of mineralization) ranging from -1.4 to -8.3. The lowest Os isotope compositions are consistent with Re depletion of a chondritic source (e.g., the upper mantle) at ca. 1.6 Ga. Most of the altered samples are enriched in Au and have depleted and fractionated abundances of Re and PGE relative to their precursor peridotites. Geoehemical characteristics of the altered samples suggest that Re and some PGE were variably removed from the ultramafic rocks during the mineralization event. In addition to Re, the Pt and Pd abundances of the most intensely altered rocks appear to have been most affected by mineralization. The 187Os-depleted isotopic compositions of some altered rocks are interpreted to be a result of preferential 187Os loss via destruction of Re-rich phases during the event. For these rocks, Os evidently is not a useful tracer of the mineralizing fluids. The results do, however, provide evidence for differential mobility of these elements, and mobility of 187Os relative to the initial bulk Os isotope composition during hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of ultramafic rocks. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  1. Two rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, are involved in transport and providing tolerance to boron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Mosa, Kareem A; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is responsible for low cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. In this report, we characterized two rice genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, for their involvement in B permeability and tolerance. Transcript analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 were downregulated in shoots and strongly upregulated in rice roots by high B treatment. Expression of both OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in yeast HD9 strain lacking Fps1, ACR3, and Ycf1 resulted in an increased B sensitivity. Furthermore, yeast HD9 strain expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 accumulated significantly higher B as compared to empty vector control, which suggests their involvement in B transport. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis imparted higher tolerance under B toxicity. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 showed significantly higher biomass production and greater root length, however there was no difference in B accumulation in long term uptake assay. Short-term uptake assay using tracer B (¹⁰B) in shoots and roots demonstrated increased ¹⁰B accumulation in Arabidopsis lines expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, compare to wild type control plants. Efflux assay of B in the roots showed that ¹⁰B was effluxed from the Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsPIP2;4 or OsPIP2;7 during the initial 1-h of assay. These data indicate that OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 are involved in mediating B transport in rice and provide tolerance via efflux of excess B from roots and shoot tissues. These genes will be highly useful in developing B tolerant crops for enhanced yield in the areas affected by high B toxicity.

  2. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae TALE proteins recruit OsTFIIAγ1 to compensate for the absence of OsTFIIAγ5 in bacterial blight in rice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Zou, Lifang; Ji, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiameng; Xu, Zhengyin; Yang, Yangyang; Alfano, James R; Chen, Gongyou

    2018-04-28

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) of rice, uses transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to interact with the basal transcription factor gama subunit OsTFIIAγ5 (Xa5) and activates transcription of host genes. However, how OsTFIIAγ1, the other OsTFIIAγ protein, functions in the presence of TALEs remains unclear. In this study, we show that OsTFIIAγ1 plays a compensatory role in the absence of Xa5. The expression of OsTFIIAγ1, which is activated by TALE PthXo7, increased the expression of host genes targeted by avirulent and virulent TALEs. Defective OsTFIIAγ1 rice lines showed reduced expression of the TALE-targeted susceptibility (S) genes, OsSWEET11 and OsSWEET14, which resulted in increased BB resistance. Selected TALEs (PthXo1, AvrXa7, and AvrXa27) were evaluated for interactions with OsTFIIAγ1, Xa5 and xa5 (naturally-occurring mutant form of Xa5) using biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and microscale thermophoresis (MST). BiFC and MST demonstrated that the three TALEs bind Xa5 and OsTFIIAγ1 with a stronger affinity than xa5. These results provide insight into the complex roles of OsTFIIAγ1 and OsTFIIAγ5 in TALE-mediated host gene transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An in situ occurrence of coal balls in the Amburgy coal bed, Pikeville Formation (Duckmantian), central Appalachian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonate concretions containing permineralized peat, commonly called coal balls, were encountered in the Amburgy coal, a generally low-ash (9.4%), but commonly high-sulfur (3.6%), Middle Pennsylvanian coal of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. These are the first coal balls from the Amburgy coal, and one of only a few reported occurrences from the central Appalachian Basin. The coal balls occur in the upper part of the coal, between two paleochannel cut-outs at the top of the Pikeville Formation, and immediately beneath a scour with a marine fossil lag at the base of the Kendrick Shale Member, Hyden Formation. The coal is thickest (1.3 m) in a narrow (<300 m), elongate depression between the bounding paleochannels, and thins toward the occurrence of coal balls. Total biovolume as measured from acetate peels of coal balls indicates cordaites or lycopsid (36.1% each) dominance. Vertical sampling through one coal-ball aggregate shows zoning from a lower cordaites-dominant (88.7%) assemblage, to a middle, degraded, sphenopsid-rich assemblage, to an upper lycopsid-dominant (88.6%) assemblage. Beneath the coal balls, palynologic and petrographic analyses indicate the basal and middle portions of the bed are dominated by arborescent lycopsid spores and cordaites pollen, and by vitrinite macerals. The top part of the bed, above the coal balls, contains increased intertinite macerals, increased percentages of small fern spores, and variable ash yield (5-21%). Thickening of the Amburgy coal along a structural low, in combination with basal high-ash yields, vitrinite-dominance, and heterogenous palynoflora, indicate paleotopographic control on initial peat accumulation. Abundant lycopsid spores in the basal and middle part of the coal reflect rheotrophic conditions consistent with accumulation in a paleotopographic depression. Apparent zonation preserved in one of the coal-ball masses may document plant successions in response to flooding. Similar percentages of cordaites and

  4. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with os acromiale.

    PubMed

    Aibinder, William R; Schoch, Bradley S; Cofield, Robert H; Sperling, John W; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2017-09-01

    Os acromiale has been reported in up to 15% of the general population. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) increases deltoid tension, which could potentially lead to excessive stress on a pre-existent os acromiale. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome and complications of primary RTSA in patients with radiographic evidence of an os acromiale. Between 2005 and 2013, 25 shoulders underwent primary RTSA with an associated os acromiale, which was classified preacromion (3), mesoacromion (20), and meta-acromion (2). All patients were observed for a minimum of 2 years or until reoperation. Mean follow-up time was 30.8 (range, 1-81.4) months. Outcomes included pain scores, range of motion, patient satisfaction, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, and radiographic outcomes. RTSA led to an improvement in pain scores in 24 of 25 shoulders. Mean elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation were improved at final follow-up (124°, 46°, and L4, respectively). Three patients required reoperation, including revision surgery for dislocation (2) and excision of a painful os acromiale (1). Postoperative tilting of the os acromiale was noted in 7 shoulders (28%). There was no statistically significant difference in any outcome measures between shoulders with and shoulders without postoperative tilt of the os acromiale. The outcome of RTSA does not seem to be negatively affected by the presence of an os acromiale. Pain around an os acromiale after RTSA is rare. Inferior tilting is observed in approximately one-third of the shoulders after RTSA and does not seem to change the overall outcome. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Identification of Dens Draconis and Os Draconis by XRD method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Yun; Wu, Qi-Nan; Shen, Bei; Chen, Rong

    2012-04-01

    To establish an XRD method for evaluating the quality of Os Draconis and Dens Draconis and applying in judgement of the counterfeit. Dens Draconis, Os Draconis and the counterfeit of Os Draconis were analyzed by XRD. Their diffraction patterns were clustered analysis and evaluated their similarity degree. Established the analytical method of Dens Draconis and Os Draconis basing the features fingerprint information of the 10 common peaks by XRD pattern. Obtained the XRD pattern of the counterfeit of Os Draconis. The similarity degree of separate sources of Dens Draconis was high,while the similarity degree of separate sources of Os Draconis was significant different from each other. This method can be used for identification and evaluation of Os Draconis and Dens Draconis. It also can be used for identification the counterfeit of Os Draconis effectively.

  6. Chemical, petrographic, and K-Ar age data to accompany reconnaissance geologic strip map from Kingman to south of Bill Williams Mountain, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Arney, B.; Goff, F.; Eddy, A.C.

    1985-04-01

    As part of a reconnaissance mapping project, 40 chemical analyses and 13 potassium-argon age dates were obtained for Tertiary volcanic and Precambrian granitic rocks between Kingman and Bill Williams Mountain, Arizona. The dated volcanic rocks range in age from 5.5 +- 0.2 Myr for basalt in the East Juniper Mountains to about 25 Myr for a biotite-pyroxene andesite. The date for Picacho Butte, a rhyodacite in the Mt. Floyd volcanic field, was 9.8 +- 0.07 Myr, making it the oldest rhyodacite dome in that volcanic field. Dated rocks in the Fort Rock area range from 20.7 to 24.3 Myr. Nomore » ages were obtained on the Precambrian rocks. Compositionally, the volcanic rocks analyzed range from alkali basalt to rhyolite, but many rocks on the western side of the map area are unusually potassic. The granites chosen for analysis include syenogranite from the Hualapai Mountains, a muscovite granite from the Picacho Butte area, and two other granites. The chemical and K-Ar age data and petrographic descriptions included in this report accompany the reconnaissance geologic strip map published as LA-9202-MAP by Goff, Eddy, and Arney. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  7. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the SE Brazilian continental margin: Petrographic, kinematic and dynamic analysis of the onshore Araruama Lagoon Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Pricilla Camões Martins de; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Stanton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    The Ararauama Lagoon Fault System composes one of the most prominent set of lineaments of the SE Brazilian continental margin. It is located onshore in a key tectonic domain, where the basement inheritance rule is not followed. This fault system is characterized by ENE-WSW silicified tectonic breccias and cataclasites showing evidences of recurrent tectonic reactivations. Based on field work, microtectonic, kinematic and dynamic analysis, we reconstructed the paleostresses in the region and propose a sequence of three brittle deformational phases accountable for these reactivations: 1) NE-SW dextral transcurrence; 2) NNW-SSE dextral oblique extension that evolved to NNW-SSE "pure" extension; 3) ENE-WSW dextral oblique extension. These phases are reasonably correlated with the tectonic events responsible for the onset and evolution of the SE onshore rift basins, between the Neocretaceous and Holocene. However, based on petrographic studies and supported by regional geological correlations, we assume that the origin of this fault system is older, related to the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic rifting. This study provides significant information about one of the main structural trends of the SE Brazilian continental margin and the tectonic events that controlled its segmentation, since the Gondwana rifting, and compartmentalization of its onshore sedimentary deposits during the Cenozoic.

  8. Performance Analysis of Occurrences January 1, 2011-December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M

    2012-03-16

    This report documents the analysis of the occurrences during the period January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. The report compares LLNL occurrences by reporting criteria and significance category to see if LLNL is reporting occurrences along similar percentages as other DOE sites. The three-year trends are analyzed. It does not include the analysis of the causes or the lessons learned from the occurrences, as they are analyzed separately. The number and types of occurrences that LLNL reports to DOE varies over time. This variation can be attributed to normally occurring changes in frequency; DOE's or LLNL's heightened interest inmore » a particular subject area; changes in LLNL processes; or emerging problems. Since all of the DOE sites use the same reporting criteria, it is helpful to understand if LLNL is consistent with or diverging from reporting at other sites. This section compares the normalized number of occurrences reported by LLNL and other DOE sites. In order to compare LLNL occurrence reports to occurrence reports from other DOE sites, we normalized (or standardized) the data from the sites. DOE sites vary widely in their budgets, populations, and scope of work and these variations may affect reporting frequency. In addition, reports are required for a wide range of occurrence types, some of which may not be applicable to all DOE sites. For example, one occurrence reporting group is Group 3, Nuclear Safety Basis, and not all sites have nuclear operations. Because limited information is available for all sites, the sites were normalized based on best available information. Site effort hours were extracted from the DOE Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) and used to normalize (or standardize) the number of occurrences by site. Effort hours are those hours that employees normally work and do not include vacation, holiday hours etc. Sites are responsible for calculating their effort hours and ensuring entry into CAIRS. Out of the

  9. Correlated petrographic, electron microprobe, and ion microprobe studies of selected primitive and processed phase assemblages in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1993-01-01

    During the past three years we have received support to continue our research in elucidating the formation and alteration histories of selected meteoritic materials by a combination of petrographic, trace element, and isotopic analyses employing optical and scanning electron microscopes and electron and ion microprobes. The awarded research funds enabled the P.I. to attend the annual LPSC, the co-I to devote approximately 15 percent of his time to the research proposed in the grant, and partial support for a visiting summer post-doctoral fellow to conduct electron microprobe analyses of meteoritic samples in our laboratory. The research funds, along with support from the NASA Education Initiative awarded to P.I. G. Wasserburg, enabled the co-I to continue a mentoring program with inner-city minority youth. The support enabled us to achieve significant results in the five projects that we proposed (in addition to the Education Initiative), namely: studies of the accretional and post-accretional alteration and thermal histories in CV meteorites, characterization of periclase-bearing Fremdlinge in CV meteorites, characterization of Ni-Pt-Ge-Te-rich Fremdlinge in CV meteorites in an attempt to determine the constraints they place on the petrogenetic and thermal histories of their host CAI's, correlated electron and ion microprobe studies of silicate and phosphate inclusions in the Colomera meteorite in an attempt to determine the petrogenesis of the IE iron meteorites, and development of improved instrumental and correction procedures for improved accuracy of analysis of meteoritic materials with the electron microprobe. This grant supported, in part or whole, 18 publications so far by our research team, with at least three more papers anticipated. The list of these publications is included. The details of the research results are briefly summarized.

  10. Landscape capability predicts upland game bird abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loman, Zachary G.; Blomberg, Erik J.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cyndy; Wood, Petra B.

    2017-01-01

    Landscape capability (LC) models are a spatial tool with potential applications in conservation planning. We used survey data to validate LC models as predictors of occurrence and abundance at broad and fine scales for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Landscape capability models were reliable predictors of occurrence but were less indicative of relative abundance at route (11.5–14.6 km) and point scales (0.5–1 km). As predictors of occurrence, LC models had high sensitivity (0.71–0.93) and were accurate (0.71–0.88) and precise (0.88 and 0.92 for woodcock and grouse, respectively). Models did not predict point-scale abundance independent of the ability to predict occurrence of either species. The LC models are useful predictors of patterns of occurrences in the northeastern United States, but they have limited utility as predictors of fine-scale or route-specific abundances. 

  11. Re-187-Os-187, Pt-190-Os-186 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVA Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Schulte, R. F.; McDonough, W. F.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently completed Re-187-Os-187 and Pt-190-Os-186 isotopic and elemental studies of the two largest magmatic iron meteorite groups, IIAB and IIIAB [1]. These studies revealed closed-system behavior of both isotopic systems, but complex trace element behavior for Re, Pt and Os in group IIIAB. Here we examine isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVA irons. The IVA irons are not as extensively fractionated as IIAB and IIIAB and their apparently less complex crystallization history may make for more robust interpretation of the relative partitioning behavior of Re, Pt and Os, as well as the other highly siderophile elements (HSE) measured here; Pd, Ru and Ir [e.g. 2]. An additional goal of our continuing research plan for iron meteorites is to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via trace element modeling. Here, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped irons Nedagolla and EET 83230 are compared with the IVA irons.

  12. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  13. Platinum Group Elements, 187OS/188OS and 87SR/86SR Isotope Systematics in Depleted Fluid-Modified Mariana Fore-Arc Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The serpentine mud volcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc, collected during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 [1], contain hard-rock clasts of serpentine sampled from close to the décollement, which separates the down-going Pacific slab from the overlying mantle wedge. These clasts preserve evidence for melt depletion (>25 % melt extraction in many instances) in a sub-arc environment, and extensive (40 - 100%) serpentinization due to subsequent fluid / peridotite interaction, e.g. [2]. Platinum-group element (PGE) abundances are not consistent with melt-depletion alone [3]. Fractionation between I-PGE (Os, Ir, Ru) has resulted in groups of IBM serpentinites with either a high chondrite-normalized Os/Ir ratio (OsN/IrN) or a low OsN/IrN ratio. Similarly, fractionation of P-PGE (Pt, Pd) is marked, and distinguishes the IBM serpentinites from worldwide abyssal peridotites. Interaction with high-pH fluids [4] may have partially oxidized mantle sulphide, the major primary host for PGE in these rocks, leading to partial breakdown to sulphate and the selective redistribution of certain PGE (Os, Ru, Pt), a feature normally associated with sub-aerial weathering [5], but which likely prevails in other oxidizing environments. In particular, the Re-Os systematics of the high (OsN/IrN) IBM serpentinites have been disturbed by the addition of Os. Unlike peridotite xenoliths associated with magmatic regions of subduction zones where subduction-related Os-addition is unequivocally radiogenic and derived from crustal material [6][7], where Os has been added to the IBM serpentinites it is unradiogenic and was most likely derived from within the oceanic mantle. IBM serpentinites therefore preserve osmium isotope ratios that are exclusively sub-chondritic (187Os/188Os ≤ 0.127), as previously reported [8]. These serpentinized peridotites were produced by at least a three-step process: melt depletion, serpentinization, and the mobilization of Os, Ru and Pt to produce low Os

  14. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj K.; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P.; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  15. Does probability of occurrence relate to population dynamics?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Schiffers, Katja H.; Georges, Damien; Dullinger, Stefan; Eckhart, Vincent M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Gravel, Dominique; Kunstler, Georges; Merow, Cory; Moore, Kara; Piedallu, Christian; Vissault, Steve; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Zurell, Damaris; Schurr, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson defined species' realized niche as the set of environmental conditions in which populations can persist in the presence of competitors. In terms of demography, the realized niche corresponds to the environments where the intrinsic growth rate (r) of populations is positive. Observed species occurrences should reflect the realized niche when additional processes like dispersal and local extinction lags do not have overwhelming effects. Despite the foundational nature of these ideas, quantitative assessments of the relationship between range-wide demographic performance and occurrence probability have not been made. This assessment is needed both to improve our conceptual understanding of species' niches and ranges and to develop reliable mechanistic models of species geographic distributions that incorporate demography and species interactions.The objective of this study is to analyse how demographic parameters (intrinsic growth rate r and carrying capacity K ) and population density (N ) relate to occurrence probability (Pocc ). We hypothesized that these relationships vary with species' competitive ability. Demographic parameters, density, and occurrence probability were estimated for 108 tree species from four temperate forest inventory surveys (Québec, western USA, France and Switzerland). We used published information of shade tolerance as indicators of light competition strategy, assuming that high tolerance denotes high competitive capacity in stable forest environments.Interestingly, relationships between demographic parameters and occurrence probability did not vary substantially across degrees of shade tolerance and regions. Although they were influenced by the uncertainty in the estimation of the demographic parameters, we found that r was generally negatively correlated with Pocc, while N, and for most regions K, was generally positively correlated with Pocc. Thus, in temperate forest trees the regions of highest occurrence

  16. The Osmium(VIII) Oxofluoro Cations OsO(2)F(3)(+) and F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+): Syntheses, Characterization by (19)F NMR Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Crystal Structure of F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+)Sb(2)F(11)(-), and Density Functional Theory Calculations of OsO(2)F(3)(+), ReO(2)F(3), and F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+).

    PubMed

    Casteel, William J.; Dixon, David A.; Mercier, Hélène P. A.; Schrobilgen, Gary J.

    1996-07-17

    Osmium dioxide tetrafluoride, cis-OsO(2)F(4), reacts with the strong fluoride ion acceptors AsF(5) and SbF(5) in anhydrous HF and SbF(5) solutions to form orange salts. Raman spectra are consistent with the formation of the fluorine-bridged diosmium cation F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+), as the AsF(6)(-) and Sb(2)F(11)(-) salts, respectively. The (19)F NMR spectra of the salts in HF solution are exchange-averaged singlets occurring at higher frequency than those of the fluorine environments of cis-OsO(2)F(4). The F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+)Sb(2)F(11)(-) salt crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Imma. At -107 degrees C, a = 12.838(3) Å, b = 10.667(2) Å, c = 11.323(2) Å, V = 1550.7(8) Å(3), and Z = 4. Refinement converged with R = 0.0469 [R(w) = 0.0500]. The crystal structure consists of discrete fluorine-bridged F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+) and Sb(2)F(11)(-) ions in which the fluorine bridge of the F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+) cation is trans to an oxygen atom (Os-O 1.676 Å) of each OsO(2)F(3) group. The angle at the bridge is 155.2(8) degrees with a bridging Os---F(b) distance of 2.086(3) Å. Two terminal fluorine atoms (Os-F 1.821 Å) are cis to the two oxygen atoms (Os-O 1.750 Å), and two terminal fluorine atoms of the OsO(2)F(3) group are trans to one another (1.813 Å). The OsO(2)F(3)(+) cation was characterized by (19)F NMR and by Raman spectroscopy in neat SbF(5) solution but was not isolable in the solid state. The NMR and Raman spectroscopic findings are consistent with a trigonal bipyramidal cation in which the oxygen atoms and a fluorine atom occupy the equatorial plane and two fluorine atoms are in axial positions. Density functional theory calculations show that the crystallographic structure of F(cis-OsO(2)F(3))(2)(+) is the energy-minimized structure and the energy-minimized structures of the OsO(2)F(3)(+) cation and ReO(2)F(3) are trigonal bipyramidal having C(2)(v)() point symmetry. Attempts to prepare the OsOF(5)(+) cation by oxidative fluorination of cis-Os

  17. Os-187/Os-188 and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Apollo 17 Aphanitic Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; James, O. B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Generally chondritic relative abundances and high absolute abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) in Earth s upper mantle provide strong evidence that these elements were added to the Earth following the last major interaction between its metallic core and silicate fraction. So called "late accretion" may have added materials comprising as much as 0.8% of the total mass of the Earth and possibly a similar proportion of mass to the Moon. We have begun to study the chemical nature of late accreted materials to the Earth - Moon system by examining the HSE contained in lunar impact-melt rocks. The HSE contained in melt rocks were largely added to the Moon during the period of time from the origin of the lunar highlands crust (4.4- 4.5 Ga) to the end of the late bombardment period (ca. 3.9 Ga). These materials provide the only direct chemical link to the late accretionary period. The chemical fingerprints of the HSE in late accreted materials may enable us to ascertain under what conditions and where in the solar system the late accreted materials formed. The Os-187/Os-188 ratios (reflecting long-term Re/Os), coupled with ratios of other HSE, can be diagnostic for identifying the nature of the impactor. A critical issue, however, will be deconvolving the exogenous from indigenous components.

  18. Comparative Study of Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of Osmate Double Perovskites: Ca2FeOsO6 versus Ca2Co(Ni)OsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kartik; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2018-04-01

    Employing density functional theory, we study the trend in the electronic and magnetic properties of 3d-5d double perovskites, upon varying the 3d element for a fixed choice of 5d element, namely Ca2BOsO6 (B = Fe/Co/Ni). While all three compounds are reported to be ferrimagnets, the magnetic transition temperature of Ca2FeOsO6 is reported to be 2-2.4 times larger than that of Ca2CoOsO6 or Ca2NiOsO6. Our first-principles study provides microscopic insight into this trend. This trend is found to be caused by the downward shift in the position of d level energies of the B site element with respect to that of the Os t2g level upon moving across the 3d series from Fe to Co and Ni. This in turn changes the nominal valence of the Os ion from 5+ in Ca2FeOsO6 to 6+ in Ca2CoOsO6 and Ca2NiOsO6, resulting in differing superexchange paths between Ca2FeOsO6 and Ca2Co(Ni)OsO6, and additionally enabling the hybridization-mechanism-driven magnetism in Ca2FeOsO6. These together significantly enhance the magnetic transition temperature in Ca2FeOsO6 compared with that in Ca2Co(Ni)OsO6.

  19. Temporal record of osmium concentrations and 187Os/188Os in organic-rich mudrocks: Implications for the osmium geochemical cycle and the use of osmium as a paleoceanographic tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinze; Kendall, Brian; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a compilation of 192Os concentrations (representing non-radiogenic Os) and initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratios from organic-rich mudrocks (ORM) to explore the evolution of the Os geochemical cycle during the past three billion years. The initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratio of a Re-Os isochron regression for ORM constrains the local paleo-seawater 187Os/188Os, which is governed by the relative magnitudes of radiogenic Os (old continental crust) and unradiogenic Os (mantle, extraterrestrial, and juvenile/mafic/ultramafic crust) fluxes to seawater. A first-order increase in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios occurs from the Archean to the Phanerozoic, and may reflect a combination of increasing atmosphere-ocean oxygenation and weathering of progressively more radiogenic continental crust due to in-growth of 187Os from radioactive decay of 187Re. Superimposed on this long-term trend are shorter-term fluctuations in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios as a result of climate change, emplacement of large igneous provinces, bolide impacts, tectonic events, changes in seafloor spreading rates, and lithological changes in crustal terranes proximal to sites of ORM deposition. Ediacaran-Phanerozoic ORM have mildly higher 192Os concentrations overall compared with pre-Ediacaran Proterozoic ORM based on the mean and 95% confidence interval of 10,000 median values derived using a bootstrap analysis for each time bin (insufficient Archean data exist for robust statistical comparisons). However, there are two groups with anomalously high 192Os concentrations that are distinguished by their initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratios. Ediacaran-Cambrian ORM from South China have radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os, suggesting their high 192Os concentrations reflect proximal Os-rich crustal source(s), ultraslow sedimentation rates, and/or other unusual depositional conditions. In contrast, the unradiogenic initial 187Os/188Os and high 192Os concentrations of some Mesozoic ORM can be tied to emplacement

  20. Prevalence of Os Styloideum in National Hockey League Players

    PubMed Central

    Greditzer, Harry G.; Hutchinson, Ian D.; Geannette, Christian S.; Hotchkiss, Robert N.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Os styloideum describes an accessory carpal ossicle between the trapezoid, the capitate, and the second and third metacarpals. Injuries to this tissue have been described as part of the carpal boss syndrome. While the etiology of os styloideum remains uncertain, it may represent a physiologic response to altered loading forces in the wrist, similar to the development of cam-type deformity in the hips of ice hockey players or the Bennett lesion in the shoulders of baseball pitchers. Hypothesis: Professional hockey players will have a higher prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of 16 professional hockey players from 4 different National Hockey League (NHL) teams who underwent unilateral imaging of the wrist was performed. Seventeen wrists were reviewed for the presence of os styloideum. Results: Thirteen of 16 players (81%) had an os styloideum, representing an increased prevalence compared with the general population. Previous clinical and cadaveric studies estimated a general prevalence of up to 19% (P < 0.001). For the 10 players who had their leading wrist scanned, 9 had an os styloideum (90%). Ten of 11 (91%) players demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern within the metacarpal and the os styloideum on magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant association between the presence of an os styloideum and the player’s position, leading wrist, or years in the league. Conclusion: There appears to be an increased prevalence of os styloideum among NHL players, and team physicians should consider this finding while formulating a differential diagnosis for dorsal wrist pain. Clinical Relevance: This study identified NHL players as having an increased prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. By doing so, these findings represent an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the etiology, clinical significance

  1. Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, Fatima; Michels, Raymond; Reisberg, Laurie; Pujol, Magali; Poirier, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    Several recent studies have raised the exciting possibility that oils can be dated using the Re-Os radioisotope system. However the exact nature of the events dated by this technique often remains unclear. Geochronologic interpretation of Re-Os data for oils is hampered by our limited knowledge of how these metals behave in petroleum systems. In particular, it is difficult to understand how isotopic homogenization, an essential prerequisite for the development of an isochronal relationship, can be achieved at the scale of a petroleum basin. The mechanisms capable of fractionating the Re/Os ratio in a suite of oils are also poorly understood. For this reason, we have performed an experimental study aimed at investigating the behavior of Re and Os during a particularly widespread phenomenon in petroleum systems, the interaction of formation waters with oils during migration. Contact experiments between natural oils and aqueous solutions enriched in Re and/or Os were carried out for varying lengths of time (6 h to 5 months), at different temperatures (25-150 °C), over a wide range of metal concentrations in the enriched solution (0.001-100 μg/g for Re; 1 and 10 ng/g for Os). In addition, the effect of oil composition on Re-Os exchange at the water-oil interface was examined by testing two oils with very different properties. All of our results demonstrate that Re and Os are transferred massively and very rapidly from the aqueous solution to the organic phase. This is true regardless of temperature or oil composition. It is also true for a very wide range of metal concentrations in the aqueous solution, up to an apparent saturation level that exceeds natural concentrations in oils by several orders of magnitude. Given the efficiency of Re and Os transfer from water to oil demonstrated here, and assuming that our findings are applicable to natural conditions, water/oil ratios of only about 250 would be needed to explain the Re and Os contents of most oils, based on

  2. A TinyOS-based wireless neural interface.

    PubMed

    Farshchi, Shahin; Mody, Istvan; Judy, Jack W

    2004-01-01

    The overlay of a neural interface upon a TinyOS-based sensing and communication platform is described. The system amplifies, digitally encodes, and transmits two EEG channels of neural signals from an un-tethered subject to a remote gateway, which routes the signals to a client PC. This work demonstrates the viability of the TinyOS-based sensor technology as a foundation for chronic remote biological monitoring applications, and thus provides an opportunity to create a system that can leverage from the frequent networking and communications advancements being made by the global TinyOS-development community.

  3. A new superhard material: Osmium diboride OsB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbache, M.; Stuparević, L.; Živković, D.

    2006-08-01

    Superhard materials have many industrial applications, wherever resistance to abrasion and wear are important. The synthesis of new superhard materials is one of the great challenges to scientists. We re-examined the phase diagram of the binary osmium-boron system and confirmed the existence of two hexagonal phases, OsB 1.1, Os 2B 3, and an orthorhombic phase, OsB 2. Almost nothing is known about the physical properties of osmium borides. Microhardness measurements show that OsB 2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that this is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB 2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used as hard coating.

  4. Developing Predictive Models for Algal Bloom Occurrence and Identifying Factors Controlling their Occurrence in the Charlotte County and Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, S.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous occurrences of harmful algal blooms (Karenia Brevis) were reported from Southwest Florida along the coast of Charlotte County, Florida. We are developing data-driven (remote sensing, field, and meteorological data) models to accomplish the following: (1) identify the factors controlling bloom development, (2) forecast bloom occurrences, and (3) make recommendations for monitoring variables that are found to be most indicative of algal bloom occurrences and for identifying optimum locations for monitoring stations. To accomplish these three tasks we completed/are working on the following steps. Firstly, we developed an automatic system for downloading and processing of ocean color data acquired through MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software. Examples of extracted variables include: chlorophyll a (OC3M), chlorophyll a Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP), chlorophyll a Garver-Siegel- Maritorena (GSM), sea surface temperature (SST), Secchi disk depth, euphotic depth, turbidity index, wind direction and speed, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM). Secondly we are developing a GIS database and a web-based GIS to host the generated remote sensing-based products in addition to relevant meteorological and field data. Examples of the meteorological and field inputs include: precipitation amount and rates, concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, fecal coliform and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Thirdly, we are constructing and validating a multivariate regression model and an artificial neural network model to simulate past algal bloom occurrences using the compiled archival remote sensing, meteorological, and field data. The validated model will then be used to predict the timing and location of algal bloom occurrences. The developed system, upon completion, could enhance the decision making process, improve the citizen's quality of life, and strengthen the local economy.

  5. Genetic Interaction of OsMADS3, DROOPING LEAF, and OsMADS13 in Specifying Rice Floral Organ Identities and Meristem Determinacy1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    Grass plants develop unique floral patterns that determine grain production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the specification of floral organ identities and meristem determinacy, including the interaction among floral homeotic genes, remains largely unknown in grasses. Here, we report the interactions of rice (Oryza sativa) floral homeotic genes, OsMADS3 (a C-class gene), OsMADS13 (a D-class gene), and DROOPING LEAF (DL), in specifying floral organ identities and floral meristem determinacy. The interaction among these genes was revealed through the analysis of double mutants. osmads13-3 osmads3-4 displayed a loss of floral meristem determinacy and generated abundant carpelloid structures containing severe defective ovules in the flower center, which were not detectable in the single mutant. In addition, in situ hybridization and yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that OsMADS13 and OsMADS3 did not regulate each other’s transcription or interact at the protein level. This indicates that OsMADS3 plays a synergistic role with OsMADS13 in both ovule development and floral meristem termination. Strikingly, osmads3-4 dl-sup6 displayed a severe loss of floral meristem determinacy and produced supernumerary whorls of lodicule-like organs at the forth whorl, suggesting that OsMADS3 and DL synergistically terminate the floral meristem. Furthermore, the defects of osmads13-3 dl-sup6 flowers appeared identical to those of dl-sup6, and the OsMADS13 expression was undetectable in dl-sup6 flowers. These observations suggest that DL and OsMADS13 may function in the same pathway specifying the identity of carpel/ovule and floral meristem. Collectively, we propose a model to illustrate the role of OsMADS3, DL, and OsMADS13 in the specification of flower organ identity and meristem determinacy in rice. PMID:21444646

  6. The apollo 16 lunar samples: petrographic and chemical description.

    PubMed

    1973-01-05

    The preliminary characterization of the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site has substantiated the inference that the lunar terra are commonly underlain by plagioclase-rich or anorthositic rocks. No evidence has been found for volcanic rocks underlying the regolith in the Apollo 16 region. In their place, we have found anorthositic rocks that are thoroughly modified by crushing and partial melting. The textural and chemical variations in these rocks provide some evidence for the existence of anorthositic complexes that have differentiated on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The occurrence of deep-seated or plutonic rocks in place of volcanic or pyroclastic materials at this site suggests that the inference from physiographic evidence that the latter materials are widespread in terra regions may be incorrect. Several additional, more specific conclusions derived from this preliminary examination are: 1) The combination of data from the Descartes region with data from the orbital x-ray fluorescence experiment indicates that some backside, highland regions are underlain by materials that consist of more than 80 percent plagioclase. 2) The soil or upper regolith between North Ray and South Ray has not been completely homogenized since the time of formation of these craters. 3) The chemistry of the soil indicates that rocks rich in potassium, uranium, and thorium, similar to those that prevail at the Fra Mauro site, are relatively abundant (10 to 20 percent) in the Descartes region. 4) The K/U ratio of the lunar crust is similar to that of the KREEP basalts. 5) The carbon content of the premare lunar crust is even lower than that of the mare volcanic rocks.

  7. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    Treesearch

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  8. OsPT4 Contributes to Arsenate Uptake and Transport in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ying; Li, Peng; Xu, Tangqian; Zeng, Liting; Cheng, Deng; Yang, Meng; Luo, Jie; Lian, Xingming

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is toxic to organisms, and elevated As accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grain may pose a significant health risk to humans. The predominant form of As in soil under aerobic conditions is As(V), which has a chemical structure similar to that of PO43-. Rice roots take up As(V) by phosphate (Pi) transporters, such as OsPT1 and OsPT8. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of OsPT4, belonging to the Pht1 family, on rice As(V) uptake and transport. We determined the mRNA amounts of OsPTs in rice seedlings, and expressions of OsPT1, OsPT4, and OsPT8 were up-regulated under As(V) conditions. OsPT4-overexpressing plants were obtained to examine the As (V) transport activity of OsPT4 in rice. When transgenic rice grew in hydroponic culture with 25 and 50 μM As(V), the plants showed sensitivity to As(V) stress with aboveground parts showing delayed growth and the roots stunted. The OsPT4 CRISPR lines showed the opposite phenotype. When plants were grown in 5 μM As(V) solution for 7 days, the As accumulation of OsPT4-overexpressing plants increased up to twice in roots and shoots. Furthermore, the arsenate uptake rates of OsPT4-overexpressing lines were higher compared with wild type. The Vmax of As(V) uptake in OsPT4-overexpressing plants increased 23–45% compared with Nipponbare. In the flooded soil, the As accumulation of OsPT4-overexpressing plants increased 40–66% and 22–30% in straw and grain, respectively. While in OsPT4-cr plants As accumulation in roots decreased 17–30% compared with Nipponbare. Therefore, the present study indicates that OsPT4 is involved in As(V) uptake and transport and could be a good candidate gene to generate low As-accumulating rice. PMID:29312424

  9. Effects of chemical pressure on the magnetic ground states of the osmate double perovskites SrCaCoOs 6 and Ca 2CoOsO 6

    DOE PAGES

    Morrow, Ryan; Yan, Jiaqiang; McGuire, Michael A.; ...

    2015-09-21

    The magnetic ground state in the double perovskite system Sr 2-xCa xCoOsO 6 changes from an antiferromagnet (x=0), to a spin glass (x=1), to a ferrimagnet (x=2) as the Ca content increases. Moreover, this crossover is driven by chemical pressure effects that control the relative strength of magnetic exchange interactions. The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetism of SrCaCoOsO 6 and Ca 2CoOsO 6 are investigated and compared with Sr 2CoOsO 6. Both compounds adopt a monoclinic crystal structure with rock-salt ordering of Co 2+ and Os 6+ and a -a -b + octahedral tilting, but the average Co–O–Os bond anglemore » evolves from 158.0(3) in SrCaCoOsO 6 to 150.54(9)° in Ca 2CoOsO 6 as the smaller Ca 2+ ion replaces Sr 2+. And while this change may seem minor, it has a profound effect on the magnetism, changing the magnetic ground state from antiferromagnetic in Sr 2CoOsO 6 (TN1=108K, T N2=70K), to a spin glass in SrCaCoOsO 6 (T f1=32K, T f2=13K), to ferrimagnetic in Ca 2CoOsO 6 (T C=145K). Finally, in the first two compounds the observation of two transitions is consistent with weak coupling between the Co and Os sublattices.« less

  10. Re - Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Echeverria, L.M.; Shirey, S.B.; Horan, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Re - Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155??43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1??3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (??Nd+9??1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (??Os) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial ?? values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re - Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Data threats analysis and prevention on iOS platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Yi; Chen, Zhou; Tang, Jiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Background: The rapid growth of mobile internet has driven the rapid popularity of smart mobiles. iOS device is chosen by more and more people for its humanity, stability and excellent industrial design, and the data security problem that followed it has gradually attracted the researchers' attention. Method & Result: This thesis focuses on the analysis of current situation of data security on iOS platform, from both security mechanism and data risk, and proposes countermeasures. Conclusion: From practical work, many problems of data security mechanism on iOS platform still exist. At present, the problem of malicious software towards iOS system has not been severe, but how to ensure the security of data on iOS platform will inevitably become one of the directions for our further study.

  12. Unusual Phase Diagram of CeOs 4Sb 12

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P. -C.; Goddard, P. A.; Maple, M. B.

    2017-03-01

    Filled skutterudite compounds, with the formula MT 4X 12, where M is an alkali metal, alkaline-earth, lanthanide, or actinide, T is Fe, Ru, or Os, and X is P, As, or Sb, display a wide variety of interesting phenomena caused by strong electron correlations [1]. Among these, the three compounds CeOs 4Sb 12, PrOs 4Sb 12, and NdOs 4Sb 12, formed by employing Periodic Table neighbors for M, span the range from an antiferromagnetic (AFM) semimetal (M = Ce) via a 1.85 K unconventional (quadrupolar-fluctuation mediated) superconductor (M = Pr) to a 1 K ferromagnet (FM; M = Nd). Inmore » the course of an extended study of these compounds, we uncovered an unusual phase diagram for CeOs 4Sb 12.« less

  13. Re-Os Geochronology Pins Age and Os Isotope Composition of Middle Triassic Black Shales and Seawater, Barents Sea and Spitsbergen (Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Stein, H. J.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weitschat, W.; Weiss, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Absolute age control throughout the Triassic is extraordinarily sparse. Two "golden spikes" have been added recently (http://www.stratigraphy.org/cheu.pdf) within the otherwise unconstrained Triassic, but ages of stage boundaries remain controversial. Here we report two Re-Os isochrons for Anisian (Middle Triassic) black shales from outcrop in western Svalbard and drill core from the Svalis Dome about 600 km to the SE in the Barents Sea. Black shales of the Blanknuten Member, Botneheia Formation, from the type section at Botneheia, western Spitsbergen (Svalbard), have total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 2.6 to 6.0 wt%. Rock-Eval data suggest moderately mature (Tmax = 440-450° C) Type II-III kerogens (Hydrogen Index (HI) = 232-311 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a well-constrained Model 3 age of 241 Ma and initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) of 0.83 (MSWD = 16, n = 6). Samples of the possibly correlative Steinkobbe Formation from IKU core hole 7323/07-U-04 into the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea (at about 73°30'N, 23°15'E) have TOC contents of 1.4 to 2.4%. Rock-Eval data suggest immature (Tmax = 410-430°) Type II-III kerogens (HI = 246-294 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a precise Model 1 age of 239 Ma and Osi of 0.776 (MSWD = 0.2, n = 5). The sampled section of Blanknuten shale underlies a distinctive Frechitas (formerly Ptychites) layer, and is therefore assumed to be middle Anisian. The Steinkobbe core was sampled at 99-100 m, just above the Olenekian-Anisian transition. It is therefore assumed to be lower Anisian. The two isochron ages overlap within uncertainty, and fall within constraints provided by biozones and the current ICS-approved stage boundary ages. The Re-Os ages support the correlation of the Botneheia and Steinkobbe formations. The nearly identical Osi ratios suggest regional homogeneity of seawater and provide new information for the Os seawater curve, marking a relatively high 187Os/188Os ratio during profound ocean anoxia in the Middle Triassic.

  14. Co-occurrence of chancroid and gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Tayeh, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Gonorrhea and chancroid are common sexually transmitted infections in many parts of the world. Still, co-occurrence of these two conditions is uncommonly reported. We present here a patient who presented with painful genital ulcers and urethral discharge simultaneously acquired from a single exposure, which turned out to be chancroid and gonorrhea, respectively. Both conditions responded well to a single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone 250 mg. This report describes the uncommon occurrence of gonorrhea and chancroid in a patient. Clinical features, relevant investigations, treatment options of these two sexually transmitted infections, and possible implications in view of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic are briefly discussed.

  15. Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma of the os penis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jinelle A.; Liptak, Julius M.; Hewitt, Saundra A.; Vince, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) of the os penis was diagnosed in a dysuric dog. Recurrence was confirmed or suspected twice over a 22-month period. This is the first reported case of MLO occurring in the os penis, and the 5th reported case of neoplasia of the os penis in the dog. PMID:19337619

  16. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary nuclear...

  17. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary nuclear...

  18. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary nuclear...

  19. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary nuclear...

  20. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary nuclear...

  1. Fermi-surface topologies and low-temperature phases of the filled skutterudite compounds CeOs 4 Sb 12 and NdOs 4 Sb 12

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, Pei Chun; Singleton, John; Goddard, Paul A.; ...

    2016-11-28

    We use MHz conductivity, torque magnetometer, and magnetization measurements to report on single crystals of CeOs 4 Sb 12 and NdOs 4 Sb 12 using temperatures down to 0.5 K and magnetic fields of up to 60 tesla. The field-orientation dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is deduced by rotating the samples about the [ 010 ] and [ 0more » $$\\bar{1}$$ 1 1 ] directions. Our results indicate that NdOs 4 Sb 12 has a similar Fermi surface topology to that of the unusual superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , but with significantly smaller effective masses, supporting the importance of local phonon modes in contributing to the low-temperature heat capacity of NdOs 4 Sb 12 . By contrast, CeOs 4 Sb 12 undergoes a field-induced transition from an unusual semimetal into a high-field, high-temperature state characterized by a single, almost spherical Fermi-surface section. Furthermore, the behavior of the phase boundary and comparisons with models of the band structure lead us to propose that the field-induced phase transition in CeOs 4 Sb 12 is similar in origin to the well-known α - γ transition in Ce and its alloys.« less

  2. OsRAMOSA2 Shapes Panicle Architecture through Regulating Pedicel Length.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huan; Dai, Zhengyan; Li, Ling; Wang, Jiang; Miao, Xuexia; Shi, Zhenying

    2017-01-01

    The panicle architecture of rice is an important characteristic that influences reproductive success and yield. It is largely determined by the number and length of the primary and secondary branches. The number of panicle branches is defined by the inflorescence meristem state between determinacy and indeterminacy; for example, the maize ramosa2 ( ra2 ) mutant has more branches in its tassel through loss of spikelet determinacy. Some genes and factors influencing the number of primary and secondary branches have been studied, but little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying pedicel development, which also influences panicle architecture. We report here that rice OsRAMOSA2 ( OsRA2 ) gene modifies panicle architecture through regulating pedicel length. Ectopic expression of OsRA2 resulted in a shortened pedicel while inhibition of OsRA2 through RNA interference produced elongated pedicel. In addition, OsRA2 influenced seed morphology. The OsRA2 protein localized to the nucleus and showed transcriptional activation in yeast; in accordance with its function in pedicel development, OsRA2 mRNA was enriched in the anlagen of axillary meristems, such as primary and secondary branch meristems and the spikelet meristems of young panicles. This indicates a conserved role of OsRA2 for shaping the initial steps of inflorescence architecture. Genetic analysis revealed that OsRA2 may control panicle architecture using the same pathway as that of the axillary meristem gene LAX1 ( LAX PANICLE1 ). Moreover, OsRA2 acted downstream of RCN2 in regulating pedicel and branch lengths, but upstream of RCN2 for control of the number of secondary branches, indicating that branch number and length development in the panicle were respectively regulated using parallel pathway. Functional conservation between OsRA2 and AtLOB , and the conservation and diversification of RA2 in maize and rice are also discussed.

  3. Species co-occurrence analysis predicts management outcomes for multiple threats.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Lindenmayer, David B

    2018-03-01

    Mitigating the impacts of global anthropogenic change on species is conservation's greatest challenge. Forecasting the effects of actions to mitigate threats is hampered by incomplete information on species' responses. We develop an approach to predict community restructuring under threat management, which combines models of responses to threats with network analyses of species co-occurrence. We discover that contributions by species to network co-occurrence predict their recovery under reduction of multiple threats. Highly connected species are likely to benefit more from threat management than poorly connected species. Importantly, we show that information from a few species on co-occurrence and expected responses to alternative threat management actions can be used to train a response model for an entire community. We use a unique management dataset for a threatened bird community to validate our predictions and, in doing so, demonstrate positive feedbacks in occurrence and co-occurrence resulting from shared threat management responses during ecosystem recovery.

  4. Mid-Type M Dwarf Planet Occurrence Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Cushing, Michael; Muirhead, Philip Steven

    2018-01-01

    Planet occurrence rates increase toward later spectral types; therefore, M dwarf systems are our most promising targets in the search for exoplanets. Stars in the original Kepler field were primarily characterized from photometry alone, resulting in large uncertainties (~30%) for properties of late-type stars like M dwarfs. Planet occurrence rate calculations require precise measurements of stellar radii, which can be constrained to ~10% using temperatures and metallicities derived from spectra. These measurements need to be performed on a statistically significant population of stars, including systems with and without planets. Using WIYN, the Discovery Channel Telescope, and IRTF, we have gathered spectra of about half of the ~550 probable mid-type M dwarfs in the Kepler field. Our observations have led to better constraints on stellar parameters and new planet occurrence rates for mid-type M dwarfs. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research partnership, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.

  5. Re-Os geochronology of a Mesoproterozoic sedimentary succession, Taoudeni basin, Mauritania: Implications for basin-wide correlations and Re-Os organic-rich sediments systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Alan D.; Selby, David; Houzay, Jean-Pierre; Renne, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    The exceptionally well-preserved sedimentary rocks of the Taoudeni basin, NW Africa represent one of the world's most widespread (> 1 M km 2) Proterozoic successions. Hitherto, the sedimentary rocks were considered to be Mid Tonian based on Rb-Sr illite and glauconite geochronology of the Atar Group. However, new Re-Os organic-rich sediment (ORS) geochronology from two drill cores indicates that the Proterozoic Atar Group is ˜ 200 Ma older (1107 ± 12 Ma, 1109 ± 22 Ma and 1105 ± 37 Ma). The Re-Os geochronology suggests that the Rb-Sr geochronology records the age of diagenetic events possibly associated with the Pan African collision. The new Re-Os geochronology data provide absolute age constraints for recent carbon isotope chemostratigraphy which suggests that the Atar Group is Mesoproterozoic and not Neoproterozoic. The new Re-Os ORS geochronology supports previous studies that suggest that rapid hydrocarbon generation (flash pyrolysis) from contact metamorphism of a dolerite sill does not significantly disturb the Re-Os ORS systematics. Modelled contact conditions suggest that the Re-Os ORS systematics remain undisturbed at ˜ 650 °C at the sill/shale contact and ≥ 280 °C 20 m from the sill/shale contact. Moreover, the Re-Os geochronology indicates that the West African craton has a depositional history that predates 1100 Ma and that ORS can be correlated on a basin-wide scale. In addition, the Re-Os depositional ages for the ORS of the Taoudeni basin are comparable to those of ORS from the São Francisco craton, suggesting that these cratons are correlatable. This postulate is further supported by identical Os i values for the Atar Group and the Vazante Group of the São Francisco craton.

  6. DON occurrence in cereal grains: A North American perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in agricultural commodities has been reported all over the world, with levels varying amongst grain type and years of production. However, a systematic review of the current situation regarding this mycotoxin, its occurrence, and its management in North America...

  7. Occurrence rate of dipolarization fronts in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sudong; Zhang, Tielong; Wang, Guoqiang; Volwerk, Martin; Ge, Yasong; Schmid, Daniel; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Plaschke, Ferdinand

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the occurrence rate of dipolarization fronts (DFs) in the plasma sheet by taking full advantage of all four Cluster satellites (C1-4) from years 2001 to 2009. In total, we select 466 joint-observation DF events, in which 318, 282, 254, and 236 DFs are observed by C1, C2, C3, and C4, respectively. Our findings are as follows: (1) the maximum occurrence rate is ˜ 15.3 events per day at X ˜ 15 RE in the XY plane, and the average occurrence rate is ˜ 5.4 events per day over the whole observation period; (2) the occurrence rate on the dusk side of the plasma sheet is larger and decreases with increasing BXY/BLobe; (3) the occurrence rate within |Y| < 6 RE increases gradually from X ≈ -19 to -15 RE and then decreases from X ≈ -15 to -10 RE; (4) the occurrence rate when AE > 200 nT is much larger than that when AE < 200 nT, indicating that DFs preferentially occur during high geomagnetic activity. The magnetic pileup and earthward and duskward ion flows could contribute to the increases in the occurrence rate from X ≈ -19 to -15 RE. We suggest that both geomagnetic activity and multiple DFs contribute to the high occurrence rate of the DFs. In addition, the finite length of the DF in the dawn-dusk direction can affect the chance that a satellite observes the DF.

  8. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  9. Effective reduction of cadmium accumulation in rice grain by expressing OsHMA3 under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ji Feng; Xia, Jixing; Yamaji, Naoki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2018-04-27

    Reducing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain is an important issue for human health. The aim of this study was to manipulate both expression and tissue localization of OsHMA3, a tonoplast-localized Cd transporter, in the roots by expressing it under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter, which shows high expression in different organs including roots, nodes, and shoots. In two independent transgenic lines, the expression of OsHMA3 was significantly enhanced in all organs compared with non-transgenic rice. Furthermore, OsHMA3 protein was detected in the root pericycle cells and phloem region of both the diffuse vascular bundle and the enlarged vascular bundle of the nodes. At the vegetative stage, the Cd concentration in the shoots and xylem sap of the transgenic rice was significantly decreased, but that of the whole roots and root cell sap was increased. At the reproductive stage, the concentration of Cd, but not other essential metals, in the brown rice of transgenic lines was decreased to less than one-tenth that of the non-transgenic rice. These results indicate that expression of OsHMA3 under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter can effectively reduce Cd accumulation in rice grain through sequestering more Cd into the vacuoles of various tissues.

  10. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    fact or fiction. Austin ( TX ): The Virtualization Practice; [accessed 2012 July 26]. http://www.virtualization practice.com/type-0-hypervisor-fact......needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-SR-0370 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory OS Friendly Microprocessor

  11. Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976-2006.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Ruth; Sobel, Jeremy; Arnon, Stephen S

    2008-07-01

    To summarize the worldwide occurrence of reported infant (intestinal toxemia) botulism cases since first recognition of the disease in 1976. We collected information on infant botulism cases by active and passive surveillance, by provision of therapeutic Human Botulism Immune Globulin to suspected cases, and by searching the medical literature. We defined a case as laboratory-confirmed botulism that occurred in an infant occurrence of at least 1 case of infant botulism among their residents. The United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Italy, and Japan, in this order, reported the largest number of cases. A history of honey exposure was significantly more common among case subjects hospitalized outside of the United States than among those who were recently hospitalized in California. Most countries have not yet reported cases of infant botulism. This limited reporting of the disease to date contrasts with the known global occurrence of Clostridium botulinum spores in soils and dust and suggests that infant botulism may be under-recognized, underreported, or both. When bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness are present, physicians should consider the possibility of infant botulism even if the patient has not been fed honey. Publication of additional case reports and surveillance summaries will enhance understanding of the occurrence and extent of this under-recognized disease.

  12. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  13. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hammer, Roger B.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2013-01-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland–urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  14. Types and Mechanisms of Alterations on the Mesozoic Ophiolites (Lake Van Region-Turkey): Petrographical and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Ömer; Üner, Tijen; Mutlu, Sacit; Depçi, Tolga

    2017-04-01

    Mesozoic ophiolites are widely located in the eastern part of Lake Van Basin. The ophiolitic rocks deformed during the rifting and/or closure period of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean are observed as tectonic slices in the region. These ophiolites are represented by volcano-sedimentary units, isolated dikes, and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The formation, emplacement and post-emplacement processes of these ophiolitic rocks can be understood owing to alterations as rodingitization, serpentinization, and listwaenitization. Three stages of sequent mineralization are detected in the ophiolitic rocks. First stage is pyrometasomatization, represented by metamorphic minerals (garnet, chlorite etc.), observed in intruded dikes. Second stage is hydrothermal alteration of mafic-ultramafic rocks namely serpentinization. Listwaenite alteration is the last stage of mineralization. According to petrographical investigations, garnet+chlorite+diopsite minerals are detected in rodengites. The conversion of the plagioclase minerals to the calcsilicatic minerals in rodengites suggests that these rocks are metasomatic rocks produced by Ca-rich fluids derived from serpentinization of the ultramafic rocks. The serpentine minerals (chrysotile-lizardite) can be distinguished from each other by their morphology as being platy or fibrous. Listwaenite alteration is followed by the formation of carbonate, silica, oxides and hydroxides. Chemical analysis of these rocks show that the listwaenites have an enrichment in Ni and Co contents while the rodingites have low SiO2 and high CaO and MgO values (SiO2 28,50 - 36,67%, CaO 11,99 - 20,88%, and MgO 7,99 - 17,73%). Alteration types observed on the ophiolitic rocks demonstrate that these rocks are metamorphised by low pressure and low to middle temperature conditions (greenshist facies). Serpentinization is pointing out an alteration which occurred during the emplacement of the ophiolites or the latter period. This study has been supported by Project number 2013

  15. SUBMICROSCOPIC ( less than 1 mu m) MINERAL CONTENTS OF VITRINITES IN SELECTED BITUMINOUS COAL BEDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Thompson, C.L.; Wandless, M.-V.; Dulong, F.T.; Larson, R.R.; Neuzil, S.G.; ,

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the petrographic description of coal is the characterization of coal quality, including chemical attributes. For geologic investigations, data on the concentrations, distribution, and modes of occurrence of minor and trace elements provide a basis for reconstructing the probable geochemical environment of the swamp material that was converted into peat, and the geochemical conditions that prevailed during and subsequent to coalification. We have been using electron (EPMA) and proton (PIXE) microprobe analytical methods to obtain data on the chemical characteristics of specific coal constituents in their original associations within coal samples. The present study is aimed at evaluation of the nature of mineral occurrences and heterogeneous elemental concentrations within vitrinites. Vitrinites are usually the most abundant, and therefore most important, maceral group in bituminous coal. 8 refs.

  16. Pacific 187Os/188Os isotope chemistry and U-Pb geochronology: Synchroneity of global Os isotope change across OAE 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Vivier, A. D. C.; Selby, D.; Condon, D. J.; Takashima, R.; Nishi, H.

    2015-10-01

    Studies of OAE 2 sections beyond the Atlantic Ocean, Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and European pelagic shelf are limited. Here, we present initial osmium isotope stratigraphy (187Os/188Os-Osi) from two proto-Pacific sites that span the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval (CTBI): the Yezo Group (YG) section, Hokkaido, Japan, and the Great Valley Sequence (GVS), California, USA; to evaluate the 187Os/188Os seawater chemistry of the proto-Pacific. Additionally we combine new 206Pb/238U zircon CA-ID-TIMS geochronology from five volcanic tuff horizons of the Yezo Group section to test and facilitate inter-basinal integration with the WIS using radio-isotopically constrained age-depth models for both sections, and quantitatively constrain the absolute timing and duration of events across the CTBI. The YG shows an almost identical Osi profile to that of the WIS, and very similar to that of other sites of the proto-Atlantic and European pelagic oceans (Turgeon and Creaser, 2008; Du Vivier et al., 2014). The characteristics of the Osi profile are radiogenic and heterogeneous (∼0.55-0.85) prior to the OAE 2, and synchronous with the inferred OAE 2 onset the Osi abruptly become unradiogenic and remain relatively homogeneous (∼0.20-0.30) before showing a gradual return to more radiogenic Osi (∼ 0.70) throughout the middle to late OAE 2. A206Pb/238U zircon age of an interbedded tuff (HK017) in the adjacent horizon to the first unradiogenic Osi value constrains the age of the Osi inflection at 94.44 ± 0.14 Ma. This age, including uncertainty, agrees with the interpolated age of the same point in the Osi profile (94.28 ± 0.25 Ma) in the only other dated OAE 2 section, the WIS; indicating a coeval shift in seawater chemistry associated with volcanism at the OAE 2 onset at the levels of temporal resolution (ca. 0.1 Myr). Further, prior to the onset of OAE 2 an enhanced radiogenic inflection in the Osi profile of the YG is correlative, within uncertainty, with a similar

  17. Overexpression of OsERF48 causes regulation of OsCML16, a calmodulin-like protein gene that enhances root growth and drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harin; Chung, Pil Joong; Park, Su-Hyun; Redillas, Mark Christian Felipe Reveche; Kim, Youn Shic; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2017-10-01

    The AP2/ERF family is a plant-specific transcription factor family whose members have been associated with various developmental processes and stress tolerance. Here, we functionally characterized the drought-inducible OsERF48, a group Ib member of the rice ERF family with four conserved motifs, CMI-1, -2, -3 and -4. A transactivation assay in yeast revealed that the C-terminal CMI-1 motif was essential for OsERF48 transcriptional activity. When OsERF48 was overexpressed in an either a root-specific (ROX O s ERF 48 ) or whole-body (OX O s ERF 48 ) manner, transgenic plants showed a longer and denser root phenotype compared to the nontransgenic (NT) controls. When plants were grown on a 40% polyethylene glycol-infused medium under in vitro drought conditions, ROX O s ERF 48 plants showed a more vigorous root growth than OX O s ERF 48 and NT plants. In addition, the ROX O s ERF 48 plants exhibited higher grain yield than OX O s ERF 48 and NT plants under field-drought conditions. We constructed a putative OsERF48 regulatory network by cross-referencing ROX O s ERF 48 root-specific RNA-seq data with a co-expression network database, from which we inferred the involvement of 20 drought-related genes in OsERF48-mediated responses. These included genes annotated as being involved in stress signalling, carbohydrate metabolism, cell-wall proteins and drought responses. They included, OsCML16, a key gene in calcium signalling during abiotic stress, which was shown to be a direct target of OsERF48 by chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR analysis and a transient protoplast expression assay. Our results demonstrated that OsERF48 regulates OsCML16, a calmodulin-like protein gene that enhances root growth and drought tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of

  19. Effective reduction of cadmium accumulation in rice grain by expressing OsHMA3 under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ji Feng; Xia, Jixing; Yamaji, Naoki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Reducing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain is an important issue for human health. The aim of this study was to manipulate both expression and tissue localization of OsHMA3, a tonoplast-localized Cd transporter, in the roots by expressing it under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter, which shows high expression in different organs including roots, nodes, and shoots. In two independent transgenic lines, the expression of OsHMA3 was significantly enhanced in all organs compared with non-transgenic rice. Furthermore, OsHMA3 protein was detected in the root pericycle cells and phloem region of both the diffuse vascular bundle and the enlarged vascular bundle of the nodes. At the vegetative stage, the Cd concentration in the shoots and xylem sap of the transgenic rice was significantly decreased, but that of the whole roots and root cell sap was increased. At the reproductive stage, the concentration of Cd, but not other essential metals, in the brown rice of transgenic lines was decreased to less than one-tenth that of the non-transgenic rice. These results indicate that expression of OsHMA3 under the control of the OsHMA2 promoter can effectively reduce Cd accumulation in rice grain through sequestering more Cd into the vacuoles of various tissues. PMID:29562302

  20. Packaging- and transportation-related occurrence reports : FY 1994 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through its support to the Department of Energys Office of Facility Safety Analysis, EH-32, retrieves reports and information pertaining to transportation and : packaging occurrences from the centralized Occurrence ...

  1. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Much of animal ecology is devoted to studies of abundance and occurrence of species, based on surveys of spatially referenced sample units. These surveys frequently yield sparse counts that are contaminated by imperfect detection, making direct inference about abundance or occurrence based on observational data infeasible. This article describes a flexible hierarchical modeling framework for estimation and inference about animal abundance and occurrence from survey data that are subject to imperfect detection. Within this framework, we specify models of abundance and detectability of animals at the level of the local populations defined by the sample units. Information at the level of the local population is aggregated by specifying models that describe variation in abundance and detection among sites. We describe likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for estimation and inference under the resulting hierarchical model. We provide two examples of the application of hierarchical models to animal survey data, the first based on removal counts of stream fish and the second based on avian quadrat counts. For both examples, we provide a Bayesian analysis of the models using the software WinBUGS.

  2. The promoter activities of sucrose phosphate synthase genes in rice, OsSPS1 and OsSPS11, are controlled by light and circadian clock, but not by sucrose.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Madoka; Aoki, Naohiro; Hirose, Tatsuro; Onai, Kiyoshi; Ishiura, Masahiro; Okamura, Masaki; Ohsugi, Ryu; Ohto, Chikara

    2013-01-01

    Although sucrose plays a role in sugar sensing and its signaling pathway, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the expressions of plant sucrose-related genes. Our previous study on the expression of the sucrose phosphate synthase gene family in rice (OsSPSs) suggested the involvement of sucrose sensing and/or circadian rhythm in the transcriptional regulation of OsSPS. To examine whether the promoters of OsSPSs can be controlled by sugars and circadian clock, we produced transgenic rice plants harboring a promoter-luciferase construct for OsSPS1 or OsSPS11 and analyzed the changes in the promoter activities by monitoring bioluminescence from intact transgenic plants in real-time. Transgenic plants fed sucrose, glucose, or mannitol under continuous light conditions showed no changes in bioluminescence intensity; meanwhile, the addition of sucrose increased the concentration of sucrose in the plants, and the mRNA levels of OsSPS remained constant. These results suggest that these OsSPS promoters may not be regulated by sucrose levels in the tissues. Next, we investigated the changes in the promoter activities under 12-h light/12-h dark cycles and continuous light conditions. Under the light-dark cycle, both OsSPS1 and OsSPS11 promoter activities were low in the dark and increased rapidly after the beginning of the light period. When the transgenic rice plants were moved to the continuous light condition, both P OsSPS1 ::LUC and P OsSPS11 ::LUC reporter plants exhibited circadian bioluminescence rhythms; bioluminescence peaked during the subjective day with a 27-h period: in the early morning as for OsSPS1 promoter and midday for OsSPS11 promoter. These results indicate that these OsSPS promoters are controlled by both light illumination and circadian clock and that the regulatory mechanism of promoter activity differs between the two OsSPS genes.

  3. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  4. Syntheses, structures and redox properties of some complexes containing the Os(dppe)Cp* fragment, including [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bondCC triple bond C)].

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael I; Costuas, Karine; Davin, Thomas; Halet, Jean-François; Kramarczuk, Kathy A; Low, Paul J; Nicholson, Brian K; Perkins, Gary J; Roberts, Rachel L; Skelton, Brian W; Smith, Mark E; White, Allan H

    2007-12-14

    The sequential conversion of [OsBr(cod)Cp*] (9) to [OsBr(dppe)Cp*] (10), [Os([=C=CH2)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([11]PF6), [Os(C triple bond CH)(dppe)Cp*] (12), [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2{mu-(=C=CH-CH=C=)}][PF6]2 ([13](PF6)2) and finally [{Os(dppe)Cp*}(2)(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (14) has been used to make the third member of the triad [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The molecular structures of []PF6, 12 and 14, together with those of the related osmium complexes [Os(NCMe)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([15]PF6) and [Os(C triple bond CPh)(dppe)Cp*] (16), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Comparison of the redox properties of 14 with those of its iron and ruthenium congeners shows that the first oxidation potential E1 varies as: Fe approximately Os < Ru. Whereas the Fe complex has been shown to undergo three sequential 1-electron oxidation processes within conventional electrochemical solvent windows, the Ru and Os compounds undergo no fewer than four sequential oxidation events giving rise to a five-membered series of redox related complexes [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C4)]n+ (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), the osmium derivatives being obtained at considerably lower potentials than the ruthenium analogues. These results are complimented by DFT and DT DFT calculations.

  5. Re — Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Echeverria, L. M.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.

    1991-04-01

    The Re — Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155±43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1±3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd+9±1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (γOs) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial μ values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re — Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions.

  6. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R.

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such asmore » a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.« less

  7. Hexagonal OsB 2 reduction upon heating in H 2 containing environment

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2014-10-23

    The stability of hexagonal ReB 2 type OsB 2 powder upon heating under reforming gas was investigated. Pure Os metal particles were detected by powder X-ray diffraction starting at 375⁰ C and complete transformation of OsB 2 to metallic Os was observed at 725⁰ C. The mechanisms of precipitation of metallic Os is proposed and changes in the lattice parameters of OsB 2 upon heating are analysed in terms of the presence of oxygen or water vapour in the heating chamber. Previous studies suggested that Os atoms possess (0) valence, while B atoms possess both (+3) and ( 3) valencesmore » in the alternating boron/osmium sheet structure of hexagonal (P63/mmc, No. 194) OsB 2; if controllable method for Os removal from the lattice could be found, the opportunity would arise to form two-dimensional (2D) layers consisting of pure B atoms.« less

  8. Re-Os in Lunar Soils and Meteoritic Siderophiles on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Re-Os isotopes in lunar soils indicate approximately chondritic Re, Os, and Os isotopic compositions and substantial Re/Os fractionation, possibly due to the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Fluoride ion donor properties of cis-OsO(2)F(4): synthesis, raman spectroscopic study, and X-ray crystal structure of [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)].

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2010-01-04

    The salt, [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)], has been synthesized by dissolution of cis-OsO(2)F(4) in liquid SbF(5), followed by removal of excess SbF(5) at 0 degrees C to yield orange, crystalline [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)]. The X-ray crystal structure (-173 degrees C) consists of an OsO(2)F(3)(+) cation fluorine bridged to an Sb(2)F(11)(-) anion. The light atoms of OsO(2)F(3)(+) and the bridging fluorine atom form a distorted octahedron around osmium in which the osmium atom is displaced from its center toward an oxygen atom and away from the trans-fluorine bridge atom. As in other transition metal dioxofluorides, the oxygen ligands are cis to one another and the fluorine bridge atom is trans to an oxygen ligand and cis to the remaining oxygen ligand. The Raman spectrum (-150 degrees C) of solid [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)] was assigned on the basis of the ion pair observed in the low-temperature crystal structure. Under dynamic vacuum, [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)] loses SbF(5), yielding the known [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3))(2)][Sb(2)F(11)] salt with no evidence for [OsO(2)F(3)][SbF(6)] formation. Attempts to synthesize [OsO(2)F(3)][SbF(6)] by the reaction of [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)] with an equimolar amount of cis-OsO(2)F(4) or by a 1:1 stoichiometric reaction of cis-OsO(2)F(4) with SbF(5) in anhydrous HF yielded only [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3))(2)][Sb(2)F(11)]. Quantum-chemical calculations at the SVWN and B3LYP levels of theory and natural bond orbital analyses were used to calculate the gas-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies, natural population analysis charges, bond orders, and valencies of OsO(2)F(3)(+), [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)], [OsO(2)F(3)][SbF(6)], and Sb(2)F(11)(-). The relative thermochemical stabilities of [OsO(2)F(3)][SbF(6)], [OsO(2)F(3)][Sb(2)F(11)], [OsO(2)F(3)][AsF(6)], [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3))(2)][SbF(6)], [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3))(2)][Sb(2)F(11)], and [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3))(2)][AsF(6)] were assessed using the appropriate Born-Haber cycles to account for the preference for [mu-F(OsO(2)F(3

  10. First natural occurrence of coesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  11. Petrographic, fluid inclusion and isotopic study of the Dikulushi Cu-Ag deposit, Katanga (D.R.C.): implications for exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Maarten; Muchez, Philippe; Dewaele, Stijn; Boyce, Adrian J.; von Quadt, Albrecht; Schneider, Jens

    2009-07-01

    The Dikulushi Cu-Ag vein-type deposit is located on the Kundelungu Plateau, in the southeastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.). The Kundelungu Plateau is situated to the north of the Lufilian Arc that hosts the world-class stratiform Cu-Co deposits of the Central African Copperbelt. A combined petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope study revealed that the mineralisation at Dikulushi developed during two spatially and temporally distinct mineralising episodes. An early Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe mineralisation took place during the Lufilian Orogeny in a zone of crosscutting EW- and NE-oriented faults and consists of a sequence of sulphides that precipitated from moderate-temperature, saline H2O-NaCl-CaCl2-rich fluids. These fluids interacted extensively with the country rocks. Sulphur was probably derived from thermochemical reduction of Neoproterozoic seawater sulphate. Undeformed, post-orogenic Cu-Ag mineralisation remobilised the upper part of the Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe mineralisation in an oxidising environment along reactivated and newly formed NE-oriented faults in the eastern part of the deposit. This mineralisation is dominated by massive Ag-rich chalcocite that precipitated from low-temperature H2O-NaCl-KCl fluids, generated by mixing of moderate- and low-saline fluids. The same evolution in mineralisation assemblages and types of mineralising fluids is observed in three other Cu deposits on the Kundelungu Plateau. Therefore, the recognition of two distinct types of (vein-type) mineralisation in the study area has a profound impact on the exploration in the Kundelungu Plateau region. The identification of a Cu-Ag type mineralisation at the surface could imply the presence of a Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe mineralisation at depth.

  12. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): Stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín, Manuel Martín; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary units ( La Galite Flysch and Numidian-like Flysch) belong to the Mauritanian (internal) and Massylian (external) sub-Domains of the Maghrebian Chain, respectively. These deposits are related to a typical syn-orogenic deposition in the Maghrebian Flysch Basin Domain, successively backthrusted above the internal units. The backthrusting age is post-Burdigalian (probably Langhian-Serravallian) and the compressional phase represents the last stage in the building of the accretionary wedge of the Maghrebian orogen. These flysch units may be co-relatable to the similar well-known formations along the Maghrebian and Betic Chains. The emplacement of potassic peraluminous magmatism, caused local metamorphism in the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian (14-10 Ma), after the last compressional phase (backthrusting), during an extensional tectonic event. This extensional phase is probably due to the opening of a slab break-off in the deep subduction system. La Galite Archipelago represents a portion of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin tectonically emplaced above the southern margin of the "Mesomediterranean Microplate" which separated the Piemontese-Ligurian Ocean from a southern oceanic branch of the Tethys (i.e. the Maghrebian Flysch Basin). The possible presence of an imbricate thrust system between La Galite Archipelago and northern Tunisia may be useful to exclude the petroleum exploration from the deformed sectors of the offshore area considered.

  13. Active Longitude and Solar Flare Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, N.; Ludmány, A.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to specify the spatio-temporal characteristics of flare activity observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in connection with the behavior of the longitudinal domain of enhanced sunspot activity known as active longitude (AL). By using our method developed for this purpose, we identified the AL in every Carrington Rotation provided by the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data. The spatial probability of flare occurrence has been estimated depending on the longitudinal distance from AL in the northern and southern hemispheres separately. We have found that more than 60% of the RHESSI and GOES flares is located within +/- 36^\\circ from the AL. Hence, the most flare-productive active regions tend to be located in or close to the active longitudinal belt. This observed feature may allow for the prediction of the geo-effective position of the domain of enhanced flaring probability. Furthermore, we studied the temporal properties of flare occurrence near the AL and several significant fluctuations were found. More precisely, the results of the method are the following fluctuations: 0.8, 1.3, and 1.8 years. These temporal and spatial properties of the solar flare occurrence within the active longitudinal belts could provide us with an enhanced solar flare forecasting opportunity.

  14. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  15. OsN2: Crystal structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Javier A.; Hernandez, Alexander D.; Sanloup, Chrystèle; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Scandolo, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Osmium nitride belongs to a family of nitrides synthesized recently at high pressures from their parent elements. Here we show, based on first-principles calculations, that the crystal structure of osmium nitride is isostructural to marcasite. Excellent agreement is obtained between the authors' results and x-ray, Raman, and compressibility measurements. In the OsN2 marcasite structure single-bonded N2 units occupy the interstitial sites of the Os close-packed lattice, giving rise to a metallic compound. A comparison between the formation energies of OsN2 and PtN2 explains the similar thermodynamic conditions of formation reported experimentally for the two compounds.

  16. Occurrence of clostridia in commercially available curry roux.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, T; Aikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Yamai, S; Ueda, S

    2001-12-01

    The occurrence of clostridia was investigated in a total of 60 commercially available curry roux samples. Clostridia were isolated from 37 (62%) samples, and Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 7 (12%) samples. The isolates of C. perfringens did not produce enterotoxin. The frequency of occurrence was higher by the enrichment broth culture detection method than by the agar plate or pouch method. These findings suggest that enrichment broth culture is necessary for the detection of clostridia.

  17. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of Phytochrome B

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A.; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Quail, Peter H.; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J. M.

    2016-01-01

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a Yeast one Hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein-DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a Phytochrome Interacting Factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. All together, these results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses. PMID:26732823

  18. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    DOE PAGES

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; ...

    2015-12-28

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein–DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressormore » activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. Additionally, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. Our results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Finally, although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.« less

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the two polymorphs of novel S=1 osmate; Li{sub 4}MgOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phoung-Hieu T.; Kemei, Moureen C.; Tan, Malinda S.

    2016-10-15

    Li{sub 4}MgOsO{sub 6} was synthesized by two different solid-state reaction procedures. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique and it was revealed that Li{sub 4}MgOsO{sub 6} crystallizes in two different crystal symmetries in ordered rock salt structure type, namely monoclinic C2/m and orthorhombic Fddd. The unit cell constants for the monoclinic system are a=5.1074(4) Å, b=8.8182(4) Å, c=5.0902(2) Å, and β=109.845(4)° and those of the orthorhombic structure are a=5.8485(1) Å, b=8.3821(1) Å, and c=17.6212(3) Å. In both systems, Os{sup 6+} ions reside exclusively in a specific crystallographic position while Li{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} ions exhibit mixmore » occupancy. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data for both S=1 osmate systems do not support the occurrence of any magnetic transition down to 2 K. The Curie–Weiss fit to the paramagnetic regime of the magnetic susceptibility data reveal highly negative θ value (−114.81 K and −121.87 K for C2/m and for Fddd systems, respectively), which are indicative of predominant antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions in both systems. The experimental effective magnetic moment (μ{sub eff}) value for the monoclinic phase is 2.13 μB and that of the orthorhombic system is 2.34 μB. Due to the rather strong AFM interactions and lack of magnetic transition down to 2 K, both of these novel osmates are placed in the class of highly frustrated magnets. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility (below 2 K) and dynamic magnetic properties studies (μsr studies) are in order to better understand the magnetic ground states of these two polymorphs of Li{sub 4}MgOsO{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: The structural transformation between two modifications of highly frustrated Li{sub 4}MgOsO{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Li4MgOsO{sub 6} was synthesized in two different crystal systems. • The monoclinic variant crystallizes in C2/m space group, while the orthorhombic version forms in

  20. OS friendly microprocessor architecture: Hardware level computer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; La Fratta, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We present an introduction to the patented OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA) and hardware level computer security. Conventional microprocessors have not tried to balance hardware performance and OS performance at the same time. Conventional microprocessors have depended on the Operating System for computer security and information assurance. The goal of the OS Friendly Architecture is to provide a high performance and secure microprocessor and OS system. We are interested in cyber security, information technology (IT), and SCADA control professionals reviewing the hardware level security features. The OS Friendly Architecture is a switched set of cache memory banks in a pipeline configuration. For light-weight threads, the memory pipeline configuration provides near instantaneous context switching times. The pipelining and parallelism provided by the cache memory pipeline provides for background cache read and write operations while the microprocessor's execution pipeline is running instructions. The cache bank selection controllers provide arbitration to prevent the memory pipeline and microprocessor's execution pipeline from accessing the same cache bank at the same time. This separation allows the cache memory pages to transfer to and from level 1 (L1) caching while the microprocessor pipeline is executing instructions. Computer security operations are implemented in hardware. By extending Unix file permissions bits to each cache memory bank and memory address, the OSFA provides hardware level computer security.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions)more » identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).« less

  2. Six-Year Review Contaminant Occurrence Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires EPA to review each National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) at least once every six years and revise them, if appropriate. The purpose of the review, called the Six-Year Review, is to identify those NPDWRs for which current health effects assessments, changes in technology, and/or other factors provide a health or technical basis to support a regulatory revision that will maintain or strengthen public health protection. To support the national contaminant occurrence and exposure assessments performed under the Six-Year Review process, EPA analyzes SDWA compliance monitoring data from public water supplies for regulated drinking water contaminants. This analysis allows EPA to characterize the national occurrence of contaminants to help the Agency determine if there may be a meaningful opportunity to improve public health protection.

  3. Future Climate Data from RCP 4.5 and Occurrence of Malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001–2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future. PMID:25321875

  4. Future climate data from RCP 4.5 and occurrence of malaria in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Noh, Huiseong; Kim, Soojun; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seung Jin; Kim, Duckgil; Lee, Keonhaeng; Kang, Narae; Kim, Hung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Since its reappearance at the Military Demarcation Line in 1993, malaria has been occurring annually in Korea. Malaria is regarded as a third grade nationally notifiable disease susceptible to climate change. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of malaria in Korea and construct a malaria occurrence model for predicting the future trend of malaria under the influence of climate change. Using data from 2001-2011, the effect of time lag between malaria occurrence and mean temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation was investigated using spectral analysis. Also, a principal component regression model was constructed, considering multicollinearity. Future climate data, generated from RCP 4.5 climate change scenario and CNCM3 climate model, was applied to the constructed regression model to simulate future malaria occurrence and analyze the trend of occurrence. Results show an increase in the occurrence of malaria and the shortening of annual time of occurrence in the future.

  5. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit. PMID:26175912

  6. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  7. Characterization of the Grp94/OS-9 chaperone-lectin complex

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Paul M.; Shinsky, Stephen A.; Hong, Feng; Li, Zihai; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Gewirth, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Grp94 is a macromolecular chaperone belonging to the hsp90 family and is the most abundant glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammals. In addition to its essential role in protein folding, Grp94 was proposed to participate in the ER associated degradation (ERAD) quality control pathway by interacting with the lectin OS-9, a sensor for terminally misfolded proteins (TMPs). To understand how OS-9 interacts with ER chaperone proteins, we mapped its interaction with Grp94. Glycosylation of the full length Grp94 protein was essential for OS-9 binding, although deletion of the Grp94 N-terminal domain relieved this requirement suggesting that the effect was allosteric rather than direct. Although yeast OS-9 is composed of a well-established N-terminal MRH lectin domain and a C-terminal dimerization domain, we find that the C-terminal domain of OS-9 in higher eukaryotes contains ‘mammalian-specific insets’ that are specifically recognized by the middle and C-terminal domains of Grp94. Additionally, the Grp94 binding domain in OS-9 was found to be intrinsically disordered. The biochemical analysis of the interacting regions provides insight into the manner by which the two associate, and additionally hints at a plausible biological role for the Grp94/OS-9 complex. PMID:25193139

  8. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E.more » coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.« less

  9. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  10. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles.

  11. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section... Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be reported... regulations, it may be necessary to test individuals in testing designated positions, or individuals with...

  12. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section... Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be reported... regulations, it may be necessary to test individuals in testing designated positions, or individuals with...

  13. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section... Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be reported... regulations, it may be necessary to test individuals in testing designated positions, or individuals with...

  14. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section... Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be reported... regulations, it may be necessary to test individuals in testing designated positions, or individuals with...

  15. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section... Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be reported... regulations, it may be necessary to test individuals in testing designated positions, or individuals with...

  16. Phosphate starvation induced OsPHR4 mediates Pi-signaling and homeostasis in rice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Wenyuan; Guo, Meina; Wu, Ping; Yi, Keke

    2017-02-01

    OsPHR4 mediates the regulation of Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis in a PHR1-subfamily dependent manner in rice. Phosphate (Pi) starvation response is a sophisticated process for plant in the natural environment. In this process, PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 (PHR1) subfamily genes play a central role in regulating Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis. Besides the three PHR1 orthologs in Oryza sativa L. (Os) [(Os) PHR1, (Os) PHR2, and (Os) PHR3], which were reported to regulated Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis redundantly, a close related PHR1 ortholog [designated as (Os) PHR4] is presented in rice genome with unknown function. In this study, we found that OsPHR4 is a Pi-starvation induced gene and mainly expresses in vascular tissues through all growth and development periods. The expression of OsPHR4 is positively regulated by OsPHR1, OsPHR2 and OsPHR3. The nuclear located OsPHR4 can respectively interact with other three PHR1 subfamily members to regulate downstream Pi-starvation induced genes. Consistent with the positive role of PHR4 in regulating Pi-starvation signaling, the OsPHR4 overexpressors display higher Pi accumulation in the shoot and elevated expression of Pi-starvation induced genes under Pi-sufficient condition. Besides, moderate growth retardation and repression of the Pi-starvation signaling in the OsPHR4 RNA interfering (RNAi) transgenic lines can be observed under Pi-deficient condition. Together, we propose that OsPHR4 mediates the regulation of Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis in a PHR1-subfamily dependent manner in rice.

  17. Automated audiometry using apple iOS-based application technology.

    PubMed

    Foulad, Allen; Bui, Peggy; Djalilian, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of an Apple iOS-based automated hearing testing application and to compare its accuracy with conventional audiometry. Prospective diagnostic study. Setting Academic medical center. An iOS-based software application was developed to perform automated pure-tone hearing testing on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To assess for device variations and compatibility, preliminary work was performed to compare the standardized sound output (dB) of various Apple device and headset combinations. Forty-two subjects underwent automated iOS-based hearing testing in a sound booth, automated iOS-based hearing testing in a quiet room, and conventional manual audiometry. The maximum difference in sound intensity between various Apple device and headset combinations was 4 dB. On average, 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-100%) of the threshold values obtained using the automated test in a sound booth were within 10 dB of the corresponding threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. When the automated test was performed in a quiet room, 94% (95% CI, 87%-100%) of the threshold values were within 10 dB of the threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. Under standardized testing conditions, 90% of the subjects preferred iOS-based audiometry as opposed to conventional audiometry. Apple iOS-based devices provide a platform for automated air conduction audiometry without requiring extra equipment and yield hearing test results that approach those of conventional audiometry.

  18. Constraints on the origin of Os-isotope disequilibrium in included and interstitial sulfides in mantle peridotites: Implications for the interpretation of Os-isotope signatures in MORB and Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of isotope variations in basalts to probe the composition and evolution of the mantle is predicated on the assumption of local (i.e., grain-scale) isotopic equilibrium during mantle melting (Hofmann & Hart, 1978). However, several studies report Os-isotope disequilibrium in distinct populations of sulfides in some peridotites. In principle, grain-scale isotopic heterogeneity could reflect variable radiogenic ingrowth in ancient sulfides with variable Re/Os, or partial re-equilibration of low-Re/Os sulfides with high-Re/Os silicate phases along grain boundaries during mantle melting (e.g., Alard et al., 2005). Both cases require that sulfides fail to maintain isotopic equilibrium with neighboring phases over geologically long ( Ga) time scales. The preservation of Os-isotope disequilibrium in peridotites has been ascribed to the armoring effect of low-[Os] silicates, which limit diffusive exchange between isolated Os-rich phases. This raises the prospect that peridotite-derived melts may not inherit the Os-isotope composition of their source. The timescale required for diffusive equilibration between separate sulfide grains or between Os-rich sulfides and Os-poor silicates is a function of average sulfide size and spacing, Os diffusivity in armoring silicate minerals, and Os partitioning between silicate and sulfide phases. For typical sulfide abundances and sizes in mantle peridotites, neighboring sulfides are expected to re-equilibrate in less than a few 10s of m.y. at adiabatic mantle temperatures, even for very high (>106) sulfide/silicate KD values. Maintenance of disequilibrium requires very large sulfides (>100 um) separated by several mm and diffusion rates (D < 10-20 m2/s) slower than for most other elements in olivine. Equilibration timescales between sulfides and surrounding silicates are similar, so that large-scale isotopic disequilibrium between sulfides and silicates is also unlikely within the convecting mantle. Instead, observed grain

  19. Oxygen interaction with hexagonal OsB 2 at high temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2016-08-10

    The stability of ReB 2-type hexagonal OsB 2 powder at high temperature with oxygen presence has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, EDS, and high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscopy and XRD. Results of the study revealed that OsB 2 ceramics interact readily with oxygen present in reducing atmosphere, especially at high temperature and produces boric acid, which decomposes on the surface of the powder resulting in the formation of boron vacancies in the hexagonal OsB 2 lattice as well as changes in the stoichiometry of the compound. It was also found that under low oxygen partial pressure,more » sintering of OsB 2 powders occurred at a relatively low temperature (900°C). Finally, hexagonal OsB 2 ceramic is prone to oxidation and it is very sensitive to oxygen partial pressures, especially at high temperatures.« less

  20. Oxygen interaction with hexagonal OsB 2 at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina

    The stability of ReB 2-type hexagonal OsB 2 powder at high temperature with oxygen presence has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, EDS, and high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscopy and XRD. Results of the study revealed that OsB 2 ceramics interact readily with oxygen present in reducing atmosphere, especially at high temperature and produces boric acid, which decomposes on the surface of the powder resulting in the formation of boron vacancies in the hexagonal OsB 2 lattice as well as changes in the stoichiometry of the compound. It was also found that under low oxygen partial pressure,more » sintering of OsB 2 powders occurred at a relatively low temperature (900°C). Finally, hexagonal OsB 2 ceramic is prone to oxidation and it is very sensitive to oxygen partial pressures, especially at high temperatures.« less

  1. Petrographic Descriptions of Selected Rock Specimens From the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member, Phosphoria Formation (Permian), Southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Edward A.; Grauch, Richard I.; Herring, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on petrographic observations of 135 thin sections, rocks in the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation in southeastern Idaho can be placed into one of four major lithofacies: organic claystone, muddy siltstone, peloidal phosphorite, and dolomitized calclithite-in order of decreasing abundance. Organic claystones are the most common lithofacies in the Meade Peak. Many of these rocks contain sufficient amounts of silt to make silty, organic claystones a common subtype. Organic claystones commonly contain crystals of muscovite and bioclasts as accessory components, and they are typically parallel laminated. Muddy siltstones are composed primarily of quartz silt, but some feldspar and rare carbonate silt are also present; some rocks are parallel laminated. Phosphate peloids are composed of varying amounts of opaque, complex, and translucent material, and observed internal structures are classified as simple, banded, cored, zoned, oolitic, nucleated, and polynucleated. Opaque, complex, and translucent peloids form the framework grains of three peloidal phosphorite rocks: wackestone phosphorite, packstone phosphorite, and grainstone phosphorite. Wackestone phosphorite is phosphatic-mud supported and contains more than 10 percent peloids; it is the most common type of phosphorite. Packstone phosphorite is peloid supported and contains interstitial phosphatic mud; it is also a common type. Grainstone phosphorite is peloid supported but lacks phosphatic mud; it is the least common type. Dolomitized calclithites contain three types of carbonate grains: macrocrystalline, microcrystalline, and crystalline with a microcrystalline nuclei-in order of decreasing abundance. Based on chemical staining and X-ray diffraction analyses, most of the carbonate is dolomite. Sufficient amounts of quartz silt or muddy material allow some rocks to be called silty dolomitized calclithite or muddy dolomitized calclithite, respectively. Sedimentary

  2. Deciphering microbial interactions and detecting keystone species with co-occurrence networks

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Widder, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate multi-species microbial communities with known interaction patterns using generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics. We then construct co-occurrence networks and evaluate how well networks reveal the underlying interactions and how experimental and ecological parameters can affect network inference and interpretation. We find that co-occurrence networks can recapitulate interaction networks under certain conditions, but that they lose interpretability when the effects of habitat filtering become significant. We demonstrate that networks suffer from local hot spots of spurious correlation in the neighborhood of hub species that engage in many interactions. We also identify topological features associated with keystone species in co-occurrence networks. This study provides a substantiated framework to guide environmental microbiologists in the construction and interpretation of co-occurrence networks from microbial survey datasets. PMID:24904535

  3. Deciphering microbial interactions and detecting keystone species with co-occurrence networks.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Widder, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate multi-species microbial communities with known interaction patterns using generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics. We then construct co-occurrence networks and evaluate how well networks reveal the underlying interactions and how experimental and ecological parameters can affect network inference and interpretation. We find that co-occurrence networks can recapitulate interaction networks under certain conditions, but that they lose interpretability when the effects of habitat filtering become significant. We demonstrate that networks suffer from local hot spots of spurious correlation in the neighborhood of hub species that engage in many interactions. We also identify topological features associated with keystone species in co-occurrence networks. This study provides a substantiated framework to guide environmental microbiologists in the construction and interpretation of co-occurrence networks from microbial survey datasets.

  4. Re-Os systematics of early proterozoic ferropicrites, Pechenga Complex, northwestern Russia: Evidence for ancient 187Os-enriched plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Morgan, John W.; Hanski, Eero J.; Smolkin, Valery F.

    1997-08-01

    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of various ferropicritic flows and sills of the Pechenga Complex, Russia, have been examined. During crystallization about 1.98 Ga ago, many of these bodies became highly differentiated. In addition, some of the larger igneous units are associated with major NiCu ore deposits. The melts that produced these rocks have been termed ferropicritic because of their high FeO and MgO contents. They are also enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), TiO 2, Zr, and many other incompatible trace elements. Previous studies have concluded that the ferropicrites were most likely derived from an Fe-rich mantle plume that had a complex history of long-term LREE depletion (initial ɛNd = + 1.4), but that also experienced a LREE enrichment event within 200 Ma of the generation of the rocks. Whole rock samples believed to be most representative of primary melt compositions indicate that initial melt concentrations of rhenium and osmium were approximately 1.1 ppb and 0.5 ppb, respectively. The high primary melt concentrations presumably made the osmium contained in the melts relatively immune to the effects of crustal contamination. Nonetheless, all ore-bearing intrusions examined show osmium isotopic evidence for crustal contamination. For example, the initial γOs for some primary magmatic sulfides from the Pilgujärvi intrusion average +46. Other ore-bearing intrusions, such as the Kammikivi sill, appear to have been similarly contaminated by crustal osmium during the injection of magma, with initial yo, values as high as +251. The seemingly high levels of crustal osmium may be attributed to the rapidly diminishing concentrations of osmium in the melts as the larger bodies differentiated, combined with localized in situ assimilation of the metasedimentary rocks that comprise the country rocks. The Re-Os systematics of some whole rock samples of both mineralized and sulfide-poor intrusions were affected by post-magmatic events, especially the

  5. Characterization and methanol electrooxidation studies of Pt(111)/Os surfaces prepared by spontaneous deposition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christina M; Strbac, Svetlana; Lewera, Adam; Sibert, Eric; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-09-12

    Catalytic activity of the Pt(111)/Os surface toward methanol electrooxidation was optimized by exploring a wide range of Os coverage. Various methods of surface analyses were used, including electroanalytical, STM, and XPS methods. The Pt(111) surface was decorated with nanosized Os islands by spontaneous deposition, and the Os coverage was controlled by changing the exposure time to the Os-containing electrolyte. The structure of Os deposits on Pt(111) was characterized and quantified by in situ STM and stripping voltammetry. We found that the optimal Os surface coverage of Pt(111) for methanol electrooxidation was 0.7 +/- 0.1 ML, close to 1.0 +/- 0.1 Os packing density. Apparently, the high osmium coverage Pt(111)/Os surface provides more of the necessary oxygen-containing species (e.g., Os-OH) for effective methanol electrooxidation than the Pt(111)/Os surfaces with lower Os coverage (vs e.g., Ru-OH). Supporting evidence for this conjecture comes from the CO electrooxidation data, which show that the onset potential for CO stripping is lowered from 0.53 to 0.45 V when the Os coverage is increased from 0.2 to 0.7 ML. However, the activity of Pt(111)/Os for methanol electrooxidation decreases when the Os coverage is higher than 0.7 +/- 0.1 ML, indicating that Pt sites uncovered by Os are necessary for sustaining significant methanol oxidation rates. Furthermore, osmium is inactive for methanol electrooxidation when the platinum substrate is absent: Os deposits on Au(111), a bulk Os ingot, and thick films of electrodeposited Os on Pt(111), all compare poorly to Pt(111)/Os. We conclude that a bifunctional mechanism applies to the methanol electrooxidation similarly to Pt(111)/Ru, although with fewer available Pt sites. Finally, the potential window for methanol electrooxidation on Pt(111)/Os was observed to shift positively versus Pt(111)/Ru. Because of the difference in the Os and Ru oxophilicity under electrochemical conditions, the Os deposit provides fewer

  6. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A transgenic study on affecting potato tuber yield by expressing the rice sucrose transporter genes OsSUT5Z and OsSUT2M.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aijun; Dai, Yan; Zhang, Xinsheng; Li, Chunmin; Meng, Kun; Xu, Honglin; Wei, Xiaoli; Xiao, Guifang; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-07-01

    In many plants, sucrose transporters are essential for both sucrose exports from sources and imports into sinks, indicating a function in assimilate partitioning. To investigate whether sucrose transporters can improve the yield of starch plant, potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) were transformed with cDNAs of the rice sucrose transporter genes OsSUT5Z and OsSUT2M under the control of a tuber-specific, class-I patatin promoter. Compared to the controls, the average fructose content of OsSUT5Z transgenic tubers significantly increased. However, the content of the sugars and starch in the OsSUT2M transgenic potato tubers showed no obvious difference. Correspondingly, the average tuber yield, average number of tubers per plant and average weight of single tuber showed no significant difference in OsSUT2M transgenic tubers with controls. In the OsSUT5Z transgenic lines, the average tuber yield per plant was 1.9-fold higher than the controls, and the average number of tubers per plant increased by more than 10 tubers on average, whereas the average weight of a single tuber did not increase significantly. These results suggested that the average number of tubers per plant showed more contribution than the average weight of a single tuber to the tuber yield per plant. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Improving SysSim's Planetary Occurrence Rate Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Keir; Ragozzine, Darin; Hsu, Danley; Ford, Eric B.

    2017-10-01

    Kepler's catalog of thousands of transiting planet candidates enables statistical characterization of the underlying planet occurrence rates as a function of period and radius. Due to geometric factors and general noise in measurements, we know that many planets--especially those with a small-radius and/or long-period--were not observed by Kepler.To account for Kepler's detection criteria, Hsu et al. 2017 expanded on work in Lissuaer et al. 2011 to develop the Planetary System Simulator or "SysSim". SysSim uses a forward model to generate simulated catalogs of exoplanet systems, determine which of those simulated planets would have been seen by Kepler in the presence of uncertainties, and then compares those “observed planets” to those actually seen by Kepler. It then uses Approximate Bayesian Computation to infer the posterior probability distributions of the input parameters used to generate the forward model. In Hsu et al. 2017, we focused on matching the observed frequency of planets by solving for the underlying occurrence rate for each bin in a 2-dimensional grid of radius and period. After summarizing the results of Hsu et al. 2017, we show new results that investigate the effect on occurrence rates from including more accurate completeness products (from the Kepler DR25 analysis) into SysSim.

  9. Statistical modeling of storm-level Kp occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Remick, K.J.; Love, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the statistical modeling of the occurrence in time of large Kp magnetic storms as a Poisson process, testing whether or not relatively rare, large Kp events can be considered to arise from a stochastic, sequential, and memoryless process. For a Poisson process, the wait times between successive events occur statistically with an exponential density function. Fitting an exponential function to the durations between successive large Kp events forms the basis of our analysis. Defining these wait times by calculating the differences between times when Kp exceeds a certain value, such as Kp ??? 5, we find the wait-time distribution is not exponential. Because large storms often have several periods with large Kp values, their occurrence in time is not memoryless; short duration wait times are not independent of each other and are often clumped together in time. If we remove same-storm large Kp occurrences, the resulting wait times are very nearly exponentially distributed and the storm arrival process can be characterized as Poisson. Fittings are performed on wait time data for Kp ??? 5, 6, 7, and 8. The mean wait times between storms exceeding such Kp thresholds are 7.12, 16.55, 42.22, and 121.40 days respectively.

  10. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  11. A Re-Os Study of Depleted Trench Peridotites from Northern Mariana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Snow, J. E.; Heri, A. R.; Brandon, A. D.; Ishizuka, O.

    2017-12-01

    Trench peridotites provide information about the influence of subduction initiation on the extent of mantle wedge melting. They preserve melting records throughout subduction history, and as a result, likely experience multiple melt extraction events leading to successive depletion of melt/fluid mobile major and trace elements. To track melting histories of trench peridotites, Re-Os and PGEs can be used as reliable tracers to constrain early melt extraction or re-fertilization events. The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, being the largest intra-oceanic subduction system, provides an excellent area to study the formation of supra-subduction zone mantle and crust. Residual peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) samples were collected by dredging from the landward slope of the northern Mariana Trench. The samples are serpentinized to various extents (typical of abyssal peridotites), leaving behind relict grains of spinel, enstatite and olivine embedded within a serpentine matrix along with occasional interstitial diopside. Major element analyses of primary minerals reveal a wide range of variations in Cr# of spinels from 0.31-0.85 indicating 16-20% of melt fraction with dunites apparently experiencing the highest amount of partial melting. For Re-Os and PGE geochemistry, samples with high amounts of spinel (>4 vol %) and variable Cr# were chosen. Initial results show that bulk rock 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1113 to 0.1272. All of the samples are sub-chondritic, but in some cases, they are more radiogenic than average abyssal peridotites. Os abundances vary from 1-9 ppb. Sub-chondritic values can be attributed to the samples having evolved from a Re-depleted mantle source indicating a previous melt-extraction event. The cpx-harzburgites, having lower Cr# ( 0.4) are more radiogenic than ultra depleted dunites (Cr# 0.8), which might indicate preferential removal of Os during an apparent higher degree of partial melting experienced by dunites. The higher 187Os/188Os ratios of

  12. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  13. Redox conditions and marine microbial community changes during the end-Ordovician mass extinction event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Trela, Wiesław; Kujawski, Piotr; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2017-02-01

    The end-Ordovician (Hirnantian) crisis is the first globally distinct extinction during the Phanerozoic, but its causes are still not fully known. Here, we present an integrated geochemical and petrographic analysis to understand the sedimentary conditions taking place before, during and after the Late Ordovician ice age. New data from the Zbrza (Holy Cross Mountains) and Gołdap (Baltic Depression) boreholes shows that, like in other worldwide sections, the total organic carbon (TOC) content is elevated in the upper Katian and uppermost Hirnantian to Rhudannian black shales, but depleted (below 1%) during most of the Hirnantian. Euxinic conditions occurred in the photic zone in both TOC-rich intervals. This is based on the maleimide distribution, occurrence of aryl isoprenoids and isorenieratane, as well as a dominance of tiny pyrite framboids. Euxinic conditions were interrupted by the Hirnantian regression caused by glaciation. Sedimentation on the deep shelf changed to aerobic probably due to intense thermohaline circulation. Euxinia in the water column occurred directly during the time associated with the second pulse of the mass extinction with a termination of the end-Ordovician glaciation and sea level rise just at the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary. In contrast, we suggest based on inorganic proxies that bottom water conditions were generally oxic to dysoxic due to upwelling in the Rheic Ocean. The only episode of seafloor anoxia in the Zbrza basin was found at the O/S boundary, where all inorganic indicators showed elevated values typical for anoxia (U/Th > 1.25; V/Cr > 4.25; V/(V + Ni): 0.54-0.82 and Mo > 10-25 ppm). Significant differences in hopanes to steranes ratio and in C27-C29 sterane distribution between the Katian, Rhudannian and Hirnantian deposits indicate changes in marine microbial communities triggered by sharp climate change and Gondwana glaciation. The increase from biomarkers of cyanobacteria (2α-methylhopanes) after the O/S

  14. Assessment of multi-wildfire occurrence data for machine learning based risk modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. H.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. J.; Yoo, S.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of East Asian wildfires is mainly caused by human-activities, but the extreme drought increased due to the climate change caused wildfires and they spread to large-scale fires. Accurate occurrence location data is required for modelling wildfire probability and risk. In South Korea, occurrence data surveyed through KFS (Korea Forest Service) and MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite-based active fire data can be utilized. In this study, two sorts of wildfire occurrence data were applied to select suitable occurrence data for machine learning based wildfire risk modelling. MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) model based on machine learning is used for wildfire risk modelling, and two types of occurrence data and socio-economic and climate-environment data are applied to modelling. In the results with KFS survey based data, the low relationship was shown with climate-environmental factors, and the uncertainty of coordinate information appeared. The MODIS-based active fire data were found outside the forests, and there were a lot of spots that did not match the actual wildfires. In order to utilize MODIS-based active fire data, it was necessary to extract forest area and utilize only high-confidence level data. In KFS data, it was necessary to separate the analysis according to the damage scale to improve the modelling accuracy. Ultimately, it is considered to be the best way to simulate the wildfire risk by constructing more accurate information by combining two sorts of wildfire occurrence data.

  15. Dressing effects on the occurrence scattering time retardation and advance in a dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae; Hanyang Plasma Team

    2017-10-01

    The dressing effects on the occurrence scattering time for the dust-dust interaction are investigated in a complex plasma. The first-order eikonal analysis is applied to obtain the scattering amplitude and the occurrence scattering time for the dust-dust interaction. The result shows that dressing effect enhances the retardation phenomena of the occurrence scattering time in the forward scattering domain. It is shown that the oscillatory behavior of the scaled occurrence scattering time is getting more significant with an increase of the Debye length. It is also found that the retardation domain of the occurrence scattering time increases with a decrease of the Debye length. The variation of the occurrence scattering time retardation and advance due to the dressing effect is also discussed.

  16. Analysis, toxicity, occurrence and biodegradation of nonylphenol isomers: a review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhijiang; Gan, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two decades, nonylphenols (NPs) have become to be known as a priority hazardous substance due primarily to its estrogenicity and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Nonylphenols are commonly treated as a single compound in the evaluation of their environmental occurrence, fate and transport, treatment or toxicity. However, technical nonylphenols (tNPs) are in fact a mixture of more than 100 isomers and congeners. Recent studies showed that some of these isomers behaved significantly differently in occurrence, estrogenicity and biodegradability. The most estrogenic isomer was about 2 to 4 times more active than tNP. Moreover, the half lives of the most recalcitrant isomers were about 3 to 4 times as long as those of readily-biodegradable isomers. Negligence of NP's isomer specificity may result in inaccurate assessment of its ecological and health effects. In this review, we summarized the recent publications on the analysis, occurrence, toxicity and biodegradation of NP at the isomer level and highlighted future research needs to improve our understanding of isomer-specificity of NP. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Occurrence analysis of daily rainfalls through non-homogeneous Poissonian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Ferrari, E.; de Luca, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    A stochastic model based on a non-homogeneous Poisson process, characterised by a time-dependent intensity of rainfall occurrence, is employed to explain seasonal effects of daily rainfalls exceeding prefixed threshold values. The data modelling has been performed with a partition of observed daily rainfall data into a calibration period for parameter estimation and a validation period for checking on occurrence process changes. The model has been applied to a set of rain gauges located in different geographical areas of Southern Italy. The results show a good fit for time-varying intensity of rainfall occurrence process by 2-harmonic Fourier law and no statistically significant evidence of changes in the validation period for different threshold values.

  18. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: Insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-08-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re-Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re-Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma - all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re-Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a,b; Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re-Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer are mimicking the natural system. This

  19. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  20. Two highly similar DEAD box proteins, OsRH2 and OsRH34, homologous to eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII, play roles of the exon junction complex in regulating growth and development in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Sie, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Yu-Fu; Huang, Tian-Sheng; Lu, Chung-An

    2016-04-12

    The exon junction complex (EJC), which contains four core components, eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII), MAGO/NASHI (MAGO), Y14/Tsunagi/RNA-binding protein 8A, and Barentsz/Metastatic lymph node 51, is formed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and plays important roles in gene expression. Genes encoding core EJC components have been found in plants, including rice. Currently, the functional characterizations of MAGO and Y14 homologs have been demonstrated in rice. However, it is still unknown whether eIF4AIII is essential for the functional EJC in rice. This study investigated two DEAD box RNA helicases, OsRH2 and OsRH34, which are homologous to eIF4AIII, in rice. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that OsRH2 and OsRH34 had 99 % identity and 100 % similarity, and their gene expression patterns were similar in various rice tissues, but the level of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings. From bimolecular fluorescence complementation results, OsRH2 and OsRH34 interacted physically with OsMAGO1 and OsY14b, respectively, which indicated that both of OsRH2 and OsRH34 were core components of the EJC in rice. To study the biological roles of OsRH2 and OsRH34 in rice, transgenic rice plants were generated by RNA interference. The phenotypes of three independent OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines included dwarfism, a short internode distance, reproductive delay, defective embryonic development, and a low seed setting rate. These phenotypes resembled those of mutants with gibberellin-related developmental defects. In addition, the OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines exhibited the accumulation of unspliced rice UNDEVELOPED TAPETUM 1 mRNA. Rice contains two eIF4AIII paralogous genes, OsRH2 and OsRH34. The abundance of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings, suggesting that the OsRH2 is major eIF4AIII in rice. Both OsRH2 and OsRH34 are core components of the EJC

  1. Occurrence of Phlebitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen P; Peng, Yu X

    Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are commonly used in clinical practice. However, varying degrees of phlebitis often occur in patients receiving intravenous injections. The relevant literature suggests that phlebitis occurrence is highly associated with the catheter gauge, insertion site, and catheterization duration. Nevertheless, no meta-analysis has been performed on the influence of these three factors on the occurrence of phlebitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether any significant differences exist in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge, between catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs, or between catheters inserted for more than 96 hours and those inserted for 96 hours or less. Using a systematic approach, we searched for literature published between 2006 and 2017 in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library databases. We used Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 to perform our meta-analysis. After the screening and review processes, we identified 17 studies that met our selection conditions. Among these studies, 14 contained complete data for meta-analysis. These studies involved 4,343 patients and 5,846 PVCs. Regarding the overall effect size in the meta-analysis, the results of the forest plot comparing catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge presented a risk ratio (RR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.67, 1.17], p = .380), indicating no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of the aforementioned gauges. The results of the forest plot comparing catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs presented an RR of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [0.82, 1.34], p = .696), indicating no statistically significant difference in

  2. Applications of the 190Pt-186Os isotope system to geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Beary, E.S.; Smoliar, M.I.; Czamanske, G.K.; Horan, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Platinum is fractionated from osmium primarily as a consequence of processes involving sulfide and metal crystallization. Consequently, the 190Pt-186Os isotope system (190Pt ??? 186Os + ??) shows promise for dating some types of magmatic sulfide ores and evolved iron meteorites. The first 190Pt-186Os isochrons are presented here for ores from the ca. 251 Ma Noril'sk, Siberia plume, and for group IIAB magmatic iron meteorites. Given the known age of the Noril'sk system, a decay constant for 190Pt is determined to be 1.542 ?? 10-12a-1, with ??1% uncertainty. The isochron generated for the IIAB irons is consistent with this decay constant and the known age of the group. The 186Os/188Os ratios of presumably young, mantle-derived osmiridiums and also the carbonaceous chondrite Allende were measured to high-precision to constrain the composition of the modern upper mantle. These compositions overlap, indicating that the upper mantle is chondritic within the level of resolution now available. Our best estimate for this 186Os/188Os ratio is 0.119834 ?? 2 (2??M). The 190Pt/186Os ratios determined for six enstatite chondrites average 0.001659 ?? 75, which is very similar to published values for carbonaceous chondrites. Using this ratio and the presumed composition of the modern upper mantle and chondrites, a solar system initial 186Os/188Os ratio of 0.119820 is calculated. In comparison to the modern upper mantle composition, the 186Os/188Os ratio of the Noril'sk plume was approximately 0.012% enriched in 186Os. Possible reasons for this heterogeneity include the recycling of Pt-rich crust into the mantle source of the plume and derivation of the osmium from the outer core. Derivation of the osmium from the outer core is our favored model. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Sources of osmium to the modern oceans: New evidence from the 190Pt-186Os system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, D.K.; Walker, R.J.; Hemming, S.R.; Horan, M.F.; Becker, H.; Grauch, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    High precision Os isotope analysis of young marine manganese nodules indicate that whereas the composition of modern seawater is radiogenic with respect to 187Os/188Os, it has 186Os/188Os that is within uncertainty of the chondritic value. Marine Mn nodule compositions thus indicate that the average continental source of Os to modern seawater had long-term high Re/Os compared to Pt/Os. Analyses of loess and freshwater Mn nodules support existing evidence that average upper continental crust (UCC) has resolvably suprachondritic 186Os/188Os, as well as radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Modeling the composition of seawater as a two-component mixture of oceanic/cosmic Os with chondritic Os compositions and continentally-derived Os demonstrates that, insofar as estimates for the composition of average UCC are accurate, congruently weathered average UCC cannot be the sole continental source of Os to seawater. Our analysis of four Cambrian black shales confirm that organic-rich sediments can have 187Os/188Os ratios that are much higher than average UCC, but 186Os/188Os compositions that are generally between those of chondrites and average-UCC. Preferential weathering of black shales can result in dissolved Os discharged to the ocean basins that has a much lower 186Os/188Os than does average upper crust. Modeling the available data demonstrates that augmentation of estimated average UCC compositions with less than 0.1% additional black shale and 1.4% additional ultramafic rock can produce a continental end-member Os isotopic composition that satisfies the requirements imposed by the marine Mn nodule data. The interplay of these two sources provides a mechanism by which the 187Os/188Os of seawater can change as sources and weathering conditions change, yet seawater 186Os/188Os varies only minimally. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Species occurrence data for the nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-09-28

    BISON's size is unprecedented, including records for most living species found in the U.S. and encompassing the efforts of more than a million professional and citizen scientists. And the vast majority of BISON's species occurrence records are specific locations, not just county or state records.

  5. New Advances in Re-Os Geochronology of Organic-rich Sedimentary Rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Selby, D.; Kendall, B. S.

    2003-12-01

    Geochronology using 187Re-187Os is applicable to limited rock and mineral matrices, but one valuable application is the determination of depositional ages for organic-rich clastic sedimentary rocks like black shales. Clastic sedimentary rocks, in most cases, do not yield depositional ages using other radioactive isotope methods, but host much of Earth's fossil record upon which the relative geological timescale is based. As such, Re-Os dating of black shales has potentially wide application in timescale calibration studies and basin analysis, if sufficiently high precision and accuracy could be achieved. This goal requires detailed, systematic studies and evaluation of factors like standard compound stoichiometry, geologic effects, and the 187Re decay constant. Ongoing studies have resulted in an improved understanding of the abilities, limitations and systematics of the Re-Os geochronometer in black shales. First-order knowledge of the effects of processes like hydrocarbon maturation and low-grade metamorphism is now established. Hydrocarbon maturation does not impact the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to determine depositional ages from black shales. The Re-Os age determined for the Exshaw Fm of western Canada is accurate within 2σ analytical uncertainty of the known age of the unit (U-Pb monazite from ash, conodont biostratigraphy). This suggests that the large improvement in precision attained for Re-Os dating of black shales by Cohen et al (ESPL 1999) over the pioneering work of Ravizza & Turekian (GCA 1989), relates to advances in analytical methodologies and sampling strategies, rather than a lack of disturbance by hydrocarbon maturation. We have found that a significant reduction in isochron scatter can be achieved by using an alternate dissolution medium, which preferentially attacks organic matter in which Re and Os are largely concentrated. This likely results from a more limited release of detrital Os and Re held in silicate materials during

  6. Patterns and determinants of mammal species occurrence in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Karanth, K.U.; Christensen, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Many Indian mammals face range contraction and extinction, but assessments of their population status are hindered by the lack of reliable distribution data and range maps. 2. We estimated the current geographical ranges of 20 species of large mammals by applying occupancy models to data from country-wide expert. We modelled species in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics and human influences) based on a priori hypotheses about plausible determinants of mammalian distribution patterns. 3. We demonstrated that failure to incorporate detection probability in distribution survey methods underestimated habitat occupancy for all species. 4. Protected areas were important for the distribution of 16 species. However, for many species much of their current range remains unprotected. The availability of evergreen forests was important for the occurrence of 14 species, temperate forests for six species, deciduous forests for 15 species and higher altitude habitats for two species. Low human population density was critical for the occurrence of five species, while culturally based tolerance was important for the occurrence of nine other species. 5. Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, gaur Bos gaurus and elephant Elephas maximus showed the most restricted ranges among herbivores, and sun bear Helarctos malayanus, brown bear Ursus arctos and tiger Panthera tigris were most restricted among carnivores. While cultural tolerance has helped the survival of some mammals, legal protection has been critically associated with occurrence of most species. 6. Synthesis and applications. Extent of range is an important determinant of species conservation status. Understanding the relationship of species occurrence with ecological and socio-cultural covariates is important for identification and management of key conservation areas. The combination of occupancy models with field data from country-wide experts enables reliable estimation of species

  7. Analysis of co-occurrence toponyms in web pages based on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiang; Liu, Jiajun; Gao, Yong; Wu, Lun

    2017-01-01

    A large number of geographical toponyms exist in web pages and other documents, providing abundant geographical resources for GIS. It is very common for toponyms to co-occur in the same documents. To investigate these relations associated with geographic entities, a novel complex network model for co-occurrence toponyms is proposed. Then, 12 toponym co-occurrence networks are constructed from the toponym sets extracted from the People's Daily Paper documents of 2010. It is found that two toponyms have a high co-occurrence probability if they are at the same administrative level or if they possess a part-whole relationship. By applying complex network analysis methods to toponym co-occurrence networks, we find the following characteristics. (1) The navigation vertices of the co-occurrence networks can be found by degree centrality analysis. (2) The networks express strong cluster characteristics, and it takes only several steps to reach one vertex from another one, implying that the networks are small-world graphs. (3) The degree distribution satisfies the power law with an exponent of 1.7, so the networks are free-scale. (4) The networks are disassortative and have similar assortative modes, with assortative exponents of approximately 0.18 and assortative indexes less than 0. (5) The frequency of toponym co-occurrence is weakly negatively correlated with geographic distance, but more strongly negatively correlated with administrative hierarchical distance. Considering the toponym frequencies and co-occurrence relationships, a novel method based on link analysis is presented to extract the core toponyms from web pages. This method is suitable and effective for geographical information retrieval.

  8. Biases in Planet Occurrence Caused by Unresolved Binaries in Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, L. G.; Masuda, Kento; Winn, Joshua N.

    2018-06-01

    Wide-field surveys for transiting planets, such as the NASA Kepler and TESS missions, are usually conducted without knowing which stars have binary companions. Unresolved and unrecognized binaries give rise to systematic errors in planet occurrence rates, including misclassified planets and mistakes in completeness corrections. The individual errors can have different signs, making it difficult to anticipate the net effect on inferred occurrence rates. Here, we use simplified models of signal-to-noise limited transit surveys to try and clarify the situation. We derive a formula for the apparent occurrence rate density measured by an observer who falsely assumes all stars are single. The formula depends on the binary fraction, the mass function of the secondary stars, and the true occurrence of planets around primaries, secondaries, and single stars. It also takes into account the Malmquist bias by which binaries are over-represented in flux-limited samples. Application of the formula to an idealized Kepler-like survey shows that for planets larger than 2 R ⊕, the net systematic error is of order 5%. In particular, unrecognized binaries are unlikely to be the reason for the apparent discrepancies between hot-Jupiter occurrence rates measured in different surveys. For smaller planets the errors are potentially larger: the occurrence of Earth-sized planets could be overestimated by as much as 50%. We also show that whenever high-resolution imaging reveals a transit host star to be a binary, the planet is usually more likely to orbit the primary star than the secondary star.

  9. Integrating occupancy models and structural equation models to understand species occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Preston, Daniel L.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species occurrence is a fundamental goal in basic and applied ecology. Occupancy models have emerged as a popular approach for inferring species occurrence because they account for problems associated with imperfect detection in field surveys. Current models, however, are limited because they assume covariates are independent (i.e., indirect effects do not occur). Here, we combined structural equation and occupancy models to investigate complex influences on species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection. These two methods are inherently compatible because they both provide means to make inference on latent or unobserved quantities based on observed data. Our models evaluated the direct and indirect roles of cattle grazing, water chemistry, vegetation, nonnative fishes, and pond permanence on the occurrence of six pond-breeding amphibians, two of which are threatened: the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense), and the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii). While cattle had strong effects on pond vegetation and water chemistry, their overall effects on amphibian occurrence were small compared to the consistently negative effects of nonnative fish. Fish strongly reduced occurrence probabilities for four of five native amphibians, including both species of conservation concern. These results could help to identify drivers of amphibian declines and to prioritize strategies for amphibian conservation. More generally, this approach facilitates a more mechanistic representation of ideas about the causes of species distributions in space and time. As shown here, occupancy modeling and structural equation modeling are readily combined, and bring rich sets of techniques that may provide unique theoretical and applied insights into basic ecological questions. PMID:27197402

  10. Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Galimberti, Roberto; Nali, Micaela; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Re-Os geochronology of oil may constrain the timing of oil formation and improve oil-source and oil-oil correlations. Typically, asphaltene (ASPH), the heaviest and most Re-Os rich oil fraction, from multiple oils within an oil field or a larger petroleum system are analyzed to obtain sufficient spread in Re-Os isotopic ratios, a mathematical necessity for precise Re-Os isochrons. Here we offer a new approach for Re-Os geochronology of oil based on isotopic analyses of different fractions within a single sample of crude oil. We studied three oils from the Gela oil field, southern Sicily, Italy, recovered from Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphic intervals (Streppenosa, Noto, and Sciacca Formations) within the Gela-1 well. ASPH (insoluble in n-alkane) and maltene (MALT, soluble in n-alkane) fractions of oil were separated using n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-decane solvents. The ASPH contents of the Sciacca and Noto oils (26-33 wt%) are notably higher compared to the Streppenosa oil (7-12 wt% ASPH). We present an optimized Re-Os procedure with sample digestion in a high-pressure asher, followed by isotopic measurements using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Very high metal contents of Gela oils allowed acquisition of precise Re-Os data. Systematic variations between the type of solvent used for ASPH precipitation and the ASPH content of the oil (also known from the literature) and the Re-Os contents of the ASPH and MALT fractions (first observed in this study) provide important practical applications for Re-Os analyses of oil. Most Re and Os (∼96-98%) in the Noto oil are hosted in the ASPH fraction. In contrast, a significant portion of Re and Os (∼33-34%) is stored in the MALT fraction of the lighter, but heavily biodegraded Streppenosa oil. Collectively, our new data on alkane distribution, hopane and sterane biomarkers, major and trace element contents, and Re-Os concentrations and isotopic ratios of the oils and their fractions support the

  11. Characterization of Transcription Factor Gene OsDRAP1 Conferring Drought Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liyu; Wang, Yinxiao; Wang, Wensheng; Zhao, Xiuqin; Qin, Qiao; Sun, Fan; Hu, Fengyi; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zichao; Fu, Binying; Li, Zhikang

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Overexpressing and RNA interfering OsDRAP1 transgenic rice plants exhibited significantly improved and reduced drought tolerance, but accompanied with negative effects on development and yield. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREBs) genes are important transcription factors which play a crucial role in plant abiotic stress tolerances. In this study, we functionally characterized a DREB2-like gene, OsDRAP1 conferring drought tolerance (DT) in rice. OsDRAP1, containing many cis-elements in its promoter region, was expressed in all organs (mainly expressed in vascular tissues) of rice, and induced by a variety of environmental stresses and plant hormones. Overexpressing OsDRAP1 transgenic plants exhibited significantly improved DT; while OsDRAP1 RNA interfering plants exhibited significantly reduced DT which also accompanied with significant negative effects on development and yield. Overexpression of OsDRAP1 has a positive impact on maintaining water balance, redox homeostasis and vascular development in transgenic rice plants under drought stress. OsDRAP1 interacted with many genes/proteins and could activate many downstream DT related genes, including important transcription factors such as OsCBSX3 to response drought stress, indicating the OsDRAP1-mediated pathways for DT involve complex genes networks. All these results provide a basis for further complete understanding of the OsDRAP1 mediated gene networks and their related phenotypic effects. PMID:29449862

  12. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake occurrence throughout the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Midya, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms < 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake Parameter (IEP) where `Ms' is earthquake magnitude on the Richter scale. From statistical and graphical analyses, it is concluded that the probability of earthquake occurrence is maximum when the defined parameter lies within the range of 0-75 (lower range). In the higher ranges, earthquake occurrence probability gradually decreases. A probable explanation is also suggested.

  13. Algorithms for Hidden Markov Models Restricted to Occurrences of Regular Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Tataru, Paula; Sand, Andreas; Hobolth, Asger; Mailund, Thomas; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are widely used probabilistic models, particularly for annotating sequential data with an underlying hidden structure. Patterns in the annotation are often more relevant to study than the hidden structure itself. A typical HMM analysis consists of annotating the observed data using a decoding algorithm and analyzing the annotation to study patterns of interest. For example, given an HMM modeling genes in DNA sequences, the focus is on occurrences of genes in the annotation. In this paper, we define a pattern through a regular expression and present a restriction of three classical algorithms to take the number of occurrences of the pattern in the hidden sequence into account. We present a new algorithm to compute the distribution of the number of pattern occurrences, and we extend the two most widely used existing decoding algorithms to employ information from this distribution. We show experimentally that the expectation of the distribution of the number of pattern occurrences gives a highly accurate estimate, while the typical procedure can be biased in the sense that the identified number of pattern occurrences does not correspond to the true number. We furthermore show that using this distribution in the decoding algorithms improves the predictive power of the model. PMID:24833225

  14. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  15. Thermodynamic properties of OsB under high temperature and high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Hua; Li, Zuo; Cheng, Yan; Bi, Yan; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2011-09-01

    The energy-volume curves of OsB have been obtained using the first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft-pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). Using the quasi-harmonic Debye model we first analyze the specific heat, the coefficients of thermal expansion as well as the thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of OsB in a wide temperature range at high pressure. At temperature 300 K, the coefficients of thermal expansion αV by LDA and GGA calculations are 1.67×10 -5 1/K and 2.01×10 -5 1/K, respectively. The specific heat of OsB at constant pressure (volume) is also calculated. Meanwhile, we find that the Debye temperature of OsB increases monotonically with increasing pressure. The present study leads to a better understanding of how the OsB materials respond to pressure and temperature.

  16. Hexagonal OsB 2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB 2-type hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulusmore » of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics.« less

  17. Quantifying global dust devil occurrence from meteorological analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jemmett-Smith, Bradley C; Marsham, John H; Knippertz, Peter; Gilkeson, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    Dust devils and nonrotating dusty plumes are effective uplift mechanisms for fine particles, but their contribution to the global dust budget is uncertain. By applying known bulk thermodynamic criteria to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses, we provide the first global hourly climatology of potential dust devil and dusty plume (PDDP) occurrence. In agreement with observations, activity is highest from late morning into the afternoon. Combining PDDP frequencies with dust source maps and typical emission values gives the best estimate of global contributions of 3.4% (uncertainty 0.9–31%), 1 order of magnitude lower than the only estimate previously published. Total global hours of dust uplift by dry convection are ∼0.002% of the dust-lifting winds resolved by ECMWF, consistent with dry convection making a small contribution to global uplift. Reducing uncertainty requires better knowledge of factors controlling PDDP occurrence, source regions, and dust fluxes induced by dry convection. Key Points Global potential dust devil occurrence quantified from meteorological analyses Climatology shows realistic diurnal cycle and geographical distribution Best estimate of global contribution of 3.4% is 10 times smaller than the previous estimate PMID:26681815

  18. The effect of evaluation on co-occurrence memory judgement.

    PubMed

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Amzaleg-David, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effect of an attitude towards an object on the memory judgement of whether this object co-occurred with positive versus negative stimuli. We induced positive or negative attitudes towards novel male stimuli, and paired each man with an equal number of positive and negative animals. In a memory test, participants reported more co-occurrences of same-valence man/animal pairs than opposite-valence pairs. This valence-compatibility effect occurred even when attitudes were induced after the pairing (Experiment 1), when participants knew that each man occurred with an equal number of positive and negative animals (Experiment 2), and in reports of clear memory of pairs that did not co-occur (Experiment 3). The present findings suggest that evaluation causes illusory correlation even when the co-occurring stimuli are not traits or behaviours attributed to the attitude object. The results question the validity of co-occurrence memory judgements as measures of co-occurrence awareness in evaluative conditioning (EC) research.

  19. Can arsenic occurrence rate in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 μg L–1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 μg L–1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

  20. Can arsenic occurrence rates in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 µg L−1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 µg L−1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology. PMID:22260208

  1. Research on Separation of Three Powers Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Xin, Siyuan

    The privilege in the operating system (OS) often results in the break of confidentiality and integrity of the system. To solve this problem, several security mechanisms are proposed, such as Role-based Access Control, Separation of Duty. However, these mechanisms can not eliminate the privilege in OS kernel layer. This paper proposes a Separation of Three Powers Architecture (STPA). The authorizations in OS are divided into three parts: System Management Subsystem (SMS), Security Management Subsystem (SEMS) and Audit Subsystem (AS). Mutual support and mutual checks and balances which are the design principles of STPA eliminate the administrator in the kernel layer. Furthermore, the paper gives the formal description for authorization division using the graph theory. Finally, the implementation of STPA is given. Proved by experiments, the Separation of Three Powers Architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through authorization division.

  2. Combining occurrence and abundance distribution models for the conservation of the Great Bustard.

    PubMed

    Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Sun, Rui; Guo, Yumin

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have become important and essential tools in conservation and management. However, SDMs built with count data, referred to as species abundance models (SAMs), are still less commonly used to date, but increasingly receiving attention. Species occurrence and abundance do not frequently display similar patterns, and often they are not even well correlated. Therefore, only using information based on SDMs or SAMs leads to an insufficient or misleading conservation efforts. How to combine information from SDMs and SAMs and how to apply the combined information to achieve unified conservation remains a challenge. In this study, we introduce and propose a priority protection index (PI). The PI combines the prediction results of the occurrence and abundance models. As a case study, we used the best-available presence and count records for an endangered farmland species, the Great Bustard ( Otis tarda dybowskii ), in Bohai Bay, China. We then applied the Random Forest algorithm (Salford Systems Ltd. Implementation) with eleven predictor variables to forecast the spatial occurrence as well as the abundance distribution. The results show that the occurrence model had a decent performance (ROC: 0.77) and the abundance model had a RMSE of 26.54. It is noteworthy that environmental variables influenced bustard occurrence and abundance differently. The area of farmland, and the distance to residential areas were the top important variables influencing bustard occurrence. While the distance to national roads and to expressways were the most important influencing abundance. In addition, the occurrence and abundance models displayed different spatial distribution patterns. The regions with a high index of occurrence were concentrated in the south-central part of the study area; and the abundance distribution showed high populations occurrence in the central and northwestern parts of the study area. However, combining occurrence and abundance

  3. Combining occurrence and abundance distribution models for the conservation of the Great Bustard

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Sun, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have become important and essential tools in conservation and management. However, SDMs built with count data, referred to as species abundance models (SAMs), are still less commonly used to date, but increasingly receiving attention. Species occurrence and abundance do not frequently display similar patterns, and often they are not even well correlated. Therefore, only using information based on SDMs or SAMs leads to an insufficient or misleading conservation efforts. How to combine information from SDMs and SAMs and how to apply the combined information to achieve unified conservation remains a challenge. In this study, we introduce and propose a priority protection index (PI). The PI combines the prediction results of the occurrence and abundance models. As a case study, we used the best-available presence and count records for an endangered farmland species, the Great Bustard (Otis tarda dybowskii), in Bohai Bay, China. We then applied the Random Forest algorithm (Salford Systems Ltd. Implementation) with eleven predictor variables to forecast the spatial occurrence as well as the abundance distribution. The results show that the occurrence model had a decent performance (ROC: 0.77) and the abundance model had a RMSE of 26.54. It is noteworthy that environmental variables influenced bustard occurrence and abundance differently. The area of farmland, and the distance to residential areas were the top important variables influencing bustard occurrence. While the distance to national roads and to expressways were the most important influencing abundance. In addition, the occurrence and abundance models displayed different spatial distribution patterns. The regions with a high index of occurrence were concentrated in the south-central part of the study area; and the abundance distribution showed high populations occurrence in the central and northwestern parts of the study area. However, combining occurrence and abundance indices

  4. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  5. Precipitation and the occurrence of lyme disease in the Northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Bunnell, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of Lyme disease is a growing concern in the United States, and various studies have been performed to understand the factors related to Lyme disease occurrence. In the United States, Lyme disease has occurred most frequently in the northeastern United States. Positive correlations between the number of cases of Lyme disease reported in the northeastern United States during the 1992-2002 period indicate that late spring/early summer precipitation was a significant climate factor affecting the occurrence of Lyme disease. When late spring/early summer precipitation was greater than average, the occurrence of Lyme disease was above average, possibly due to increased tick activity and survival rate during wet conditions. Temperature did not seem to explain the variability in Lyme disease reports for the northeastern United States. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  6. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  7. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  8. Hydrothermal and metamorphic berthierine from the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Timmins, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Wei-Teh, Jiang; Peacor, D.R.; Okita, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Berthierine, a 7 A?? Fe-Al member of the serpentine group, occurs in the footwall stringer zone of the Archean Kidd Creek massive sulfide deposit, associated with quartz, muscovite, chlorite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and local tourmaline, cassiterite, and halloysite. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal different types of berthierine occurrences, including interlayers within the rims on deformed chlorite, intergrowths with muscovite and halloysite, and discrete coarse grains. This is the first reported occurrence of berthierine from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Textural relations suggest that most of the berthierine formed as a primary hydrothermal mineral at relatively high temperatures (~350??C) in the footwall stringer zone, probably by the replacement of a pre-existing aluminous phase such as muscovite or chlorite. However, the intergrowth textures observed by SEM and TEM suggest that some of the berthierine originated by syn- or post-metamorphic replacement of chlorite. -from Authors

  9. Structural and petrographic constraints on the stratigraphy of the Lapataia Formation, with implications for the tectonic evolution of the Fuegian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Sebastián J.; Torres Carbonell, Pablo J.; Dimieri, Luis V.

    2018-07-01

    The structure of the Fuegian Andes central belt is characterized by a first phase of peak metamorphism and ductile deformation, followed by a brittle-ductile thrusting phase including juxtaposition of different (first phase) structural levels; both related to the closure and inversion of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin. The second phase involved thrust sheets of pre-Jurassic basement, as well as Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous units from the volcanic-sedimentary fill of the basin. Rock exposures in the Parque Nacional Tierra del Fuego reveal a diversity of metamorphic mineral assemblages, dynamic recrystallization grades and associated structures, evidencing a variety of protoliths and positions in the crust during their orogenic evolution. Among the units present in this sector, the Lapataia Formation portrays the higher metamorphic grade reported in the Argentine side of the Fuegian Andes, and since no precise radiometric ages have been established to date, its stratigraphic position remains a matter of debate: the discussion being whether it belongs to the pre-Jurassic basement, or the Upper Jurassic volcanic/volcaniclastic initial fill of the Rocas Verdes basin. The mapping and petrographic/microstructural study of the Lapataia Formation and those of undoubtedly Mesozoic age, allow to characterize the former as a group of rocks with great lithological affinity with the Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks found elsewhere in the central belt of the Fuegian Andes. The main differences in metamorphic grade are indebted to its deformation at deeper crustal levels, but during the same stages than the Mesozoic rocks. Accordingly, we interpret the regional structure to be associated with the stacking of thrust sheets from different structural levels through the emplacement of a duplex system during the growth of the Fuegian Andes.

  10. Iron deficiency regulated OsOPT7 is essential for iron homeostasis in rice.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Michiko; An, Gynheung; Oikawa, Takaya; Ueda, Minoru; Sato, Aiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake and transport in plants are well-characterized; however, many components of Fe homeostasis remain unclear. We cloned iron-deficiency-regulated oligopeptide transporter 7 (OsOPT7) from rice. OsOPT7 localized to the plasma membrane and did not transport Fe(III)-DMA or Fe(II)-NA and GSH in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore OsOPT7 did not complement the growth of yeast fet3fet4 mutant. OsOPT7 was specifically upregulated in response to Fe-deficiency. Promoter GUS analysis revealed that OsOPT7 expresses in root tips, root vascular tissue and shoots as well as during seed development. Microarray analysis of OsOPT7 knockout 1 (opt7-1) revealed the upregulation of Fe-deficiency-responsive genes in plants grown under Fe-sufficient conditions, despite the high Fe and ferritin concentrations in shoot tissue indicating that Fe may not be available for physiological functions. Plants overexpressing OsOPT7 do not exhibit any phenotype and do not accumulate more Fe compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that OsOPT7 may be involved in Fe transport in rice.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the evaluation of substance P enzymatic degradation by SaOS-2 human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Marini, Mario; Roda, Luigi Giorgio; Valenti, Angela

    2011-09-01

    A new analytical method for the detection and the quantitative evaluation of the undecapeptide substance P by capillary electrophoresis coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (CE-MS) by a co-axial sheath liquid interface has been developed. Conditions of analysis employed an acidic buffer and a 60 cm fused silica capillary installed by overcoming the UV window position, thus allowing to perform the analysis in a brief time. The method has been applied to the evaluation of substance P enzymatic hydrolysis during incubation with the human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cell line. The analysis of amino acids derived from the cleavage of substance P has been also carried out simultaneously under the same electrophoretic conditions allowing the description of a kinetic of amino acid formation, parallel with substance P disappearance. The amounts of intact substance P and of free amino acids were monitored along 600 s of incubation time. A steady decrease of substance P as function of reaction time was observed. Peptide's half-life was found to be about 4.3s, indicating an extremely fast hydrolysis in the presence of the SaOS-2 cells. Proline, phenilalanine and methionine were the predominant free amino acids recorded. Obtained results lead to hypothesize the occurrence of endopeptidases activity, followed by aminopeptidases responsible for the release of free amino acids originated after primary bond cleavage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  13. Petrographic and anatomical characteristics of plant material from two peat deposits of Holocene and Miocene age, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.A.; Hilbert, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Samples from two peat-forming environments of Holocene and Miocene age in Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, were studied petrographically using nearly identical sample preparation and microscopic methodologies. Both deposits consist of two basic types of organic material: plant organs/tissues and fine-grained matrix. There are seven predominant types of plant organs and tissues: roots possessing only primary growth, stems possessing only primary growth, leaves, stems/roots with secondary growth, secondary xylem fragments, fragments of cork cells, and macerated tissue of undetermined origin. The fine-grained matrix consists of fragments of cell walls and cell fillings, fungal remains, spores and pollen grains, and resin. Some of the matrix material does not have distinct grain boundaries (at ??500) and this material is designated amorphous matrix. The major difference between the Holocene peat and Miocene lignite in reflected light, oil immersion is a loss of red coloration in the cell walls of tissue in the lignite, presumably due to loss of cellulosic compounds. In addition, cortex and phloem tissue (hence primary roots and stems) are difficult to recognize in the lignite, probably because these large, thin-walled tissues are more susceptible to microbial degradation and compaction. Particle size in both peat and lignite samples display a bimodal distribution when measurements are transformed to a - log2 or phi (??), scale. Most plant parts have modes of 2-3?? (0.25 - 0.125 mm), whereas the finer-grained particulate matrix has modes of 7-9?? (0.008-0.002 mm). This similarity suggest certain degradative processes. The 2-3?? range may be a "stable" size for plant parts (regardless of origin) because this is a characteristics of a substrate which is most suitable for plant growth in peat. The finer-grained matrix material (7-9??) probably results from fungal decay which causes plant material to weaken and with slight physical pressure to shatter into its component

  14. Installing and Setting Up the Git Software Tool on OS X | High-Performance

    Science.gov Websites

    Computing | NREL the Git Software Tool on OS X Installing and Setting Up the Git Software Tool on OS X Learn how to install the Git software tool on OS X for use with the Peregrine system. You can . Binary Installer for OS X - Easiest! You can download the latest version of git from http://git-scm.com

  15. Rice OsMYB5P improves plant phosphate acquisition by regulation of phosphate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hong, So Yeon; Bae, Ki Deuk; Chung, Young Soo; Kwon, Yong Sham; Kim, Du Hyun; Jung, Ki Hong

    2018-01-01

    Myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors play central roles in plant developmental processes and in responses to nutrient deficiency. In this study, OsMYB5P, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, was isolated and identified from rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Dongjin’) under inorganic phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. OsMYB5P protein is localized to the nucleus and functions as a transcription activator in plant development. Overexpression of OsMYB5P in rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0) increases tolerance to phosphate starvation, whereas OsMYB5P knock-out through RNA interference increases sensitivity to Pi depletion in rice. Furthermore, shoots and roots of transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYB5P were longer than those of wild plants under both normal and Pi-deficient conditions. These results indicate that OsMYB5P is associated with the regulation of shoot development and root- system architecture. Overexpression of OsMYB5P led to increased Pi accumulation in shoots and roots. Interestingly, OsMYB5P directly bound to MBS (MYB binding site) motifs on the OsPT5 promoter and induced transcription of OsPT5 in rice. In addition, overexpression of OsMYB5P in Arabidopsis triggered increased expression of AtPht1;3, an Arabidopsis Pi transporter, in shoots and roots under normal and Pi-deficient conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of OsMYB5P increases tolerance to Pi deficiency in plants by modulating Pi transporters at the transcriptional level in monocots and dicots. PMID:29566032

  16. THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF SMALL PLANETS AROUND SMALL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, David, E-mail: cdressing@cfa.harvard.edu

    We use the optical and near-infrared photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog to provide improved estimates of the stellar characteristics of the smallest stars in the Kepler target list. We find 3897 dwarfs with temperatures below 4000 K, including 64 planet candidate host stars orbited by 95 transiting planet candidates. We refit the transit events in the Kepler light curves for these planet candidates and combine the revised planet/star radius ratios with our improved stellar radii to revise the radii of the planet candidates orbiting the cool target stars. We then compare the number of observed planet candidates to themore » number of stars around which such planets could have been detected in order to estimate the planet occurrence rate around cool stars. We find that the occurrence rate of 0.5-4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets with orbital periods shorter than 50 days is 0.90{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03} planets per star. The occurrence rate of Earth-size (0.5-1.4 R{sub Circled-Plus }) planets is constant across the temperature range of our sample at 0.51{sub -0.05}{sup +0.06} Earth-size planets per star, but the occurrence of 1.4-4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets decreases significantly at cooler temperatures. Our sample includes two Earth-size planet candidates in the habitable zone, allowing us to estimate that the mean number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone is 0.15{sup +0.13}{sub -0.06} planets per cool star. Our 95% confidence lower limit on the occurrence rate of Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of cool stars is 0.04 planets per star. With 95% confidence, the nearest transiting Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a cool star is within 21 pc. Moreover, the nearest non-transiting planet in the habitable zone is within 5 pc with 95% confidence.« less

  17. Aluminum enrichment in silicate melts by fractional crystallization: some mineralogic and petrographic constraints.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zen, E.

    1986-01-01

    The degree of Al saturation of an igneous rock may be given by its aluminium saturation index (ASI), defined as the molar ratio Al2O3/(CaO+K2O+Na2O). One suggested origin for mildly peraluminous granites (ASI 1-1.1) is fractional crystallization of subaluminous magmas (ASI 1. For hornblende to effectively cause a melt to evolve into a peraluminous composition, it must be able to coexist with peraluminous magmas; e.g. at = or <5 kbar hornblende can coexist with strongly peraluminous melts (ASI approx 1.5). Potentials and problems of using coarse-grained granitic rocks to prove courses of magmatic evolution are illustrated by a suite of samples from the Grayling Lake pluton, SW Montana. Such rocks generally contain a large cumulate component and should not be used as a primary test for the occurrence or efficacy of a fractionation process that might lead to peraluminous melts. The process is unlikely to give rise to peraluminous plutons of batholithic dimensions. A differential equation is presented which allows the direct use of mineral chemistry and modal abundance to predict the path of incremental evolution of a given magma.-R.A.H.

  18. Forecasting Occurrences of Activities.

    PubMed

    Minor, Bryan; Cook, Diane J

    2017-07-01

    While activity recognition has been shown to be valuable for pervasive computing applications, less work has focused on techniques for forecasting the future occurrence of activities. We present an activity forecasting method to predict the time that will elapse until a target activity occurs. This method generates an activity forecast using a regression tree classifier and offers an advantage over sequence prediction methods in that it can predict expected time until an activity occurs. We evaluate this algorithm on real-world smart home datasets and provide evidence that our proposed approach is most effective at predicting activity timings.

  19. Research on offense and defense technology for iOS kernel security mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sijun; Wu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    iOS is a strong and widely used mobile device system. It's annual profits make up about 90% of the total profits of all mobile phone brands. Though it is famous for its security, there have been many attacks on the iOS operating system, such as the Trident apt attack in 2016. So it is important to research the iOS security mechanism and understand its weaknesses and put forward targeted protection and security check framework. By studying these attacks and previous jailbreak tools, we can see that an attacker could only run a ROP code and gain kernel read and write permissions based on the ROP after exploiting kernel and user layer vulnerabilities. However, the iOS operating system is still protected by the code signing mechanism, the sandbox mechanism, and the not-writable mechanism of the system's disk area. This is far from the steady, long-lasting control that attackers expect. Before iOS 9, breaking these security mechanisms was usually done by modifying the kernel's important data structures and security mechanism code logic. However, after iOS 9, the kernel integrity protection mechanism was added to the 64-bit operating system and none of the previous methods were adapted to the new versions of iOS [1]. But this does not mean that attackers can not break through. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vulnerability of KPP security mechanism, this paper implements two possible breakthrough methods for kernel security mechanism for iOS9 and iOS10. Meanwhile, we propose a defense method based on kernel integrity detection and sensitive API call detection to defense breakthrough method mentioned above. And we make experiments to prove that this method can prevent and detect attack attempts or invaders effectively and timely.

  20. CrxOS maintains the self-renewal capacity of murine embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiatedmore » morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.« less

  1. Crossing seas and occurrence of rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The study is addressing crossing wave systems which may lead to formation of rogue waves. Onorato et al. (2006, 2010) have shown using the Nonlinear Schr?dringer (NLS) equations that the modulational instability and rogue waves can be triggered by a peculiar form of directional sea state, where two identical, crossing, narrow-banded random wave systems interact with each other. Such results have been underpinned by numerical simulations of the Euler equations solved with a Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and experimental observations (Toffoli et al., 2011). They substantiate a dependence of the angle between the mean directions of propagation of the two crossing wave systems, with a maximum rogue wave probability for angles of approximately 40 degrees. Such an unusual sea state of two almost identical wave systems (approximately the same significant wave height and mean frequency) with high steepness and different directions was observed during the accident to the cruise ship Louis Majesty (Cavaleri et al. 2012). Occurrence of wind sea and swell having almost the same spectral period and significant wave height and crossing at the angle 40o < β < 60o has been investigated recently by Bitner-Gregersen and Toffoli (2014). The numerical simulations carried out by HOSM have shown that although directionality has an effect on the occurrence of extreme waves in crossing seas, rogue waves can occur not only for narrow-banded wave directional spreading but also broader spectral conditions. It seems that the most critical condition for occurrence of rogue waves in crossing seas is associated with energy and frequency of two wave systems while the angle between the wave systems and directional spreading will decide how large extreme waves will grow. The 40 degree angle and narrow-banded directional spreading seem to be generating the largest waves. The study shows that occurrence of rogue-prone crossing sea states is location specific, depending strongly on local

  2. Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Kapoor, Neera; Rutner, Daniella; Suchoff, Irwin B; Han, M E; Craig, Shoshana

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in a sample of ambulatory outpatients who have acquired brain injury (ABI), either traumatic brain injury (TBI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), with associated vision symptoms. Medical records of 220 individuals with either TBI (n = 160) or CVA (n = 60) were reviewed retrospectively. This was determined by a computer-based query spanning the years 2000 through 2003, for the frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions including accommodation, version, vergence, strabismus, and cranial nerve (CN) palsy. The majority of individuals with either TBI (90%) or CVA (86.7%) manifested an oculomotor dysfunction. Accommodative and vergence deficits were most common in the TBI subgroup, whereas strabismus and CN palsy were most common in the CVA subgroup. The frequency of occurrence of versional deficits was similar in each diagnostic subgroup. These new findings should alert the clinician to the higher frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in these populations and the associated therapeutic, rehabilitative, and quality-of-life implications.

  3. A compilation of mineral occurrences and the relationship of occurrences to structural elements of the Kentucky and Tennessee region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Myers, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A very prominent magnetic anomaly measured by MAGSAT over the eastern mid-continent of the United States was inferred to have a source region beneath Kentucky and Tennessee. Prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies are also associated with the inferred source region. A crustal model constructed to fit these anomalies interpreted the complex as a large mafic plutonic intrusion of Precambrian age. The complex was named the Kentucky body. It was noticed that the Jessamine Dome, which is a locus of intense faulting and mineralization, occurs near the northern end of the Kentucky body, and that more generally there seemed to be a spatial relationship between mineral occurrence and the body. The relationship between mineral deposits in Kentucky and Tennessee and the Kentucky body was investigated. A compilation of mineral occurrences in the region, classified according to type and age, is presented.

  4. Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and

  5. OsGSR1 is involved in crosstalk between gibberellins and brassinosteroids in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Yunyuan; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Zhiyong; Chong, Kang

    2009-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), two growth-promoting phytohormones, regulate many common physiological processes. Their interactions at the molecular level remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that OsGSR1, a member of the GAST (GA-stimulated transcript) gene family, is induced by GA and repressed by BR. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with reduced OsGSR1 expression show phenotypes similar to plants deficient in BR, including short primary roots, erect leaves and reduced fertility. The OsGSR1 RNAi transgenic rice shows a reduced level of endogenous BR, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by the application of brassinolide. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that OsGSR1 interacts with DIM/DWF1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion from 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in BR biosynthesis. These results suggest that OsGSR1 activates BR synthesis by directly regulating a BR biosynthetic enzyme at the post-translational level. Furthermore, OsGSR1 RNAi plants show a reduced sensitivity to GA treatment, an increased expression of the GA biosynthetic gene OsGA20ox2, which is feedback inhibited by GA signaling, and an elevated level of endogenous GA: together, these suggest that OsGSR1 is a positive regulator of GA signaling. These results demonstrate that OsGSR1 plays important roles in both BR and GA pathways, and also mediates an interaction between the two signaling pathways.

  6. Identification of a rice metal tolerance protein OsMTP11 as a manganese transporter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Liu, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are a gene family of cation efflux transporters that occur widely in plants and might serve an essential role in metal homeostasis and tolerance. Our research describes the identification, characterization, and localization of OsMTP11, a member of the MTP family from rice. OsMTP11 was expressed constitutively and universally in different tissues in rice plant. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that OsMTP11 complemented the hypersensitivity of mutant strains to Mn, and also complemented yeast mutants to other metals, including Co and Ni. Real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated OsMTP11 expression was substantially enhanced following 4 h under Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn treatments, suggesting possible roles of OsMTP11 involvement in heavy metal stress responses. Promoter analysis by transgenic assays with GUS as a reporter gene and mRNA in situ hybridization experiments showed that OsMTP11 was expressed specifically in conducting tissues in rice. DNA methylation assays of genomic DNA in rice treated with Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn revealed that decreased DNA methylation levels were present in the OsMTP11 promoter region, which was consistent with OsMTP11 induced-expression patterns resulting from heavy metal stress. This result suggested that DNA methylation is one of major factors regulating expression of OsMTP11 through epigenetic mechanisms. OsMTP11 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to the entire onion epidermal cell cytoplasm, while vacuolar membrane exhibited increased GFP signals, consistent with an OsMTP11 function in cation sequestration. Our results indicated that OsMTP11 might play vital roles in Mn and other heavy metal transportation in rice. PMID:28394944

  7. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  8. Reversible interconversion between a nitrido complex of Os(VI) and an ammino complex of osmium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pipes, D.W.; Bakir, M.; Vitols, S.E.

    1990-07-04

    The reaction between (N(n-Bu){sub 4})(Os(N)(X){sub 4}) (X = Cl, Br) and 2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double prime}-terpyridine (tpy) in acetone under reflux gave the salts (Os(N)(typ)(X){sub 2})X. The X-ray crystal structure of (Os(N)(tpy)(Cl){sub 2})Cl showed that the chloride ligands occupy mutually trans axial positions relative to the nitrido ligand. Reduction potentials were measured or estimated at pH = 3 for the intermediate Os(VI/V), Os(V/IV), Os(IV/III), and Os(III/II) couples. From those measurements, it was shown that the Os(V) intermediate, (Os{sup V}(N)(tpy)(Cl){sub 2}), is both a powerful oxidant and a strong reductant, highly unstable with respect to disproportionation into Os(VI) and Os(IV).

  9. Predictors of seizure occurrence in children undergoing pre-surgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Harini, Chellamani; Singh, Kanwaljit; Takeoka, Masanori; Parulkar, Isha; Bergin, Ann Marie; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-01

    Long-Term-Monitoring (LTM) is a valuable tool for seizure localization/lateralization among children with refractory-epilepsy undergoing pre-surgical-monitoring. The aim of this study was to examine the factors predicting occurrence of single/multiple seizures in children undergoing pre-surgical monitoring in the LTM unit. Chart review was done on 95 consecutive admissions on 92 children (40 females) admitted to the LTM-unit for pre-surgical workup. Relationship between occurrence of multiple (≥ 3) seizures and factors such as home seizure-frequency, demographics, MRI-lesions/seizure-type and localization/AED usage/neurological-exam/epilepsy-duration was evaluated by logistic-regression and survival-analysis. Home seizure-frequency was further categorized into low (up-to 1/month), medium (up-to 1/week) and high (>1/week) and relationship of these categories to the occurrence of multiple seizures was evaluated. Mean length of stay was 5.24 days in all 3 groups. Home seizure frequency was the only factor predicting the occurrence of single/multiple seizures in children undergoing presurgical workup. Other factors (age/sex/MRI-lesions/seizure-type and localization/AED-usage/neurological-exam/epilepsy-duration) did not affect occurrence of single/multiple seizures or time-to-occurrence of first/second seizure. Analysis of the home-seizure frequency categories revealed that 98% admissions in high-frequency, 94% in the medium, and 77% in low-frequency group had at-least 1 seizure recorded during the monitoring. Odds of first-seizure increased in high vs. low-frequency group (p=0.01). Eighty-nine percent admissions in high-frequency, 78% in medium frequency, versus 50% in low-frequency group had ≥ 3 seizures. The odds of having ≥ 3 seizures increased in high-frequency (p=0.0005) and in medium-frequency (p=0.007), compared to low-frequency group. Mean time-to-first-seizure was 2.7 days in low-frequency, 2.1 days in medium, and 2 days in high-frequency group. Time

  10. Interaction between demand-control and social support in the occurrence of common mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Amália Ivine Santana; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Almeida, Maura Maria Guimarães de

    2017-05-15

    To analyze the interaction between the psychosocial aspects of work and the occurrence of common mental disorders among health workers. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of workers of the primary health care of five municipalities of the State of Bahia, Brazil, in 2012. The variable of outcome were the common mental disorders evaluated by the SRQ-20, and the variables of exposure were high demand (high psychological demand and low control over the work) and low social support in the workplace. Interaction was checked by the deviation of the additivity of the effects for the factors studied from the calculation of excess risk from interaction, proportion of cases attributed to interaction, and the synergy index. The global prevalence of common mental disorders was 21%. The group of combined exposure has shown higher magnitude (high demand and low social support), reaching 28% when compared to the 17% in the situation of no exposure (low demand and high social support). The results strengthen the hypothesis of interaction between the factors investigated, directing to the synergy of the effects. Analisar a interação entre aspectos psicossociais do trabalho e a ocorrência de transtornos mentais comuns entre trabalhadores da saúde. Estudo transversal conduzido em amostra representativa de trabalhadores da atenção básica de cinco municípios da Bahia em 2012. As variáveis desfecho foram os transtornos mentais comuns avaliados pelo SRQ-20, as de exposição foram a alta exigência (alta demanda psicológica e baixo controle sobre o próprio trabalho) e o baixo apoio social no trabalho. A interação foi verificada pelo afastamento da aditividade dos efeitos para fatores estudados a partir do cálculo do excesso de risco devido à interação, proporção de casos atribuída à interação e índice de sinergia. A prevalência global de transtornos mentais comuns foi de 21%. Apresentou maior magnitude no grupo de exposi

  11. Occurrences of uranium at Clinton, Hunterdon County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, F.A.; Klemic, H.; Choquette, P.W.

    1954-01-01

    An occurrence of uranium at Clinton, Hunterdon County, N. J. was first brought to the attention of the U.S. Geological Survey when Mr. Thomas L. Eak of Avenel, N. J. submitted to the Survey a sample containing 0.068 percent uranium. Subsequent examinations of the area around Clinton indicated that detailed mapping and study were warranted. The uranium occurrences at Clinton are in or associated with fault zones in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambro-Ordovician age. The limestone generally light gray, thick bedded, and dolomitic; chert is common but not abundant. Regionally and locally, faults are the most significant structural features. The local faults at Clinton are the loci for most of the uranium. The largest fault can be traced for about 700 feet and is radioactive everywhere it crops out. Samples from this fault contain as much as 0.038 percent uranium; the average content is about 0.010 percent uranium. Uranium also occurs disseminated in two 4-inch layers of black feldspathic dolomite and in several zones of residual soil derived from the Kittatinny limestone. The black layers contain as much as 0.046 percent uranium and can be traced only about 20 feet along strike. They are cut by a small fault that is also radioactive. The radioactive soil zones are roughly elongated parallel to bedding. Soil from them contains up to 0.008 percent uranium. The uranium occurrences are best explained by a supergene origin. The sampling, mapping, and radioactivity testing of uranium occurrences at Clinton indicate they are too low grade to be of current economic interest.

  12. OsDMC1 Is Not Required for Homologous Pairing in Rice Meiosis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ding; Liu, Xiaofei; Du, Guijie; Shen, Yi; Li, Yafei; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is pivotal to sexual reproduction. DMC1, a conserved recombinase, is involved in directing single-end invasion between interhomologs during meiotic recombination. In this study, we identified OsDMC1A and OsDMC1B, two closely related proteins in rice (Oryza sativa) with high sequence similarity to DMC1 proteins from other species. Analysis of Osdmc1a and Osdmc1b Tos17 insertion mutants indicated that these genes are functionally redundant. Immunolocalization analysis revealed OsDMC1 foci occurred at leptotene, which disappeared from late pachytene chromosomes in wild-type meiocytes. According to cytological analyses, homologous pairing is accomplished in the Osdmc1a Osdmc1b double mutant, but synapsis is seriously disrupted. The reduced number of bivalents and abnormal OsHEI10 foci in Osdmc1a Osdmc1b establishes an essential role for OsDMC1 in crossover formation. In the absence of OsDMC1, early recombination events probably occur normally, leading to normal localization of γH2AX, PAIR3, OsMRE11, OsCOM1, and OsRAD51C. Moreover, OsDMC1 was not detected in pairing-defective mutants, such as pair2, pair3, Oscom1, and Osrad51c, while it was loaded onto meiotic chromosomes in zep1, Osmer3, Oszip4, and Oshei10. Taken together, these results suggest that during meiosis, OsDMC1 is dispensable for homologous pairing in rice, which is quite different from the DMC1 homologs identified so far in other organisms. PMID:26960731

  13. Investigating species co-occurrence patterns when species are detected imperfectly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Bailey, L.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    1. Over the last 30 years there has been a great deal of interest in investigating patterns of species co-occurrence across a number of locations, which has led to the development of numerous methods to determine whether there is evidence that a particular pattern may not have occurred by random chance. 2. A key aspect that seems to have been largely overlooked is the possibility that species may not always be detected at a location when present, which leads to 'false absences' in a species presence/absence matrix that may cause incorrect inferences to be made about co-occurrence patterns. Furthermore, many of the published methods for investigating patterns of species co-occurrence do not account for potential differences in the site characteristics that may partially (at least) explain non-random patterns (e.g. due to species having similar/different habitat preferences). 3. Here we present a statistical method for modelling co-occurrence patterns between species while accounting for imperfect detection and site characteristics. This method requires that multiple presence/absence surveys for the species be conducted over a reasonably short period of time at most sites. The method yields unbiased estimates of probabilities of occurrence, and is practical when the number of species is small (< 4). 4. To illustrate the method we consider data collected on two terrestrial salamander species, Plethodonjordani and members of the Plethodon glutinosus complex, collected in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. We find no evidence that the species do not occur independently at sites once site elevation has been allowed for, although we find some evidence of a statistical interaction between species in terms of detectability that we suggest may be due to changes in relative abundances.

  14. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  15. 75 FR 54889 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidality: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidality: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials...: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidality in clinical trials of...

  16. Electrochemical ion transfer mediated by a lipophilic Os(ii)/Os(iii) dinonyl bipyridyl probe incorporated in thin film membranes.

    PubMed

    Jansod, Sutida; Wang, Lu; Cuartero, Maria; Bakker, Eric

    2017-09-28

    A new lipophilic dinonyl bipyridyl Os(ii)/Os(iii) complex successfully mediates ion transfer processes across voltammetric thin membranes. An added lipophilic cation-exchanger may impose voltammetric anion or cation transfer waves of Gaussian shape that are reversible and repeatable. The peak potential is found to shift with the ion concentration in agreement with the Nernst equation. The addition of tridodecylmethylammonium nitrate to the polymeric film dramatically reduces the peak separation from 240 mV to 65 mV, and the peak width to a near-theoretical value of 85 mV, which agrees with a surface confined process. It is suggested that the cationic additive serves as a phase transfer catalyst.

  17. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  18. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants and

  19. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  20. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  1. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB 2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun-Wei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Fen; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2009-11-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB 2 are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB 2 under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB 2 tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB 2 is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  2. The Maritsa strike-slip shear zone between Kostenets and Krichim towns, South Bulgaria — Structural, petrographic and isotope geochronology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht; Sarov, Stoyan; Kolcheva, Krastina; Dimov, Dimo

    2013-06-01

    major tectonic element by presenting new structural, petrographic and isotope geochronology data.

  3. Preliminary summary review of thorium-bearing mineral occurrences in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, Robert G.; Wedow, Helmuth

    1952-01-01

    Thorium-bearing minerals are known at 47 localities in Alaska. At these localities the thorium occurs as a major constituent or in minor amounts as an impurity in one or more of the following 12 minerals: allanite, columbite, ellsworthite, eschynite, gummite, monazite, orangite, parisite, thorianite, thorite, xenotime, and zircon. In addition other minerals, such as biotite and sphene, are radioactive and may contain thorium. Several unidentified columbate minerals with uranium or thorium and uranium as major constituents have been recognized at some localities. The distribution, by type of deposit, of the 57 thorium occurrences is as follows: lode - 3, lode and placer - 1, granitic rock - 3, granitic rock and related placer - 14, and placer - 26. Of the four lode occurrences only the radioactive veins at Salmon Bay in southeastern Alaska and the contact metamorphic deposit in the Nixon Fork area of central Alaska warrant further consideration, although insufficient data are available to determine whether these two deposits have commercial possibilities. The remaining occurrences of thorium-bearing minerals in Alaska are limited to placer deposits and disseminations of accessory minerals in granitic rocks. In most of these occurrences the thorium-bearing minerals occur in only trace amounts and consequently warrent little further consideration. More data are needed to determine the possibilities of byproduct recovery of thorium-bearing minerals from several of the gold and tin placers.

  4. Review: Occurrence of the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2017-06-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living amoeba found worldwide in soils and warm freshwater. It is the causative agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a nearly always fatal disease afflicting mainly children and young adults. Humans are exposed to the organism via swimming, bathing, or other recreational activity during which water is forcefully inhaled into the upper nasal passages. Although many studies have looked at the occurrence of N. fowleri in surface waters, limited information is available regarding its occurrence in groundwater and geothermally heated natural waters such as hot springs. This paper reviews the current literature related to the occurrence of N. fowleri in these waters and the methods employed for its detection. Case reports of potential groundwater exposures are also included. Despite increased interest in N. fowleri in recent years due to well-publicized cases linked to drinking water, many questions still remain unanswered. For instance, why the organism persists in some water sources and not in others is not well understood. The role of biofilms in groundwater wells and plumbing in individual buildings, and the potential for warming due to climate change to expand the occurrence of the organism into new regions, are still unclear. Additional research is needed to address these questions in order to better understand the ecology of N. fowleri and the conditions that result in greater risks to bathers.

  5. Mineral occurrences of New York State with selected references to each locality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luedke, Elaine M.; Wrucke, Chester T.; Graham, John A.

    1959-01-01

    References and locations were compiled for more than 1,000 mineral occurrences in New York State. Each occurrence is shown on an accompanying map and is given by commodity and county in a locality list. Fuels, sand and gravel, and clay are not included in this report.

  6. OsGRF4 controls grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering in rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pingyong; Zhang, Wuhan; Wang, Yihua; He, Qiang; Shu, Fu; Liu, Hai; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Longping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traits such as grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering, play important roles in grain yield and harvest. In this study, the cloning and functional analysis of PANICLE TRAITS 2 (PT2), a novel gene from the Indica rice Chuandali (CDL), is reported. PT2 is synonymous with Growth‐Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), which encodes a growth‐regulating factor that positively regulates grain shape and panicle length and negatively regulates seed shattering. Higher expression of OsGRF4 is correlated with larger grain, longer panicle and lower seed shattering. A unique OsGRF4 mutation, which occurs at the OsmiRNA396 target site of OsGRF4, seems to be associated with high levels of OsGRF4 expression, and results in phenotypic difference. Further research showed that OsGRF4 regulated two cytokinin dehydrogenase precursor genes (CKX5 and CKX1) resulting in increased cytokinin levels, which might affect the panicle traits. High storage capacity and moderate seed shattering of OsGRF4 may be useful in high‐yield breeding and mechanized harvesting of rice. Our findings provide additional insight into the molecular basis of panicle growth. PMID:26936408

  7. [Oral rehydration therapy with OS-1 for advanced and recurrent gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Taku; Sakata, Kouichirou; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Okada, Toshimasa; Fukuda, Yuko; Tanaka, Shinobu; Seiki, Masakazu; Takemura, Yumi; Yamashita, Satoyoshi

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an oral rehydration therapy with OS-1 for advanced and recurrent gastrointestinal cancer patients to reduce a hospital stay as well as having a good QOL. We targeted 10 advanced cancer patients. In this study, We recommended the OS-1 drinking amount to be 500 mL to 1, 000 mL whenever the following symptoms were observed:(1) the patient's meal consumption was decreased in half, (2) the volume of urine was decreased, and (3) the frequency of urine was decreased. Nine out of 10 patients were able to drink OS-1 in the range of 500 mL to 1, 000 mL. Most of the patients were taking the chemotherapy along with OS-1 therapy. We confirmed two distinct cases: The patients with OS- 1 short-term drinker at the time of appetite fall because of chemotherapy. Another case was the patients with OS-1 longterm drinkers due to the end of life stage which decreased in meal frequency. ORT with OS-1 may contribute to improve QOL of the terminal patient with chemotherapy.

  8. The Rice AAA-ATPase OsFIGNL1 Is Essential for Male Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Zhang, Yingxin; Sun, Lianping; Sinumporn, Sittipun; Yang, Zhengfu; Sun, Bin; Xuan, Dandan; Li, Zihe; Yu, Ping; Wu, Weixun; Wang, Kejian; Cao, Liyong; Cheng, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis is crucial in reproduction of plants and ensuring genetic diversity. Although several genes involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair have been reported, their functions in rice (Oryza sativa) male meiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized the rice OsFIGNL1 (OsFidgetin-like 1) gene, encoding a conserved AAA-ATPase, and explored its function and importance in male meiosis and pollen formation. The rice Osfignl1 mutant exhibited normal vegetative growth, but failed to produce seeds and displayed pollen abortion phenotype. Phenotypic comparisons between the wild-type and Osfignl1 mutant demonstrated that OsFIGNL1 is required for anther development, and that the recessive mutation of this gene causes male sterility in rice. Complementation and CRISPR/Cas9 experiments demonstrated that wild-type OsFIGNL1 is responsible for the male sterility phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that OsFIGNL1-green fluorescent protein was exclusively localized in the nucleus of rice protoplasts. Male meiosis in the Osfignl1 mutant exhibited abnormal chromosome behavior, including chromosome bridges and multivalent chromosomes at diakinesis, lagging chromosomes, and chromosome fragments during meiosis. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated OsFIGNL1 could interact with RAD51A1, RAD51A2, DMC1A, DMC1B, and these physical interactions were further confirmed by BiFC assay. Taken together, our results suggest that OsFIGNL1 plays an important role in regulation of male meiosis and anther development. PMID:29021797

  9. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H 2 O 2 -producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na + /K + ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters ( OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 , and OsAKT1 ) involved in Na + /K + homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na + and K + regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  11. Structure of the OsSERK2 leucine-rich repeat extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Ryan; Pruitt, Rory N; Kamita, Shizuo G; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Majumdar, Dipali; Hammock, Bruce D; Adams, Paul D; Ronald, Pamela C

    2014-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing integral membrane receptors that are involved in the regulation of development and immune responses in plants. It has recently been shown that rice SERK2 (OsSERK2) is essential for XA21-mediated resistance to the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. OsSERK2 is also required for the BRI1-mediated, FLS2-mediated and EFR-mediated responses to brassinosteroids, flagellin and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), respectively. Here, crystal structures of the LRR domains of OsSERK2 and a D128N OsSERK2 mutant, expressed as hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) fusions, are reported. These structures suggest that the aspartate mutation does not generate any significant conformational change in the protein, but instead leads to an altered interaction with partner receptors.

  12. Niche modelling of marsh plants based on occurrence and abundance data.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanjing; Gao, Chuanyu; Pan, Yanwen; Xue, Zhenshan; Liu, Ying; Tang, Zhanhui; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Rydin, Håkan

    2018-03-01

    The information of species' response (optimum or critical limits along environmental gradients) is a key to understanding ecological questions and to design management plans. A large number of plots (762) from 70 transects of 13 wetland sites in Northeast China were sampled along flooding gradient from marsh to wet meadow. Species response (abundance and occurrence) to flooding were modelled with Generalized Additive Models for 21 dominant plant species. We found that 20 of 21 species showed a significant response to flooding for the occurrence and abundance models, and four types of response were found: monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, skewed unimodal and symmetric unimodal. The species with monotonically increasing response have the deepest flooding optimum and widest niche width, followed by those with unimodal curve, and the monotonically decreasing ones have the smallest values. The optima and niche width (whether based on occurrence or abundance models) both significantly correlated with the frequency, but not with mean abundance. Abundance models outperformed occurrence models based on goodness of fit. The abundance models predicted a rather sharp shift from dominance of helophytes (Carex pseudo-curaica and C. lasiocarpa) to wet meadow species (Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex appendiculata) if water levels drop from about 10cm above soil surface to below the surface. The defined optima and niche width based on the abundance models can be applied to better instruct restoration management. Given the time required to collect abundance data, an efficient strategy could be to monitor occurrence in many plots and abundance in a subset of these. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. COPYCAT; IBM OS system catalog utility routine. [IBM360,370; Assembly language

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    COPYCAT is an OS utility program designed to produce an efficient system-wide catalog which may reside on many volumes. Substantial improvement in performance may also be obtained on a system with only a single catalog. First, catalog entries from many different catalogs may be redistributed to equalize the load on each catalog. Second, each individual catalog is restructured in a way designed to minimize the I/O time required for searching and updating. Redistribution and restructuring parameters are under user control. Model DSCB's for generation data groups and alias entries are also processed. Catalogs on all direct access devices, including datamore » cells, are supported. Backup copies may also be made.IBM360,370; Assembly language; OS/MVT, OS/MFT, OS/VS1 and OS/VS2 Release 1; A large region size is recommended since COPYCAT will use all of the core available to it for buffers..« less

  14. A simple physical model for deep moonquake occurrence times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, R.C.; Bills, B.G.; Johnson, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The physical process that results in moonquakes is not yet fully understood. The periodic occurrence times of events from individual clusters are clearly related to tidal stress, but also exhibit departures from the temporal regularity this relationship would seem to imply. Even simplified models that capture some of the relevant physics require a large number of variables. However, a single, easily accessible variable - the time interval I(n) between events - can be used to reveal behavior not readily observed using typical periodicity analyses (e.g., Fourier analyses). The delay-coordinate (DC) map, a particularly revealing way to display data from a time series, is a map of successive intervals: I(n+. 1) plotted vs. I(n). We use a DC approach to characterize the dynamics of moonquake occurrence. Moonquake-like DC maps can be reproduced by combining sequences of synthetic events that occur with variable probability at tidal periods. Though this model gives a good description of what happens, it has little physical content, thus providing only little insight into why moonquakes occur. We investigate a more mechanistic model. In this study, we present a series of simple models of deep moonquake occurrence, with consideration of both tidal stress and stress drop during events. We first examine the behavior of inter-event times in a delay-coordinate context, and then examine the output, in that context, of a sequence of simple models of tidal forcing and stress relief. We find, as might be expected, that the stress relieved by moonquakes influences their occurrence times. Our models may also provide an explanation for the opposite-polarity events observed at some clusters. ?? 2010.

  15. Occurrence and Characterization Microstructure of Iron Impurities in Halloysite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yan, Chunjie; Wang, Hongquan; Xiao, Guoqi; Tu, Dong

    2015-09-01

    The quality of the clays and over all halloysite are mostly associated with minor amounts of ferruginous impurities content, since this element gives an undesirable reddish color to the halloysite mineral. Hence, finding out the modes of occurrence of iron in halloysite is of prime importance in the value addition and optimum utilization of halloysite. In order to analyze the occurrence of iron impurities in halloysite, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were combined with wet chemical analysis methods to study the low-grade halloysite. The results indicated that the mineral phases of iron impurities in the concentrates are mainly composed of amounts of magnetite, goethite and hematite. Two types of occurrences for iron impurities have been found. One is single crystalline mineral consist in the halloysite, which contains three different phases of Goethite FeO(OH) (44.75%), Magnetite Fe3O4 (27.43%) and Hematite Fe2O3 (31.96%). The other is amorphous Fe-Al-Si glial materials. This study is of significance in the theoretical research on the halloysite mineralogy and in the developmental practice of halloysite in coal measures.

  16. Statistical physics approach to earthquake occurrence and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Godano, Cataldo; Grasso, Jean Robert; Lippiello, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    There is striking evidence that the dynamics of the Earth crust is controlled by a wide variety of mutually dependent mechanisms acting at different spatial and temporal scales. The interplay of these mechanisms produces instabilities in the stress field, leading to abrupt energy releases, i.e., earthquakes. As a consequence, the evolution towards instability before a single event is very difficult to monitor. On the other hand, collective behavior in stress transfer and relaxation within the Earth crust leads to emergent properties described by stable phenomenological laws for a population of many earthquakes in size, time and space domains. This observation has stimulated a statistical mechanics approach to earthquake occurrence, applying ideas and methods as scaling laws, universality, fractal dimension, renormalization group, to characterize the physics of earthquakes. In this review we first present a description of the phenomenological laws of earthquake occurrence which represent the frame of reference for a variety of statistical mechanical models, ranging from the spring-block to more complex fault models. Next, we discuss the problem of seismic forecasting in the general framework of stochastic processes, where seismic occurrence can be described as a branching process implementing space-time-energy correlations between earthquakes. In this context we show how correlations originate from dynamical scaling relations between time and energy, able to account for universality and provide a unifying description for the phenomenological power laws. Then we discuss how branching models can be implemented to forecast the temporal evolution of the earthquake occurrence probability and allow to discriminate among different physical mechanisms responsible for earthquake triggering. In particular, the forecasting problem will be presented in a rigorous mathematical framework, discussing the relevance of the processes acting at different temporal scales for different

  17. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Predicting the Occurrence of Oxygenation Impairment in Patients with Type-B Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Kazunori; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Shinada, Takuro; Shirakabe, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Complicated respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in patients with type-B acute aortic dissection (AAD) has been previously reported, and inflammatory reactions have been found to be associated with the occurrence of oxygenation impairment (OI). However, the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI in patients with type-B AAD has not yet been evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI in type-B AAD. In this study, 79 type-B AAD patients were enrolled to investigate the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI. OI was defined as Po 2/Fio 2 ≤ 200. Patient characteristics, type of AAD, vital signs on admission, and the presence of inflammatory reactions obtained on admission day were evaluated. OI occurred in 39 patients (49%) on hospital day 2.5 ± 1.4 on average. Younger age, male gender, nonslender frame (body mass index ≥ 22 kg/m2), a relatively high maximum body temperature on the admission day (≥ 36.5°C), DeBakey IIIb type, patent false lumen, and lower Po 2/Fio 2 on admission were found to be associated with the occurrence of OI. Multivariate analysis revealed that nonslender frame, relatively high body temperature on the admission day, and lower Po 2/Fio 2 on admission were reliable for predicting the occurrence of oxygen impairment. The occurrence of OI in type-B AAD can be predicted in the clinical setting. PMID:24627618

  19. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center, which integrates a set of models for determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems. This research provides for the integration of the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, both new and existing simulation models, and existing operations and support (O&S) costing equations in arriving at a complete analysis methodology. Details concerning the R&M model and the O&S costing model may be found in previous reports accomplished under this grant (NASA Research Grant NAG1-1327). In the process of developing this comprehensive analysis approach, significant enhancements were made to the R&M model, updates to the O&S costing model were accomplished, and a new simulation model developed. This is the 1st part of a 3 part technical report.

  20. Global potential of dust devil occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Marsham, John; Knippertz, Peter; Gilkeson, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Mineral dust is a key constituent in the climate system. Airborne mineral dust forms the largest component of the global aerosol budget by mass and subsequently affects climate, weather and biogeochemical processes. There remains large uncertainty in the quantitative estimates of the dust cycle. Dry boundary-layer convection serves as an effective mechanism for dust uplift, typically through a combination of rotating dust devils and non-rotating larger and longer-lived convective plumes. These microscale dry-convective processes occur over length scales of several hundred metres or less. They are difficult to observe and model, and therefore their contribution to the global dust budget is highly uncertain. Using an analytical approach to extrapolate limited observations, Koch and Renno (2006) suggest that dust devils and plumes could contribute as much as 35%. Here, we use a new method for quantifying the potential of dust devil occurrence to provide an alternative perspective on this estimate. Observations have shown that dust devil and convective plume occurrence is favoured in hot arid regions under relatively weak background winds, large ground-to-air temperature gradients and deep dry convection. By applying such known constraints to operational analyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we provide, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first hourly estimates of dust devil occurrence including an analysis of sensitivity to chosen threshold uplift. The results show the expected diurnal variation and allow an examination of the seasonal cycle and day-to-day variations in the conditions required for dust devil formation. They confirm that desert regions are expected to have by far the highest frequency of dry convective vortices, with winds capable of dust uplift. This approach is used to test the findings of Koch and Renno (2006). Koch J., Renno N. (2006). The role of convective plumes and vortices on the global aerosol

  1. Publications - GMC 360 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    DGGS GMC 360 Publication Details Title: Photomicrographs of Petrographic Thin Sections for the Inigok Reference Shell International EP, Inc., 2009, Photomicrographs of Petrographic Thin Sections for the Inigok page for information on ordering data on DVD. Keywords Oil and Gas; Petrographic; Thin Section Top of

  2. Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  3. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  4. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  5. A hierarchical community occurrence model for North Carolina stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler; Tracy, B.H.

    2016-01-01

    The southeastern USA is home to one of the richest—and most imperiled and threatened—freshwater fish assemblages in North America. For many of these rare and threatened species, conservation efforts are often limited by a lack of data. Drawing on a unique and extensive data set spanning over 20 years, we modeled occurrence probabilities of 126 stream fish species sampled throughout North Carolina, many of which occur more broadly in the southeastern USA. Specifically, we developed species-specific occurrence probabilities from hierarchical Bayesian multispecies models that were based on common land use and land cover covariates. We also used index of biotic integrity tolerance classifications as a second level in the model hierarchy; we identify this level as informative for our work, but it is flexible for future model applications. Based on the partial-pooling property of the models, we were able to generate occurrence probabilities for many imperiled and data-poor species in addition to highlighting a considerable amount of occurrence heterogeneity that supports species-specific investigations whenever possible. Our results provide critical species-level information on many threatened and imperiled species as well as information that may assist with re-evaluation of existing management strategies, such as the use of surrogate species. Finally, we highlight the use of a relatively simple hierarchical model that can easily be generalized for similar situations in which conventional models fail to provide reliable estimates for data-poor groups.

  6. Geochemical composition, petrography and 40Ar/39Ar age of the Heldburg phonolite: implications on magma mixing and mingling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Viereck, Lothar; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hentschel, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Differentiated magmatic rocks such as trachyte and phonolite are volumetrically subordinate to mafic volcanic rocks within the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province (exceptions are the East Eifel and the Rhön volcanic fields). Within the volcanic field of the "Heldburg dike swarm" (Heldburger Gangschar), the phonolite of the Burgberg near Heldburg represents the only known occurrence of differentiated magmatic rocks. However, the Heldburg phonolite is famous foremost for containing mantle xenoliths (spinel lherzolite). Former studies proposing a cogenetic relationship between the phonolite and the peridotites concluded that the phonolite magma must have evolved under upper mantle conditions. Herewith, we present petrographic and geochemical evidence for magma mixing and mingling in the Heldburg phonolite melt due to the intrusion of mantle-derived basanitic magma, which is exposed today as dikes at the foot of the Heldburg Burgberg. During this process, the mantle xenoliths were introduced into the phonolite melt as they all contain rims of basanitic magma. Extensive mingling features (e.g., schlieren layers, load casts, flame structures, mafic enclaves) are developed, indicating that the basanite and the zoned phonolitic body were melts at the time of mixing. These petrographic and geochemical indications of two coeval melts of different composition are substantiated by 40Ar/39Ar dating, revealing identical ages of ca. 15 Ma.

  7. Gallery of melt textures developed in Westerly Granite during high-pressure triaxial friction experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2016-09-23

    IntroductionMelting occurred during stick-slip faulting of granite blocks sheared at room-dry, room-temperature conditions in a triaxial apparatus at 200–400 megapascals (MPa) confining pressure. Petrographic examinations of melt textures focused largely on the 400-MPa run products. This report presents an overview of the petrographic data collected on those samples, followed by brief descriptions of annotated versions of all the images.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the starting materials and the three examined 400-MPa samples are presented in this report. Secondary-electron (SE) and backscattered-electron (BSE) imaging techniques were used on different samples. The SE images look down on the sawcut surfaces, yielding topographic and three-dimensional textural information. The BSE imaging was done on samples cut to provide cross-sectional views of the glass-filled shear band (or zone) that developed along the sawcut. Brightness in the BSE images increases with increasing mean atomic number of the material. Additional chemical information about the quenched melt and adjoining minerals was obtained using the energy dispersive system of the SEM during BSE examinations. However, the very narrow shear-band thicknesses and common occurrence of very fine lamellar compositional layering limited the usefulness of this technique for estimating melt chemistry.

  8. [Congenital talipes equinovarus--family occurrence].

    PubMed

    Kołecka, Ewa; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard; Cukras, Zbigniew; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Although congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is one of the most frequently occurring congenital defects of locomotor organs, its ethiopathogenesis is still not fully known. Amongst the others, the inheritance patterns of that defect are not fully known, and that restricts genetic therapeutics and development of new treatment technologies. The aim of this study was analysis of family lineages of 205 children with CTEV (298 feet) treated at our centre in the years 1998-2008. The family occurrence of CTEV was found in 16 cases (8% of analysed group). 6 lineages, in which CTEV occurred in successive generations, were analysed in detail. Particularly interesting is the lineage of the family 1, in which the defect occurred in three successive generations. In case of that family, an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern is possible. Previously that pattern of CTEV inheritance was described only for isolated populations of Polynesians. In own material the family occurrence of CTEV was found to be less frequent than in bibliographic references. The defect occurred twice as often in boys, while the severe form was more frequently observed in girls, and that is consisted with data in the available bibliography. The analysis of presented lineages of families with CTEV did not allow unambiguous defining of the inheritance pattern for that defect. To confirm the autosomal dominant pattern of CTEV inheritance in the family in which the defect occurred in three successive generations, genetic tests would be necessary.

  9. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Occurrence

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses available information on nitrification occurrence in drinking water chloraminated distribution systems. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to causes and controls for nitrification in chloraminated drinking water systems. Both chapters are intended to serve ...

  10. Re-Os isotopic systematics of primitive lavas from the Lassen region of the Cascade arc, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, L.E.; Brandon, A.D.; Clynne, M.A.; Walker, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium isotopic systematics of primitive calc-alkaline lavas from the Lassen region appear to be controlled by mantle wedge processes. Lavas with a large proportion of slab component have relatively low Re and Os abundances, and have radiogenic Os and mid ocean ridge basalt-like Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. Lavas with a small proportion of slab component have higher Re and Os elemental abundances and display mantle-like Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. Assimilation with fractional crystallization can only generate the Re-Os systematics of the Lassen lavas from a common parent if the distribution coefficient for Re in sulfide is ~40-1100 times higher than most published estimates and if most incompatible element abundances decrease during differentiation. High Re/Os ratios in mid ocean ridge basalts makes subducted oceanic crust a potential source of radiogenic Os in volcanic arcs. The slab beneath the southernmost Cascades is estimated to have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 1.4. Mixing between a slab component and mantle wedge peridotite can generate the Os isotopic systematics of the Lassen lavas provided the slab component has a Sr/Os ratio of ~7.5X105 and Os abundances that are 100-600 times higher than mid ocean ridge basalts. For this model to be correct, Os must be readily mobilized and concentrated in the slab component, perhaps as a result of high water and HCl fugacities in this subduction environment. Another possible mechanism to account for the correlation between the magnitude of the subduction geochemical signature and Os isotopic composition involves increasing the stability of an Os-bearing phase in mantle wedge peridotites as a result of fluxing with the slab component. Melting of such a source could yield low Os magmas that are more susceptible to crustal contamination, and hence have more radiogenic Os isotopic compositions, than magmas derived from sources with a smaller contribution from the slab. Thus, the addition of the

  11. OsWRKY53, a versatile switch in regulating herbivore-induced defense responses in rice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT WRKY proteins, which belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores by regulating defense-related signaling pathways. Recently, a rice WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY53 has been reported to function as a negative feedback modulator of OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and thereby to control the size of the investment a rice plant makes to defend against a chewing herbivore, the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. We investigated the performance of a piecing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, on transgenic plants that silence or overexpress OsWRKY53, and found that OsWRKY53 activates rice defenses against BPH by activating an H2O2 burst and suppressing ethylene biosynthesis. These findings suggest that OsWRKY53 functions not only as a regulator of plants' investment in specific defenses, but also as a switch to initiate new defenses against other stresses, highlighting the versatility and importance of OsWRKY53 in herbivore-induced plant defenses. PMID:27031005

  12. Numerical and laboratory simulation of fault motion and earthquake occurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Simple linear rheologies were used with elastic forces driving the main events and viscoelastic forces being important for aftershock and creep occurrence. Friction and its dependence on velocity, stress, and displacement also plays a key role in determining how, when, and where fault motion occurs. The discussion of the qualitative behavior of the simulators focuses on the manner in which energy was stored in the system and released by the unstable and stable sliding processes. The numerical results emphasize the statistics of earthquake occurrence and the correlations among source parameters.

  13. The co-occurrence of aggression and self-harm: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Orla; House, Allan; Waterman, Mitch

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological research supports an association between aggression and self-harm through data on the frequency with which individuals exhibit both behaviours. Unbiased evidence, however, is needed to draw conclusions about the nature and extent of co-occurrence. Systematic review of published studies was undertaken to evaluate whether or not the frequency with which aggression and self-harm co-occur is beyond that which would be expected by chance. Outcome measures included: (a) between-group differences on a standardised aggression/self-harm measure - the groups defined by scores on a measure of the other behaviour; (b) correlations between the two behaviours; (c) co-occurrence rates in populations defined by the presence of either behaviour; (d) co-occurrence rates in populations not defined by either behaviour. Odds ratios were calculated for studies presenting complete frequency data. 123 studies, some yielding more than one type of result, met the inclusion criteria. Most case-control studies found elevated levels of aggression in self-harming populations (or self-harm in aggressive populations) compared to controls. The majority of correlational, co-occurrence rate, and odds ratio data found aggression and self-harm to be associated. Results were subject to descriptive synthesis only and thus, unable to report an overall effect size. Evidence suggests that aggression and self-harm frequently co-occur. Such evidence necessitates more theoretical discussion and associated research on the source and nature of co-occurrence. Nonetheless, individuals who present with one behaviour may be considered an 'at-risk' group in terms of exhibiting the other. Such evidence holds implications for practice (e.g. risk assessment). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mass synchronization: Occurrence and its control with possible applications to brain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V. K.; Sheeba, Jane H.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of strong or mass synchronization of a large number of neuronal populations in the brain characterizes its pathological states. In order to establish an understanding of the mechanism underlying such pathological synchronization, we present a model of coupled populations of phase oscillators representing the interacting neuronal populations. Through numerical analysis, we discuss the occurrence of mass synchronization in the model, where a source population which gets strongly synchronized drives the target populations onto mass synchronization. We hypothesize and identify a possible cause for the occurrence of such a synchronization, which is so far unknown: Pathological synchronization is caused not just because of the increase in the strength of coupling between the populations but also because of the strength of the strong synchronization of the drive population. We propose a demand controlled method to control this pathological synchronization by providing a delayed feedback where the strength and frequency of the synchronization determine the strength and the time delay of the feedback. We provide an analytical explanation for the occurrence of pathological synchronization and its control in the thermodynamic limit.

  15. Syntheses, Raman spectra, and X-ray crystal structures of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [M][OsO(3)F(3)] (M = XeF(5)(+), Xe(2)F(11)(+)).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2010-04-05

    Stoichiometric amounts of XeF(6) and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity) react at 25-50 degrees C to form salts of the known XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations, namely, [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)], [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)], and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)]. Although XeF(6) is oxophilic toward a number of transition metal and main-group oxides and oxide fluorides, fluoride/oxide metathesis was not observed. The series provides the first examples of noble-gas cations that are stabilized by metal oxide fluoride anions and the first example of a mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) salt. Both [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are orange solids at room temperature. The [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] salt is an orange liquid at room temperature that solidifies at 5-0 degrees C. When the salts are heated at 50 degrees C under 1 atm of N(2) for more than 2 h, significant XeF(6) loss occurs. The X-ray crystal structures (-173 degrees C) show that the salts exist as discrete ion pairs and that the osmium coordination spheres in OsO(3)F(3)(-) and mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) are pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3)-units having facial arrangements of oxygen and fluorine atoms. The mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)(-) anion is comprised of two symmetry-related OsO(3)F(2)-groups that are fluorine-bridged to one another. Ion pairing results from secondary bonding interactions between the fluorine/oxygen atoms of the anions and the xenon atom of the cation, with the Xe...F/O contacts occurring opposite the axial fluorine and from beneath the equatorial XeF(4)-planes of the XeF(5)(+) and Xe(2)F(11)(+) cations so as to avoid the free valence electron lone pairs of the xenon atoms. The xenon atoms of [XeF(5)][mu-F(OsO(3)F(2))(2)] and [Xe(2)F(11)][OsO(3)F(3)] are nine-coordinate and the xenon atom of [XeF(5)][OsO(3)F(3)] is eight-coordinate. Quantum-chemical calculations at SVWN and B3LYP levels of theory were used to obtain the gas-phase geometries, vibrational frequencies, and NBO bond orders, valencies, and NPA charges of

  16. OsSERK1 regulates rice development but not immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shimin; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Mawsheng; Zhang, Shilu; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ruan, Deling; Yuan, Can; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xuewei; Ronald, Pamela C

    2014-12-01

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of plant development and immunity. The rice genome contains two SERK genes, OsSerk1 and OsSerk2. We previously demonstrated that OsSerk2 is required for rice Xa21-mediated resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and for normal development. Here we report the molecular characterization of OsSerk1. Overexpression of OsSerk1 results in a semi-dwarf phenotype whereas silencing of OsSerk1 results in a reduced angle of the lamina joint. OsSerk1 is not required for rice resistance to Xoo or Magnaporthe oryzae. Overexpression of OsSerk1 in OsSerk2-silenced lines complements phenotypes associated with brassinosteroid (BR) signaling defects, but not the disease resistance phenotype mediated by Xa21. In yeast, OsSERK1 interacts with itself forming homodimers, and also interacts with the kinase domains of OsSERK2 and BRI1, respectively. OsSERK1 is a functional protein kinase capable of auto-phosphorylation in vitro. We conclude that, whereas OsSERK2 regulates both rice development and immunity, OsSERK1 functions in rice development but not immunity to Xoo and M. oryzae. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Modeling spatially-varying landscape change points in species occurrence thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Midway, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting species distributions at scales of regions to continents is often necessary, as large-scale phenomena influence the distributions of spatially structured populations. Land use and land cover are important large-scale drivers of species distributions, and landscapes are known to create species occurrence thresholds, where small changes in a landscape characteristic results in abrupt changes in occurrence. The value of the landscape characteristic at which this change occurs is referred to as a change point. We present a hierarchical Bayesian threshold model (HBTM) that allows for estimating spatially varying parameters, including change points. Our model also allows for modeling estimated parameters in an effort to understand large-scale drivers of variability in land use and land cover on species occurrence thresholds. We use range-wide detection/nondetection data for the eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a stream-dwelling salmonid, to illustrate our HBTM for estimating and modeling spatially varying threshold parameters in species occurrence. We parameterized the model for investigating thresholds in landscape predictor variables that are measured as proportions, and which are therefore restricted to values between 0 and 1. Our HBTM estimated spatially varying thresholds in brook trout occurrence for both the proportion agricultural and urban land uses. There was relatively little spatial variation in change point estimates, although there was spatial variability in the overall shape of the threshold response and associated uncertainty. In addition, regional mean stream water temperature was correlated to the change point parameters for the proportion of urban land use, with the change point value increasing with increasing mean stream water temperature. We present a framework for quantify macrosystem variability in spatially varying threshold model parameters in relation to important large-scale drivers such as land use and land cover

  18. Metrological properties of {CO 2}/{OsO 4} optical frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acef, O.

    1997-02-01

    Recent progress on the metrological performance of the BNM-LPTF {CO 2}/{OsO 4} frequency standards in the {28}/{29}THz range, using OsO 4 molecular transitions as a frequency reference is reported. Significant improvements in terms of both short-term stability ( {6.6×10 -14}/{τup to τ=300s }) and long-term stability (4 × 10 -15 up to τ = 1 000 s, Δν ˜ 0.1 Hz) are obtained. Long term reproducibility (over more than 18 months) of about 3 × 10 -13 has been achieved. This high level enables the transfer, in terms of absolute frequency at the 3 × 10 -13 level of uncertainty, from primary frequency standards in the microwave domain to near infrared and visible domains, using frequency chains with {CO 2}/{OsO 4} as a transfer frequency standard. Preliminary estimates of the main effects which may shift the OsO 4 center line are reported.

  19. Cerebellar output controls generalized spike‐and‐wave discharge occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kros, Lieke; Eelkman Rooda, Oscar H. J.; Spanke, Jochen K.; Alva, Parimala; van Dongen, Marijn N.; Karapatis, Athanasios; Tolner, Else A.; Strydis, Christos; Davey, Neil; Winkelman, Beerend H. J.; Negrello, Mario; Serdijn, Wouter A.; Steuber, Volker; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disrupting thalamocortical activity patterns has proven to be a promising approach to stop generalized spike‐and‐wave discharges (GSWDs) characteristic of absence seizures. Here, we investigated to what extent modulation of neuronal firing in cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are anatomically in an advantageous position to disrupt cortical oscillations through their innervation of a wide variety of thalamic nuclei, is effective in controlling absence seizures. Methods Two unrelated mouse models of generalized absence seizures were used: the natural mutant tottering, which is characterized by a missense mutation in Cacna1a, and inbred C3H/HeOuJ. While simultaneously recording single CN neuron activity and electrocorticogram in awake animals, we investigated to what extent pharmacologically increased or decreased CN neuron activity could modulate GSWD occurrence as well as short‐lasting, on‐demand CN stimulation could disrupt epileptic seizures. Results We found that a subset of CN neurons show phase‐locked oscillatory firing during GSWDs and that manipulating this activity modulates GSWD occurrence. Inhibiting CN neuron action potential firing by local application of the γ‐aminobutyric acid type A (GABA‐A) agonist muscimol increased GSWD occurrence up to 37‐fold, whereas increasing the frequency and regularity of CN neuron firing with the use of GABA‐A antagonist gabazine decimated its occurrence. A single short‐lasting (30–300 milliseconds) optogenetic stimulation of CN neuron activity abruptly stopped GSWDs, even when applied unilaterally. Using a closed‐loop system, GSWDs were detected and stopped within 500 milliseconds. Interpretation CN neurons are potent modulators of pathological oscillations in thalamocortical network activity during absence seizures, and their potential therapeutic benefit for controlling other types of generalized epilepsies should be evaluated. Ann Neurol 2015;77:1027–1049 PMID:25762286

  20. Longitudinal Variations in the Variability of Spread F Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, K. M.; Bridgwood, C.; Carrano, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The complex dynamics of the equatorial ionosphere have attracted the interest and attention of researchers for many decades. The relatively local processes that give rise to large meridional gradients have been well documented and the associated terminology has entered the common lexicon of ionospheric research (e.g., fountain effect, equatorial anomaly, bubbles, Spread F). Zonal variations have also been noted, principally at the level of determining longitudinal differences in seasonal activity patterns. Due to a historical lack of high resolution ground-based observations at low latitudes, the primary source of data for such analyses has been space-based observations from satellites such as ROCSAT, DMSP, C/NOFS that measure in situ electron density variations. An important longitudinal variation in electron density structure associated with non-migrating diurnal tides was discovered by Immel et al. in 2006 using data from the FUV sensor aboard the NASA IMAGE satellite. These satellite observations have been very helpful in identifying the structural characteristics of the equatorial ionosphere and the occurrence of Spread F, but they provide little insight into variations in scintillation features and potential differences in bubble development characteristics. Moreover space-based studies tend towards the statistics of occurrence frequency over periods of weeks to months. A recent analysis of daily spread F occurrence as determined by low latitude VHF scintillation activity shows that statistical results that are consistent with previous space-based observations, but the level of variability in the occurrence data show marked variations with longitude. For example, the American sector shows very low in-season variability while the African and Asian sectors exhibit true day-to-day variability regardless of seasonal variations. The results have significant implications for space weather as they suggest that long-term forecasts of equatorial scintillation may be

  1. Chapter 30: Marbled Murrelet Populations of Washington — Marine Habitat Preferences and Variability of Occurrence

    Treesearch

    Steven M. Speich; Terrence R. Wahl

    1995-01-01

    Marbled Murrelets occur in Puget Sound marine habitats in relatively low numbers. The rates of occurrence of murrelets on censuses within marine habitats is generally low. Further analysis is required to determine if low occurrence rates are a general function of the movement of birds, or their consistent occurrence on particular censuses and not on others. Qualitative...

  2. Assessment of aggregate quality and petrographic properties' influence on rock quality: A case study from Nordland county, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Erichsen, Eyolf; Heldal, Tom; Aslaksen Aasly, Kari

    2017-04-01

    variable degrees of deformation in the different tectonostratigraphic units exposed in Nordland affects the rock mechanical properties and is a prominent feature of our mapping. Unsurprisingly rock type, mineralogy, grain size and rock texture are all important factors that have a major control on the mechanical behaviour of the rocks. However, this assessment shows that there is an intricate interaction between these parameters and the resulting mechanical properties at present making it difficult to assess mechanical quality accurately only based on petrographic examination.

  3. Mineralogic, Petrographic, Mechanical And Physical Properties Of Incesu Ignimbrite (Central Anatolia - Turkey) Used Building Stone In Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdelen, S.; Korolay, T.; Kadioglu, Y. K.; Kumral, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP) is located in the Central Turkey and one of the four major volcanic provinces in Turkey. It extends 300 km along a NE-SW direction, over a large area (32500 km2). The CAVP includes various volcanic, pyroclastic rocks, which are related to collision volcanism between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, occurred in Neogene, and Quaternary times There are numerous natural stone pits in the CAVP. They have been commonly used in historical building which had been built in the Anatolian Seljuk and Ottoman empires times. The subject of this study is to figure out petrographic, geochemical, some mechanical and physical properties which include Schmidt hardness, density, porosity, water absorption by weight, point load index and failure load.Incesu ignimbrite is subdivided into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color, welding degree, crystal contents and lithic components. All of the natural stone pits is the upper part which is characterized by grey pinkish in color, poorly welded, high porosity ratios, high amount of lithic fragments and almost 2 m thickness. In terms of the mineralogical composition, it is composed of plagioclase (oligoclase, andesine) + pyroxene (augite, clinoenstatite) + opaque minerals and low amount of amphibole, biotite and quartz. Vitrofiric texture is dominant in upper level. Al2O3 content of the upper level from 12.75-13.96wt%, SiO2 66.70-68.10wt%, MgO 0.73-1.40wt%, Fe2O3 3.77-4.04wt%, TiO2 0.46-0.51wt%, CaO 1.97-2.91wt%, Na2O 3.41-4.29wt%, K2O 3.21-4.20wt%, P2O5 0.13-0.18wt% and LOI 3.65-4.52wt%. Geochemical analyze results reveal that Incesu ignimbrite has rhyolite, rhyodacite-dacite composition, medium to high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous nature.Building stones can be classified according to their mineralogy, mechanical and physical properties and processing types. Mechanical and physical properties are more significant depending on the stones practice aim. The mean schmidt

  4. OsGRF4 controls grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingyong; Zhang, Wuhan; Wang, Yihua; He, Qiang; Shu, Fu; Liu, Hai; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Longping; Deng, Huafeng

    2016-10-01

    Traits such as grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering, play important roles in grain yield and harvest. In this study, the cloning and functional analysis of PANICLE TRAITS 2 (PT2), a novel gene from the Indica rice Chuandali (CDL), is reported. PT2 is synonymous with Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), which encodes a growth-regulating factor that positively regulates grain shape and panicle length and negatively regulates seed shattering. Higher expression of OsGRF4 is correlated with larger grain, longer panicle and lower seed shattering. A unique OsGRF4 mutation, which occurs at the OsmiRNA396 target site of OsGRF4, seems to be associated with high levels of OsGRF4 expression, and results in phenotypic difference. Further research showed that OsGRF4 regulated two cytokinin dehydrogenase precursor genes (CKX5 and CKX1) resulting in increased cytokinin levels, which might affect the panicle traits. High storage capacity and moderate seed shattering of OsGRF4 may be useful in high-yield breeding and mechanized harvesting of rice. Our findings provide additional insight into the molecular basis of panicle growth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Novel Occurrence of Uncommon Polyamines in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Glenn D.; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Bagga, Suman; Phillips, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Diamines and polyamines are ubiquitous components of living cells, and apparently are involved in numerous cellular and physiological processes. Certain “uncommon” polyamines have limited distribution in nature and have been associated primarily with organisms adapted to extreme environments, although the precise function of these polyamines in such organisms is unknown. This article summarizes current knowledge regarding the occurrence in higher plants of the uncommon polyamines related to and including norspermidine and norspermine. A putative biosynthetic pathway to account for the occurrences of these uncommon polyamines in higher plants is presented, with a summary of the supporting evidence indicating the existence of the requisite enzymatic activities in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. PMID:16667862

  6. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  7. Towards a new paleotemperature proxy from reef coral occurrences.

    PubMed

    Lauchstedt, Andreas; Pandolfi, John M; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2017-09-05

    Global mean temperature is thought to have exceeded that of today during the last interglacial episode (LIG, ~ 125,000 yrs b.p.) but robust paleoclimate data are still rare in low latitudes. Occurrence data of tropical reef corals may provide new proxies of low latitude sea-surface temperatures. Using modern reef coral distributions we developed a geographically explicit model of sea surface temperatures. Applying this model to coral occurrence data of the LIG provides a latitudinal U-shaped pattern of temperature anomalies with cooler than modern temperatures around the equator and warmer subtropical climes. Our results agree with previously published estimates of LIG temperatures and suggest a poleward broadening of the habitable zone for reef corals during the LIG.

  8. Constraints on The Coupled Thermal Evolution of the Earth's Core and Mantle, The Age of The Inner Core, And The Origin of the 186Os/188Os Core(?) Signal in Plume-Derived Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Thermal and chemical interaction between the core and mantle has played a critical role in the thermal and chemical evolution of the Earth's interior. Outer core convection is driven by core cooling and inner core crystallization. Core/mantle heat transfer also buffers mantle potential temperature, resulting in slower rates of mantle cooling (~50-100 K/Ga) than would be predicted from the discrepancy between current rates of surface heat loss (~44 TW) and internal radioactive heat production (~20 TW). Core/mantle heat transfer may also generate thermal mantle plumes responsible for ocean island volcanic chains such as the Hawaiian Islands. Several studies suggest that mantle plumes, in addition to transporting heat from the core/mantle boundary, also carry a chemical signature of core/mantle interaction. Elevated 186Os/188Os ratios in lavas from Hawaii, Gorgona, and in the 2.8 Ga Kostomuksha komatiites have been interpreted as reflecting incorporation of an outer core component with high time-integrated Pt/Os and Re/Os ( Brandon et al., 1999, 2003; Puchtel et al., 2005). Preferential partitioning of Os relative to Re and Pt into the inner core during inner core growth may generate elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os ratios in the residual outer core. Because of the long half-life of 190Pt (the parent of 186Os, t1/2 = 489 Ga), an elevated 186Os/188Os outer core signature in plume lavas requires that inner core crystallization began early in Earth history, most likely prior to 3.5 Ga. This in turn requires low time-averaged core/mantle heat flow (<~2.5 TW) or large quantities of heat-producing elements in the core. Core/mantle heat flow may be estimated using boundary-layer theory, by measuring the heat transported in mantle plumes, by estimating the heat transported along the outer core adiabat, or by comparing the rates of heat production, surface heat loss, and secular cooling of the mantle. All of these independent methods suggest time-averaged core/mantle heat flow of ~5

  9. Difference in occurrence of heterotopic ossification according to prosthesis type in the cervical artificial disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yang, Moon Sul; Yang, Joong Won; Kim, Hoon; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Hyun Chul

    2010-07-15

    Retrospective study of the difference of heterotopic ossification (HO) occurrence according to 3 different types of prosthesis. This study was designed to investigate the difference of HO occurrence according to different type of prosthesis. HO is defined as formation of the bone outside the skeletal system. Reported HO occurrence rate in cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) was unexpectedly high and varied. But the influencing factors of HO in cervical ADR have not been elucidated well. The prosthesis-related factors for making difference of HO occurrence were investigated in this study. A total of 170 patients undergoing cervical arthroplasty with the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis (Medtroic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), Mobi-C disc prosthesis (LDR Medical, Troyes, France), and ProDisc-C (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, PA) were included. Cervical lateral radiographs obtained before and after surgery were used to identify HO. Occurrence rate, occurrence-free period, location, and grade of HOs were investigated according to the different prosthesis. Each prosthesis group included patients as follows: Bryan disc, 81 patients; Mobi-C, 61 patients; and ProDisc-C, 28 patients. Overall HO rate was 40.6% (69 of 170 patients). Each HO occurrence rate by prosthesis was as follows: the Bryan disc group, 21.0%; Mobi-C group, 52.5%; and the ProDisc-C group, 71.4%. In the survival analysis, all patients showed 27.1 +/- 3.7 months as the median survival. The Bryan disc group showed statistically longer survival (48.4 +/- 7.4 months) than the other groups. Occurrence of HO is an inevitable postoperative complication after cervical ADR. The occurrence rate of HO was higher than our expectation. Moreover, definite differences in occurrence rate according to the prosthesis type were identified by this study.

  10. Enhanced sensitivity for Os isotope ratios by magnetic sector ICP-MS with a capacitive decoupling Pt guard electrode.

    PubMed

    Townsend, A T

    2000-08-01

    A magnetic sector ICP-MS with enhanced sensitivity was used to measure Os isotope ratios in solutions of low Os concentration (approximately 1 ng g(-1) or less). Ratios with 192Os as the basis were determined, while the geologically useful 187Os/188Os ratio was also measured. Sample introduction was via the traditional nebuliser-spray chamber method. A capacitive decoupling Pt shield torch was developed "in-house" and was found to increase Os signals by approximately 5 x under "moderate" plasma conditions (1050 W) over that found during normal operation (1250 W). Sensitivity using the guard electrode for 192Os was approximately 250-350,000 counts s(-1) per ng g(-1) Os. For a I ng g(-1) Os solution with no guard electrode, precisions of the order of 0.2-0.3% (189Os/192Os and 190Os/192Os) to approximately 1% or greater (186Os/192Os, 187Os/192Os and 187Os/188Os) were found (values as 1 sigma for n = 10). With the guard electrode in use, ratio precisions were found to improve to 0.2 to 0.8%. The total amount of Os used in the acquisition of this data was approximately 2.5 ng per measurement per replicate. At the higher concentration of 10 ng g(-1), precisions of the order of 0.15-0.3% were measured (for all ratios), irrespective of whether the shield torch was used. Ratio accuracy was confirmed by comparison with independently obtained NTIMS data. For both Os concentrations considered, the improvement in precision offered by the guard electrode (if any) was small in comparison to calculated theoretical values based on Poisson counting statistics, suggesting noise contributions from other sources (such as the sample introduction system, plasma flicker etc). At lower Os concentrations (to 100 pg g(-1)) no appreciable loss of ratio accuracy was observed, although as expected based on counting statistics, poorer precisions of the order of 0.45-3% (1 sigma, n = 5) were noted. Re was found to have a detrimental effect on the precision of Os ratios involving 187Os, indicating

  11. The North Sea goes viral: Occurrence and distribution of North Sea bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Garin-Fernandez, Alexa; Pereira-Flores, Emiliano; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Wichels, Antje

    2018-06-01

    Marine viruses are dominated by phages and have an enormous influence on microbial population dynamics, due to lysis and horizontal gene transfer. The aim of this study is to analyze the occurrence and diversity of phages in the North Sea, considering the virus-host interactions and biogeographic factors. The virus community of four sampling stations were described using virus metagenomics (viromes). The results show that the virus community was not evenly distributed throughout the North Sea. The dominant phage members were identified as unclassified phage group, followed by Caudovirales order. Myoviridae was the dominant phage family in the North Sea, which occurrence decreased from the coast to the open sea. In contrast, the occurrence of Podoviridae increased and the occurrence of Siphoviridae was low throughout the North Sea. The occurrence of other groups such as Phycodnaviridae decreased from the coast to the open sea. The coastal virus community was genetically more diverse than the open sea community. The influence of riverine inflow and currents, for instance the English Channel flow affects the genetic virus diversity with the community carrying genes from a variety of metabolic pathways and other functions. The present study offers the first insights in the virus community in the North Sea using viromes and shows the variation in virus diversity and the genetic information moved from coastal to open sea areas. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving the Accuracy of Planet Occurrence Rates from Kepler Using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Danley C.; Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Morehead, Robert C.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new framework to characterize the occurrence rates of planet candidates identified by Kepler based on hierarchical Bayesian modeling, approximate Bayesian computing (ABC), and sequential importance sampling. For this study, we adopt a simple 2D grid in planet radius and orbital period as our model and apply our algorithm to estimate occurrence rates for Q1–Q16 planet candidates orbiting solar-type stars. We arrive at significantly increased planet occurrence rates for small planet candidates (R p < 1.25 R ⊕) at larger orbital periods (P > 80 day) compared to the rates estimated by the more common inverse detection efficiency method (IDEM). Our improved methodology estimates that the occurrence rate density of small planet candidates in the habitable zone of solar-type stars is {1.6}-0.5+1.2 per factor of 2 in planet radius and orbital period. Additionally, we observe a local minimum in the occurrence rate for strong planet candidates marginalized over orbital period between 1.5 and 2 R ⊕ that is consistent with previous studies. For future improvements, the forward modeling approach of ABC is ideally suited to incorporating multiple populations, such as planets, astrophysical false positives, and pipeline false alarms, to provide accurate planet occurrence rates and uncertainties. Furthermore, ABC provides a practical statistical framework for answering complex questions (e.g., frequency of different planetary architectures) and providing sound uncertainties, even in the face of complex selection effects, observational biases, and follow-up strategies. In summary, ABC offers a powerful tool for accurately characterizing a wide variety of astrophysical populations.

  13. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Zhou, Guofa; Yakob, Laith; Afrane, Yaw; Munga, Stephen; Atieli, Harrysone; El-Rayah, El-Amin; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2009-10-21

    Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using chi2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the occurrence of An. gambiae larvae. While An. gambiae and An

  14. Structure of the Kπ = 4+ bands in 186,188Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. A.; Garrett, P. E.; Bettermann, L.; Braun, N.; Burke, D. G.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krü; cken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of 3+ states in Os have been debated over several decades. Based on measured B(E2) values they were interpreted in 186-192Os as Kπ = 4+ two-phonon vibrations, whereas inelastic scattering, and (t,α) work imply a hexadecapole phonon description. To clarify the nature of these Kπ = 4+ bands in 186,188Os, we performed a (3He,d) reaction on 185,187Re targets using 30 MeV 3He beams and a Q3D spectrograph. Absolute cross sections were obtained for excited states up to 3 MeV at 9 angles from 5° to 50°. Results indicate a significant 5/2+[402]π+3/2+[402]π component in agreement with quasiparticle phonon model predictions for a single hexadecapole phonon structure.

  15. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  16. Strong Sporadic E Occurrence Detected by Ground-Based GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjie; Ning, Baiqi; Yue, Xinan; Li, Guozhu; Hu, Lianhuan; Chang, Shoumin; Lan, Jiaping; Zhu, Zhengping; Zhao, Biqiang; Lin, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layer has significant impact on radio wave propagation. The traditional techniques employed for Es layer observation, for example, ionosondes, are not dense enough to resolve the morphology and dynamics of Es layer in spatial distribution. The ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technique is expected to shed light on the understanding of regional strong Es occurrence, owing to the facts that the critical frequency (foEs) of strong Es structure is usually high enough to cause pulse-like disturbances in GNSS total electron content (TEC), and a large number of GNSS receivers have been deployed all over the world. Based on the Chinese ground-based GNSS networks, including the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Beidou Ionospheric Observation Network, a large-scale strong Es event was observed in the middle latitude of China. The strong Es shown as a band-like structure in the southwest-northeast direction extended more than 1,000 km. By making a comparative analysis of Es occurrences identified from the simultaneous observations by ionosondes and GNSS TEC receivers over China middle latitude statistically, we found that GNSS TEC can be well employed to observe strong Es occurrence with a threshold value of foEs, 14 MHz.

  17. [Vulvovaginitis. Occurrence and importance of mixed and unclassifiable pictures].

    PubMed

    Líbalová, Z; Cepický, P; Malina, J; Stanslický, K; Kuzelová, M; Medalová, Z; Sosnová, K

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of mixed and unclassifiable vulvovaginitis (i.e. those, which fulfill the diagnostic criteria of several diagnostic units or no diagnostic unit) in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Prospective study. In 412 women (115 of them asymptomatic) the authors established the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis on the basis of gynecological examination, pH, the amine test and microscopic examination according to Giemsa and Gram. Mycosis was diagnosed in 15.5% women (in 9,6% of asymptomatic ones), lactobacillosis in u 5.6% (in 7.0% of asymptomatic), anaerobic vaginosis in 10.7% (8.7% of asymptomatic), aerobic vaginitis in 7.7% women (4.3% of asymptomatic). U 15.0% mixed infections were diagnosed (in 61% asymptomatic). U 29.4% symptomatic women the diagnostic criteria were not fulfilled for any nosological unit. Vulvovaginal mycosis, lactobacillosis, anaerobic vaginosis, aerobic vaginosis were considered as dysmicrobia conditions. The authors demonstrated a high occurrence of more units ("clear" diagnoses to "mixed" diagnoses being in the ratio of 1.62:1). The authors also demonstrated a high occurrence of mixed infections in asymptomatic women (36.0%). On the contrary, in 29.4% of symptomatic women the diagnosis could not be established, the findings being "normal" or "unclassifiable".

  18. FISH SPECIES OCCURRENCE DENSITIES IN NORTHEASTERN LAKES AND THE EXTENT OF NON-NATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A species' occurrence density is the proportion or number of habitat units (lakes in this case) in a region in which it is present. Reliable estimates of occurrence density should be useful to discussions and decisions about biodiversity, rare species, and non-native invasions. T...

  19. 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry: age dating with permil precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Recently, 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry, a new dating method combining ideas of nuclear astrophysics with geochronology, has successfully been used to calculate two-point-isochron (TPI) ages for Devonian black gas shales using the isotopic signature of an r-process geochronometer as one data point in a TPI diagram [1]. Based upon a nuclear production ratio 187Re/188Os = 5.873, TPI ages were calculated for 12 SDO-1 (Devonian Ohio Shale, Appalachian Basin) aliquants, for which repeated Re-Os measurements are reported in the literature [2]. TPI ages range from 384.5 ± 2.7 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.29413 ± 0.00023) to 387.7 ± 2.1 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.29407 ± 0.00019) with a mean of 386.67 ± 1.79 Ma). The result is consistent with the isochronous age from the 12 aliquants alone (386 ± 16 Ma, 187Os/188Osi = 0.31±0.31), which is bracketed by U-Pb ages for the Belpre Ash (381.1 ± 3.3 Ma) and the Tioga Ash bed (390.0 ± 2.5 Ma) [3] from the Appalachian Basin. Hence, SDO-1 can be assigned to the Givetian stage (varcus-zone) of the Middle Devonian, close to the Eifelian/Givetian boundary (using the time-scale of [3] or [4]). If an age is calculated from an isochron diagram for the 12 aliquants including the nuclear geochronometer, a permil precision can be achieved, an interesting feature with respect to any effort towards calibrating the Geologic Timescale. Additionally, a Th/U evolution (or: Th/U-time) diagram can be plotted using U-Pb zircon age data and Th/U ratios from volcanic rocks and ashes reported in the literature [3] for specific Devonian samples from the Appalachian Basin. Since the Re-Os age obtained for SDO-1 can also be connected to its Th/U ratio, it turns out, that Th/U ratios might be helpful age indicators, as demonstrated for the Devonian using the U-Pb and Re-Os datasets. [1] Roller (2015), GSA Abstr. with Programs 47, #248-14. [2] Du Vivier et al. (2014), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 389, 23 - 33. [3] Tucker et al. (1998), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett

  20. Formulating accident occurrence as a survival process.

    PubMed

    Chang, H L; Jovanis, P P

    1990-10-01

    A conceptual framework for accident occurrence is developed based on the principle of the driver as an information processor. The framework underlies the development of a modeling approach that is consistent with the definition of exposure to risk as a repeated trial. Survival theory is proposed as a statistical technique that is consistent with the conceptual structure and allows the exploration of a wide range of factors that contribute to highway operating risk. This survival model of accident occurrence is developed at a disaggregate level, allowing safety researchers to broaden the scope of studies which may be limited by the use of traditional aggregate approaches. An application of the approach to motor carrier safety is discussed as are potential applications to a variety of transportation industries. Lastly, a typology of highway safety research methodologies is developed to compare the properties of four safety methodologies: laboratory experiments, on-the-road studies, multidisciplinary accident investigations, and correlational studies. The survival theory formulation has a mathematical structure that is compatible with each safety methodology, so it may facilitate the integration of findings across methodologies.

  1. Statistical study of ULF wave occurrence in the dayside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, M.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves are observed almost everywhere in the dayside magnetosphere. The mechanism by which these waves are generated and transformed in the dayside magnetosphere is still not understood. Here we report a statistical study of these waves based on magnetic field data from the International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) spacecraft. Data from the first traversal of the spacecraft through the entire dayside magnetosphere have been examined to determine the spatial distribution of wave occurrence. Successive 20-min segments of data were transformed to a field-aligned coordinate system. The parallel component was detrended and all three components of the field spectrally analyzed. Wave occurrence was defined by the presence of significant peaks in the power spectra. Wave events were categorized by three wave frequency bands: Pc 3 with T approximately 10-45 s; Pc 4 with T approximately 45-150 s; the short-period part of the Pc 5 wave band with T approximately 150-324 s. Properties of the spectral peaks were then entered into a data base. The data base was next sorted to determine the spatial occurrence pattern for the waves. Our results show that Pc 3 waves most frequently occur just outside synchronous orbit and are approximately centered on local noon. Pc 4 waves have a similar distribution with its peak further out. Pc 5 waves have high occurrence rate at the two flanks of the magnetosphere. Peaks in spectra obtained near the magnetopause are less clearly defined than those deeper in the magnetosphere.

  2. Giant Planet Occurrence Rate as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffert, Sabine; Bergmann, Christoph; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Trifonov, Trifon; Künstler, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    For over 12 years we have carried out a Doppler survey at Lick Observatory, identifying 15 planets and 20 candidate planets in a sample of 373 G and K giant stars. We investigate giant planet occurrence rate as a function of stellar mass and metallicity in this sample, which covers the mass range from about 1 to 3.5-5.0 solar masses. We confirm the presence of a strong planet-metallicity correlation in our giant star sample, which is fully consistent with the well-known planet-metallicity correlation for main-sequence stars. Furthermore, we find a very strong dependence of the giant planet occurrence rate on stellar mass, which we fit with a gaussian distribution. Stars with masses of about 1.9 solar masses have the highest probability of hosting a giant planet, whereas the planet occurrence rate drops rapidly for masses larger than 2.5 to 3.0 solar masses. We do not find any planets around stars more massive than 2.7 solar masses, although we have 113 stars with masses between 2.7 and 5.0 solar masses in our sample (planet occurrence rate in that mass range: 0% +1.6% at 68.3% confidence). This result is not due to a bias related to planet detectability as a function of stellar mass. We conclude that larger mass stars do not form giant planets which are observable at orbital distances of a few AU today. Possible reasons include slower growth rate due to the snow-line being located further out, longer migration timescale and faster disk depletion.

  3. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located.

  4. The location and rate of occurrence of near-Earth magnetotail reconnection as observed by Cluster and Geotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genestreti, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, J.; Nagai, T.; Eastwood, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    A statistical characterization of the location and rate of occurrence of magnetic reconnection in the near-Earth magnetotail is performed by analyzing the set of ion diffusion region (DR) observations made by the Cluster and Geotail spacecraft during solar maximum and the declining phase. The occurrence rate is analyzed in terms of its dependence on both XGSM* and YGSM* (where coordinates are in the solar wind aberrated geocentric solar magnetospheric system). Within the limits of the statistics available to this study, we find the purely XGSM* -dependent occurrence rate to be roughly constant over a large portion of the near-Earth magnetotail. In contrast, we find the purely YGSM* -dependent occurrence rate to be biased towards dusk with a local maximum between 0RE ≤YGSM* ≤ 5RE. The YGSM* -dependent occurrence rate is then used to construct a quasi-2D formulation of the DR occurrence rate, which has explicit dependence on XGSM* and implicit dependence on YGSM*. The quasi-2D occurrence rate is then used to examine the predicted ephemeris of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft. We estimate that, during its near-Earth magnetotail survey phase, MMS will likely observe 11±4 DR events. • The occurrence rate of events is calculated as a function of XGSM and YGSM. • The occurrence rate is used to estimate the number of events MMS will observe.

  5. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cassada, David A.; Bartelt–Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; D’Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett

    2018-01-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and “Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes”. PMID:27620078

  6. PAVENET OS: A Compact Hard Real-Time Operating System for Precise Sampling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruwatari, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Makoto; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    The paper shows a compact hard real-time operating system for wireless sensor nodes called PAVENET OS. PAVENET OS provides hybrid multithreading: preemptive multithreading and cooperative multithreading. Both of the multithreading are optimized for two kinds of tasks on wireless sensor networks, and those are real-time tasks and best-effort ones. PAVENET OS can efficiently perform hard real-time tasks that cannot be performed by TinyOS. The paper demonstrates the hybrid multithreading realizes compactness and low overheads, which are comparable to those of TinyOS, through quantitative evaluation. The evaluation results show PAVENET OS performs 100 Hz sensor sampling with 0.01% jitter while performing wireless communication tasks, whereas optimized TinyOS has 0.62% jitter. In addition, PAVENET OS has a small footprint and low overheads (minimum RAM size: 29 bytes, minimum ROM size: 490 bytes, minimum task switch time: 23 cycles).

  7. Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3 Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Bin; Yuan, Dingyang; Liu, Yongqiang; Che, Ronghui; Hu, Yingchun; Ou, Shujun; Liu, Yongxin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Hongru; Li, Hua; Jiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Xiaokai; Qiu, Yahong; Meng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongxin; Bai, Yang; Liang, Yan; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Lianhe; Li, Legong; Sodmergen; Jing, Haichun; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major driving force for crop yield improvement, but application of high levels of N delays flowering, prolonging maturation and thus increasing the risk of yield losses. Therefore, traits that enable utilization of high levels of N without delaying maturation will be highly desirable for crop breeding. Here, we show that OsNRT1.1A (OsNPF6.3), a member of the rice ( Oryza sativa ) nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family, is involved in regulating N utilization and flowering, providing a target to produce high yield and early maturation simultaneously. OsNRT.1A has functionally diverged from previously reported NRT1.1 genes in plants and functions in upregulating the expression of N utilization-related genes not only for nitrate but also for ammonium, as well as flowering-related genes. Relative to the wild type, osnrt1.1a mutants exhibited reduced N utilization and late flowering. By contrast, overexpression of OsNRT1.1A in rice greatly improved N utilization and grain yield, and maturation time was also significantly shortened. These effects were further confirmed in different rice backgrounds and also in Arabidopsis thaliana Our study paves a path for the use of a single gene to dramatically increase yield and shorten maturation time for crops, outcomes that promise to substantially increase world food security. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Site-directed Mutagenesis Shows the Significance of Interactions with Phospholipids and the G-protein OsYchF1 for the Physiological Functions of the Rice GTPase-activating Protein 1 (OsGAP1).

    PubMed

    Yung, Yuk-Lin; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yu, Mei-Hui; Chye, Mee-Len; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-09-25

    The C2 domain is one of the most diverse phospholipid-binding domains mediating cellular signaling. One group of C2-domain proteins are plant-specific and are characterized by their small sizes and simple structures. We have previously reported that a member of this group, OsGAP1, is able to alleviate salt stress and stimulate defense responses, and bind to both phospholipids and an unconventional G-protein, OsYchF1. Here we solved the crystal structure of OsGAP1 to a resolution of 1.63 Å. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully differentiated between the clusters of surface residues that are required for binding to phospholipids versus OsYchF1, which, in turn, is critical for its role in stimulating defense responses. On the other hand, the ability to alleviate salt stress by OsGAP1 is dependent only on its ability to bind OsYchF1 and is independent of its phospholipid-binding activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. A new synthesis route for Os-complex modified redox polymers for potential biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Pöller, Sascha; Beyl, Yvonne; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    A new synthesis route for Os-complex modified redox polymers was developed. Instead of ligand exchange reactions for coordinative binding of suitable precursor Os-complexes at the polymer, Os-complexes already exhibiting the final ligand shell containing a suitable functional group were bound to the polymer via an epoxide opening reaction. By separation of the polymer synthesis from the ligand exchange reaction at the Os-complex, the modification of the same polymer backbone with different Os-complexes or the binding of the same Os-complex to a number of different polymer backbones becomes feasible. In addition, the Os-complex can be purified and characterized prior to its binding to the polymer. In order to further understand and optimize suitable enzyme/redox polymer systems concerning their potential application in biosensors or biofuel cells, a series of redox polymers was synthesized and used as immobilization matrix for Trametes hirsuta laccase. The properties of the obtained biofuel cell cathodes were compared with similar biocatalytic interfaces derived from redox polymers obtained via ligand exchange reaction of the parent Os-complex with a ligand integrated into the polymer backbone during the polymer synthesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfide and whole rock Re-Os systematics of eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Slave Craton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Creaser, Robert A.; Pearson, Norm J.; Simonetti, Stefanie S.; Heaman, Larry M.; Griffin, William L.; Stachel, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    We characterized single sulfides in eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Diavik kimberlites (central Slave Craton, Canada) with regard to their petrography, major-element composition and Re-Os isotope systematics. Together with trace-element and Re-Os isotope compositions of whole rocks, these data allow identification of the major Re-Os host phases and provide constraints on the origin(s) of sulfides in these samples. The majority of sulfide minerals contain 8 to 28 at.% Ni, with intragranular sulfides having on average significantly lower contents (~ 6 at.%) than intergranular sulfides (~ 12 at.%). These high Ni-sulfides are not in equilibrium with an eclogitic assemblage and were likely introduced from a peridotitic source subsequent to eclogite formation. In contrast, their Re-Os abundances and Re/Os ratios (average ~ 825 ppb, 190 ppb and 10, respectively) overlap those of primary eclogitic sulfides. These conflicting compositional characteristics may document open-system disequilibrium processes accompanying the introduction of sulfides into eclogites. The general association of high 187Os/ 188Os with high 187Re/ 188Os of sulfides in three low-temperature eclogite xenoliths suggests that the addition is not young. In contrast, sulfides in a high-temperature eclogite plot on a ~ 90 Ma errorchron with radiogenic initial 187Os/ 188Os, perhaps indicative of young introduction of sulfides from a deep enriched source. Sulfides in a single pyroxenite xenolith have Ni, Re and Os contents intermediate between pristine eclogitic and peridotitic sulfides, and correlated Re-Os isotope systematics defining an age of 1.84 ± 0.14 Ga with a radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os i (0.16 ± 0.01). The age and 187Os/ 188Os i are identical to those obtained for eclogitic sulfide inclusions in diamonds from Diavik, thus supporting a link between eclogite and pyroxenite formation. Several eclogite and pyroxenite whole rocks show evidence for addition of secondary sulfides, but many plot

  11. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Asprea, Irene; Marco, Federica

    2016-02-01

    To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified) aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  12. Otitis Media: Occurrence and Effect on Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessen, B. A.; Beattie, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews literature and research on otitis media, focusing on definitions; occurrence, including such influences as age, socioeconomic status, genetics, child care situation, feeding techniques, and sex; fluctuating hearing loss; psychological, linguistic, and cognitive development; and developmental deficits in speech, language,…

  13. Pressure induced structural phase transition of OsB 2: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fengzhu; Wang, Yuanxu; Lo, V. C.

    2010-04-01

    Orthorhombic OsB 2 was synthesized at 1000 °C and its compressibility was measured by using the high-pressure X-ray diffraction in a Diacell diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure to 32 GPa [R.W. Cumberland, et al. (2005)]. First-principles calculations were performed to study the possibility of the phase transition of OsB 2. An analysis of the calculated enthalpy shows that orthorhombic OsB 2 can transfer to the hexagonal phase at 10.8 GPa. The calculated results with the quasi-harmonic approximation indicate that this phase transition pressure is little affected by the thermal effect. The calculated phonon band structure shows that the hexagonal P 6 3/ mmc structure (high-pressure phase) is stable for OsB 2. We expect the phase transition can be further confirmed by the experimental work.

  14. Re-Os Systematics and HSE Distribution in Metal from Ochansk (H4) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoliar, M. I.; Horan, M. F.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of the Re-Os systematics of chondrites have documented considerable variation in the Re/Os ratios of whole rock samples. For some whole rock chondrites, Re-Os systematics display large deviations from the primitive isochron that are considerably larger than deviations in other isotope systems. Possible interpretation of these facts is that the Re-Os system in chondrites is particularly sensitive to post-formation alteration processes, thus providing a useful tool to examine such processes. Significant variations that have been detected in highly siderophile element (HSE) patterns for ordinary chondrites support this conclusion. We report Re-Os isotope data for metal separates from the Ochansk H4 chondrite coupled with abundance data for Ru, Pd, Ir, and Pt, determined in the same samples by isotope dilution. We chose this meteorite mainly because it is an observed fall with minimal signs of weathering, and its low metamorphic grade (H4) and shock stage (S3).

  15. The occurrence and wave properties of EMIC waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Huang, S. Y.; Allen, R. C.; Fu, H. S.; Deng, X. H.; Zhou, M.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate the ring current ions and relativistic electrons and heat the cold electrons in the magnetosphere. This requires comprehensive knowledge of the occurrence and wave properties of EMIC waves. In the present study, we used the data from one new mission, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission launched in March 2015, to investigate the occurrence and wave properties of H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves in the magnetosphere. Our statistical results show the following: (1) H+-band EMIC waves mostly occur in the higher L-shells (L > 5) while He+-band EMIC waves are mostly observed in the lower L-shells (L < 6). (2) The occurrence rate of H+-band EMIC waves in the dayside is higher than that in the nightside. The highest peak of occurrence rate of H+-band EMIC waves is in the postnoon sector (5-8 L-shells), and the secondary peak lies in the small area of the dawn sector. (3) The wave power spectral density peaks in the postnoon and predusk sectors, while the wave normal angles are largest in the dawn sector. (4) Linear and right-hand polarized H+-band EMIC waves are mainly in the regions of peak occurrence, while linear polarized waves are seen to also dominate outside of the regions of peak occurrence. The highest occurrence rate of linear polarized He+-band EMIC waves is observed in the dawn sector. We discussed the results and compared with previous findings.

  16. Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3 Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Bin; Liu, Yongqiang; Che, Ronghui; Hu, Yingchun; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Hongru; Li, Hua; Jiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Xiaokai; Qiu, Yahong; Meng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongxin; Bai, Yang; Liang, Yan; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Lianhe; Li, Legong; Sodmergen; Jing, Haichun

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major driving force for crop yield improvement, but application of high levels of N delays flowering, prolonging maturation and thus increasing the risk of yield losses. Therefore, traits that enable utilization of high levels of N without delaying maturation will be highly desirable for crop breeding. Here, we show that OsNRT1.1A (OsNPF6.3), a member of the rice (Oryza sativa) nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family, is involved in regulating N utilization and flowering, providing a target to produce high yield and early maturation simultaneously. OsNRT.1A has functionally diverged from previously reported NRT1.1 genes in plants and functions in upregulating the expression of N utilization-related genes not only for nitrate but also for ammonium, as well as flowering-related genes. Relative to the wild type, osnrt1.1a mutants exhibited reduced N utilization and late flowering. By contrast, overexpression of OsNRT1.1A in rice greatly improved N utilization and grain yield, and maturation time was also significantly shortened. These effects were further confirmed in different rice backgrounds and also in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our study paves a path for the use of a single gene to dramatically increase yield and shorten maturation time for crops, outcomes that promise to substantially increase world food security. PMID:29475937

  17. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T

    2014-10-17

    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Occurrence of cohesion of metals during combined plastic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aynbinder, S. G.; Klokova, E. F.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the cohesion of metals with surface films of varying thickness and hardness. It was established that the deformation necessary for the occurrence of cohesion is determined by the correlation of mechanical properties of the films and the base metal. The greater the relative hardness of the film the lower the deformation necessary for the occurrence of cohesion. The films are as plastic as the base metal prevent cohesion, since in this case it is impossible for sections of metal to appear that are free of contaminants. The physical perculiarities of metals that determine their capability for coalescence under conditions of dry friction are the relative hardness and plasticity of the oxide films formed on their surface under atmospheric conditions.

  19. On the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Event, R F; Davis, J D; Tucker, C M; Alfieri, F J

    1970-12-01

    The secondary phloem of 3 species of the Taxodiaceae and 13 species of woody dicotyledons was examined for the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements. Nuclei were found in all mature sieve cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sequoia sempervirens and Taxodium distichum, and in some mature sieve-tube members in 12 of the 13 species of woody dicotyledons. Except for nuclei of sieve cells undergoing cessation of function, the nuclei in mature sieve cells of M. glyptostroboides, S. sempervirens and T. distichum were normal in appearance. The occurrence and morphology of nuclei in mature sieve-tube members of the woody dicotyledons were quite variable. Only 3 species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus americana and Vitis riparia, contained some mature sieve elements with apparently normal nuclei.

  20. Spatial correlation of hydrometeor occurrence, reflectivity, and rain rate from CloudSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Roger

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines the along-track vertical and horizontal structure of hydrometeor occurrence, reflectivity, and column rain rate derived from CloudSat. The analysis assumes hydrometeors statistics in a given region are horizontally invariant, with the probability of hydrometeor co-occurrence obtained simply by determining the relative frequency at which hydrometeors can be found at two points (which may be at different altitudes and offset by a horizontal distance, Δx). A correlation function is introduced (gamma correlation) that normalizes hydrometeor co-occurrence values to the range of 1 to -1, with a value of 0 meaning uncorrelated in the usual sense. This correlation function is a generalization of the alpha overlap parameter that has been used in recent studies to describe the overlap between cloud (or hydrometeor) layers. Examples of joint histograms of reflectivity at two points are also examined. The analysis shows that the traditional linear (or Pearson) correlation coefficient provides a useful one-to-one measure of the strength of the relationship between hydrometeor reflectivity at two points in the horizontal (that is, two points at the same altitude). While also potentially useful in the vertical direction, the relationship between reflectivity values at different altitudes is not as well described by the linear correlation coefficient. The decrease in correlation of hydrometeor occurrence and reflectivity with horizontal distance, as well as precipitation occurrence and column rain rate, can be reasonably well fit with a simple two-parameter exponential model. In this paper, the North Pacific and tropical western Pacific are examined in detail, as is the zonal dependence.

  1. Co-occurrence correlations of heavy metals in sediments revealed using network analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Zhiping; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the correlation-based study was used to identify the co-occurrence correlations among metals in marine sediment of Hong Kong, based on the long-term (from 1991 to 2011) temporal and spatial monitoring data. 14 stations out of the total 45 marine sediment monitoring stations were selected from three representative areas, including Deep Bay, Victoria Harbour and Mirs Bay. Firstly, Spearman's rank correlation-based network analysis was conducted as the first step to identify the co-occurrence correlations of metals from raw metadata, and then for further analysis using the normalized metadata. The correlations patterns obtained by network were consistent with those obtained by the other statistic normalization methods, including annual ratios, R-squared coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient. Both Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour have been polluted by heavy metals, especially for Pb and Cu, which showed strong co-occurrence with other heavy metals (e.g. Cr, Ni, Zn and etc.) and little correlations with the reference parameters (Fe or Al). For Mirs Bay, which has better marine sediment quality compared with Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour, the co-occurrence patterns revealed by network analysis indicated that the metals in sediment dominantly followed the natural geography process. Besides the wide applications in biology, sociology and informatics, it is the first time to apply network analysis in the researches of environment pollutions. This study demonstrated its powerful application for revealing the co-occurrence correlations among heavy metals in marine sediments, which could be further applied for other pollutants in various environment systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. O/S analysis of conceptual space vehicles. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The application of recently developed computer models in determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems is discussed. The models used are the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, the maintenance simulation model, and the operations and support (O&S) cost model. In the process of applying these models, the R&M and O&S cost models were updated. The more significant enhancements include (1) improved R&M equations for the tank subsystems, (2) the ability to allocate schedule maintenance by subsystem, (3) redefined spares calculations, (4) computing a weighted average of the working days and mission days per month, (5) the use of a position manning factor, and (6) the incorporation into the O&S model of new formulas for computing depot and organizational recurring and nonrecurring training costs and documentation costs, and depot support equipment costs. The case study used is based upon a winged, single-stage, vertical-takeoff vehicle (SSV) designed to deliver to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) a 25,000 lb payload including passengers without a crew.

  3. Natural occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in soya beans.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, M S; Barros, G G; Chulze, S N; Ramirez, M L

    2012-08-01

    The natural occurrence of alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in soya beans harvested in Argentina was evaluated. Both toxins were simultaneously detected by using HPLC analysis coupled with a solid phase extraction column clean-up. Characteristics of this in-house method such as accuracy, precision and detection and quantification limits were defined by means of recovery test with spiked soya bean samples. Out of 50 soya bean samples, 60% showed contamination with the mycotoxins analyzed; among them, 16% were only contaminated with AOH and 14% just with AME. Fifteen of the positive samples showed co-occurrence of both mycotoxins analyzed. AOH was detected in concentrations ranging from 25 to 211 ng/g, whereas AME was found in concentrations ranging from 62 to 1,153 ng/g. Although a limited number of samples were evaluated, this is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in soya beans and is relevant from the point of view of animal public health.

  4. OCCURRENCE OF VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI IN ANIMAL FECES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. A selective agar mEI, and mEI supplemented with 4 micrograms/ml vancomycin was used in a membrane filtration procedure to determine quantitative levels ...

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1994. Volume 17, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence (AO) as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such occurrences to be made to Congress. This report provides a description of those incidents and events that have been determined to be AOs during the period of October 1 through December 31, 1994. This report addresses four AOs at NRC-licensed facilities. These occurrences involved the following: a generic concern relating to core shroud cracking in boilingmore » water reactors; recurring incidents of administering higher doses than procedurally allowed for diagnostic imaging at a single facility; one medical teletherapy misadministration; and one medical brachytherapy misadministration. Agreement States submitted four AO reports. These four occurrences involved the following: one major contamination at a commercial facility; two medical brachytherapy misadministrations; and one medical teletherapy misadministration. The report also contains updates of seven AOs previously reported by NRC licensees and four AOs previously reported by the Agreement States. Two ``Other Events of Interest`` are also being reported. These occurrences involved the operability of safety relief valves at a nuclear power plant, and an error in the installation process of a Leksell Gamma KnifeR teletherapy unit that resulted in an operational failure.« less

  6. Rapid extraction of image texture by co-occurrence using a hybrid data structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausi, David A.; Zhao, Yongping

    2002-07-01

    Calculation of co-occurrence probabilities is a popular method for determining texture features within remotely sensed digital imagery. Typically, the co-occurrence features are calculated by using a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to store the co-occurring probabilities. Statistics are applied to the probabilities in the GLCM to generate the texture features. This method is computationally intensive since the matrix is usually sparse leading to many unnecessary calculations involving zero probabilities when applying the statistics. An improvement on the GLCM method is to utilize a grey level co-occurrence linked list (GLCLL) to store only the non-zero co-occurring probabilities. The GLCLL suffers since, to achieve preferred computational speeds, the list should be sorted. An improvement on the GLCLL is to utilize a grey level co-occurrence hybrid structure (GLCHS) based on an integrated hash table and linked list approach. Texture features obtained using this technique are identical to those obtained using the GLCM and GLCLL. The GLCHS method is implemented using the C language in a Unix environment. Based on a Brodatz test image, the GLCHS method is demonstrated to be a superior technique when compared across various window sizes and grey level quantizations. The GLCHS method required, on average, 33.4% ( σ=3.08%) of the computational time required by the GLCLL. Significant computational gains are made using the GLCHS method.

  7. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of KSbO3-type 5d oxides K0.84OsO3 and Bi2.93Os3O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yahua; Feng, Hai L.; Shi, Youguo; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Belik, Alexei A.; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Arai, Masao; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2014-12-01

    5d Solid-state oxides K0.84OsO3 (Os5.16+; 5d 2.84) and Bi2.93Os3O11 (Os4.40+; 5d 3.60) were synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (6 GPa and 1500-1700 °C). Their crystal structures were determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and their 5d electronic properties and tunnel-like structure motifs were investigated. A KSbO3-type structure with a space group of Im-3 and Pn-3 was determined for K0.84OsO3 and Bi2.93Os3O11, respectively. The magnetic and electronic transport properties of the polycrystalline compounds were compared with those obtained theoretically. It was revealed that the 5d tunnel-like structures are paramagnetic with metallic charge conduction at temperatures above 2 K. This was similar to what was observed for structurally relevant 5d oxides, including Bi3Re3O11 (Re4.33+; 5d 2.66) and Ba2Ir3O9 (Ir4.66+; 5d 4.33). The absence of long-range magnetic order seems to be common among 5d KSbO3-like oxides, regardless of the number of 5d electrons (between 2.6 and 4.3 per 5d atom).

  8. A population-based study of the associations of stroke occurrence with weather parameters in Siberia, Russia (1982-92).

    PubMed

    Feigin, V L; Nikitin, Y P; Bots, M L; Vinogradova, T E; Grobbee, D E

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have established a seasonal variation in stroke occurrence, but none have assessed the influence of inclement weather conditions on stroke incidence in a general population of Russia. We performed a stroke population-based study in the Oktiabrsky District of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Included in the analysis were 1929 patients with their first occurrence of ischemic stroke (IS), 215 patients with their first occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 64 patients with their first occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): all patients were aged between 25 and 74 years. The cumulative daily occurrence of total strokes and stroke subtypes was evaluated in relation to aggregated daily mean values of ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pressure by means of Poisson regression analysis to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with corresponding confidence interval (CI) and to identify the weather parameters of most importance. In a multivariate analysis, with adjustment for the effects of season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and age of the patients, low ambient temperature (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66) and mean value of air pressure (RR 0.986; 95% CI 0.972-0.999) were important predictors of IS occurrence, while mild ambient temperature (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1. 04-2.22) was an important predictor of ICH occurrence. No relationship between SAH occurrence and any one of the weather parameters studied was revealed. There was no interaction between any meteorological variables that was statistically significant. Inclement weather conditions are associated with the occurrence of IS and ICH in Siberia, Russia. Among the meteorological parameters studied, low ambient temperature and mean air pressure are the most important predictors of IS occurrence, whereas the occurrence of ICH is associated with mild ambient temperature. There is no association between any one of the weather parameters studied and the occurrence of SAH.

  9. Calcic micas in the Allende meteorite - Evidence for hydration reactions in the early solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    Two calcic micas, clintonite and margarite, have been identified in alteration products in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in the Allende meteorite. Clintonite replaces grossular in alteration veins, and margarite occurs as lamellae in anorthite. Their occurrence suggests that, in addition to undergoing high-temperature alteration by a volatile and iron-rich vapor that produced the grossular and anorthite, some CAIs underwent alteration at moderate temperatures (400 K or less). Petrographic evidence suggests that the calcic micas formed before accretion but after the formation of the layered rim sequences that surround the CAI. These calcic micas provide strong evidence that, contrary to theoretical calculations, some hydration reactions occurred in the early solar nebula.

  10. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  11. Clinical and statistical evaluation of the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in the cold inland area of Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, K; Shibata, J; Yamamura, K

    1989-07-01

    We made a clinical and statistical evaluation of the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction with respect to the relation between its occurrence and the meterology of the cold inland area of Hokkaido (the Kamikawa Basin) over a period of 10 years (1976-1985). A total of 581 cases were studied. Monthly fluctuation of incidence was not found to be statistically significant. A cold period in the Kamikawa Basin was defined in this study as the period when ordinary mean atmospheric temperatures were below 0 degree C (from 7 Nov. to 16 Apr.). Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to 10 meterological factors between the days with occurrences and those without occurrences (245 days vs 245 days) in the cold periods of the investigated 10 years, and between the days with outdoor occurrences and those without occurrences (37 days vs 37 days). In order to compare the regional difference, this analysis was done on the same 10 factors for the cold periods over 3 years in Yamagata (46 days vs 46 days). The F values of 0.0003, 0.0155 and 0.0098 respectively in the above 3 analyses were small (much less than F 1(9) (0.25) = 1.51). A circadian rhythm of 2 cycles/day was recognized concerning the time of occurrence by power spectral analysis of the data of 562 patients for whom the time of the onset of myocardial infarction was known. Subdividing the patients into 2 groups according to physical activity just before the occurrence, the group who experienced an occurrence at rest showed a rhythm of 1 cycle/day, and the group who experienced an occurrence on effort showed a rhythm of 2 cycles/day. Therefore, the 10 meterological factors could not discriminate the probabilities between the days with occurrences and the days without occurrences of myocardial infarction in the cold periods. On the other hand, it was suggested that biological intrinsic rhythm participates in triggering the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  12. Nonculturability Might Underestimate the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broiler Litter.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Helmy, Yosra A; Kathayat, Dipak; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loic; Huang, Huang-Chi; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of litter to the occurrence of Campylobacter on three broiler farms, which were known to have low (LO) and high (HI-A and HI-B) Campylobacter prevalence. For this purpose, we collected litter samples (n = 288) during and after two rearing cycles from each farm. We evaluated the occurrence of Campylobacter (using selective enrichment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [q-PCR] analysis) in the litter samples as well as the litter's pH and moisture content. Ceca from each flock (n = 144) were harvested at slaughter age and used to quantify Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFUs). Campylobacter was only retrieved from 7 litter samples that were collected from HI-A and HI-B during the growing period, but no Campylobacter was isolated from LO farms. The q-PCR analysis detected Campylobacter in pooled litter samples from all three farms. However, in litter collected during the same rotation, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HI-A and HI-B litter samples in comparison to those in LO. Cecal samples from HI-A and HI-B yielded relatively high numbers of Campylobacter CFUs, which were undetectable in LO samples. Litter's pH and moisture did not affect the overall occurrence of Campylobacter in litter and ceca on any of the farms. Our data suggest that Campylobacter was generally more abundant in litter that was collected from farms with highly colonized flocks. Therefore, better approaches for assessing the occurrence of Campylobacter in litter might be warranted in order to reduce the dissemination of these pathogens on and off poultry farms.

  13. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Accounting for occurrences: a new view of the use of contingency information in causal judgment.

    PubMed

    White, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    When people make causal judgments from contingency information, a principal aim is to account for occurrences of the outcome. When 2 causes are under consideration, the capacity of either to account for occurrences is judged from how likely the cause is to be present when the outcome occurs and from the rate at which the outcome occurs when that cause alone is present, which gives an estimate of the strength of the cause. These propositions are formalized in a weighted averaging model, which successfully predicted several judgmental phenomena not predicted by other models of causal judgment. These include a tendency for judgment of one cause (A) to be reduced as the number of occurrences of when only the other one (B) increases and a tendency for A to receive higher judgments than B if A is better able to account for occurrences than B is even if B has a higher contingency with the outcome than A does. Overshadowing, a tendency for judgments of B to be depressed if A has a higher contingency, is weak or absent when B is better able to account for occurrences than A. Results of several experiments support these and related predictions derived from the accounting for occurrences hypothesis. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Environmental heterogeneity, dispersal mode, and co-occurrence in stream macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Both environmental heterogeneity and mode of dispersal may affect species co-occurrence in metacommunities. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled in 20–30 streams in each of three drainage basins, differing considerably in environmental heterogeneity. Each drainage basin was further divided into two equally sized sets of sites, again differing profoundly in environmental heterogeneity. Benthic invertebrate data were divided into three groups of taxa based on overland dispersal modes: passive dispersers with aquatic adults, passive dispersers with terrestrial winged adults, and active dispersers with terrestrial winged adults. The co-occurrence of taxa in each dispersal mode group, drainage basin, and heterogeneity site subset was measured using the C-score and its standardized effect size. The probability of finding high levels of species segregation tended to increase with environmental heterogeneity across the drainage basins. These patterns were, however, contingent on both dispersal mode and drainage basin. It thus appears that environmental heterogeneity and dispersal mode interact in affecting co-occurrence in metacommunities, with passive dispersers with aquatic adults showing random patterns irrespective of environmental heterogeneity, and active dispersers with terrestrial winged adults showing increasing segregation with increasing environmental heterogeneity. PMID:23467653

  16. Predicting Seagrass Occurrence in a Changing Climate Using Random Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, O.; Butler, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine plants that can quickly sequester vast amounts of carbon (up to 100 times more and 12 times faster than tropical forests). In this work, we present an integrated GIS and machine learning approach to build a data-driven model of seagrass presence-absence. We outline a random forest approach that avoids the prevalence bias in many ecological presence-absence models. One of our goals is to predict global seagrass occurrence from a spatially limited training sample. In addition, we conduct a sensitivity study which investigates the vulnerability of seagrass to changing climate conditions. We integrate multiple data sources including fine-scale seagrass data from MarineCadastre.gov and the recently available globally extensive publicly available Ecological Marine Units (EMU) dataset. These data are used to train a model for seagrass occurrence along the U.S. coast. In situ oceans data are interpolated using Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK) to produce globally extensive prediction variables. A neural network is used to estimate probable future values of prediction variables such as ocean temperature to assess the impact of a warming climate on seagrass occurrence. The proposed workflow can be generalized to many presence-absence models.

  17. Structural, elastic, electronic and dynamical properties of OsB and ReB: Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanling; Zeng, Zhi; Lin, Haiqing

    2010-06-01

    The structural, elastic, electronic and dynamical properties of ReB and OsB are investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. It turns out that ReB and OsB are metallic ultra-incompressible solids with small elastic anisotropy and high hardness. The change of c/ a ratio in OsB indicates that there is a structural phase transition at about 31 GPa. Phonon spectra calculations show that both OsB and ReB are stable dynamically and there are abnormal phonon dispersions along special directions in Brillouin zone. OsB and ReB do not show superconductivity due to very weak electron-phonon interactions in them.

  18. Comparison of cervical os versus vaginal evidentiary findings during sexual assault exam.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jean A

    2008-04-01

    Evidence collection post sexual assault varies across the nation. The Ohio Department of Health has a standardized kit for evidence collection used during the forensic exams of sexual assault survivors. The protocol includes obtaining 4 swabs: 2 from the vaginal pooled fluid and 2 from the cervical area. The purpose is to determine if augmenting the state protocol with cervical os swabs and a comparison slide will improve evidentiary findings in adolescent and adult female rape survivors. A descriptive study of 30 months for sexual assault female survivors over the age of 13 treated at a level II emergency department by a trained sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE). The comparisons of cervical os specimens versus vaginal pool findings were analyzed by the Canton-Stark County Crime Laboratory (C-SCCL). Eighty-six cases were completed. After investigation, local law enforcement officials turned in 36 kits (42%) to be processed at the C-SCCL for the standard vaginal pool swabs and slide. The average estimated time interval between assault and treatment time was 20.46 hours (range, 2.83 to 80.83 hours). The average age of the survivor was 23.7 years, (range, 15 to 48). Eight percent (3/36) had only cervical os semen evidentiary findings. Forty-four percent (16/36) had positive semen evidentiary findings in vaginal pool and cervical os. Successful convictions were aided by the cervical os research study, especially because vaginal pool evidence diminishes when collected after 24 hours, but may be present longer in the cervical os.

  19. Smoked aluminum track stations record flying squirrel occurrence

    Treesearch

    Martin G. Raphael; Cathy A. Taylor; Reginald H. Barrett

    1986-01-01

    Smoked aluminum track stations are a useful technique for studying patterns of abundance and distribution of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). They are easily transported to remote field sites, allow permanent preservation of tracks, and yield frequency-of-occurrence information. A study in Douglas-fir (Pseseudotsuga menziesii...

  20. A rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK9 positively regulates drought stress tolerance and spikelet fertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in tolerance to abiotic stresses and in plant seed development. However, the functions of only a few rice CDPKs have been clarified. At present, it is unclear whether CDPKs also play a role in regulating spikelet fertility. Results We cloned and characterized the rice CDPK gene, OsCPK9. OsCPK9 transcription was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), PEG6000, and NaCl treatments. The results of OsCPK9 overexpression (OsCPK9-OX) and OsCPK9 RNA interference (OsCPK9-RNAi) analyses revealed that OsCPK9 plays a positive role in drought stress tolerance and spikelet fertility. Physiological analyses revealed that OsCPK9 improves drought stress tolerance by enhancing stomatal closure and by improving the osmotic adjustment ability of the plant. It also improves pollen viability, thereby increasing spikelet fertility. In OsCPK9-OX plants, shoot and root elongation showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA, compared with that of wild-type. Overexpression and RNA interference of OsCPK9 affected the transcript levels of ABA- and stress-responsive genes. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that OsCPK9 is a positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance, spikelet fertility, and ABA sensitivity. PMID:24884869

  1. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-10

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planetmore » radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R {sub ⊕}) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters.« less

  2. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.

    PubMed

    Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2014-03-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton

    2008-06-01

    This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.

  4. Topical video object discovery from key frames by modeling word co-occurrence prior.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gangqiang; Yuan, Junsong; Hua, Gang; Yang, Jiong

    2015-12-01

    A topical video object refers to an object, that is, frequently highlighted in a video. It could be, e.g., the product logo and the leading actor/actress in a TV commercial. We propose a topic model that incorporates a word co-occurrence prior for efficient discovery of topical video objects from a set of key frames. Previous work using topic models, such as latent Dirichelet allocation (LDA), for video object discovery often takes a bag-of-visual-words representation, which ignored important co-occurrence information among the local features. We show that such data driven co-occurrence information from bottom-up can conveniently be incorporated in LDA with a Gaussian Markov prior, which combines top-down probabilistic topic modeling with bottom-up priors in a unified model. Our experiments on challenging videos demonstrate that the proposed approach can discover different types of topical objects despite variations in scale, view-point, color and lighting changes, or even partial occlusions. The efficacy of the co-occurrence prior is clearly demonstrated when compared with topic models without such priors.

  5. Trace metals adhered to urban sediments. Results from fieldwork in Poços de Caldas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Silveira, Alexandre; Júnior, José; Poleto, Cristiano; de Lima, João; Gonçalves, Flávio; Alvarenga, Lívia

    2016-04-01

    The urbanization process has consequences such as the introduction of new sources of pollution and changes in the natural environment, like increase of impervious areas that accumulate pollutants between rainfall events. The pollution caused by the washing of accumulated sediment on the gutters, ultimately carried to water bodies through the stormwater drainage system, stands out in this process. This study aimed to quantify and characterize the sediments accumulated in the gutters of roads in an urban area of Poços de Caldas (MG), Brazil. Fieldwork took place during the period of 21.05.2013 to 27.08.2013. Main goal was to investigate the process of accumulation of dry sediments on impervious surfaces and find how this process relates with the urban occupation. More specific goals were to quantify the average mass and characterize the granulometric distribution of accumulated sediments, and identify the occurrence of trace metals Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cu and Pb in the fraction of sediments with diameter smaller or equal to 63μm. The samples were weighed to find the aggregate mass and then sieved through meshes of 63μm, 125μm, 250μm, 600μm, 1180μm, and 2000μm for the granulometric analysis. Samples of the sediment fraction smaller than 63μm of diameter were subjected to analysis by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the identification of trace metals. We found that the aggregate mass of accumulated sediments varies in time and space and is particularly influenced by the land use of the sampling areas. Areas under construction produced more sediments than built areas or areas without construction. This study may serve as an input for creating diffuse pollution control and mitigation strategies towards the reduction of accumulated pollutants in the urban environment of Poços de Caldas. Pb and Zn shown the highest concentrations. The heavy metal concentration decreases after wet

  6. Variability of tornado occurrence over the continental United States since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Kaicun; Bluestein, Howard B.

    2016-06-01

    The United States experiences the most tornadoes of any country in the world. Given the catastrophic impact of tornadoes, concern has arisen regarding the variation in climatology of U.S. tornadoes under the changing climate. A recent study claimed that the temporal variability of tornado occurrence over the continental U.S. has increased since the 1970s. However, that study ignored the highly regionalized climatology of U.S. tornadoes. To address this issue, we examined the long-term trend of tornado temporal variability in each continental U.S. state. Based on the 64 year tornado records (1950-2013), we found that the trends in tornado temporal variability varied across the U.S., with only one third of the continental area or three out of 10 contiguous states (mostly from the Great Plains and Southeast, but where the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is greater) displaying a significantly increasing trend. The other two-thirds area, where 60% of the U.S. tornadoes were reported (but the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is less), however, showed a decreasing or a near-zero trend in tornado temporal variability. Furthermore, unlike the temporal variability alone, the combined spatial-temporal variability of U.S. tornado occurrence has remained nearly constant since 1950. Such detailed information on the climatological variability of U.S. tornadoes refines the claim of previous study and can be helpful for local mitigation efforts toward future tornado risks.

  7. Occurrence of Multiple Sclerosis After Drug Exposure: Insights From Evidence Mapping.

    PubMed

    Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Raschi, Emanuel; Vignatelli, Luca; Baldin, Elisa; Riise, Trond; D'Alessandro, Roberto; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Poluzzi, Elisabetta

    2017-09-01

    The role of drugs in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is perceived to be insufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to map and assess the evidence on MS occurrence after drug exposure, in order to identify possible signals of causal association. A search strategy was performed in MEDLINE and Embase as of July 2016; references consistent with the aim of the study were analysed to extract relevant measures of causal association between drugs and MS. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and appropriate guidelines from the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) and the International Society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP) were used to assess the quality of included studies. After screening 832 articles, 58 were selected (of which 14 were found by checking the reference lists of reviews): 30 case reports and case series, 24 longitudinal studies and four randomized controlled trials. Seven longitudinal studies had good (at least 7 out of 9) quality scores, whereas case reports/case series presented several limitations. Half of included articles focused on immunomodulatory drugs (etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab), especially in case reports/series, suggesting an association with MS occurrence. Contraceptives and antibacterials were investigated in some population-based studies, without definite results. A heterogeneous pharmacological profile of identified classes emerged. Low strength of evidence and conflicting results highlighted the difficulties in addressing the possible contribution of drugs in MS occurrence. Methodological advances are needed, especially to control the confounding role of underlying disease for specific drug classes.

  8. Occurrence of CPPopt Values in Uncorrelated ICP and ABP Time Series.

    PubMed

    Cabeleira, M; Czosnyka, M; Liu, X; Donnelly, J; Smielewski, P

    2018-01-01

    Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) is a concept that uses the pressure reactivity (PRx)-CPP relationship over a given period to find a value of CPP at which PRx shows best autoregulation. It has been proposed that this relationship be modelled by a U-shaped curve, where the minimum is interpreted as being the CPP value that corresponds to the strongest autoregulation. Owing to the nature of the calculation and the signals involved in it, the occurrence of CPPopt curves generated by non-physiological variations of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), termed here "false positives", is possible. Such random occurrences would artificially increase the yield of CPPopt values and decrease the reliability of the methodology.In this work, we studied the probability of the random occurrence of false-positives and we compared the effect of the parameters used for CPPopt calculation on this probability. To simulate the occurrence of false-positives, uncorrelated ICP and ABP time series were generated by destroying the relationship between the waves in real recordings. The CPPopt algorithm was then applied to these new series and the number of false-positives was counted for different values of the algorithm's parameters. The percentage of CPPopt curves generated from uncorrelated data was demonstrated to be 11.5%. This value can be minimised by tuning some of the calculation parameters, such as increasing the calculation window and increasing the minimum PRx span accepted on the curve.

  9. Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled OsSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Morse, Michael D.

    2015-09-01

    The optical spectrum of diatomic OsSi has been investigated for the first time, with transitions observed in the range from 15 212 to 18 634 cm-1 (657-536 nm). Two electronic band systems have been identified along with a number of unclassified bands. Nine bands have been investigated at rotational resolution, allowing the ground state to be identified as X 3 Σ0 + - , arising from the 1σ21π42σ23σ21δ2 configuration. The ground X 3 Σ0 + - state is characterized by re = 2.1207(27) Å and ΔG1/2″ = 516.315(4) cm-1 for the most abundant isotopologue, 192Os28Si (38.63%). The A1 excited electronic state, which is thought to be primarily 3Π1 in character, is characterized by T0 = 15 727.7(7) cm-1, ωe = 397.0(7) cm-1, and re = 2.236(16) Å for 192Os28Si. The B1 excited electronic state is characterized by T0 = 18 468.71 cm-1, ΔG1/2 = 324.1 cm-1, and re = 2.1987(20) Å for 192Os28Si and is thought to be primarily 1Π1 in character. These results are placed in context through a comparison to other transition metal carbides and silicides.

  10. Occurrence analysis of daily rainfalls by using non-homogeneous Poissonian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Ferrari, E.; de Luca, D. L.

    2009-09-01

    In recent years several temporally homogeneous stochastic models have been applied to describe the rainfall process. In particular stochastic analysis of daily rainfall time series may contribute to explain the statistic features of the temporal variability related to the phenomenon. Due to the evident periodicity of the physical process, these models have to be used only to short temporal intervals in which occurrences and intensities of rainfalls can be considered reliably homogeneous. To this aim, occurrences of daily rainfalls can be considered as a stationary stochastic process in monthly periods. In this context point process models are widely used for at-site analysis of daily rainfall occurrence; they are continuous time series models, and are able to explain intermittent feature of rainfalls and simulate interstorm periods. With a different approach, periodic features of daily rainfalls can be interpreted by using a temporally non-homogeneous stochastic model characterized by parameters expressed as continuous functions in the time. In this case, great attention has to be paid to the parsimony of the models, as regards the number of parameters and the bias introduced into the generation of synthetic series, and to the influence of threshold values in extracting peak storm database from recorded daily rainfall heights. In this work, a stochastic model based on a non-homogeneous Poisson process, characterized by a time-dependent intensity of rainfall occurrence, is employed to explain seasonal effects of daily rainfalls exceeding prefixed threshold values. In particular, variation of rainfall occurrence intensity ? (t) is modelled by using Fourier series analysis, in which the non-homogeneous process is transformed into a homogeneous and unit one through a proper transformation of time domain, and the choice of the minimum number of harmonics is evaluated applying available statistical tests. The procedure is applied to a dataset of rain gauges located in

  11. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  12. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province. PMID:28098799

  13. The Correlation Between Green Density and the Occurrence of Honeycomb in Kiln-Dried

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Fresh-cut, 5/4 red oak (Quercus sp.) boards were weighed, measured to determine volume and then kiln-dried to determine if the initial green density (green weight/green volume) was correlated to the occurrence of honeycomb. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of honeycomb during drying and the initial green density. These results...

  14. Suppression of OsRAD51D results in defects in reproductive development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Kim, Woo Taek

    2014-07-01

    The cellular roles of RAD51 paralogs in somatic and reproductive growth have been extensively described in a wide range of animal systems and, to a lesser extent, in Arabidopsis, a dicot model plant. Here, the OsRAD51D gene was identified and characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocot model crop. In the rice genome, three alternative OsRAD51D mRNA splicing variants, OsRAD51D.1, OsRAD51D.2, and OsRAD51D.3, were predicted. Yeast two-hybrid studies, however, showed that only OsRAD51D.1 interacted with OsRAD51B and OsRAD51C paralogs, suggesting that OsRAD51D.1 is a functional OsRAD51D protein in rice. Loss-of-function osrad51d mutant rice plants displayed normal vegetative growth. However, the mutant plants were defective in reproductive growth, resulting in sterile flowers. Homozygous osrad51d mutant flowers exhibited impaired development of lemma and palea and contained unusual numbers of stamens and stigmas. During early meiosis, osrad51d pollen mother cells (PMCs) failed to form normal homologous chromosome pairings. In subsequent meiotic progression, mutant PMCs represented fragmented chromosomes. The osrad51d pollen cells contained numerous abnormal micro-nuclei that resulted in malfunctioning pollen. The abnormalities of heterozygous mutant and T2 Ubi:RNAi-OsRAD51D RNAi-knock-down transgenic plants were intermediate between those of wild type and homozygous mutant plants. The osrad51d and Ubi:RNAi-OsRAD51D plants contained longer telomeres compared with wild type plants, indicating that OsRAD51D is a negative factor for telomere lengthening. Overall, these results suggest that OsRAD51D plays a critical role in reproductive growth in rice. This essential function of OsRAD51D is distinct from Arabidopsis, in which AtRAD51D is not an essential factor for meiosis or reproductive development. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase investigation using OsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, Martin; Scheiba, Frieder; Oswald, Steffen; Thomas, Jürgen; Goers, Dietrich; Scherer, Torsten; Klose, Markus; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) staining, commonly used to enhance scattering contrast in electron microscopy of biologic tissue and polymer blends, has been adopted for studies of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries. OsO4 shows a coordinated reaction with components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and lithium dendrites, thereby increasing material contrast for scanning electron microscopy investigations. Utilizing the high affinity of lithium metal to react with osmium tetroxide it was possible to localize even small lithium deposits on graphite electrodes. In spite of their reaction with the OsO4 fume, the lithium dendrite morphology remains almost untouched by the staining procedure, offering information on the dendrite growth process. Correlating the quantity of osmium detected with the amount of residual ("dead") lithium of a discharged electrode, it was possible to obtain a practical measure for lithium plating and stripping efficiencies. EDX mappings allowed for a localization of electrochemically stripped lithium dendrites by their residual stained SEI shells. Cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) of cycled graphite electrodes treated with OsO4, revealed important information about deposition and distribution of metallic lithium and the electrolyte reduction layer across the electrode.

  16. Investigating the Origin of Silica Occurrences on Mars through Laboratory Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Farmer, J. D.; Mills, V. W.; Robertson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Natural amorphous "opaline" silica is a non-crystalline, typically hydrated phase of nearly pure SiO2 that is a common product of aqueous alteration of basaltic materials [e.g., 1]. It has been identified on Mars with orbital spectral data [2] and in situ measurements from the Spirit rover [3]. On Earth, opaline silica is produced over a range of temperature, pH, and water-to-rock ratio conditions that occur in hot springs, fumaroles, volcanic exhalations, low temperature weathering, and diagenesis [e.g., 4 and references therein]. The mere identification of silica on Mars therefore does not indicate a unique geologic environment or setting. However, various attributes of a given silica occurrence can be used to narrow or perhaps uniquely define the conditions in which it formed. Field relationships, microtexture, bulk and trace element chemistry, and spectral characteristics provide clues to the geologic environment in which the silica formed. Here we focus on the opaline silica in outcrops and soil at the Home Plate feature in Gusev crater where there is good evidence for past hydrothermal processes [3]. Unresolved is whether fumaroles, hot springs, geysers, or some combination of these features were present and responsible for the emplacement of opaline silica there. Knowing the answer has implications for understanding ancient climate and habitability of Mars. We have begun an investigation involving a range of laboratory measurements on natural silica-rich samples collected from various settings in Yellowstone and Hawaii Volcanoes National Parks. Visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements are supplemented with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, petrographic microscopy, and ultimately with bulk and trace element measurements. Among our emerging results: 1) both VNIR and TIR spectra can detect the presence of <2 μm silica coatings on altered basalts; 2) VNIR spectra of silica from different

  17. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  18. Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

    2013-05-01

    We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org < 1.0wt%), with occasional brown shale and green bentonite layers. Well-preserved fossil-fish assemblages occur in the laminated dark limestone beds, which include shark teeth (cf. Ptychodus), scales of teleosteans (Ichthyodectiformes), as well as skeletal remains of holosteans (Nursallia. sp), and teleosteans (cf. Rhynchodercetis, Tselfatia, and unidentified Enchodontids). Thin section and SEM analyses of the laminated, dark limestones, reveal a micritic matrix consisting of dark and light sub-parallel wavy laminae, continuous and discontinuous folded laminae with shreds of organic matter, filaments, oncoids, and interlocking structures. The structures are identical to those previously described for the Cenomanian-Turonian Indidura Fm at Parras de la Fuente (Coahuila state) demonstrated to be of microbial origin (Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish

  19. A petrographic and geochemical investigation into the Gatun structure, a possible Tertiary impact structure near Gamboa, Republic de Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, L. L.; Ryan, J. G.; Stewart, R. H.

    2001-05-01

    The Gatun Structure, (Latitude N 09 deg 05' 58.1", Longitude W 79 deg 47' 21.8", situated in the triple-canopy rainforest 10 km to the WSW of the Gamboa and about 2 km south of the Isle of Barbacoas, Republic de Panama), is a partially inundated, quasi-concentric surface feature 2.2km in diameter, which appears in aerial photographs and in radar imagery as an arcuate chain of islands with a raised central feature. Although deeply eroded, the structure possesses traits consistent with complex crater morphology: an elevated circular central uplift feature approximately 500-600 m in diameter and 50m high, and arcuate boundary ridges (a possible rim structure) ranging from 50-100 meters high. Within the central peak, highly altered and fractured siltstone of the Gatuncillo formation (Eocene) are uplifted and exposed through surrounding calcareous units of the Caimito formation (Oligocene), the major target rocks in the structure. The structure is crosscut by numerous dikes of unshocked basalt and basaltic andesite related to volcanism along the Panamanian segment of the Central American arc to the south. Analysis of mineral assemblages of units within the structure, and mineral compositions were measured via SEM-EDS and electron microprobe, using the JEOL SEM-Probe facility at the Center for the Study of Materials in Extreme Conditions (CeSMEC) at Florida International University. Bulk chemical and trace element analysis of whole rock samples were conducted via DC Plasma spectrometry at USF. Occurring concentrically within the structure, are limestones with anomalous spherical glass inclusions, both black and white hyp