Science.gov

Sample records for petroleum hydrocarbon contents

  1. Diterpenoid tetracyclic hydrocarbons of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Pekh, T.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    Diterpenoid hydrocarbons are fairly widespread in various caustobioliths. However, if petroleums contain mainly acyclic diterpenoids (phytane, pristane and norpristane), cyclic diterpaenes such as fichtelite, pimarane, iosene (kaurane) and hibbane are often found in hydrocarbons isolated from coal and shale. Recent advances in the chemistry of diterpenoids isolated from caustobioliths, are described in a separate paper. Much less is known about petroleum polycyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons, particularly those with four saturated rings. A series of tetracyclic hydrocarbons C/sub 19/H/sub 32/ (molar mass 260), found in a number of light petroleums and gas condensates from the Jura deposits of Central Kara-Kum (Turkmen S.S.R.), are examined here. These hydrocarbons are present in petroleums and condensates from the Davaly, Erden, Ortakak, Southern Beuideshik deposits, they are always identical and occur in the same ratios. The composition of the tretracyclanes isolated from the Ortakak gas condensates (well 17) will be examined in detail.

  2. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon content along the coast of Kollam (Quilon), south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Cyril, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we examine status, impact and trends in prevailing situation of coastal ecosystem of Chavara, Neendakara, Tangasseri and Paravur zones of Kollam coast in terms of zooplankton density and petroleum hydrocarbon content (PHC). Zooplankton samples and water samples were collected during the period May 2003 to June 2004. The numerical count of zooplankton made and PHC content estimated. Paravur offshore recorded the maximum zooplankton count (1390 no./m3) and Tangasseri nearshore the lowest (700.5 no/m3). The petroleum hydrocarbon content was highest at Tangasseri nearshore (21.95 microg/l) and lowest at Paravur offshore (9.40 microg/l). We also observe statistically significant negative correlation between zooplankton density and PHC for a few organisms. The overall impact appears minor, yet, coastal ocean monitoring imperative for sustainable development. PMID:17717986

  3. Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-01-01

    Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery of bacterial RNA were used to monitor the 13C content of bacterial biomass during a 2-week experiment. The data show that by the end of the experiment, up to 26% of bacterial biomass was derived from consumption of the freshly spilled oil. The results contrast with the inertness of a nearby relict spill, which occurred in 1969 in West Falmouth, MA. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from our experimental samples also were consistent with previous reports suggesting the importance of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in the remineralization of hydrocarbons. The magnetic bead capture approach makes it possible to quantify uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes in situ. Although employed here at the domain level, RNA capture procedures can be highly specific. The same strategy could be used with genus-level specificity, something which is not currently possible using the 13C content of biomarker lipids. PMID:18083852

  4. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  5. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  6. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may... derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is chiefly...

  7. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-01

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  8. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-01

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  10. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  12. Cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Arniella, E.F. ); Holley, R.E. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes one new technology used to clean up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Topics covered include cleanup criteria, soil remediation technologies, air stripping-soil venting system and process design and performance. This contaminated site was located in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.

  13. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" HORIBA INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED OCMA-350 CONTENT ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer(OCMA-350) developed by Horiba Instruments Incorporated (Horiba), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Huen...

  14. Oxygenation of petroleum hydrocarbons after the Deepwater Horizon disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Arakawa, N.; Aluwihare, L. I.; Redmond, M. C.; Nelson, R. K.; Reddy, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The release of petroleum hydrocarbons after the Deepwater Horizon incident served as a model to study petroleum oxygenation in marine systems. While such processes are well established to remove select hydrocarbons from the ocean, little attention has been given to the formed product of oil weathering: oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHC). As they are outside the analytical windows of most commonly used method for oil spill research, OxHC have mostly been overlooked so far. However, we found that OxHC were rapidly formed during the first 100 days after the onset of the Deepwater Horizon spill, and made up 50-90% of the weathered oil mass thereafter. The OxHC fraction had an oxygen content of >10% by mass, contained carboxylic acids and alcohols, and was petroleum-derived, as confirmed by radiocarbon analysis (Aeppli et al, 2012). To investigate the oxygen incorporation processes and products, we used two strategies. First, we employed selective chemical modification of OxHC that preserved their carbon backbones while making the compounds amenable to gas chromatography for structural elucidation. This strategy allowed us to identify saturated and aromatic compounds as parent compounds of OxHC. Second, we used stable oxygen isotopes as a proxy for oxygenation, and observed O-18 enrichment with increasing degree of weathering. Overall, this study sheds light on how oil hydrocarbons are oxygenated via microbial and photochemical transformation, leading to recalcitrant products of oil weathering. Reference: Aeppli et al., (2012). Environ Sci Technol, doi:10.1021/es3015138

  15. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  16. [Humus composition of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Dou, Sen

    2008-05-01

    An abandoned petroleum well which had been exploited for about twenty years in Songyuan city of Jilin Province, China, was selected to study the compositions and characteristics of soil humus using revised humus composition method and Simon-Kumada method. Soil samples were collected at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 10.5 m apart from the well head. Results show that the petroleum contents increase from 0.08 g/kg (10.5 m to the well head) to 153.3 g/kg (0.5 m to the well head). With the increase in petroleum content, the contents of soil organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon increase; for total soil humus, the contents of extractable humus (HE) and humic acid (HA) decrease whereas that of humin (HM) increase; the percentage of HA/HE (PQ 72.0%-8.05%) decrease and HM/HE ratio (31.4-76.7) increase; for different combined humus, the contents of loosely combined humus (HI) and stably combined humus (HII) have a decrease tendency while that of tightly combined humus (HIII) increase; the HI/HII ratio (0.19-0.39) shows an increase tendency, whereas HI/HIII ratio (0.032-0.003) and HII/HIII ratio (0.096-0.009) decrease; the PQs of HI (3.21%-1.42%) and HIII (58.1%-35.5%) also decrease, and the range of PQ change is less in HI than in HII; the color coefficient (deltalogk) of water soluble organic matter (WSOM) decreases, whereas no obvious change for HA. The above results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbon promotes the formation of HM but not HA. The decrease in HA is mainly due to the restraining effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the formation of stably combined HA. Petroleum hydrocarbon leads molecular structure of WSOM more complex but no effect on molecular structure of HA.

  17. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  18. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  19. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  20. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  1. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  2. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  3. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren; Terry Brown

    2006-03-02

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.

  4. The nutrient, total petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China: Temporal-spatial variations, sources, pollution statuses, and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao

    2015-06-15

    Seawater samples collected between 2007 and 2012 were determined the concentrations of nutrient (DIN and DIP), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and six different heavy metals (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg). The DIN, DIP, TPH, Pb, and Cd concentrations decreased from 2007 to 2009 or 2010 and increased after 2010. However, the Hg and Cu concentrations increased from 2007 to 2012. In contrast, the As and Zn gradually decreased during the study period. All of the pollutant concentrations gradually decreased from the shoreline to the offshore sites. PCA result showed that urban and port areas, agriculture, and atmospheric deposition were the main sources of pollutants in the bay. Although most of the pollutants were present at concentrations bellow the highest seawater quality standards in China, eutrophication was a risk in Bohai Bay. In addition, DIN was the main pollutant and was responsible for the eutrophication risk in Bohai Bay.

  5. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  6. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake

    PubMed Central

    Medaura, M. Cecilia; Ércoli, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10–12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8–12 to C24–26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35) were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale. PMID:24031241

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  8. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  9. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  10. Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbing; Song, Xinyuan; Hu, Guangji; Thring, Ronald Wallen

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to improve the desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in crude oil from three types of soil. Soil A was an Ottawa sand, while soil B and soil C were fine soils that contained 27.6% and 55.3% of silt and clay contents, respectively. It was found that the ultrasonic desorption was highly related to soil types, with the highest and the lowest desorption occurring in coarse soil (i.e., soil A) and finer soil (i.e., soil C), respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum ultrasonic desorption enhancement of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) reached 22% for soil A, 61% for soil B, and 49% for soil C, respectively. The maximum enhancement on the F2 (n-C10 to n-C16), F3 (n-C16 to n-C34), and F4 (n-C34 to n-C50) fractions of PHC reached 91, 44, and 51% for soil B, and 90, 38, and 31% for soil C, respectively. The desorption enhancement also illustrated an increasing trend with initial soil TPH concentration. PMID:23705614

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sinca a significant number of the two or more million underground storage tank (UST) systems used for petroleum products leak, their cleanup poses a major environmental challenge. Our understnading of the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment is critical t...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons containing antioxidants shall meet the specified ultraviolet absorbance limits after correction for any absorbance due to the antioxidants. The ultraviolet absorbance shall be determined by the..._locations.html. (b) Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may contain antioxidants authorized for use in...

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of urban topsoil in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.

    1995-08-01

    The distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbon in topsoils from various parts of Ibadan city, Nigeria, was studied. Samples were selected from around the following zones: (a) railway tracks, (b) petrol stations, (c) refuse dumps, (d) residential areas, (e) high traffic density areas, (f) mechanical workshops, and (g) control zones. Contamination of the topsoil with hydrocarbons was significant only around petrol stations and mechanical workshops where the factors of accumulation were 10.1 and 4.72, respectively. The general trend in hydrocarbon levels was petrol station > mechanical workshop > refuse dumps > high traffic areas {ge} rail tracks > control residential areas. The results highlight the need to monitor urban environments that are remote from petroleum exploration activities for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  15. Reclamation and reuse of Freon in total petroleum hydrocarbon analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.; Young, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have successfully demonstrated the use of a solvent recycling system to reclaim spent Freon solvent in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) analyses of radioactive samples. A wide variety of sample types including ground water, organics, laboratory waste, process control, sludge, soils, and others are received by our lab for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. This paper demonstrates the successful use of a commercially available carbon bed recycle system which we modified to enable the recovery of 95-98 percent of the radioactive contaminated Freon. This system has been used successfully in our lab for the past three years.

  16. Assessment of genotoxic activity of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-11-01

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays, SOS chromotest and the umu test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture), were used to evaluate the genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czechowice-Dziedzice Polish oil refinery (CZOR). The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, the umu test was more sensitive than the SOS chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81% of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  18. Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Su, J.; Wetzel, S.; Pekarek, S.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-06-01

    A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of hydrocarbons with a nonpolar solvent may be less efficient. A shaking method was designed to fill the need for simpler and more efficient extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil. A systematic study of extraction conditions was performed for various soil types, soil weights, solvents, extraction times, and extraction cycles. The results were compared to those for Soxhlet extraction. Shaking 1 g of soil with a sequence of three 10-mL aliquots of dichloromethane or acetone was found to be equivalent to Soxhlet extraction for total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Shaking with acetone was more consistent than all other methods for the extraction of specific compounds from aged, contaminated soil. The shaking method appears to be applicable to a wide range of soil types and petroleum contaminants but should be compared to Soxhlet extraction for new conditions.

  19. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  20. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    A brief guidance publication that explains how to evaluate reports of petroleum concentrations in animal tissue. Sections on background, sampling and handling of samples, reports and interpretation, when to analyze for hydrocarbons, and how to interpret the magnitude of the concentrations.

  1. Health risk assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, L.R.; Jones, M.K.; Yost, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade, health risk assessment (HRA) has become the preferred decision-making tool for judging whether a site (ex., hazardous waste site) or an activity (ex., facility operation) may be safe or unsafe. Currently, no consensus HRA methodology has evolved for evaluating complex mixtures such as petroleum hydrocarbons, either for assessing baseline health risk or for setting environmental corrective action goals. The most common HRA approach is to evaluate individual compounds, not complex mixtures. Because no consensus approach has been forthcoming, regulatory agencies have adopted widely varying requirements related to environmental remediation programs for petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Corrective action goals for TPH are known to range in degree of conservatism from a concentration equivalent to the practical limit of quantification (PLQ) to ignoring the TPH component altogether. The primary objectives of this paper are two-fold; (1) to review the various methods employed for setting TPH corrective action goals, and (2) to evaluate HRA methodologies applicable to residual TPH in environmental media. This paper will also discuss and evaluate an HRA methodology, herein referred to as a fractionation approach, which the authors believe to be the most scientific and logical approach for assessing risk for petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media. Rationale for this HRA methodology as opposed to other approaches are discussed.

  2. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapors in the Vadose Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current state of practice to estimate the risk from intrusion of vapors of petroleum hydrocarbons from spills of gasoline is to measure the concentration of the chemical of concern in ground water under the spill, use Henry’s Law to estimate a concentration of the chemical ...

  3. Respirometry for assessing the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ulfig, K; Worsztynowicz, A; Malina, G; Krzeminska, B; Brigmon, R L

    2005-02-01

    The respiration method using the Micro-Oxymax respirometer was applied to evaluate the bioremediation potential of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in two biopiles at the oil refinery in Czechowice-Dziedzice, Poland. In biopiles 1 and 2, two different technologies, i.e., enhanced (engineered) bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) were used, respectively. In biopiles 1 and 2, the bioremediation process lasted 6 years and 8 months, respectively. The biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated on the basis of CO2 production and O2 uptake. The CO2 production and O2 consumption rates during hydrocarbon biodegradation were calculated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The results confirmed the hydrocarbon biodegradation process in both biopiles. However, in biopile 2 the process was more effective compared to biopile 1. In biopile 2, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 3.37 and 2.4 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. Whereas, in biopile 1, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 1.52 and 1.07 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. The mean biodegradation rate for biopile 2 was two times higher--67 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-1) compared with biopile 1, where the mean was 30 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-l). The results were correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and microbial activity measured by dehydrogenase assay.

  4. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-10-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Moreover, the world`s rivers, estuaries, and oceans are threatened by contamination from petroleum leaks and spills. Fortunately, most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past two decades in applying in situ bioremediation to a variety of contaminants in all media. Good progress is being made in terms of developing innovative, cost-effective in situ approaches to bioremediation. This volume provides a comprehensive guide to the latest technological breakthroughs in both the laboratory and the field, covering such topics as air sparging, cometabolic biodegradation, treatment of MTBE, real-time control systems, nutrient addition, rapid biosensor analysis, multiphase extraction, and accelerated bioremediation.

  5. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  6. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Méndez, Valentina; Aguila, Patricia; Seeger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is an environmental sustainable and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of hydrocarbon-polluted soils and coasts. In spite of that longer times are usually required compared with physicochemical strategies, complete degradation of the pollutant can be achieved, and no further confinement of polluted matrix is needed. Microbial aerobic degradation is achieved by the incorporation of molecular oxygen into the inert hydrocarbon molecule and funneling intermediates into central catabolic pathways. Several families of alkane monooxygenases and ring hydroxylating dioxygenases are distributed mainly among Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Fungi strains. Catabolic routes, regulatory networks, and tolerance/resistance mechanisms have been characterized in model hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to understand and optimize their metabolic capabilities, providing the basis to enhance microbial fitness in order to improve hydrocarbon removal. However, microbial communities taken as a whole play a key role in hydrocarbon pollution events. Microbial community dynamics during biodegradation is crucial for understanding how they respond and adapt to pollution and remediation. Several strategies have been applied worldwide for the recovery of sites contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. Common strategies include controlling environmental variables (e.g., oxygen availability, hydrocarbon solubility, nutrient balance) and managing hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, in order to overcome the rate-limiting factors that slow down hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  8. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    1995-01-01

    Abridged summary: In general, petroleum negatively affects living organisms through physical contact, toxic action, and habitat modification, whereas individual PAHs have toxic effects. Partially metabolized PAHs can induce genetic damage and developmental abnormalities and can induce cancerous and noncancerous tumors. Evidence linking environmental concentrations of PAHs to the induction of cancer in wild animals is limited. Although concentrations of individual PAHs in aquatic environments are usually much lower than concentrations that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, sublethal effects can be produced. Population changes caused by petroleum spills are easier to document for macrophytes and animals with limited mobility than for mobile animals (fish, birds, mammals, reptiles). Effects of spills on populations of mobile species have been difficult to determine beyond immediate losses in local populations.

  9. Investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming using apparent electrical conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Seuntjens, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming has been widely applied commercially at large scale. Biodegradation is one of the dominant pollutant removal mechanisms involved in landfarming, but strongly depends on the environmental conditions (e.g. presence of oxygen, moisture content). Conventionally the biodegradation process is monitored by the installation of field monitoring equipment and repeated sample collection and analysis. Because the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons and their degradation products can affect the electrical properties of the soil, proximal soil sensors such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors may provide an alternative to investigate the biodegradation process of these contaminants. We investigated the relation between the EMI-based apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of a landfarm soil and the presence and degradation status of petroleum hydrocarbons. The 3 ha study area was located in an oil refinery complex contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly composed of diesel. At the site, a landfarm was constructed in 1999. The most recent survey of the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations was conducted between 2011 and 2013. The sampling locations were defined by a grid with a 10 m by 10 m cell size and on each location a sample was taken from four successive soil layers with a thickness of 0.5 m each. Because the survey was carried out in phases using different georeferencing methods, the final dataset suffered from uncertainty in the coordinates of the sampling locations. In September 2013 the landfarm was surveyed for ECa with a multi-receiver electromagnetic induction sensor (DUALEM-21S) using motorized conveyance. The horizontal measurement resolution was 1 m by 0.25 m. On each measurement location the sensor recorded four ECa values representative of measurement depths of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.6 m and 3.2 m. After the basic processing, the ECa measurements were filtered to remove

  10. Investigation of diffusion and biodegradation of vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum released to the subsurface may be held in capillary tension above the water table for years, serving as a source of groundwater and soil gas contamination. Soil venting can be used to attack this ongoing source, sometimes in conjunction with biodegradation to permanently destroy the released hydrocarbons vapors. These processes were explored using intact soil cores from the site of an aviation gasoline release. Hydrocarbon vapor concentration profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography and interpreted using mathematical models. In the venting experiment, an intact core was subjected to a horizontal sweep flow of nitrogen. Residual petroleum in the soil volatilized and hydrocarbon vapors diffused upward. Soil venting significantly increased the rate of contaminant removal relative to ambient field conditions. No correlation between hydrocarbon vapor exit flux and sweep flow rate was observed, indicating that flow rates in excess of a minimum value were no more effective. A steady state model balancing volatilization and diffusion successfully predicted the shape of the hydrocarbon concentration profiles. The volatilization source was construed as an LNAPL droplet surrounded by an air water aggregate surrounded by a free air pore, with the aggregate reducing the mass transfer of hydrocarbons from LNAPL to air. Source strength, estimated from a diffusive flux model, decreased with time as LNAPL droplets became smaller. The biodegradation experiment employed an intact core from mid-depth in the unsaturated zone which was subjected to a upward flow of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and hydrocarbon vapors. Significant biodegradation was indicated by reductions in hydrocarbon concentration with elevation in the core. First order biodegradation rate constants were estimated by calibrating the experimental data to a simple model balancing advection and biodegradation.

  11. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

  12. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  13. Novel applications of light hydrocarbons chemistry in petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The light hydrocarbons in petroleum are products of a kerogen-specific catalytic process. The catalysts are believed to be the transition metals entrained in kerogen. The process is controlled by the metals in the active sites and the kerogenous organic structures surrounding the active sites. Different catalytic sites are suggested to yield distinct distributions of light hydrocarbons. The author recognizes three dominant (primary) distributions, with all other distributions adequately represented by some linear combination of the three primary distributions. Three catalytic sites, therefore, can be associated with the generation of light hydrocarbons. He introduces a simple and inexpensive procedure using cross plots of various product ratios to correlate oils and source rocks. It has proven to be a remarkably articulate and powerful tool for deconvoluting diverse oils into genetic groups. The light hydrocarbons are also indicators of oil-generation temperature and other physical parameters associated with oil generation. The analysis of light hydrocarbons from this perspective is new. It provides the exploration geochemist with a novel technique for gaining insight into the fundamental chemistry of petroleum generation.

  14. A new biodegradation prediction model specific to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip; Meylan, William; Aronson, Dallas; Stiteler, William; Tunkel, Jay; Comber, Michael; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2005-08-01

    A new predictive model for determining quantitative primary biodegradation half-lives of individual petroleum hydrocarbons has been developed. This model uses a fragment-based approach similar to that of several other biodegradation models, such as those within the Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimation program. In the present study, a half-life in days is estimated using multiple linear regression against counts of 31 distinct molecular fragments. The model was developed using a data set consisting of 175 compounds with environmentally relevant experimental data that was divided into training and validation sets. The original fragments from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry BIOWIN model were used initially as structural descriptors and additional fragments were then added to better describe the ring systems found in petroleum hydrocarbons and to adjust for nonlinearity within the experimental data. The training and validation sets had r2 values of 0.91 and 0.81, respectively. PMID:16152953

  15. A new biodegradation prediction model specific to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip; Meylan, William; Aronson, Dallas; Stiteler, William; Tunkel, Jay; Comber, Michael; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2005-08-01

    A new predictive model for determining quantitative primary biodegradation half-lives of individual petroleum hydrocarbons has been developed. This model uses a fragment-based approach similar to that of several other biodegradation models, such as those within the Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimation program. In the present study, a half-life in days is estimated using multiple linear regression against counts of 31 distinct molecular fragments. The model was developed using a data set consisting of 175 compounds with environmentally relevant experimental data that was divided into training and validation sets. The original fragments from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry BIOWIN model were used initially as structural descriptors and additional fragments were then added to better describe the ring systems found in petroleum hydrocarbons and to adjust for nonlinearity within the experimental data. The training and validation sets had r2 values of 0.91 and 0.81, respectively.

  16. Stripping volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons from water

    SciTech Connect

    LaBranche, D.F.; Collins, M. R.

    1996-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum products are ubiquitous groundwater contaminants. Petroleum products, for example, diesel fuel, contain a wide array of volatile, semivolatile, and large-chain hydrocarbon compounds. This research sought to determine whether air stripping can provide a site-specific treatment solution for petroleum-contaminated groundwaters and to document the abilities and limitations of tray-type (ShallowTray{sup TM}) air-stripping technology. Full factorial experimental trials were conducted to determine the influence of inlet water flow rate and temperature on trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal. As expected, TPH removal controlled air stripper performance, and liquid temperature affected removal more than flow rate. The mass-transfer rate of TCE and PCE from water to air was controlled by the compound`s volatility, whereas the TPH mass-transfer rate was controlled by the compound`s concentration gradient. Results indicate that economical air stripping of VOC and TPH compounds can be achieved using low liquid flow rates (20 to 75 L/min), high air/water ratios (225 to 898), and medium liquid temperatures (16{degree}C to 28{degree}C) in tray-type air strippers. 19 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  18. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  19. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  20. Reclamation and reuse of freon in total petroleum hydrocarbon analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.; Peterson, S.F.

    1996-04-01

    ADS is using a commercially available solvent reclamation system to recycle 95-97 percent of the Freon used in total petroleum hydrocarbon analyses. ADS has further developed the commercially available solvent reclamation system to accommodate radioactive contaminated Freon. This report establishes the following: validity of the method; success of recycling; and effect of radionuclides in recycling radioactive contaminated Freon. The standard analysis method for determining total petroleum hydrocarbons (commonly known as oil and grease determination) involves solvent extraction of the hydrocarbons using Freon followed by quantitation using infrared detection. This has been the method of choice because it is simple, rugged, inexpensive, and applicable to both solid and liquid samples and to radioactive samples. Due to its deleterious effect on the ozone layer, the use of Freon and other chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs) has been greatly restricted. Freon has become very expensive (800$/liter) and will soon be unavailable entirely. Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon extraction method. These methods include solid-phase extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction all of which use gravimetric determination or infrared analysis of the extracted hydrocarbons. These methods are not as precise or as sensitive as the Freon extraction method, and a larger amount of sample is therefore required due to the decreased sensitivity. The solid phase extraction method cannot accommodate solid samples. Supercritical fluid extraction requires expensive instrumentation. ADS opted to keep the existing Freon method and recycle the solvent. An inexpensive solvent reclamation system was procured to reclaim the spent Freon. This reclaimer removes hydrocarbons from the Freon solvent by passage through an activated carbon bed.

  1. Uptake and trans-membrane transport of petroleum hydrocarbons by microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Fei; Wang, Hong Qi

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-based products are a primary energy source in the industry and daily life. During the exploration, processing, transport and storage of petroleum and petroleum products, water or soil pollution occurs regularly. Biodegradation of the hydrocarbon pollutants by indigenous microorganisms is one of the primary mechanisms of removal of petroleum compounds from the environment. However, the physical contact between microorganisms and hydrophobic hydrocarbons limits the biodegradation rate. This paper presents an updated review of the petroleum hydrocarbon uptake and transport across the outer membrane of microorganisms with the help of outer membrane proteins. PMID:26740752

  2. Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C; Dreyer, N A; Satterfield, M H; Levin, L; Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. To each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of "present" or "absent" were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refinery work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). PMID:8020449

  3. LABORATORY AND FIELD RESULTS LINKING HIGH CONDUCTIVITIES TO THE MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a field and laboratory investigation of unconsolidated sediments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and undergoing natural biodegradation are presented. Fundamental to geophysical investigations of hydrocarbon impacted sediments is the assessment of how microbi...

  4. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH). 2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%). 3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  5. Identification of natural, anthropogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Volkman, J K; Holdsworth, D G; Neill, G P; Bavor, H J

    1992-03-01

    Complex distributions of hydrocarbons occur in most aquatic sediments. Total concentrations can range from a few parts per million in non-polluted intertidal and oceanic areas to parts per thousand in heavily contaminated estuarine, lake and near-shore environments. Iatroscan TLC-FID provides a quick assessment of the total hydrocarbon load, but capillary GC, HPLC and GC-MS are essential for obtaining detailed composition data from which information on possible sources can be derived. Alkenes from microalgae, such as n-C21:6, n-C17:1 and unusual C25 and C30 isoprenoid alkenes, are often the most abundant single components in sedimentary hydrocarbon distributions. Some hydrocarbons are also produced from diagenetic transformation of functionalised lipids present in the sediment. Long-chain alkanes typical of plant waxes can be important constituents, even in marine sediments far from the coast. These distributions display a strong predominance of odd chain lengths, whereas n-alkane distributions in oils usually show little or no predominance of either odd or even chain lengths. However, the presence of this type of distribution in a sediment may not indicate petroleum contamination since biological sources for similar distributions are now recognised. Petroleum-derived residues are common in coastal and estuarine areas, particularly those near urban or industrial centers. This contamination is readily seen in capillary gas chromatograms of the alkanes as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The source of the oil can often be deduced from characteristic distributions of biomarker steranes, rearranged steranes, hopanes and methyl hopanes determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methyl hopanes are major polycyclic alkanes in oils from carbonate source rocks, such as those from the Middle East, but are uncommon in Australian oils. GC-MS fingerprinting techniques show that lubricating oils are a major source of hydrocarbon pollution in many estuaries

  6. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068

  7. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  8. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  9. Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Zhang; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Zhineng; Chen, Cuihong

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to decontaminate soils polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, this technique usually requires a long time due to the slow degradation rate by bacteria. By applying U-tube microbial fuel cells (MFCs) designed here, the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons close to the anode (<1 cm) was enhanced by 120% from 6.9 ± 2.5% to 15.2 ± 0.6% with simultaneous 125 ± 7 C of charge output (0.85 ± 0.05 mW/m(2) , 1 kΩ) in the tested period (25 days). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rate of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was accelerated. The decrease of initial water content from 33% to 28% and 23% resulted in a decrease on charge output and hydrocarbon degradation rate, which could be attributed to the increase of internal resistance. A salt accumulation was observed in each reactor due to the evaporation of water from the air-cathode, possibly inhibited the activity of exoelectrogenic bacteria (EB) and resulted in the elimination of the current at the end of the tested period. The number of hydrocarbon degradation bacteria (HDB) in soil close to the anode increased by nearly two orders of magnitude in the MFC assisted system (373 ± 56 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil) than that in the disconnected control (8 ± 2 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil), providing a solid evidence for in situ biostimulation of HDB growth by colonization of EB in the same system.

  10. Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Zhang; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Zhineng; Chen, Cuihong

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to decontaminate soils polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, this technique usually requires a long time due to the slow degradation rate by bacteria. By applying U-tube microbial fuel cells (MFCs) designed here, the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons close to the anode (<1 cm) was enhanced by 120% from 6.9 ± 2.5% to 15.2 ± 0.6% with simultaneous 125 ± 7 C of charge output (0.85 ± 0.05 mW/m(2) , 1 kΩ) in the tested period (25 days). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rate of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was accelerated. The decrease of initial water content from 33% to 28% and 23% resulted in a decrease on charge output and hydrocarbon degradation rate, which could be attributed to the increase of internal resistance. A salt accumulation was observed in each reactor due to the evaporation of water from the air-cathode, possibly inhibited the activity of exoelectrogenic bacteria (EB) and resulted in the elimination of the current at the end of the tested period. The number of hydrocarbon degradation bacteria (HDB) in soil close to the anode increased by nearly two orders of magnitude in the MFC assisted system (373 ± 56 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil) than that in the disconnected control (8 ± 2 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil), providing a solid evidence for in situ biostimulation of HDB growth by colonization of EB in the same system. PMID:22006588

  11. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  12. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (<3 µg/kg), and well below either the TPH concentration of concern or the expected concentration, assuming no losses. Bioretention areas with deep-root vegetation contained significantly greater quantites of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and two functional genes involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum biomarkers in São Sebastião Channel, Brazil: assessment of petroleum contamination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Denis A M; Bícego, Márcia C

    2010-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons (NAHs), including n-alkanes, isoprenoids and petroleum biomarkers (terpanes, hopanes, steranes and diasteranes), were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors in sediment samples collected from the São Sebastião Channel (SSC), Brazil, where the largest Brazilian maritime petroleum terminal is located. The concentrations of total PAHs, total n-alkanes and petroleum biomarkers ranged from below the detection limits to 370ngg(-1), 28microgg(-1), 2200ngg(-1) (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PAH distribution suggested combustion sources of PAHs as the main input for these compounds with smaller amount from petroleum contamination. The distribution of petroleum biomarkers undoubtedly demonstrated petroleum as a source of anthropogenic contamination throughout the region. The assessment of petrogenic sources of contamination in marine sediment is more challenging if only PAH analysis were carried out, which demonstrates that more stable hydrocarbons such as petroleum biomarkers are useful for investigating potential presence of petroleum.

  14. Bench scale studies of the soil aeration process for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Arthur, M.

    1991-12-31

    An alternative to traditional hydrocarbon bioremediation is to pump air through unsaturated soils to create aerobic conditions and induce biodegradation. This study examines the effects of moisture and nutrient augmentation on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in aerated soils. Findings indicate that forced aeration, coupled with additions of nutrients and moisture, stimulate hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and present a feasible approach to bioremediation management.

  15. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  17. Carbon isotope systematics of individual hydrocarbons in hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough, Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Schoell, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7%, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7 per mill, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.

  18. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D J

    1979-09-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil. PMID:513150

  19. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  20. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of hydrothermally generated petroleum from Escanaba trough, offshore Californi U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, three samples of sulfide-rich sediments, impregnated with hydrothermally derived, asphaltic petroleum, were recovered in a dredge and by submersible from Escanaba Trough, the sediment-covered, southern end of the Gorda Ridge spreading axis, offshore northern California. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in the two pyrrhotite-rich samples recovered by submersible are similar and compare well the hydrocarbon composition of the first pyrrhotite-rich samples containing petroleum discovered at a 1985 dredge site about 30 km to the south of the site of the submersible dive. In contrast, the 1986 dredge sample, composed of a polymetallic assemblage of sulfides, containes petroleum in which the distribution of hydrocarbons indicates a slightly higher of maturity relative to the other samples. The observation that petroleum of variable composition occurs with metallic sulfides at two and probably more distinct site indicates that petroleum generation may be a common process in the hydrothermally active Escanaba Trough. ?? 1990.

  1. Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: oil matrix of constructed biopiles.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Whelan, Michael J; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Villa, Raffaella; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-12-01

    A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC(5-7)). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC(5-6) and EC(6-8)) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC(16-21) and EC(21-35). Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC(5-6) which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

  2. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  3. Use of thermal desorption/gas chromatography as a performance-based screening method for petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, P.J. |; Crandall, K.; Dawson, L.; Kottenstette, R.; Wade, M. |

    1996-08-01

    Thermal desorption/gas chromatography (TD/GC) was used to screen soil samples on site for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content during a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI). It proved to be a rapid, cost- effective tool for detecting non-aromatic mineral oil in soil. The on- site TD/GC results correlated well with those generated at an off- site laboratory for samples analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 418.1.

  4. Validating potential toxicity assays to assess petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in polar soil.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Potential microbial activities are commonly used to assess soil toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and are assumed to be a surrogate for microbial activity within the soil ecosystem. However, this assumption needs to be evaluated for frozen soil, in which microbial activity is limited by liquid water (θ(liquid)). Influence of θ(liquid) on in situ toxicity was evaluated and compared to the toxicity endpoints of potential microbial activities using soil from an aged diesel fuel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica. To determine in situ toxicity, gross mineralization and nitrification rates were determined by the stable isotope dilution technique. Petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)), packed at bulk densities of 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 g cm(-3) to manipulate liquid water content, was incubated at -5°C for one, two, and three months. Although θ(liquid) did not have a significant effect on gross mineralization or nitrification, gross nitrification was sensitive to PHC contamination, with toxicity decreasing over time. In contrast, gross mineralization was not sensitive to PHC contamination. Toxic response of gross nitrification was comparable to potential nitrification activity (PNA) with similar EC25 (effective concentration causing a 25% effect in the test population) values determined by both measurement endpoints (400 mg kg(-1) for gross nitrification compared to 200 mg kg(-1) for PNA), indicating that potential microbial activity assays are good surrogates for in situ toxicity of PHC contamination in polar regions.

  5. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapors In Unsaturated Alluvial Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhener, P.; Duwig, C.; Pasteris, G.; Dakhel, N.; Kaufmann, K.; Werner, D.

    Biodegradation rates are critical parameters in models aimed at predicting the nat- ural attenuation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the unsaturated zone. In this study the kinetic rate laws for the aerobic biodegradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons and MTBE were investigated in unsaturated alluvial sand exposed to the vapors from a fuel mixture. Laboratory column and batch experiments were per- formed at room temperature under aerobic conditions. An analytical reactive transport model for VOC vapors in soil based on Monod kinetics is used for data interpretation. In the column experiment, steady-state diffusive vapor transport was reached after 23 days. Monod kinetic parameters were derived from the column profiles for toluene, m-xylene, octane and hexane. The degradation of cyclic alkanes, isooctane, and 1,2,4- trimethylbenzene was best described by first-order kinetics. MTBE, pentane and chlo- rofluorocarbons were recalcitrant. Batch experiments suggested first-order disappear- ance rate laws for all VOCs except octane, which followed zero-order kinetics. For some compounds including MTBE, disappearance rates in abiotic batch experiments were as high as in live batches. Abiotic disappearance is explained by slow intraparti- cle diffusion and sorption. It is concluded that the column approach is preferable for determining biodegradation rate parameters to be used in risk assessment models.

  6. Methods to assess the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Richard; Schroth, Martin H; Schuermann, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef

    2004-04-01

    Bioremediation has achieved acceptance as a cost-effective technique for the remediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC). A range of laboratory techniques to assess the biodegradability and bioavailability of PHCs are presented. Biodegradability and bioavailability are important determinants of the bioremediation performance of PHCs. Novel methods for the assessment of the bioavailability of PHC components are described. The techniques are demonstrated for a hydraulic fluid and a spindle oil from a contaminated site. Biodegradation is measured by oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Bioavailability of the PHCs is estimated based on the PHC-water partitioning of tracer compounds and a novel analysis of gas chromatograms based on Raoult's law. The PHCs tested were only partially biodegradable (< 25% in 78 d) due to the low solubility and likely recalcitrance of some of their components. The combination of techniques outlined is expected to be of use in assessing the likely bioremediation performance of PHCs for which published data are scarce or inadequate.

  7. Optimisation research of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered drilling wastes from waste pits.

    PubMed

    Steliga, Teresa; Jakubowicz, Piotr; Kapusta, Piotr

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of drilling waste remediation. Analyses and research showed that material stored in waste pits could be classified as soil with a high level of petroleum impurities (total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] = 102,417-132,472 mg kg(-1) dry mass). While preparing the complex technology of soil decontamination (which included primary reclamation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with biopreparations based on indigenous bacteria and fungi), laboratory tests indicated the use of an ex-situ method was fundamental. Remediation was controlled with a chromatographic method of qualitative and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on analytical data, there was the possibility to determine the effectiveness of consecutive purifying phases. Laboratory tests, following 135 days of basic bioremediation stimulated by optimum conditions to activate the growth of indigenous micro-organisms, resulted in a decrease in the TPH content, which was in the range of 52.3-72.5%. The next phase of soil decontamination lasted 135 days and involved the use of inoculation with biopreparations based on indigenous micro-organisms and fungi. This process enabled a TPH decrease of 93.8- 94.3%. Laboratory biodegradation research was done with the use of the biomarker C30-17α(H)21β(H)-hopane to normalize analyte (TPH, Σn-C8-n-C22 and Σn-C23-n-C36) concentrations. The calculated first-order biodegradation constants enable estimation of the purification stage dynamics and the effectiveness of the applied biopreparations. Furthermore, they represent the biodegradation degree of individual n-alkanes in subsequent stages of the soil purification process. PMID:20022901

  8. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" CHEMETRICS, INC., AND AZUR ENVIRONMENTAL LTD REMEDIAID TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON STARTER KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit (RemediAidTm kit) developed by CHEMetries, Inc. (CHEMetrics), and AZUR Environmental Ltd was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the ...

  9. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended.

  10. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended. PMID:25843439

  11. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation and microbial community shift of β-cyclodextrin-dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Du, Maoan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Ma, Wencheng; Zheng, Lina

    2011-03-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) migration of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which is inclusive of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), is an economically beneficial and environmentally friendly remediation process for oil-contaminated soils. Remediation studies of oil-contaminated soils generally prepared samples using particular TPHs. This study investigates the removal of TPHs from, and electromigration of microbial cells in field samples via EK remediation. Both TPH content and soil respiration declined after the EK remediation process. The strains in the original soil sample included Bacillus sp., Sporosarcina sp., Beta proteobacterium, Streptomyces sp., Pontibacter sp., Azorhizobium sp., Taxeobacter sp., and Williamsia sp. Electromigration of microbial cells reduced the biodiversity of the microbial community in soil following EK remediation. At 200 V m(-1) for 10 days, 36% TPH was removed, with a small population of microbial cells flushed out, demonstrating that EK remediation is effective for the present oil-contaminated soils collected in field.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation and microbial community shift of β-cyclodextrin-dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Du, Maoan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Ma, Wencheng; Zheng, Lina

    2011-03-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) migration of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which is inclusive of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), is an economically beneficial and environmentally friendly remediation process for oil-contaminated soils. Remediation studies of oil-contaminated soils generally prepared samples using particular TPHs. This study investigates the removal of TPHs from, and electromigration of microbial cells in field samples via EK remediation. Both TPH content and soil respiration declined after the EK remediation process. The strains in the original soil sample included Bacillus sp., Sporosarcina sp., Beta proteobacterium, Streptomyces sp., Pontibacter sp., Azorhizobium sp., Taxeobacter sp., and Williamsia sp. Electromigration of microbial cells reduced the biodiversity of the microbial community in soil following EK remediation. At 200 V m(-1) for 10 days, 36% TPH was removed, with a small population of microbial cells flushed out, demonstrating that EK remediation is effective for the present oil-contaminated soils collected in field. PMID:21052991

  14. [Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay and effect on quality safety of shellfish].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiang-Ying; Chen, Bi-Juan; Zhou, Ming-Ying; Cui, Zheng-Guo

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater, surface sediments and culture shellfish were investigated in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay from Jan. to Nov. in 2008. Investigation was conducted on the distribution and variation of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and sediments in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay, as well as on the levels and the differences in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations among the shellfish species. In addition, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in the three media was evaluated and the effects of accumulated petroleum hydrocarbon in shellfish on the food safety risk were discussed. The results indicated: 1) Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay were in the range of 3.61 - 98.21 microg/L; the mean values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were in the range of 6.75-25.95 mg/kg; petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in culture shellfish were in the range of 2.14- 42.87 mg/kg; and petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish varied largely among different species, with the mean values in the sequence of clam Venerupis variegata > oyster > scallop; 2) Monthly petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and surface sediments varied significantly in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area, with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater that occurred in July and in August, respectively, and with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in surface sediments that occurred in September and in March, respectively; 3) According to the corresponding evaluation criteria, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in surface sediments in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area was unpolluted but the status in surface seawater was polluted. The culture shellfish was also polluted by petroleum hydrocarbon with different degrees among three species, namely, the

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content..., Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3...

  18. Development of Interspecies Correlation Models for Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the consequences of petroleum products to water column organisms has commonly been hampered by limited acute toxicity data, which exists only for a relatively small number of test species. In this study, we developed petroleum-specific Interspecies Correlation Estimati...

  19. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  20. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Andreas H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Mortensen, Lars; Moldrup, Per

    2010-07-15

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16 m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analysed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered, resulting in an accumulation of pollution within coarse sandy lenses. Air-filled porosity, readily available phosphorous, and the first-order rate constant (k(1)) of benzene obtained from slurry biodegradation experiments were found to depend on geologic sample characterization (P<0.05), while inorganic nitrogen was homogenously distributed across the soil stratigraphy. Semivariogram analysis showed a spatial continuity of 4-8.6 m in the vertical direction, while it was 2-5 times greater in the horizontal direction. Values of k(1) displayed strong spatial autocorrelation. Even so, the soil potential for biodegradation was highly variable, which from autoregressive state-space modeling was partly explained by changes in soil air-filled porosity and gravimetric water content. The results suggest considering biological heterogeneity when evaluating the fate of contaminants in the subsurface. PMID:20363074

  1. Anthropogenic influences on hydrocarbon contents of sediments deposited in eastern Lake Ontario since 1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonniere, R. A.; Meyers, P. A.

    1996-07-01

    The amounts and types of extractable hydrocarbon components in sediment cores from the Rochester Basin of eastern Lake Ontario provide a record of environmental changes that have accompanied the settlement and population growth of the surrounding land areas. Sediments deposited prior to the mid-1800s contain low concentrations of hydrocarbons that are dominated by land-plant wax components. Concentrations begin to rise in the late 1800s as erosion of soil and nutrients from watershed areas accelerated. This pattern continues into modern times. Episodes of enhanced aquatic productivity are sometimes recorded in twentieth-century sediments by the dominance of algal hydrocarbons, but land-plant components typically predominate. Petroleum residues begin to appear in sediments deposited in the late 1800's but remain minor constituents of the hydrocarbon contents of modern sediments in the Rochester Basin.

  2. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Sforzolini, G S; Viola, V; Fagioli, F

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests (with TA98 and TA100 strains) were performed on both industrial ingredients (pitch and coke) and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples (especially with strain TA98); (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens (without metabolic activation) which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  3. Changes in toxicity during in situ bioremediation of weathered drill wastes contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Steliga, Teresa; Jakubowicz, Piotr; Kapusta, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation of weathered drill wastes severely contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (90,000-170,000 mg kg(-1)) and BTEX (51.2-95.5 mg kg(-1)) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period in three phases: initial remediation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation. Fourteen non-pathogenic indigenous bacteria species belonging mainly to the Actinomycetales were identified and shown to be able to degrade 63-75% of nC(9)-nC(20), 36-51% of nC(21)-nC(36), 36% of BTEX and 20% of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Addition of five non-pathogenic fungi species to the bacterial consortium allowed degradation of 69-89% of nC(9)-nC(20), 47-80% of nC(21)-nC(36), 76% of BTEX, and 68% of PAHs. Microtox, Ostacodtoxkit, Phytotoxkit and Ames tests indicated that changes in toxicity were not connected with the decrease in TPH contents, possibly due to the formation of toxic indirect metabolites during bioremediation. No toxicity was found in the soil after bioremediation.

  4. A simple method for calculating growth rates of petroleum hydrocarbon plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Curtis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of aquifer Fe(III) during biodegradation of ground water contaminants may result in expansion of a contaminant plume, changing the outlook for monitored natural attenuation. Data from two research sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons show that toluene and xylenes degrade under methanogenic conditions, but the benzene and ethylbenzene plumes grow as aquifer Fe(III) supplies are depleted. By considering a one-dimensional reaction front in a constant unidirectional flow field, it is possible to derive a simple expression for the growth rate of a benzene plume. The method balances the mass flux of benzene with the Fe(III) content of the aquifer, assuming that the biodegradation reaction is instantaneous. The resulting expression shows that the benzene front migration is retarded relative to the ground water velocity by a factor that depends on the concentrations of hydrocarbon and bioavailable Fe(III). The method provides good agreement with benzene plumes at a crude oil study site in Minnesota and a gasoline site in South Carolina. Compared to the South Carolina site, the Minnesota site has 25% higher benzene flux but eight times the Fe(III), leading to about one-sixth the expansion rate. Although it was developed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, the growth-rate estimation method may have applications to contaminant plumes from other persistent contaminant sources. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Hang; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Na; Bao, Suriguge

    2014-07-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing strains designated as BS-1, BS-3, and BS-4 were screened out from crude oil-contaminated soil using a combination of surface tension measurement and oil spreading method. Thin layer chromatography and infrared analysis indicated that the biosurfactants produced by the three strains were lipopeptide, glycolipid, and phospholipid. The enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater employing biosurfactant-producing strains was investigated. The three strain mixtures led to more solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater, and the solubilization rate was 10.5 mg l−1. The combination of biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains exhibited a higher biodegradation efficiency of 85.4 % than the petroleum-degrading strains (71.2 %). Biodegradation was enhanced the greatest with biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains in a ratio of 1:1. Fluorescence microscopy images illustrate that the oil dispersed into smaller droplets and emulsified in the presence of biosurfactant-producing strains, which attached to the oil. Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was enhanced.

  6. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  7. Field study of in situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on site using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-15

    Many laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested that remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by microwave heating is very effective; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale microwave heating system to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. A constant microwave power of 2 kW was installed directly in the contaminated area that applied in the decontamination process for 3.5h without water input. The C10-C40 hydrocarbons were destroyed, desorbed or co-evaporated with moisture from soil by microwave heating. The moisture may play an important role in the absorption of microwave and in the distribution of heat. The success of this study paved the way for the second and much larger field test in the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by microwave heating in place. Implemented in its full configuration for the first time at a real site, the microwave heating has demonstrated its robustness and cost-effectiveness in cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil in place. Economically, the concept of the microwave energy supply to the soil would be a network of independent antennas which powered by an individual low power microwave generator. A microwave heating system with low power generators shows very flexible, low cost and imposes no restrictions on the number and arrangement of the antennas.

  8. Hydrocarbons in Victorian coastal ecosystems (Australia): chronic petroleum inputs to Western Port and Port Phillip Bays.

    PubMed

    Burns, K A; Smith, J L

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the impact of current land use practices, to provide data on which to base recommendations for petroleum discharge regulations, and to develop reliable methods for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution in Victorian coastal waters. Analyses of sediments and mussels were used to identify areas of chronic contamination and probable sources. A mussel transplant experiment detailed the movement of major industrial effluents. petroleum hydrocarbons varied from non-detectable to maximum values of 30 mg/g lipid in areas near points of continuous discharge. Problem areas were identified where tissue levels of hydrocarbons in mussels consistently exceeded 4 mg/g lipid and petroleum buildup was evident in sediments. Differences in chemical composition of hydrocarbons in various ecosystem components reflected biogeochemical processes acting to disperse, degrade, and transport hydrocarbons discharged into coastal waters. Results showed Port Phillip Bay is subject to much larger and more complex discharges of petroleum-containing wastes than Western Port from both discrete ship and shore-based inputs and from diffuse urban/industrial inputs, including surface run-off and atmospheric precipitation.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 63° -260 °C, as determined by ASTM method D86..., disregarding the last sentence of that procedure. For hydrocarbons boiling below 121 °C, the nonvolatile... Volatile Solvents for Use in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products;” for those boiling above 121...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 63° -260 °C, as determined by ASTM method D86..., disregarding the last sentence of that procedure. For hydrocarbons boiling below 121 °C, the nonvolatile... Volatile Solvents for Use in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products;” for those boiling above 121...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 63° -260 °C, as determined by ASTM method D86..., disregarding the last sentence of that procedure. For hydrocarbons boiling below 121 °C, the nonvolatile... Volatile Solvents for Use in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products;” for those boiling above 121...

  12. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    These two sites illustrate how the efficiency of natural attenuation processes acting on petroleum hydrocarbons can be systematically evaluated using hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiologic methods.  These methods, in turn, can be used to assess the role that the natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons can play in achieving overall site remediation.

  13. Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

  14. Bacterial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon amendments in freshwater, marine, and hypersaline water-containing microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-10-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

  15. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  16. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for analyzing extractable petroleum hydrocarbons in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Stacy K; Bandurski, Steven V; Brown, Robert G; McCurry, James D; Seeley, John V

    2007-01-01

    A flow-switching two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) apparatus has been constructed that can operate at temperatures as high as 340 degrees C. This system is employed to analyze complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as diesel fuel, gas-oil, motor oil, and petroleum contaminated environmental samples. The GCxGC system generates two-dimensional chromatograms with minimal overlap between the aliphatic and aromatic regions This allows these compound classes to be independently quantitated without prior fractionation. The GCxGC system is used to analyze extracts of spiked water samples, wastewater, and soil. The accuracy of the method is compared to that of the Massachusetts Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (MA EPH) method. The GCxGC system generates a quantitative accuracy similar to the MA EPH method for the analysis of spiked water samples. The GCxGC method and the MA EPH method generate comparable levels of total hydrocarbons when wastewater is analyzed, but the GCxGC method detects a significantly higher aromatic content and lower aliphatic content. Both the GCxGC method and MA EPH method measure comparable levels of aromatics in the soil samples. PMID:18078573

  17. Potential of phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2014-05-01

    Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in colonized and un-colonized sediments by salt marsh plants Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis collected in a temperate estuary was investigated during a 5-month greenhouse experiment. The efficiency of two bioremediation treatments namely biostimulation (BS) by the addition of nutrients, and bioaugmentation (BA) by addition of indigenous microorganisms was tested in comparison with hydrocarbon natural attenuation in un-colonized and with rhizoremediation in colonized sediments. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and root biomass were assessed as well as hydrocarbon degradation levels. During the study, hydrocarbon degradation in un-colonized sediments was negligible regardless of treatments. Rhizoremediation proved to be an effective strategy for hydrocarbon removal, yielding high rates in most experiments. However, BS treatments showed a negative effect on the J. maritimus potential for hydrocarbon degradation by decreasing the root system development that lead to lower degradation rates. Although both plants and their associated microorganisms presented a potential for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated salt marsh sediments, results highlighted that nutrient requirements may be distinct among plant species, which should be accounted for when designing cleanup strategies.

  18. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for solvent..., Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3 1% Xylene,...

  20. Movement of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy coastal soils.

    PubMed

    Daniels, R; Davies, J; Gravell, A; Rowland, P

    2000-12-01

    In a field trial, oiled beach sand was buried in a coastal dune system in south Wales. A monitoring programme was designed to assess the rate of leaching of inorganic ions and hydrocarbons from the deposit. Active breakdown of the weathered oil occurred within the oiled beach sand, but hydrocarbons from the original material, or arising as a result of degradation, did not follow the same leaching pattern as inorganic ions; they remained within the original deposit. The results suggest that weathered oil coming ashore from spills at sea can be mixed with sand and buried to degrade in coastal soils, without risk of groundwater contamination by hydrocarbons.

  1. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and... 40 CFR part 180 and in this part. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic...

  2. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and... 40 CFR part 180 and in this part. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic...

  3. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and... 40 CFR part 180 and in this part. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic...

  4. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and... 40 CFR part 180 and in this part. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic...

  5. 40 CFR 180.526 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues. (a) General. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons complying with 21 CFR 172.882 (a) and... 40 CFR part 180 and in this part. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic...

  6. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  7. CONDUCTIVITY PROFILE RATE OF CHANGE FROM FIELD AND LABORATORY DATA WITHIN BIODEGRADING PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation...

  8. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory



    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County...

  9. LABORATORY AND FIELD RESULTS LINKING HIGH CONDUCTIVITIES TO THE MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a l6-month field and l6-month meso-scale laboratory investigation of unconsolidated sandy environments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons that are undergoing natural biodegradation is presented. The purpose was to understand the processes responsible for causin...

  10. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  12. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  13. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in the Vadose Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are two major impediments to a better understanding of the influence of biodegradation on the risk of intrusion of petroleum vapors. We describe the contribution of biodegradation as an attenuation factor between the source and the receptor. The use of attenuation factors...

  14. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  15. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  16. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  17. Mapping the petroleum system - An investigative technique to explore the hydrocarbon fluid system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Dow, W.G.

    2000-01-01

    Creating a petroleum system map includes a series of logical steps that require specific information to explain the origin in time and space of discovered hydrocarbon occurrences. If used creatively, this map provides a basis on which to develop complementary plays and prospects. The logical steps include the characterization of a petroleum system (that is, to identify, map, and name the hydrocarbon fluid system) and the summary of these results on a folio sheet. A petroleum system map is based on the understanding that there are several levels of certainty from "guessing" to "knowing" that specific oil and gas accumulations emanated from a particular pod of active source rock. Levels of certainty start with the close geographic proximity of two or more accumulations, continues with the close stratigraphic proximity, followed by the similarities in bulk properties, and then detailed geochemical properties. The highest level of certainty includes the positive geochemical correlation of the hydrocarbon fluid in the accumulations to the extract of the active source rock. A petroleum system map is created when the following logic is implemented. Implementation starts when the oil and gas accumulations of a petroleum province are grouped stratigraphically and geographically. Bulk and geochemical properties are used to further refine the groups through the determination of genetically related oil and gas types. To this basic map, surface seeps and well shows are added. Similarly, the active source rock responsible for these hydrocarbon occurrences are mapped to further define the extent of the system. A folio sheet constructed for a hypothetical case study of the Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system illustrates this methodology.

  18. The role of biodegradation in limiting the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in raingarden soils.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Gregory H; Hozalski, Raymond M; Novak, Paige J

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that raingardens are effective at removing petroleum hydrocarbons from stormwater. There are concerns, however, that petroleum hydrocarbons could accumulate in raingarden soil, potentially resulting in liability for the site owner. In this work, 75 soil samples were collected from 58 raingardens and 4 upland (i.e., control) sites in the Minneapolis, Minnesota area, representing a range of raingarden ages and catchment land uses. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the samples were quantified, as were 16S rRNA genes for Bacteria and two functional genes that encode for enzymes used in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. TPH levels in all of the raingarden soil samples were low (<3 μg/kg) and not significantly different from one another. The TPH concentration in raingarden soil samples was, however, significantly greater (p ≤ 0.002) than TPH levels in upland sites. In addition, the number of copies of Bacteria 16S rRNA genes and functional genes were greater in the raingardens planted with deeply-rooted natives and cultivars than in raingardens containing simply turf grass or mulch (p < 0.036), suggesting that planted raingardens may be better able to assimilate TPH inputs. The ability of microorganisms present in the soil samples to degrade a representative petroleum hydrocarbon (naphthalene) was also investigated in batch experiments. A sub-set of the field sites was selected for re-sampling, and all soil samples tested (n = 8) were able to mineralize naphthalene. In these experiments the initial mineralization rate correlated with the number of copies of Bacteria 16S rRNA genes present.

  19. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition. PMID:23202642

  20. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.

  1. Petroleum alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction - A comprehensive molecular study of aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Clifford C.; Wang, Frank C.; Qian, Kuangnan; Wu, Chunping; Mennito, Anthony S.; Wei, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alters petroleum composition as it proceeds towards the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. The effects of TSR on the molecular and isotopic composition of volatile species are well known; however, the non-volatile higher molecular weight aromatic and polar species have not been well documented. To address this deficiency, a suite of onshore Gulf coast oils and condensates generated from and accumulating in Smackover carbonates was assembled to include samples that experienced varying levels of TSR alteration and in reservoir thermal cracking. The entire molecular composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO species were characterized and semi-quantified using comprehensive GC × GC (FID and CSD) and APPI-FTICR-MS. The concentration of thiadiamondoids is a reliable indicator of the extent of TSR alteration. Once generated by TSR, thiadiamondoids remain thermally stable in all but the most extreme reservoir temperatures (>180 °C). Hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions are influenced by thermal cracking and TSR. With increasing TSR alteration, oils become enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and the distribution of high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons shifts towards more condensed species with a decrease in the number of alkyl carbons. Organosulfur compounds are created by the TSR process. In addition to the increase in benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes noted in previous studies, TSR generates condensed species containing one or more sulfur atoms that likely are composed of a single or multiple thiophenic cores. We hypothesize that these species are generated from the partial oxidation of PAHs and dealkylation reactions, followed by sulfur incorporation and condensation reactions. The organosulfur species remaining in the TSR altered oils are "proto-solid bitumen" moieties that upon further condensation, oxidation or sulfur incorporation result in highly sulfur enriched solid bitumen, which is

  2. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  3. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas--liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  4. Diagenesis of metabolites and a discussion of the origin of petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly degraded to compounds of no direct interest in the problem of the origin of petroleum. Lignin, if carried into marine basins in the form of humic substances, is probably the major progenitor of kerogen rather than the precursor of petroleum. Pigments are but minor contributors to petroleum. The fate of fatty acids in a marine environment is not completely understood. Although they may not be directly decarboxylated biochemically, it is shown how they can be converted into oxygenated or dehydrogenated acids more reactive than the parent compounds. Illustrations are also given for Diels-Alder reactions that could account for the formation from these compounds of the alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum. It is most likely that crude oil is generated in sediments containing concentrations of lipids, the character of which governs the nature of the oil that is formed. ?? 1960.

  5. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following specifications: Boiling point 63° -260 °C, as determined by ASTM method D86-82, “Standard Method... sentence of that procedure. For hydrocarbons boiling below 121 °C, the nonvolatile residue shall be... in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products;” for those boiling above 121 °C, ASTM...

  6. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons containing antioxidants shall meet the specified ultraviolet absorbance limits after correction for any absorbance due to the antioxidants. The ultraviolet absorbance shall be determined by the... antioxidants authorized for use in food in an amount not to exceed that reasonably required to accomplish...

  7. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Organic and petroleum chemistry for nonchemists

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerling, L.

    1981-01-01

    A nontechnical book dealing with organic and petroleum chemistry is presented. The contents include: elements and compounds; hydrocarbons; equations; alcohols and phenols; aldehydes; ketones; carboxylic acids; esters; acid halides; amides, and anhydrides; petroleum; and a glossary of compounds. (JMT)

  9. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers <12 were much easier to lose in contrast to the n-alkanes with high carbon numbers. With n-octadecane/phytane as index for the weathering rate of oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  10. Analysis and stability of mercury speciation in petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bloom, N S

    2000-03-01

    Raw petroleum and natural gas often contain high concentrations of mercury, which can be damaging to the metal components of production facilities, as well as to the environment. Various Hg species have different properties in terms of mobility, reactivity and bioavailability. Thus, for cost-effective decisions regarding plant design, Hg extraction, and pollution control, speciation information must be available at the production facility. In this paper, a simple, wet chemical speciation method, which provides data on Hg(o), dissolved and particulate total Hg, Hg(II), and methyl Hg is presented. The method incorporates species-specific extraction and separation procedures, followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). For each species, detection limits of approximately 0.1 ng/g were obtained. Storage experiments in various containers showed that organo-mercury species were stable for at least 30 days in all containers except those made of polyethylene; and Hg(o) was stable in all containers except those made of stainless steel or polyethylene. Hg(II) was rapidly lost from all containers except those made of aluminum, which rapidly converted it to Hg(o), which was stable. In general, most of the total Hg in petroleum products was particulate Hg, followed by dissolved Hg(II) and Hg(o). Sub-ng/g concentrations of methyl-Hg were observed in most samples.

  11. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    PubMed Central

    Fathepure, Babu Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles. PMID:24795705

  12. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in engineered biopiles in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Whelan, M J; Coulon, F; Hince, G; Rayner, J; McWatters, R; Spedding, T; Snape, I

    2015-07-01

    A dynamic multi-media model that includes temperature-dependency for partitioning and degradation was developed to predict the behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons during biopiling at low temperature. The activation energy (Ea) for degradation was derived by fitting the Arrhenius equation to hydrocarbon concentrations from temperature-controlled soil mesocosms contaminated with crude oil and diesel. The model was then applied to field-scale biopiles containing soil contaminated with diesel and kerosene at Casey Station, Antarctica. Temporal changes of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were very well described and predictions for individual hydrocarbon fractions were generally acceptable (disparity between measured and predicted concentrations was less than a factor two for most fractions). Biodegradation was predicted to be the dominant loss mechanism for all but the lightest aliphatic fractions, for which volatilisation was most important. Summertime losses were significant, resulting in TPH concentrations which were about 25% of initial concentrations just 1 year after the start of treatment. This contrasts with the slow rates often reported for hydrocarbons in situ and suggests that relatively simple remediation techniques can be effective even in Antarctica.

  13. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  14. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  15. Identification of ester metabolites from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in groundwater using GC×GC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Mohler, Rachel E; Zemo, Dawn A; Ahn, Sungwoo; Tiwary, Asheesh K; Magaw, Renae I; Devine, Catalina Espino; Synowiec, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to understand the nature and toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation metabolites, 2-dimensional gas chromatography linked to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used to conduct nontargeted analysis of the extracts of 61 groundwater samples collected from 10 fuel release sites. An unexpected result was the tentative identification of 197 unique esters. Although esters are known to be part of specific hydrocarbon degradative pathways, they are not commonly considered or evaluated in field studies of petroleum biodegradation. In addition to describing the compounds identified, the present study discusses the role for nontargeted analysis in environmental studies. Overall, the low toxicological profile of the identified esters, along with the limited potential for exposure, renders them unlikely to pose any significant health risk.

  16. Effect of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons on monogeneids parasitizing Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    Fish gills appear to be more susceptible than other tissues to toxicants. The latter include petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, which can induce lesions characterized by excessive mucus secretion, hyperplasia, fusion of secondary gill lamellae and capillary dilation. Fish are also natural hosts to several species of ectoparasites, especially monogeneans which live among the gill filaments. A previous study on the interrelation of water quality, gill parasites and gill pathology provided evidence that fish living in habitats degraded by pollutants such as Biscayne Bay, Florida, were heavily infested with monogeneids especially when gill lesions were severe. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are hosts to monogeneans. The authors reported previously that crude oil fractions induced gill lesions in cod and also affected some gastrointestinal parasites. In the light of these reports, a study was undertaken to ascertain whether any relationship existed between gill lesions and gill parasites in cod following chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  17. Ex situ soil VES/bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, D.W.; Patras, L.E.; Bayliss, R.

    1994-12-31

    Over 60 years of refining operations resulted in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater at the 74-acre former Golden Eagle Refinery in Carson, California, considered to be the largest Superfund site in the state. Successful negotiations with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control resulted in the use of a phased approach, separating the soil and groundwater remediation activities. This paper discusses the remediation program for the ex situ vapor extraction system (VES) and bioremediation of almost 1.4 million cubic yards of petroleum hydrocarbon-impacted soil. The remediation program included four treatment units encompassing 17 acres which were stacked approximately 30 feet high in 18-inch treatment layers.

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  19. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  20. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates.

  1. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible.

  2. Cultivation of a bacterial consortium with the potential to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon using waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Song, Y C; Kim, S H; Jang, S H

    2015-11-01

    Waste activated sludge was aerobically treated to demonstrate multiple uses such as cultivating an oil degrading bacterial consortium; studying the influence of a bulking agent (peat moss) and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on bacterial growth and producing a soil conditioner using waste activated sludge. After 30 days of incubation, the concentration of oil-degrading bacteria was 4.3 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) and 4.5 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) for 5 and 10 g of total petroleum hydrocarbon, respectively, in a mixture of waste activated sludge (1 kg) and peat moss (0.1 kg). This accounts for approximately 88.4 and 91.1%, respectively, of the total heterotrophic bacteria (total-HB). The addition of bulking agent enhanced total-HB population and total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. Over 90% of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was achieved by the mixture of waste activated sludge, bulking agent and total petroleum hydrocarbon. The results of physico-chemical parameters of the compost (waste activated sludge with and without added peat moss compost) and a substantial reduction in E. coli showed that the use of this final product did not exhibit risk when used as soil conditioner. Finally, the present study demonstrated that cultivation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium and production of compost from waste activated sludge by aerobic treatment was feasible. PMID:26688976

  3. Stripping volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons from water by tray aeration

    SciTech Connect

    Labranche, D.F.; Collins, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and petroleum products are ubiquitous groundwater contaminants. Petroleum products, e.g., diesel fuel, contain a wide array of volatile, semivolatile, and long chain hydrocarbon compounds. This research sought to determine whether air stripping can provide a site specific treatment solution for petroleum contaminated groundwaters and to document the abilities and limitations of tray type (Shallow Tray) air stripping technology. Full factorial experimental trials were conducted to determine the influence of inlet water flow rate and temperature on trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal. As expected, TPH removal controlled air stripper performance, and liquid temperature affected removal more than flow rate. The mass transfer rate of TCE and PCE from water to air was controlled by the compound`s volatility, while the TPH mass transfer rate was controlled by the compound`s concentration gradient. Results indicate that economical air stripping of VOC and TPH compounds can be achieved using low liquid flow rates (20-75 L/min) and medium liquid temperatures (16-28 deg C) in tray type air strippers.

  4. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  5. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Regine; Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen; Broll, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for stimulating the biodegradation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons was tested under the application of two fertilizer levels. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were significantly reduced. As for fertilization, the lower fertilizer level led to higher biomass production. The specific root surface area was reduced under the effects of petroleum. However, vetiver was found to tolerate crude-oil contamination in a concentration of 5% (w/w). Concerning total oil and grease content in soil, no significant decrease under the influence of vetiver was detected when compared to the unplanted control. Thus, there was no evidence of vetiver enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil in soil under the conditions of this trial. However, uses of vetiver grass in relation to petroleum-contaminated soils are promising for amelioration of slightly polluted sites, to allow other species to get established and for erosion control.

  6. Responses of the sandprawn Callianassa kraussi to petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    As a burrowing, estuarine crustacean, Callianassa kraussi is considered to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of contamination by oil. In this study therefore, its responses to lethal and sublethal levels of a water-soluble fraction of Quater crude oil were investigated. Lethal toxicities for 96-hour exposures under flow-through conditions, at a salinity of 35 per thousand, were 3.26, 4.51, and 5.08 ppm for juveniles, and adult females and males respectively. Static determinations were considered to be unreliable due to rapid evaporation of the lighter aromatic components. Comparison of the sensitivity of the various life history stages was, therefore, inconclusive. C. kraussi showed very limited mortality in response to oil-contaminated sediments. Sublethal levels of oil were found to have a fairly drastic impact on reproductive success of C. kraussi. Effects included an increase in the occurrence of abnormal embyros; reduced hatching success, and a decline in the number of larvae successfully completing development to the juvenile stage. Exposed larvae also showed delayed moulting. The extent of these responses was related to both the oil concentration, and the duration of exposure. Bioaccumulation studies showed that C. kraussi took up hydrocarbons extremely rapidly, and continued to accumulate them more or less throughout the exposure period. Levels of uptake were related to both the concentration and duration of exposure, and were highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. Depuration resulted in only limited loss of accumulated compounds.

  7. Transport and Degradation of Semivolatile Hydrocarbons in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer, Bemidji, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were used as probes to identify the processes controlling the transport and fate of aqueous semivolatile hydrocarbons (SVHCs) in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. PAH and other SVHCs were isolated from ground water by field solid-phase extraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Close to the oil body, aqueous aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions are substantially different from the parent oil, suggesting microbial alteration prior to or during dissolution. Aqueous PAH concentrations are elevated above oil-water equilibrium concentrations directly beneath the oil and decrease dramatically at distances ranging from the 25 to 65 m downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body. Variations in downgradient distributions of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene, coupled with their biodegradation, partitioning and volatility characteristics, suggest that the PAH are useful probes for distinguishing between the biogeochemical processes affecting SVHC transport and persistence in ground water.

  8. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of nickel and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Oyetibo, Ganiyu Oladunjoye; Ilori, Matthew Olusoji; Obayori, Oluwafemi Sunday; Amund, Olukayode Oladipo

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation of environments co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals often pose a challenge as heavy metals exert toxicity to existing communities of hydrocarbon degraders. Multi-resistant bacterial strains were studied for ability to degrade hydrocarbons in chemically defined media amended with 5.0 mM Ni(2+), and Co(2+). The bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CA207Ni, Burkholderia cepacia AL96Co, and Corynebacterium kutscheri FL108Hg, utilized crude oil and anthracene without lag phase at specific growth rate spanning 0.3848-0.8259 per day. The bacterial populations grew in hydrocarbon media amended with nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) at 0.8393-1.801 days generation time (period of exponential growth, t = 15 days). The bacteria degraded 96.24-98.97, and 92.94-96.24% of crude oil, and anthracene, respectively, within 30 days without any impedance due to metal toxicity (at 5.0 mM). Rather, there was reduction of Ni and Co concentrations in the axenic culture 30 days post-inoculation to 0.08-0.12 and 0.11-0.15 mM, respectively. The metabolic functions of the bacteria are active in the presence of toxic metals (Ni and Co) while utilizing petroleum hydrocarbons for increase in biomass. These findings are useful to other baseline studies on decommissioning of sites co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and toxic metals.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  10. Microbial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone at the experimental field site Vaerløse, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Karin; Christophersen, Mette; Buttler, Alexandre; Harms, Hauke; Höhener, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of petroleum hydrocarbons on a microbial community in the vadose zone under field conditions. An artificial hydrocarbon mixture consisting of volatile and semi-volatile compounds similar to jet-fuel was emplaced in a previously uncontaminated vadose zone in nutrient-poor glacial melt water sand. The experiment included monitoring of microbial parameters and CO(2) concentrations in soil gas over 3 months in and outside the hydrocarbon vapor plume that formed around the buried petroleum. Microbial and chemical analyses of soil and vadose zone samples were performed on samples from cores drilled to 3.3 m depth on three dates and three lateral distances from the buried petroleum mass. Significantly elevated CO(2) concentrations were observed after contamination. Total cell numbers as determined by fluorescence microscopy were strongly correlated with soil organic carbon and nitrogen content but varied little with contamination. Redundancy analysis (RDA) allowed direct analysis of effects of selected environmental variables or the artificial contamination on microbiological parameters. Variation in biomass and CO(2) production was explained by soil parameters, to 46%, and by the duration of contamination, to 39.8%. The microbial community structure was assessed by community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis using Biolog(TM) Eco-Plates. In the CLPP data only 35.9% of the variation could be linked to soil parameters and contamination, however, the samples with greatest exposure to hydrocarbons grouped together on RDA plots. It is concluded that, at this nutrient-poor site, the microbial community was dominated by natural heterogeneity and that the influence of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors was weak.

  11. QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

  12. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem. PMID:19245286

  13. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface water of two estuaries in the Southeastern united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Castleberry, A. A.; Foreman, W. T.; Zaranski, M. T.; Wall, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Surface water samples from Charleston Harbor, SC and Winyah Bay, SC were analysed for total hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) and for petroleum residues (expressed as crude oil equivalents) by fluorescence spectrometry. Cleanup by column chromatography and saponification was necessary to reduce the background from extraneous fluorescing materials. Oil concentrations determined by FS ranged from 0·5-25 μg l -1 in Charleston Harbor and <0·23-9·6 μg l -1 in Winyah Bay. Hydrocarbons determined by GC were significantly correlated ( P < 0·01) with crude oil equivalents determined by FS, but the data showed considerable scatter as indicated by r2 = 0·45. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry for one set of Winyah Bay samples. The sum of nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having ≥ 3 rings ranged from 7-64 ng l -1 at different stations. Perylene, possibly originating from sediment dredging, was one of the more abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

  16. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  17. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems. PMID:27318763

  18. Changes in bacterial communities from anaerobic digesters during petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Kerstin E; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Klose, Viviana; Bochmann, Günther; Loibner, Andreas P

    2012-02-20

    Anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) to methane has been recognized to occur in oil reservoirs and contaminated surface sites alike. This process could be employed efficiently for the treatment of contaminated materials, including petrochemical wastes and PHC-contaminated soil, since no external electron acceptor is required. Moreover, the controlled production of methane in digestion plants, similarly to the anaerobic digestion (AD) of energy crops or organic residues, would enable for energy recovery from these wastes. At present, little is known about the bacterial communities involved in and responsible for hydrocarbon fermentation, the initial step in PHC conversion to methane. In the present study, the fate of two different methanogenic communities derived from the AD of wastewater (WWT) and of biowaste, mixed with PHC-contaminated soil (SWT), was monitored during incubation with PHC using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA genes amplified with Bacteria-specific primers. During 11 months of incubation, slight but significant degradation of PHC occurred in both sludges and distinct bacterial communities were developing. In both sludges, Bacteroidetes were found. In addition, in WWT, the bacterial community was found to be dominated by Synergistetes and Proteobacteria, while Firmicutes and unidentified members were abundant in SWT. These results indicate that bacterial communities from anaerobic digesters can adapt to and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. The decontamination of PHC-containing waste via fermentative treatment appears possible.

  19. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  20. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems.

  1. Monitored natural attenuation of a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a case study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Ravi; Nandy, Subhas; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kumar, R P; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu; Chen, Zuliang; Bowman, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater at a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site in Australia. Source characterization revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the major contaminant of concern in the smear zone and groundwater. Multiple lines of evidence involving the geochemical parameters, microbiological analysis, data modelling and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis all demonstrated natural attenuation of hydrocarbons occurring in the groundwater via intrinsic biodegradation. Groundwater monitoring data by Mann-Kendall trend analysis using properly designed and installed groundwater monitoring wells shows the plume is stable and neither expanding nor shrinking. The reason for stable plume is due to the presence of both active source and natural attenuation on the edge of the plume. Assuming no retardation and no degradation the contaminated plume would have travelled a distance of 1,096 m (best case) to 11,496 m (worst case) in 30 years. However, the plume was extended only up to about 170 m from its source. The results of these investigations provide strong scientific evidence for natural attenuation of TPH in this contaminated aquifer. Therefore, MNA can be applied as a defensible management option for this site following significant reduction of TPH in the source zone.

  2. Risk-based evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in vapor intrusion studies.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark

    2013-06-13

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  3. Risk-based evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in vapor intrusion studies.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum. PMID:23765191

  4. Effects of humic acid on phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Kim, Ki Seob; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kang, Daeseok; Sung, Kijune

    2011-01-01

    The use of humic acid (HA) to enhance the efficiency of phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel was evaluated in this study. A sample of soil was artificially contaminated with commercially available diesel fuel to an initial total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 2300 mg/kg and four heavy metals with concentrations of 400 mg/kg for Pb, 200 mg/kg for Cu, 12 mg/kg for Cd, and 160 mg/kg for Ni. Three plant species, Brassica campestris, Festuca arundinacea, and Helianthus annuus, were selected for the phytodegradation experiment. Percentage degradation of TPH in the soil in a control pot supplemented with HA increased to 45% from 30% without HA. The addition of HA resulted in an increases in the removal of TPH from the soil in pots planted with B. campestris, E arundinacea, and H. annuus, enhancing percentage degradation to 86%, 64%, and 85% from 45%, 54%, and 66%, respectively. The effect of HA was also observed in the degradation of n-alkanes within 30 days. The rates of removal of n-alkanes in soil planted with B. campestris and H. annuus were high for n-alkanes in the range of C11-C28. A dynamic increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed during the last 15 days of a 30-day experimental period in all the pots amended with HA. The enhanced biodegradation performance for TPHs observed might be due to an increase in microbial activities and bioavailable TPH in soils caused by combined effects of plants and HA. The results suggested that HA could act as an enhancing agent for phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel and heavy metals. PMID:22432335

  5. Total petroleum hydrocarbon distribution in soils and groundwater in Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Dan; Song, Liuting; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in groundwater and soil, a total of 71 groundwater samples (26 unconfined groundwater samples, 37 confined groundwater samples, and 8 deeper confined groundwater samples) and 80 soil samples were collected in the Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China, and the vertical variation and spatial variability of TPH in groundwater and soil were assessed. For the groundwater from the unconfined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in three samples, and for the other 23 samples, concentrations were in the range 0.01-1.74 mg/l. In the groundwater from the confined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in two samples, and in the other 35 samples, the concentrations were 0.04-0.82 mg/l. The TPH concentration in unconfined aquifer may be influenced by polluted surface water and polluted soil; for confined aquifer, the injection wells leakage and left open hole wells may be mainly responsible for the pollution. For soils, the concentrations of TPH varied with sampling depth and were 0-15 cm (average concentration, 0.63 mg/g), >40-55 cm (average concentration, 0.36 mg/g), >100-115 cm (average concentration, 0.29 mg/g), and >500-515 cm (average concentration, 0.26 mg/g). The results showed that oil spillage and losses were possibly the main sources of TPH in soil. The consequences concluded here suggested that counter measures such as remediation and long-term monitoring should be commenced in the near future, and effective measures should be taken to assure that the oilfields area would not be a threat to human health.

  6. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  7. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-04-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  8. The origin of light hydrocarbons in petroleum: A kinetic test of the steady-state catalytic hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D. )

    1990-05-01

    A kerogen-specific, steady-state catalytic process is proposed for the origin of light hydrocarbons in petroleum. The postulated parent-daughter scheme predicts a unique invariance in a ratio of isoheptanes and dimethylcyclopentanes. In theory this ratio should remain constant over the entire lifetime of a source-rock generating petroleum. To test this hypothesis, two very large petroleum deposits were extensively sampled giving two sample sets believed to represent large time-segments of petroleum generation. The sets display a remarkable invariance in the predicted ratio. Moreover, the ratios for the two sets are distinct and constitute the outer limits for the ratio in a large database of over 2,000 samples of petroleums. Thus, the ratio of isoheptanes and dimethylcyclopentanes remains constant over the course of petroleum generation.

  9. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons using bioslurry reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, S.K.; Zappi, M.E.; Teeter, C.L.; Gunnison, D.; Cullinane, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Defense has over 12,000 sites contaminated from military activities. This report presents data from two bench-scale and two pilot-scale studies that evaluated the suitability of the bioslurry process to bioremediate soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Soils from two contaminated sites were studied. The first soil contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds, ketones, and chlorinated ethanes; the second soil contained gasoline and associated compounds. Conceptual designs and costs of bioslurry processes for field applications are also presented. Bench-scale studies were performed in 5-L batch reactors, equipped with aeration and mixing equipment. Various nutrient amendments, surfactants, and selected microbial consortia were evaluated during the bench-scale studies. Several reactors were also operated using only native microbes.

  10. Potential of the microbial community present in an unimpacted beach sediment to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Reis, Izabela; Couto, M Nazaré; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the microbial communities present in the intertidal zone of an unimpacted beach (a beach that did not suffer any significant oil spill) to degrade hydrocarbons was investigated. For that, laboratory-based microcosms (50-ml flasks) were set up with sandy beach sediment spiked with crude oil and incubated with local seawater for 15 days in the dark. Three bioremediation treatments were tested (biostimulation (BS), autochthonous bioaugmentation (AB), and combined treatment of biostimulation + bioaugmentation (BS + AB)) and the results were compared with natural attenuation (NA). Visual inspection showed clearly an oil solubility increase (confirmed by a higher hydrocarbons concentration in supernatant solutions) for all tested treatments when compared to NA. Significant degradation of the oil, shown by different profiles of petroleum hydrocarbons, was also observed for the different treatments particularly for BS + AB. Therefore, the microbial community of this unimpacted beach sediment could respond to an oil spill, degrading hydrocarbons. But to increase the natural attenuation pace, obtained results indicated that BS + AB is an appropriate approach for the bioremediation of beaches recently impacted by an oil spill. The autochthonous microbial cultures can be obtained "before" or "after" the contamination of the target site, being inoculated into the site right after it contamination.

  11. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  12. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  13. A novel bioremediation strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using salt tolerant Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hairong; Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Lin; Liu, Juncheng; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Sun, Kejing

    2016-09-01

    The present work aimed to develop a novel strategy to bioremediate the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the environment. Salt tolerant bacterium was isolated from Dagang oilfield, China and identified as Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium had a high salt tolerant capability and biochar was developed as carrier for the bacterium. The bacteria with biochar were most effective in degradation of n-alkanes (C16, C18, C19, C26, C28) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NAP, PYR) mixture. The result demonstrated that immobilization of C. variabile HRJ4 with biochar showed higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (THPs) up to 78.9% after 7-day of incubation as compared to the free leaving bacteria. The approach of this study will be helpful in clean-up of petroleum-contamination in the environments through bioremediation process using eco-friendly and cost effective materials like biochar. PMID:27593267

  14. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  15. Embryotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with different avian species have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 70% of the egg surface result in considerable reduction in hatching with teratogenicity and stunted growth. Other stUdies have shown that the embryo toxicity is dependent on the aromatic hydrocarbon content, further suggesting that the toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,7 2-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryo toxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 :I was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryo toxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil, with additional mortality occurring after outgrowth of the chorioallantois. Retarded growth, as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, was accompanied by teratogenicity. Abnormal embryos exhibited extreme stunting; eye, brain, and bill defects; and incomplete ossification. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  16. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Sowby, M.

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  17. An integrated bioremediation process for petroleum hydrocarbons removal and odor mitigation from contaminated marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2015-10-15

    This study developed a novel integrated bioremediation process for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and the mitigation of odor induced by reduced sulfur from contaminated marine sediment. The bioremediation process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, acetate was dosed into the sediment as co-substrate to facilitate the sulfate reduction process. Meanwhile, akaganeite (β-FeOOH) was dosed in the surface layer of the sediment to prevent S(2-) release into the overlying seawater. In Phase II, NO3(-) was injected into the sediment as an electron acceptor to facilitate the denitrification process. After 20 weeks of treatment, the sequential integration of the sulfate reduction and denitrification processes led to effective biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in which about 72% of TPH was removed. In Phase I, the release of S(2-) was effectively controlled by the addition of akaganeite. The oxidation of S(2-) by Fe(3+) and the precipitation of S(2-) by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms for S(2-) removal. In Phase II, the injection of NO3(-) completely inhibited the sulfate reduction process. Most of residual AVS and S(0) were removed within 4 weeks after NO3(-) injection. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed a distinct shift of bacterial community structure in the sediment over different treatment phases. The clones affiliated with Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were the most abundant in Phase I, while the clones related to Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus, Thiohalomonas nitratireducens and Sulfurimonas denitrificans predominated in Phase II.

  18. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  19. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure.

    PubMed

    Nwogu, T P; Azubuike, C C; Ogugbue, C J

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 10(5) cfu/g to 2.70 × 10(6) cfu/g and from 8.0 × 10(5) cfu/g to 1.78 × 10(6) cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830

  20. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; Ogugbue, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830

  1. Development of a human health oral risk factor for long chain petroleum hydrocarbons. Final report, May-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of the research presented herein was to develop oral risk factors for long chain petroleum hydrocarbons (LCPHs). Literature searches were conducted on petroleum products and specific LCPHs. Over 5,000 references were identified and over 100 references were reviewed. Information was collected on the chemical composition and analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH); the environmental regulation of TPH in soils; the weathering of TPH in soils; risk factors previously developed for neat petroleum products and four LCPHs; and on the toxicity of LCPHs. Oral reference doses were developed for nonane, decane, C10-C11 isoparaffmic hydrocarbon dearomatized white spirit C11 -C12, mineral oil, and petroleum wax. Gaps in the data necessary for the development of risk factors for LCPHs were identified and suggestions were made for future research to elucidate risk assessment at petroleum contamination sites. In addition, four DoD sites were identified for potential demonstration of risk assessment and risk-based cleanup versus cleanup based on regulatory standards for soils.

  2. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  3. Evaluation of electrochemical processes for the removal of several target aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Alsalka, Yamen; Karabet, François; Hashem, Shahir

    2011-03-01

    Ground and surface water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a serious and growing environmental problem throughout the world. Consequently, a study of the use of electrochemical treatment in the clean-up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination by aromatic pollutants to more acceptable levels. In the experiments described, water contamination by refined petroleum products was simulated under laboratory conditions. Electrochemical treatment, using aluminium electrodes, has been optimised by full factorial design and surface response analysis in term of BTEX and PAHs removal and energy consumption. The optimal conditions of pH, current density, electrolysis time, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration have then been applied in the treatment of real water samples which were monitored as petroleum contaminated samples. Treatment results have shown that electrochemical methods could achieve the concentration of these pollutants to undetectable levels in particular groundwater and surface water, hence, they can be highly effective in the remediation of water contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, and the use of these processes is therefore recommended.

  4. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  5. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m(-2) while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28-C36 of n-alkanes and 4-6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability. PMID:27597387

  6. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  7. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m−2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability. PMID:27597387

  8. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m‑2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  9. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m(-2) while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28-C36 of n-alkanes and 4-6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  10. Capacity of the bioremediation technology for clean-up of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Masak, Jan; Machackova, Jirina; Siglova, Martina; Cejkova, Alena; Jirku, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    A column reactor was designed and used to simulate conditions affecting the bioremediations of petroleum hydrocarbons. The work illustratively describes the aerobic (model) clean-up of soil samples enabling to predict the efficiency of a technology installed in parallel on contaminated former airport. The data showing the performance of thus precharacterized technology are presented.

  11. Field trial on removal of petroleum-hydrocarbon pollutants using a microbial consortium for bioremediation and rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Niqui, José L; Roca, Amalia; Solano, Jennifer; Fernández, Matilde; Bastida, Felipe; García, Carlos; Ramos, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    Petroleum waste sludges are toxic and dangerous that is why environmental protection agencies have declared their treatment top priority. Physicochemical treatments are expensive and environmentally unfriendly, while alternative biological treatments are less costly but, in general, work at a slower pace. An in situ bioremediation and rhizoremediation field scale trial was performed in an area contaminated with oil refinery sludge under semiarid climate. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively. Rhizoremediation revealed that the development of vegetation favoured the evolution of indigenous microbiota with potential to remove petroleum wastes. This was inferred as the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbons 7 months after the biological treatment.

  12. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Water and Sediment in Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiandi; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Lu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    A field study in the Pearl River Delta of China was conducted in order to describe to the spatial and seasonal variation of occurrence and concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in surface water and sediments. Petroleum hydrocarbons and isoprenoid alkanes were quantified by UV spectroscopy and gas chromatography with a mass selective detector. The concentrations of TPH ranged from 4.3 to 68.7 µg L(-1) in surface water, and from 66.6 to 1445 µg g(-1) in surface sediments. The ratios of pristine to phytane suggested that the main sources of TPH in the sediment were petroleum importation. The highest concentrations of TPH were present in the spring season. When compared with results from previous studies, it can be concluded that the Pearl River Delta was moderately polluted by TPH. No statistically significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of TPH in surface water and sediments.

  13. Field trial on removal of petroleum-hydrocarbon pollutants using a microbial consortium for bioremediation and rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Niqui, José L; Roca, Amalia; Solano, Jennifer; Fernández, Matilde; Bastida, Felipe; García, Carlos; Ramos, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    Petroleum waste sludges are toxic and dangerous that is why environmental protection agencies have declared their treatment top priority. Physicochemical treatments are expensive and environmentally unfriendly, while alternative biological treatments are less costly but, in general, work at a slower pace. An in situ bioremediation and rhizoremediation field scale trial was performed in an area contaminated with oil refinery sludge under semiarid climate. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively. Rhizoremediation revealed that the development of vegetation favoured the evolution of indigenous microbiota with potential to remove petroleum wastes. This was inferred as the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbons 7 months after the biological treatment. PMID:25870876

  14. Petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons in water from Lake Manzala and associated canals

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Wahaab, R.A.; Abou Waly, H.F.

    1995-08-01

    Lake Manzala is located at the north eastern edge of Nile Delta in Egypt. It is separated from the Mediterranean sea by a sandy beach ridge. However, the lake is in connection with the sea through three opening nearby Port Said. The area of the lake is about 769 Km{sup 2} and relatively shallow with an average depth of 1.3 m. The lake is of high economic value as a natural resource, for fishery, reacreation and for migratory birds. The lake is highly polluted as it receives wastewaters discharged by several canal. The present investigation aimed to assess the residue levels of petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the lake water as well as in Hadous canal, Fariskur canal and Bahr-El-Baqar canal. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  16. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert T.; Jackson, Kenneth J.; Duba, Alfred G.; Chen, Ching-I

    1998-01-01

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  17. Biodegradation of different petroleum hydrocarbons by free and immobilized microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tiantian; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Xu, Nana; Li, Yiming; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized microbial consortia in the degradation of different types of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. In this study, the biodegradation rates of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and crude oil reached about 80%, 30%, 56% and 48% under the optimum environmental conditions of free microbial consortia after 7 d. We evaluated five unique co-metabolic substances with petroleum hydrocarbons, α-lactose was the best co-metabolic substance among glucose, α-lactose, soluble starch, yeast powder and urea. The orthogonal biodegradation analysis results showed that semi-coke was the best immobilized carrier followed by walnut shell and activated carbon. Meanwhile, the significance of various factors that contribute to the biodegradation of semi-coke immobilized microbial consortia followed the order of: α-lactose > semi-coke > sodium alginate > CaCl2. Moreover, the degradation rate of the immobilized microbial consortium (47%) was higher than that of a free microbial consortium (26%) under environmental conditions such as the crude oil concentration of 3 g L(-1), NaCl concentration of 20 g L(-1), pH at 7.2-7.4 and temperature of 25 °C after 5 d. SEM and FTIR analyses revealed that the structure of semi-coke became more porous and easily adhered to the microbial consortium; the functional groups (e.g., hydroxy and phosphate) were identified in the microbial consortium and were changed by immobilization. This study demonstrated that the ability of microbial adaptation to the environment can be improved by immobilization which expands the application fields of microbial remediation.

  18. Biodegradation of different petroleum hydrocarbons by free and immobilized microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tiantian; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Xu, Nana; Li, Yiming; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized microbial consortia in the degradation of different types of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. In this study, the biodegradation rates of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and crude oil reached about 80%, 30%, 56% and 48% under the optimum environmental conditions of free microbial consortia after 7 d. We evaluated five unique co-metabolic substances with petroleum hydrocarbons, α-lactose was the best co-metabolic substance among glucose, α-lactose, soluble starch, yeast powder and urea. The orthogonal biodegradation analysis results showed that semi-coke was the best immobilized carrier followed by walnut shell and activated carbon. Meanwhile, the significance of various factors that contribute to the biodegradation of semi-coke immobilized microbial consortia followed the order of: α-lactose > semi-coke > sodium alginate > CaCl2. Moreover, the degradation rate of the immobilized microbial consortium (47%) was higher than that of a free microbial consortium (26%) under environmental conditions such as the crude oil concentration of 3 g L(-1), NaCl concentration of 20 g L(-1), pH at 7.2-7.4 and temperature of 25 °C after 5 d. SEM and FTIR analyses revealed that the structure of semi-coke became more porous and easily adhered to the microbial consortium; the functional groups (e.g., hydroxy and phosphate) were identified in the microbial consortium and were changed by immobilization. This study demonstrated that the ability of microbial adaptation to the environment can be improved by immobilization which expands the application fields of microbial remediation. PMID:26565634

  19. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neill, K.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  20. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Modelling the fate of styrene in a mixed petroleum hydrocarbon plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.; Gargini, A.; Davis, G. B.; Prommer, H.

    2009-02-01

    Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (styrene and the BTEX compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomers of xylene) from leaking sewers was detected in a Quaternary aquifer below a chemical plant in the Padana Plain, Italy. From 1994, active pump and treat remediation has been employed. The site is bordered by canals which, in combination with variable pumping rates and groundwater flow directions, control groundwater levels. In this study we sought to determine the fate of styrene at the site within a mixed styrene/BTEX plume where the hydraulic boundaries induced strong seasonal variations in flows. In order to determine the fate of styrene, detailed field investigations provided intensive depth profile information. This information was then incorporated into a staged flow and reactive transport modelling. Three sets of measurements were obtained from sampling multilevel samplers (MLSs) under different hydraulic conditions at the site. These included measurements of BTEX, styrene, all major ions, pH and redox potential. A three-dimensional transient flow model was developed and calibrated to simulate an unconfined sandy aquifer with a variable flow field. Subsequently a reactive, multi-component transport model was employed to simulate the fate of dissolved BTEX and styrene along a selected flow line at the site. Each petroleum hydrocarbon compound was transported as independent species. Different, kinetically controlled degradation rates and a toxicity effect were simulated to explain the observed, selective degradation of pollutants in groundwater. Calibration of the model was accomplished by comparison with the three different sets of measurements obtained from the MLS devices. The results from various scenarios show that the detailed simulation of geochemical changes can be very useful to improve the site's conceptual model.

  2. Modelling the fate of styrene in a mixed petroleum hydrocarbon plume.

    PubMed

    Colombani, N; Mastrocicco, M; Gargini, A; Davis, G B; Prommer, H

    2009-02-27

    Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (styrene and the BTEX compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomers of xylene) from leaking sewers was detected in a Quaternary aquifer below a chemical plant in the Padana Plain, Italy. From 1994, active pump and treat remediation has been employed. The site is bordered by canals which, in combination with variable pumping rates and groundwater flow directions, control groundwater levels. In this study we sought to determine the fate of styrene at the site within a mixed styrene/BTEX plume where the hydraulic boundaries induced strong seasonal variations in flows. In order to determine the fate of styrene, detailed field investigations provided intensive depth profile information. This information was then incorporated into a staged flow and reactive transport modelling. Three sets of measurements were obtained from sampling multilevel samplers (MLSs) under different hydraulic conditions at the site. These included measurements of BTEX, styrene, all major ions, pH and redox potential. A three-dimensional transient flow model was developed and calibrated to simulate an unconfined sandy aquifer with a variable flow field. Subsequently a reactive, multi-component transport model was employed to simulate the fate of dissolved BTEX and styrene along a selected flow line at the site. Each petroleum hydrocarbon compound was transported as independent species. Different, kinetically controlled degradation rates and a toxicity effect were simulated to explain the observed, selective degradation of pollutants in groundwater. Calibration of the model was accomplished by comparison with the three different sets of measurements obtained from the MLS devices. The results from various scenarios show that the detailed simulation of geochemical changes can be very useful to improve the site's conceptual model.

  3. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    SciTech Connect

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil.

  4. MBBR system performance improvement for petroleum hydrocarbon removal using modified media with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sayyahzadeh, Amir Hossein; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Ayati, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system has a successful operation in the treatment of different types of wastewater. Since the media, i.e. the place of growth and formation of biofilm, play the main role in the treatment in this system, MBBR systems were operated in the present research with modified Bee-cell media. Activated carbon granules of almond or walnut shells were placed in media pores to improve the treatment of refinery oil wastewater and their operation with MBBR system was compared with the conventional Bee-cell media. In these experiments, the effects of organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio (MFR), and activated carbon concentration (ACC) used in the media were investigated on the operation of MBBR systems. The analysis of results estimated the optimal values of HRT, MFR, and ACC used in the media between the studied levels, being equal to 22 h, 50%, and 7.5 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons removal efficiencies for MBBR systems using Bee-cell media with carbon of almond, carbon of walnut shells, and a carbon-free system were 95 ± 1.17%, 91 ± 1.11%, and 57 ± 1.7%, respectively, which confirms the adsorption ability of systems with the media containing activated carbon in the removal of petroleum compounds from wastewater. PMID:27148731

  5. Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Pristine and Petroleum-Contaminated Sediments †

    PubMed Central

    Herbes, S. E.; Schwall, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    To determine rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in freshwater sediments, 14C-labeled PAH were incubated with samples from both pristine and petroleum-contaminated streams. Evolved 14CO2 was trapped in KOH, unaltered PAH and polar metabolic intermediate fractions were quantitated after sediment extraction and column chromatography, and bound cellular 14C was measured in sediment residues. Large fractions of 14C were incorporated into microbial cellular material; therefore, measurement of rates of 14CO2 evolution alone would seriously underestimate transformation rates of [14C]naphthalene and [14C]anthracene. PAH compound turnover times in petroleum-contaminated sediment increased from 7.1 h for naphthalene to 400 h for anthracene, 10,000 h for benz(a)anthracene, and more than 30,000 h for benz(a)pyrene. Turnover times in uncontaminated stream sediment were 10 to 400 times greater than in contaminated samples, while absolute rates of PAH transformation (micrograms of PAH per gram of sediment per hour) were 3,000 to 125,000 times greater in contaminated sediment. The data indicate that four- and five-ring PAH compounds, several of which are carcinogenic, may persist even in sediments that have received chronic PAH inputs and that support microbial populations capable of transforming two- and three-ring PAH compounds. PMID:16345270

  6. MBBR system performance improvement for petroleum hydrocarbon removal using modified media with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sayyahzadeh, Amir Hossein; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Ayati, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system has a successful operation in the treatment of different types of wastewater. Since the media, i.e. the place of growth and formation of biofilm, play the main role in the treatment in this system, MBBR systems were operated in the present research with modified Bee-cell media. Activated carbon granules of almond or walnut shells were placed in media pores to improve the treatment of refinery oil wastewater and their operation with MBBR system was compared with the conventional Bee-cell media. In these experiments, the effects of organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio (MFR), and activated carbon concentration (ACC) used in the media were investigated on the operation of MBBR systems. The analysis of results estimated the optimal values of HRT, MFR, and ACC used in the media between the studied levels, being equal to 22 h, 50%, and 7.5 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons removal efficiencies for MBBR systems using Bee-cell media with carbon of almond, carbon of walnut shells, and a carbon-free system were 95 ± 1.17%, 91 ± 1.11%, and 57 ± 1.7%, respectively, which confirms the adsorption ability of systems with the media containing activated carbon in the removal of petroleum compounds from wastewater.

  7. Polyphasic microbial community analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from two northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Juck; Charles; Whyte; Greer

    2000-09-01

    The cold-adapted bacterial communities in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated and non-impacted soils from two northern Canadian environments, Kuujjuaq, Que., and Alert, Nunavut, were analyzed using a polyphasic approach. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) separation of 16S rDNA PCR fragments from soil total community DNA revealed a high level of bacterial diversity, as estimated by the total number of bands visualized. Dendrogram analysis clustered the sample sites on the basis of geographical location. Comparison of the overall microbial molecular diversity suggested that in the Kuujjuaq sites, contamination negatively impacted diversity whereas in the Alert samples, diversity was maintained or increased as compared to uncontaminated controls. Extraction and sequencing analysis of selected 16S rDNA bands demonstrated a range of similarity of 86-100% to reference organisms, with 63.6% of the bands representing high G+C Gram-positive organisms in the order Actinomycetales and 36.4% in the class Proteobacteria. Community level physiological profiles generated using Biolog GN plates were analyzed by cluster analysis. Based on substrate oxidation rates, the samples clustered into groups similar to those of the DGGE dendrograms, i.e. separation based upon geographic origin. The coinciding results reached using culture-independent and -dependent analyses reinforces the conclusion that geographical origin of the samples, rather than petroleum contamination level, was more important in determining species diversity within these cold-adapted bacterial communities.

  8. Experimental study of the reaction of methane with petroleum hydrocarbons in geological conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, T.; Gordon, B.E.; Streett, W.; Bilson, E.; Patnaik, P.

    1986-11-01

    In order to assess the possible role of methane in petroleum formation, they studied the reaction of methane with liquid hydrocarbons representing the three main classes of compounds dominant in crude oil. The experimental reaction conditions simulated those of a geological setting for petroleum formations, at 1000 atm and 150-250/sup 0/C in the presence of montmorillonite, a natural clay catalyst. Since they expected very slow reaction rates and thus low yields, we used /sup 14/C labeled methane to trace the reaction products. They report here the detection of ethylbenzene and ethyltoluene formed by the interaction of methane with benzene and toluene, respectively. Instead of methylation of benzene, predominantly C/sub 2/ addition occurred, although very small amounts of products corresponding to C/sub 1/ addition were also detected. They propose that catalytic dissociation of methane occurred, forming ethylene which participated in a Friedel-Crafts type alkylation process of the aromatic ring on the catalyst surface. In addition to ring alkylation, side reactions such as polymerization of unsaturates (ethylene, acetylene) appeared to have occurred on the catalyst surface. The nature of these polymers is yet to be determined.

  9. Experimental study of the reaction of methane with petroleum hydrocarbons in geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Thomas; Gordon, Benjamin E.; Streett, William; Bilson, Elizabeth; Patnaik, Pradyot

    1986-11-01

    In order to assess the possible role of methane in petroleum formation, we studied the reaction of methane with liquid hydrocarbons representing the three main classes of compounds dominant in crude oil. The experimental reaction conditions simulated those of a geological setting for petroleum formations, at 1000 atm and 150-250°C in the presence of montmorillonite, a natural clay catalyst. Since we expected very slow reaction rates and thus low yields, we used 14C labeled methane to trace the reaction products. We report here the detection of ethylbenzene and ethyltoluene formed by the interaction of methane with benzene and toluene, respectively. Instead of methylation of benzene, predominantly C 2 addition occurred, although very small amounts of products corresponding to C 1 addition were also detected. We propose that catalytic dissociation of methane occurred, forming ethylene which participated in a Friedel-Crafts type alkylation process of the aromatic ring on the catalyst surface. In addition to ring alkylation, side reactions such as polymerization of unsaturates (ethylene, acetylene) appeared to have occurred on the catalyst surface. The nature of these polymers is yet to be determined.

  10. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective.

  11. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Ibrahim E

    2016-08-15

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1min and the energy consumption was 32.6mA/cm(2). However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. PMID:27236229

  12. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  13. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  14. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  15. Evaluation of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) standard for JP-4 jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, E.A.; Youngren, S.H.; Baker, S.R.; Schroeder, J.R.; Piccin, T.B.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for use of alternatives to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for remediation purposes was examined specifically for JP-4 fuel. The study objective was to determine the scientific basis for use of fuel constituents other than TPH in establishing soil cleanup standards at JP-4-contaminated sites. The general bases for TPH soil cleanup standards or goals were characterized. Problems with the use of TPH for cleanup included its lack of specificity (e.g., method-, medium-, and time-from-spill-dependency) as well as the lack of toxicological relevance. JP-4 fuel constituents (alkanes, BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e., chrysene), and naphthalenes) were identified as potential TPH alternatives. A series of criteria were applied to assess the viability of the use of specific JP-4 constituents as TPH alternatives, and to select the most appropriate alternative. Criteria included chemical fate and transport, toxicity, and regulatory standards for relevant media of concern. Consideration of these criteria ultimately resulted in selection of benzene as the JP-4 indicator of choice. The potential for altering risk-based benzene soil cleanup concentrations (preliminary remediation goals, PRGs) was examined, and encompassed the basis for the existing benzene cancer slope factor (SF) as well as the role of distributional analysis of exposure parameters (Monte Carlo) that might be employed at JP-4 spill sites.

  16. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area.

  17. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  18. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area. PMID:26409815

  19. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  20. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  1. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  2. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface near Cass Lake, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drennan, Dina M.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Warren, Ean; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Herkelrath, William N.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the natural attenuation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbons leaked over an unknown number of years from an oil pipeline under the Enbridge Energy Limited Partnership South Cass Lake Pumping Station, in Cass Lake, Minnesota. Three weeks of field work conducted between May 2007 and July 2008 delineated a dissolved plume of aromatic hydrocarbons and characterized the biodegradation processes of the petroleum. Field activities included installing monitoring wells, collecting sediment cores, sampling water from wells, and measuring water-table elevations. Geochemical measurements included concentrations of constituents in both spilled and pipeline oil, dissolved alkylbenzenes and redox constituents, sediment bioavailable iron, and aquifer microbial populations. Groundwater in this area flows east-southeast at approximately 26 meters per year. Results from the oil analyses indicate a high degree of biodegradation, characterized by nearly complete absence of n-alkanes. Cass Lake oil samples were more degraded than two oil samples collected in 2008 from the similarly contaminated USGS Bemidji, Minnesota, research site 40 kilometers away. Based on 19 ratios developed for comparing oil sources, the conclusion is that the oils at the two sites appear to be from the same hydrocarbon source. In the Cass Lake groundwater plume, benzene concentrations decrease by three orders of magnitude within 150 meters (m) downgradient from the oil body floating on the water table (between well MW-10 and USGS-4 well nest). The depths of the highest benzene concentrations increase with distance downgradient from the oil, a condition typical of plumes in shallow, unconfined aquifers. Background groundwater, which is nearly saturated with oxygen, becomes almost entirely anaerobic in the plume. As at the Bemidji site, the most important biodegradation processes are anaerobic and dominated by iron reduction. The similarity between the Cass Lake and

  3. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment.

  4. Geochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Spatially Highly Resolved Groundwater Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume Cross-Section.

    PubMed

    Dvorski, Sabine E-M; Gonsior, Michael; Hertkorn, Norbert; Uhl, Jenny; Müller, Hubert; Griebler, Christian; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    At numerous groundwater sites worldwide, natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is quantitatively complemented with petroleum hydrocarbons. To date, research has been focused almost exclusively on the contaminants, but detailed insights of the interaction of contaminant biodegradation, dominant redox processes, and interactions with natural DOM are missing. This study linked on-site high resolution spatial sampling of groundwater with high resolution molecular characterization of DOM and its relation to groundwater geochemistry across a petroleum hydrocarbon plume cross-section. Electrospray- and atmospheric pressure photoionization (ESI, APPI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed a strong interaction between DOM and reactive sulfur species linked to microbial sulfate reduction, i.e., the key redox process involved in contaminant biodegradation. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) modeling attributed DOM samples to specific contamination traits. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy evaluated the aromatic compounds and their degradation products in samples influenced by the petroleum contamination and its biodegradation. Our orthogonal high resolution analytical approach enabled a comprehensive molecular level understanding of the DOM with respect to in situ petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and microbial sulfate reduction. The role of natural DOM as potential cosubstrate and detoxification reactant may improve future bioremediation strategies. PMID:27152868

  5. Geochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Spatially Highly Resolved Groundwater Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume Cross-Section.

    PubMed

    Dvorski, Sabine E-M; Gonsior, Michael; Hertkorn, Norbert; Uhl, Jenny; Müller, Hubert; Griebler, Christian; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    At numerous groundwater sites worldwide, natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is quantitatively complemented with petroleum hydrocarbons. To date, research has been focused almost exclusively on the contaminants, but detailed insights of the interaction of contaminant biodegradation, dominant redox processes, and interactions with natural DOM are missing. This study linked on-site high resolution spatial sampling of groundwater with high resolution molecular characterization of DOM and its relation to groundwater geochemistry across a petroleum hydrocarbon plume cross-section. Electrospray- and atmospheric pressure photoionization (ESI, APPI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed a strong interaction between DOM and reactive sulfur species linked to microbial sulfate reduction, i.e., the key redox process involved in contaminant biodegradation. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) modeling attributed DOM samples to specific contamination traits. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy evaluated the aromatic compounds and their degradation products in samples influenced by the petroleum contamination and its biodegradation. Our orthogonal high resolution analytical approach enabled a comprehensive molecular level understanding of the DOM with respect to in situ petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and microbial sulfate reduction. The role of natural DOM as potential cosubstrate and detoxification reactant may improve future bioremediation strategies.

  6. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. PMID:25129707

  7. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  8. Timing of hydrocarbon maturation and trap formation in the Cordillera Oriental and adjacent petroleum provinces of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.; Richardson, A.; Carlos, A.A.P.

    1996-08-01

    The timing of hydrocarbon generation relative to the closure of migration pathways and trap formation is key to characterization of the petroleum systems of the Cordillera Oriental and the prolific petroleum provinces of the Llanos and Magdalena. The exceptionally thick and organic rich Cretaceous source rock successions of the Cordillera Oriental had the potential to have generated vast quantities of liquid hydrocarbons. Yet due to unfavorable timing of hydrocarbon maturation vs. regional deformation, only a small portion of this oil may have migrated into traps beyond the limits of the Cordillera Oriental. Maturation modeling based on detailed stratigraphic and structural data for sites in the Cordillera Oriental, Llanos, and the Middle and Upper Magdalena basins reveal the essential temporal features of the petroleum system. Virtually all of the Cretaceous source rock succession was generating liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, long before the development of the main structural traps within and along the foothills belts marginal to the Cordillera Oriental. Only in the northeast quarter and extreme south of the Cordillera Oriental and in the deeper parts of the flanking basins was oil being generated simultaneous with trap formation. The maturation modeling serves as a basis for understanding the known distribution of oil pools and a guide to future discoveries.

  9. The abundance of nahAc genes correlates with the 14C-naphthalene mineralization potential in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated oxic soil layers.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Pirjo M; Salminen, Jani M; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2004-12-27

    In this study, we evaluated whether the abundance of the functional gene nahAc reflects aerobic naphthalene degradation potential in subsurface and surface samples taken from three petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in southern Finland. The type of the contamination at the sites varied from lightweight diesel oil to high molecular weight residuals of crude oil. Samples were collected from both oxic and anoxic soil layers. The naphthalene dioxygenase gene nahAc was quantified using a replicate limiting dilution-polymerase chain reaction (RLD-PCR) method with a degenerate primer pair. In the non-contaminated samples nahAc genes were not detected. In the petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated oxic soil samples nahAc gene abundance [range 3 x 10(1)-9 x 10(4) copies (g dry wt soil)(-1)] was correlated (Kendall non-parametric correlation r2=0.459, p<0.01) with the aerobic 14C-naphthalene mineralization potential (range 1 x 10(-5)-0.1 d(-1)) measured in microcosms at in situ temperatures (8 degrees C for subsurface and 20 degrees C for surface soil samples). In these samples nahAc gene abundance was also correlated with total microbial cell counts (r2=0.471, p<0.01), respiration rate (r2=0.401, p<0.01) and organic matter content (r2=0.341, p<0.05). NahAc genes were amplified from anoxic soil layers indicating that, although involved in aerobic biodegradation of naphthalene, these genes or related sequences were also present in the anoxic subsurface. In the samples taken from the anoxic layers, the aerobic 14C-naphthalene mineralization rates were not correlated with nahAc gene abundance. In conclusion, current sequence information provides the basis for a robust tool to estimate the naphthalene degradation potential at oxic zones of different petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites undergoing in situ bioremediation. PMID:16329859

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons as biomarker of exposure.

    PubMed

    Desai, S R; Deasi, S R; Verlecar, X N; Ansari, Z A; Jagtap, T G; Sarkar, A; Vashistha, Deepti; Dalal, S G

    2010-04-01

    Genotoxic responses towards chronic exposure of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons (WAF-P) were evaluated as biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution. The DNA damage caused by water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons was assessed in terms of the DNA integrity measured by alkaline unwinding assay. The comparative study of the growth pattern of C. tenuissimus with respect to DNA integrity and the DNA strand breaks in different concentrations of WAF-P showed sufficient tolerance. However, its toxicity increased proportionately with exposure to elevated levels of WAF-P. Although DNA damage in S. costatum was similar to C. tenuissimus, its tolerance level to WAF-P was at least 5 times lower than that of C. tenuissimus indicating its high sensitivity to petroleum hydrocarbons. Active growth was exhibited by C. tenuissimus between 10 and 20% WAF-P (ranging from 0.59 to 1.18mg/L petroleum hydrocarbons) which can be related to the polluted regions only, suggesting the tolerant nature of this organism. Considering the degree of sensitivity to petroleum products and good growth under laboratory conditions, these two diatoms could be recommended as model species for evaluating ecogenotoxic effects of wide range of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using alkaline unwinding assays. PMID:20096916

  11. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions.

  12. Hydrocarbons, the advanced biofuels produced by different organisms, the evidence that alkanes in petroleum can be renewable.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Juan; Chi, Zhe; Ma, Zai-Chao; Zhou, Hai-Xiang; Liu, Guang-Lei; Lee, Ching-Fu; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-09-01

    It is generally regarded that the petroleum cannot be renewable. However, in recent years, it has been found that many marine cyanobacteria, some eubacteria, engineered Escherichia coli, some endophytic fungi, engineered yeasts, some marine yeasts, plants, and insects can synthesize hydrocarbons with different carbon lengths. If the organisms, especially some native microorganisms and engineered bacteria and yeasts, can synthesize and secret a large amount of hydrocarbons within a short period, alkanes in the petroleum can be renewable. It has been documented that there are eight pathways for hydrocarbon biosynthesis in different organisms. Unfortunately, most of native microorganisms, engineered E. coli and engineered yeasts, only synthesize a small amount of intracellular and extracellular hydrocarbons. Recently, Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum isolated from a mangrove ecosystem has been found to be able to synthesize and secret over 21.5 g/l long-chain hydrocarbons with a yield of 0.275 g/g glucose and a productivity of 0.193 g/l/h within 5 days. The yeast may have highly potential applications in alkane production.

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for...

  14. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  15. Chemical signatures of the Anthropocene in the Clyde estuary, UK: sediment-hosted Pb, (207/206)Pb, total petroleum hydrocarbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl pollution records.

    PubMed

    Vane, C H; Chenery, S R; Harrison, I; Kim, A W; Moss-Hayes, V; Jones, D G

    2011-03-13

    The sediment concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Pb and (207/206)Pb isotope ratios were measured in seven cores from the middle Clyde estuary (Scotland, UK) with an aim of tracking the late Anthropocene. Concentrations of TPHs ranged from 34 to 4386 mg kg(-1), total PAHs from 19 to 16,163 μg kg(-1) and total PCBs between less than 4.3 to 1217 μg kg(-1). Inventories, distributions and isomeric ratios of the organic pollutants were used to reconstruct pollutant histories. Pre-Industrial Revolution and modern non-polluted sediments were characterized by low TPH and PAH values as well as high relative abundance of biogenic-sourced phenanthrene and naphthalene. The increasing industrialization of the Clyde gave rise to elevated PAH concentrations and PAH isomeric ratios characteristic of both grass/wood/coal and petroleum and combustion (specifically petroleum combustion). Overall, PAHs had the longest history of any of the organic contaminants. Increasing TPH concentrations and a concomitant decline in PAHs mirrored the lessening of coal use and increasing reliance on petroleum fuels from about the 1950s. Thereafter, declining hydrocarbon pollution was followed by the onset (1950s), peak (1965-1977) and decline (post-1980s) in total PCB concentrations. Lead concentrations ranged from 6 to 631 mg kg(-1), while (207/206)Pb isotope ratios spanned 0.838-0.876, indicative of various proportions of 'background', British ore/coal and Broken Hill type petrol/industrial lead. A chronology was established using published Pb isotope data for aerosol-derived Pb and applied to the cores.

  16. [Distributions of COD and petroleum hydrocarbons and their relationships with occurrence of red tide in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuansong; Wang, Xiulin; Shi, Xiaoyong; Han, Xiurong; Sun, Xia; Zhu, Chenjian; Lu, Rong

    2003-07-01

    Based on the data of COD and petroleum hydrocarbons collected in the cruise from April 25 to May 2, 2002 in intensive red tide occurrence areas in East China Sea, the distribution of COD, and petroleum hydrocarbons and the eutrophication index(EI) were analyzed. The results showed that the EI and COD value were both high in coastal water, and decreased gradually away from shore. After the preliminary study on the relationships between correlative factors and occurrence of red tide, it was found that high EI and COD were necessary. There would be great chances for the red tide to break out under conditions that the EI was between 2.5 and 15 and COD concentration was between 0.8 to 1.4 mg.L-1 in seawater, along with the favorable temperature and salinity.

  17. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  18. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on plant litter microbiota in an artic lake

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, V.L.; Federle, T.W.; Vestal, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the microbial community associated with decomposing Carex leaf litter colonized in Toolik Lake, Alaska, were examined. Microbial metabolic activity, measured as the rate of acetate incorporation into lipid, did not vary significantly from controls over a 12-h period after exposure of colonized Carex litter to 3.0 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, diesel fuel, or toluene per liter. ATP levels of the mirobiota became elevated within 2 h after the exposure of the litter to diesel fuel or toluene, but returned to control levels within 4 to 8 h. ATP levels of samples exposed to Prudhoe Baye crude oil did not vary from control levels. Mineralization of specificially labeled /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose and /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose by Toolike Lake sediments, after the addition of 2% (vol/vol) Prudhoe Bay crude oil, motor oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, n-hexane, or toluene, was examined after 21 days of incubation at 10/sup 0/C. Diesel fuel, motor oil, gasoline and toluene inhibited /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization by 58, 67, 67, and 86%, respectively. Hexane-treated samples displayed an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-(lignin)-lignocellulose mineralization of 33%. /sup 14/C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose mineralization was inhibited by the addition of motor oil or toluene by 27 and 64%, respectively, whereas diesel fuel-treaated samples showed a 17% increase in mineralization rate. Mineralization of the labeled lignin component of lignocellulose appeared to be more sensitive to hydrocarbon perturbations than was the labeled cellulose component.

  19. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs. PMID:26360455

  20. Assessment of bioavailability limitations during slurry biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in aged soils.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Hausmann, Tom S; Fortman, Tim J

    2003-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether bioavailability limitations are responsible for the slow or incomplete hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged soils, both the rate of desorption (rdes) and biodegradation (rbio) was measured for n-alkanes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different times during the slurry biotreatment of six different soils. While all n-alkanes were biodegraded to various degrees depending on their respective carbon number and the soil organic matter content, none of them were desorbed to a significant extent, indicating that these saturated hydrocarbons do not need to be transferred from the soil particles into the aqueous phase in order to be metabolized by microorganisms. Most two- and three-ring PAHs biodegraded as fast as they were desorbed (rbio = rdes); that is, desorption rates controlled biodegradation rates. By contrast, the biodegradation kinetics of four-, five-, and six-ring PAHs was limited by microbial factors during the initial phase (rbio < rdes) while becoming mass-transfer rate limited during the final phase of bioremediation treatment (rbio = rdes). Whenever PAH biodegradation stalled or did not occur at all (rbio = 0), it was never due to bioavailability limitations (rdes > 0) but was more likely caused by microbial factors. such as the absence of specific PAH degraders or cometabolic substrates. Consequently, PAHs that are found to be microbially recalcitrant in aged soils may not be so because of limited bioavailability and thus could pose a greater risk to the environment than previously thought.

  1. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  2. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  3. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  4. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs.

  5. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in agricultural soils near a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Zhang, Juntao; Lu, Ying; Chen, Yiqin; Dong, Shanshan; Shim, Hojae

    2012-01-01

    The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) pollution in regional agricultural soils was investigated. Seventy soil samples collected from surface layers (0-20 cm) and horizons of five selected pedons in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China were analyzed, and the vertical variation and spatial variability of TPH were evaluated. The TPH concentration in top soils around the petrochemical complex ranged from 1,179.3 to 6,354.9 mg kg( - 1), with the average of 2,676.6 mg kg( - 1). Furthermore, significant differences between land-use types showed that the TPH concentration in top soils was strongly influenced by accidental spills. Both the TPH trends in pedons and the identified hot-spot areas also showed that the accidental explosions or burning accidents were mainly responsible for the pollution. The results reported here suggest that the regular monitoring and inspection shall be conducted for safety and to avoid or minimize the accidents, and the effective measures should be taken to remediate the contaminated areas and to assure that the important industrialization of Guangzhou area would not mean human health risks near the petrochemical complex.

  6. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils. PMID:26525019

  7. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  8. Application of monitored natural attenuation to remediate a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Huang, W Y; Chang, L J; Chen, T Y; Chien, H Y; Hou, F

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by petroleum-hydrocarbons is a serious environmental problem. The Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) approach is a passive remediation to degrade and dissipate groundwater contaminants in situ. In this study, a full-scale natural bioremediation investigation was conducted at a gasoline spill site. Results show that concentrations of major contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) dropped to below detection limit before they reached the downgradient monitor well located 280 m from the spill location. The results also reveal that natural biodegradation was the major cause of the observed contaminant reduction. The calculated natural first-order attenuation rates for BTEX and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB) ranged from 0.051 (benzene) to 0.189 1/day (1,2,4-TMB). Evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation includes the following: (1) depletion of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate; (2) production of dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and CO2; (3) decreased BTEX concentrations and BTEX as carbon to TOC ratio along the transport path; (4) increased alkalinity and microbial populations; (5) limited spreading of the BTEX plume; and (6) preferential removal of certain BTEX components along the transport path. Additionally, the biodegradation capacity (44.73 mg/L) for BTEX and 1,2,4-TMB was much higher than other detected contaminants within the plume. Hence, natural attenuation can effectively contain the plume, and biodegradation processes played an important role in contaminant removal.

  9. Performance of deep-rooted phreatophytic trees at a site containing total petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Adham, Tareq; Berra, Brett; Tsao, David

    2013-01-01

    Poplar and willow tree stands were installed in 2003 at a site in Raleigh, North Carolina containing total petroleum hydrocarbon - contaminated groundwater. The objective was groundwater uptake and plume control. The water table was 5 to 6 m below ground surface (bgs) and therefore methods were used to encourage deep root development. Growth rates, rooting depth and sap flow were measured for trees in Plot A located in the center of the plume and in Plot B peripheral to the plume. The trees were initially sub-irrigated with vertically installed drip-lines and by 2005 had roots 4 to 5 m bgs. Water balance calculations suggested groundwater uptake. In 2007, the average sap flow was higher for Plot B (approximately 59 L per day per tree) than for Plot A (approximately 23 L per day per tree), probably as a result of TPH-induced stress in Plot A. Nevertheless, the estimated rate of groundwater uptake for Plot A was sufficient, relative to the calculated rate of groundwater flux beneath the stand, that a high level of plume control was achieved based on MODFLOW modeling results. Down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells installed in late 2011 should provide quantitative data for plume control.

  10. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  11. Alterations of metabolic enzymes in Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, after exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Gagnon, M M; Nugegoda, D

    2005-08-01

    Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata were exposed to the water-accommodated fraction of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, or burnt crude oil to assess sublethal effects of oil spill remediation techniques on fish. Fish were exposed to these treatments for 16 days either through the water column or by way of a pre-exposed diet of amphipod Allorchestes compressa. Fish gills, liver, and white muscle were sampled and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities quantified. In all treatments containing fish exposed by way of the water column, aerobic activity increased in the gills, whereas a decrease of this enzymic activity was observed in the liver and white muscle. Exposures by way of the food pathway indicated similar trends. Anaerobic (LDH) activity increased in the gills, liver, and white muscle after waterborne exposures. Stimulation in anaerobic activity also occurred in the liver and white muscle of fish after exposure to contaminated food. CCO activity in the gills was the most sensitive biomarker when monitoring waterborne exposures to petroleum hydrocarbons. In the gills, the dispersed oil treatment resulted in the most pronounced biological response, suggesting that in the short term the use of dispersants on an oil slick might cause the most perturbations to fish metabolism. PMID:16001154

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Renoux, A.Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Roy, Y.; Samson, R.

    1995-12-31

    A battery of bioassays [barley seed germination, barley plant growth, lettuce seed germination, worm mortality, Microtox{reg_sign}, lettuce root elongation, algae Selenastrum capricornutum growth, Daphnia magna mortality, and SOS Chromotest ({+-}S9)] was used to assess an above-ground heap pile treatment of a soil contaminated with aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons (12 to 24 carbons). Despite an initial oil and grease concentration of 2,000 mg/kg, no significant (geno)toxicity was apparent in the soil sample before treatment. During the treatment, which decreased oil and grease concentrations to 800 mg/kg, slight toxicity was revealed by three bioassays (barley seed germination, worm mortality, Daphnia magna mortality), and a significant increase in genotoxicity was measured with the SOS Chromotest ({+-} S9). It appears that ecotoxicological evaluation revealed harmful condition(s) that were not detected by chemical assessment. This suggests that the remediation had ceased before complete detoxification occurred. This phenomenon must be further investigated, however, to furnish solid conclusions on the toxicological effectiveness of the biotreatment.

  13. Biotransformation of petroleum asphaltenes and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Neosartorya fischeri.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, E Lorena; Perezgasga, Lucia; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Neosartorya fischeri, an Aspergillaceae fungus, was evaluated in its capacity to transform high molecular weight polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the recalcitrant fraction of petroleum, the asphaltenes. N. fischeri was able to grow in these compounds as sole carbon source. Coronene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, together with the asphaltenes, were assayed for fungal biotransformation. The transformation of the asphaltenes and HMW-PAHs was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nano-LC mass spectrometry, and IR spectrometry. The formation of hydroxy and ketones groups on the PAH molecules suggest a biotransformation mediated by monooxygenases such as cytochrome P450 system (CYP). A comparative microarray with the complete genome from N. fischeri showed three CYP monooxygenases and one flavin monooxygenase genes upregulated. These findings, together with the internalization of aromatic substrates into fungal cells and the microsomal transformation of HMW-PAHs, strongly support the role of CYPs in the oxidation of these recalcitrant compounds.

  14. Biotransformation of petroleum asphaltenes and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Neosartorya fischeri.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, E Lorena; Perezgasga, Lucia; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Neosartorya fischeri, an Aspergillaceae fungus, was evaluated in its capacity to transform high molecular weight polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the recalcitrant fraction of petroleum, the asphaltenes. N. fischeri was able to grow in these compounds as sole carbon source. Coronene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, together with the asphaltenes, were assayed for fungal biotransformation. The transformation of the asphaltenes and HMW-PAHs was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nano-LC mass spectrometry, and IR spectrometry. The formation of hydroxy and ketones groups on the PAH molecules suggest a biotransformation mediated by monooxygenases such as cytochrome P450 system (CYP). A comparative microarray with the complete genome from N. fischeri showed three CYP monooxygenases and one flavin monooxygenase genes upregulated. These findings, together with the internalization of aromatic substrates into fungal cells and the microsomal transformation of HMW-PAHs, strongly support the role of CYPs in the oxidation of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:26893177

  15. Remediation of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons by in situ landfarming at an arctic site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.; Bartel, J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, economical landfarming operation was implemented to treat 3600 m3 of soil at a site just northeast of Barrow, AK (latitude 71.3 ??N). Prior to landfarming, diesel-range organics (DRO) and trimethylbenzenes (TMB) were present in the soil at concentrations more than an order of magnitude greater than the established cleanup goals, and moderate levels of gasoline-range organics (GRO) and BTEX compounds were also present. The landfarming operation included application of a commercial fertilizer mix at a rate designed to approach, but not exceed, soil concentrations of 100 mg N/kg soil and 50 mg P/kg soil, and an aggressive schedule of soil tilling using heavy equipment that was readily available from a local source. The operation was designed to continue through the brief thaw season-a scheduled duration of 70 days-but was successfully completed more than 2 weeks ahead of schedule. This work demonstrates that even in extremely harsh climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be effectively and economically remediated within reasonable time frames via landfarming. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors: laboratory studies on rates and kinetics in unsaturated alluvial sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhener, Patrick; Duwig, Céline; Pasteris, Gabriele; Kaufmann, Karin; Dakhel, Nathalie; Harms, Hauke

    2003-10-01

    Predictions of natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the unsaturated zone rely critically on information about microbial biodegradation kinetics. This study aims at determining kinetic rate laws for the aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of 12 volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in unsaturated alluvial sand. Laboratory column and batch experiments were performed at room temperature under aerobic conditions, and a reactive transport model for VOC vapors in soil gas coupled to Monod-type degradation kinetics was used for data interpretation. In the column experiment, an acclimatization of 23 days took place before steady-state diffusive vapor transport through the horizontal column was achieved. Monod kinetic parameters Ks and vmax could be derived from the concentration profiles of toluene, m-xylene, n-octane, and n-hexane, because substrate saturation was approached with these compounds under the experimental conditions. The removal of cyclic alkanes, isooctane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene followed first-order kinetics over the whole concentration range applied. MTBE, n-pentane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were not visibly degraded. Batch experiments suggested first-order disappearance rate laws for all VOCs except n-octane, which decreased following zero-order kinetics in live batch experiments. For many compounds including MTBE, disappearance rates in abiotic batch experiments were as high as in live batches indicating sorption. It was concluded that the column approach is preferable for determining biodegradation rate parameters to be used in risk assessment models.

  17. Characterization and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in groundwater from three Italian tank farms.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Carmela; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Pomata, Donatella; Incoronato, Federica; Di Basilio, Marco; Papini, Marco Petrangeli; Spicaglia, Sergio

    2008-04-01

    The present paper highlights the utility of petroleum chemical fingerprinting in investigating known or suspected tank farm releases. A detailed characterization of groundwater was carried out in three tank farms located in north, central and south Italy. Eighteen parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene through coronene), n-alkanes (n-C(10) through n-C(36)), isoprenoids pristane and phytane, vanadium, nickel and lead were determined. Distribution profiles and diagnostic ratios of specific fuel constituents were studied in order to identify contamination sources. Data analysis shows that in the study sites multiple pollutant sources affecting the tank farms and the surrounding industrial areas are present. Both high concentrations of contaminants coming from fuel releases and noticeable concentrations of biogenic compounds were found. A detailed data analysis suggests the origin and the level of pollution of the three sites. The results demonstrate that threshold concentration approach is not always sufficient and it is necessary to carry out studies of contaminant distribution and their diagnostic ratios in order to perform a successful forensic investigation.

  18. Phytoremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Cook, Rachel L.; Landmeyer, James E.; Atkinson, Brad; Malone, Donald R.; Shaw, George; Woods, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over approximately 579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95 percent mass loss for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and a 99 percent mass loss for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX and methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations have decreased in groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival was higher than the willows or pines on-site, even in a noncontaminated control area. All four Populus clones survived well at the site.

  19. Benzene and total hydrocarbon exposures in the upstream petroleum oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Johnson, D M; McLean, J D

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposures to benzene and total hydrocarbons (THC) in the Canadian upstream petroleum industry are described in this article. A total of 1547 air samples taken by 5 oil companies in various sectors (i.e., conventional oil/gas, conventional gas, heavy oil processing, drilling and pipelines) were evaluated and summarized. The data includes personal long- and short-term samples and area long-term samples. The percentage of samples over the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 3.2 mg/m3 or one part per million for benzene, for personal long-term samples ranges from 0 to 0.7% in the different sectors, and area long-term samples range from 0 to 13%. For short-term personal samples, the exceedance for benzene is at 5% with respect to the OEL of 16 mg/m3 or five parts per million in the conventional gas sector and none in the remaining sectors. THC levels were not available for all sectors and had limited data points in others. The percentage exceedance of the OEL of 280 mg/m3 or 100 parts per million for THC as gasoline ranged from 0 to 2.6% for personal long-term samples. It is recommended that certain operations such as glycol dehydrators be carefully monitored and that a task-based monitoring program be included along with the traditional long- and short-term personal exposure sampling. PMID:10782197

  20. Enhancement of nitrate-induced bioremediation in marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by using microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zheng, Guanyu; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-06-01

    The effect of microemulsion on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment was investigated in this study. It was shown that the microemulsion formed with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), 1-pentanol, linseed oil, and either deionized water or seawater was stable when subjected to dilution by seawater. Desorption tests revealed that microemulsion was more effective than the Tween 80 solution or the solution containing Tween 80 and 1-pentanol to desorb TPH from marine sediment. In 3 weeks of bioremediation treatment, the injection of microemulsion and NO3 (-) seems to have delayed the autotrophic denitrification between NO3 (-) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in sediment compared to the control with NO3 (-) injection alone. However, after 6 weeks of treatment, the delaying effect of microemulsion on the autotrophic denitrification process was no longer observed. In the meantime, the four injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) resulted in as high as 29.73 % of TPH degradation efficiency, higher than that of two injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) or that of four or two injections of NO3 (-) alone. These results suggest that microemulsion can be potentially applied to enhance TPH degradation in the nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment.

  1. Enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the mycorrhizosphere of sub-boreal forest soils.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Susan J; Kennedy, Nabla M; Massicotte, Hugues B; Rutherford, P Michael

    2010-08-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination is becoming more common in boreal forest soils. However, linkages between PHC biodegradation and microbial community dynamics in the mycorrhizosphere of boreal forest soils are poorly understood. Seedlings (lodgepole pine, paper birch, lingonberry) were established in reconstructed soil systems, consisting of an organic layer (mor humus, coarse woody debris, or previously oil-contaminated mor humus) overlying mineral (Ae, Bf) horizons. Light crude oil was applied to the soil surface after 4 months; systems were destructively sampled at 1 and 16 weeks following treatment. Soil concentrations of four PHC fractions were determined using acetone-hexane extraction followed by gas chromatography - flame ionization detection analysis. Genotypic profiles of root-associated bacterial communities were generated using length heterogeneity-PCR of 16S rDNA. Most plant-soil treatments showed significant loss in the smaller fraction PHCs indicating an inherent capacity for biodegradation. Concentrations of total PHCs declined significantly only in planted (pine-woody debris and birch-humus) systems (averaging 59% and 82% loss between 1 and 16 weeks respectively), reinforcing the importance of the mycorrhizosphere for enhancing microbial catabolism. Bacterial community structure was correlated more with mycorrhizosphere type and complexity than with PHC contamination. However, results suggest that communities in PHC-contaminated and pristine soils may become distinct over time.

  2. Degradation of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons using TiO2 nanopowder film.

    PubMed

    Fard, Mohammad Alizadeh; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Vahidi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a photo-reactor packed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) immobilized on glass beads, initiated by irradiation with natural and artificial ultraviolet (UV) sources, was evaluated in terms of the degradation efficiency of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of parameters such as pH, reaction time, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and some ions were investigated. Additionally, the degradation of total organic carbon (TOC) and the formation of byproducts were studied. Photodegradation rates ofbenzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) by processes of UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2 were found to obey pseudo first-order kinetic models. Results indicated that the effect of pH value was negligible at the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. TOC removal improved with addition of H2O2 demonstrating that a lack of hydrogen peroxide leads to incomplete mineralization. The effect of cations and anions on the photodegradation efficiencies of BTEX revealed that Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused the most deterioration in BTEX degradation efficiency. However S4O(2-) and CO3(2-) had the most salient inhibitory effects compared with other tested anions. The degradation efficiencies of both systems were investigated for the treatment of real polluted groundwater collected from the city of Tehran. Results showed that the degradation efficiencies of BTEX declined in the presence of inorganic and organic competitor species.

  3. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance. PMID:27039364

  4. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance.

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  6. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  7. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Shock, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in boreal forest soils: a mycorrhizal ecosystems perspective.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Susan J; McGill, William B; Massicotte, Hugues B; Rutherford, P Michael

    2007-05-01

    The importance of developing multi-disciplinary approaches to solving problems relating to anthropogenic pollution is now clearly appreciated by the scientific community, and this is especially evident in boreal ecosystems exposed to escalating threats of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination through expanded natural resource extraction activities. This review aims to synthesize information regarding the fate and behaviour of PHCs in boreal forest soils in both ecological and sustainable management contexts. From this, we hope to evaluate potential management strategies, identify gaps in knowledge and guide future research. Our central premise is that mycorrhizal systems, the ubiquitous root symbiotic fungi and associated food-web communities, occupy the structural and functional interface between decomposition and primary production in northern forest ecosystems (i.e. underpin survival and productivity of the ecosystem as a whole), and, as such, are an appropriate focal point for such a synthesis. We provide pertinent basic information about mycorrhizas, followed by insights into the ecology of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal systems. Next, we review the fate and behaviour of PHCs in forest soils, with an emphasis on interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and associated bacteria. Finally, we summarize implications for ecosystem management. Although we have gained tremendous insights into understanding linkages between ecosystem functions and the various aspects of mycorrhizal diversity, very little is known regarding rhizosphere communities in PHC-contaminated soils. This makes it difficult to translate ecological knowledge into environmental management strategies. Further research is required to determine which fungal symbionts are likely to survive and compete in various ecosystems, whether certain fungal - plant associations gain in ecological importance following contamination events, and how PHC contamination may interfere with processes of nutrient

  9. Control of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater by intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Surampalli, Rao Y; Lee, Mu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the first phase of this study, the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the containment of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated at a gasoline spill site. Evidences of the occurrence of intrinsic bioremediation within the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) plume included (1) decreased BTEX concentrations; (2) depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, and sulfate; (3) production of dissolved ferrous iron, methane, and CO2; (4) deceased pH and redox potential; and (5) increased methanogens, total heterotrophs, and total anaerobes, especially within the highly contaminated areas. In the second phase of this study, enhanced aerobic bioremediation process was applied at site to enhance the BTEX decay rates. Air was injected into the subsurface near the mid-plume area to biostimulate the naturally occurring microorganisms for BTEX biodegradation. Field results showed that enhanced bioremediation process caused the change of BTEX removal mechanisms from anaerobic biodegradation inside the plume to aerobic biodegradation. This variation could be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the enhanced aerobic bioremediation process: (1) increased in DO, CO2, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decreased in dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total heterotrophs and decreased total anaerobes. Field results also showed that the percentage of total BTEX removal increased from 92% to 99%, and the calculated total BTEX first-order natural attenuation rates increased from 0.0092% to 0.0188% per day, respectively, after the application of enhanced bioremediation system from the spill area to the downgradient area (located approximately 300 m from the source area).

  10. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil. PMID:26413446

  11. Stimulating in situ surfactant production to increase contaminant bioavailability and augment bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haws, N. W.; Bentley, H. W.; Yiannakakis, A.; Bentley, A. J.; Cassidy, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of a bioremediation strategy is largely dependent on relationships between contaminant sequestration (geochemical limitations) and microbial degradation potential (biological limitations). As contaminant bioavailability becomes mass transfer limited, contaminant removal will show less sensitivity to biodegradation enhancements without concurrent enhancements to rates of mass transfer into the bioavailable phase. Implementing a strategy that can simultaneously address geochemical and biological limitations is motivated by a subsurface zone of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) contamination that is in excess of 10 acres (40,000 sq. meters). Biodegradation potential at the site is high; however, observed biodegradation rates are generally low, indicative of bioavailability limitations (e.g., low aqueous solubilities, nutrient deficiencies, and/or mass transfer limitations), and estimates indicate that bioremediation (i.e., biosparging/bioventing) with unaugmented biodegradation may be unable to achieve the remedial objectives within an acceptable time. Bench-scale experiments using soils native to the site provide evidence that, in addition to nutrient additions, a pulsed oxygen delivery can increase biodegradation rates by stimulating the microbial production of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), leading to a reduction in surface tension and an increase in contaminant bioavailability. Pilot-scale tests at the field site are evaluating the effectiveness of stimulating in situ biosurfactant production using cyclic biosparging. The cyclic sparging creates extended periods of alternating aerobic and oxygen-depleted conditions in the submerged smear zone. The increased bioavailability of LPH and the resulting biodegradation enhancements during the test are evaluated using measurements of surface tension (as confirmation of biosurfactant accumulation) and nitrate concentrations (as substantiation of anaerobic biodegradation during shut-off periods). The

  12. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum.

    PubMed

    McCollom, T M; Simoneit, B R; Shock, E L

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  13. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  14. Natural attenuation of MTBE at two petroleum-hydrocarbon spill sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, K F; Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Chen, T Y; Chien, C C

    2005-10-17

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to improve the combustion efficiency and to replace lead since 1978. Because it is widely used and it has been disposed inappropriately, MTBE has become a prevalent groundwater contaminant worldwide. In this study, two petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites (Sites A and B) were selected to evaluate the occurrence and effectiveness of natural attenuation of MTBE at these two sites. Field investigation results indicate that the natural attenuation mechanisms of MTBE at both sites were occurring with the first-order attenuation rates of 0.0021 and 0.0048 1day(-1) at Sites A and B, respectively. Results also reveal that the intrinsic biodegradation pattern was the most important mechanism among the natural attenuation processes at both sites. Results from BIOSCREEN simulation suggest that biodegradation was responsible for 78 and 59% of MTBE mass reduction at Sites A and B, respectively. Investigation results show that MTBE plume at Site B could be effectively controlled via natural attenuation processes. However, MTBE plume at Site A has migrated to a farther downgradient area and passed the boundary line of the site. Thus, more active groundwater remedial technologies should be applied at Site A to protect the downgradient environment. Results from this study suggest that natural attenuation might be feasible to be used as a remedial option for the remediation of MTBE-contaminated site on the premise that (1) detailed site characterization has been conducted and (2) the occurrence and effectiveness of natural attenuation processes have been confirmed.

  15. Oceanobacter-related bacteria are important for the degradation of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons in the tropical marine environment.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Maki; Suzuki, Masahito; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Hatmanti, Ariani; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were obtained after enrichment on crude oil (as a 'chocolate mousse') in a continuous supply of Indonesian seawater amended with nitrogen, phosphorus and iron nutrients. They were related to Alcanivorax and Marinobacter strains, which are ubiquitous petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in marine environments, and to Oceanobacter kriegii (96.4-96.5 % similarities in almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences). The Oceanobacter-related bacteria showed high n-alkane-degrading activity, comparable to that of Alcanivorax borkumensis strain SK2. On the other hand, Alcanivorax strains exhibited high activity for branched-alkane degradation and thus could be key bacteria for branched-alkane biodegradation in tropical seas. Oceanobacter-related bacteria became most dominant in microcosms that simulated a crude oil spill event with Indonesian seawater. The dominance was observed in microcosms that were unamended or amended with fertilizer, suggesting that the Oceanobacter-related strains could become dominant in the natural tropical marine environment after an accidental oil spill, and would continue to dominate in the environment after biostimulation. These results suggest that Oceanobacter-related bacteria could be major degraders of petroleum n-alkanes spilt in the tropical sea. PMID:19541999

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts. PMID:21194195

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  18. Efficiency of Indigenous Filamentous Fungi for Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Medium and Soil: Laboratory Study from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Maddela, N R; Scalvenzi, L; Pérez, M; Montero, C; Gooty, J M

    2015-09-01

    The competence of two fungal isolates for degrading petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated. The filamentous fungi were isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil in northeastern Ecuador, and were 99 %-100 % similar in 18S rDNA sequence to the genus Geomyces. Their efficiencies of degradation were tested in vitro for 30 days, using medium and soil microcosm. Residual hydrocarbons were tracked by gas liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The maximum removal percentages of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 77.3 % and 79.9 % for experiments in the medium and soil microcosm, respectively. The percent germination of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds was increased from 20 % to 100 % upon bioremediation. Isolates sporulated optimally on minimal salts agar medium at pH 5, 25°C temperature, 1 %-1.5 % substrate (crude oil) and 4-6 g L(-1) N-P-K. These findings suggest that these fungal isolates are potential degraders for bioremediation in crude oil-contaminated areas in Ecuador.

  19. Use of dissolved and vapor-phase gases to investigate methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amos, R.T.; Mayer, K.U.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Williams, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] At many sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, methanogenesis is a significant degradation pathway. Techniques to estimate CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes are needed to understand the geochemical system, provide a complete carbon mass balance, and quantify the hydrocarbon degradation rate. Dissolved and vapor-phase gas data collected at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota, demonstrate that naturally occurring nonreactive or relatively inert gases such as Ar and N2 can be effectively used to better understand and quantify physical and chemical processes related to methanogenic activity in the subsurface. In the vadose zone, regions of Ar and N2 depletion and enrichment are indicative of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones, and concentration gradients between the regions suggest that reaction-induced advection can be an important gas transport process. In the saturated zone, dissolved Ar and N2 concentrations are used to quantify degassing driven by methanogenesis and also suggest that attenuation of methane along the flow path, into the downgradient aquifer, is largely controlled by physical processes. Slight but discernable preferential depletion of N2 over Ar, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones near the free-phase oil, suggests reactivity of N2 and is consistent with other evidence indicating that nitrogen fixation by microbial activity is taking place at this site. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Efficiency of Indigenous Filamentous Fungi for Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Medium and Soil: Laboratory Study from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Maddela, N R; Scalvenzi, L; Pérez, M; Montero, C; Gooty, J M

    2015-09-01

    The competence of two fungal isolates for degrading petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated. The filamentous fungi were isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil in northeastern Ecuador, and were 99 %-100 % similar in 18S rDNA sequence to the genus Geomyces. Their efficiencies of degradation were tested in vitro for 30 days, using medium and soil microcosm. Residual hydrocarbons were tracked by gas liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The maximum removal percentages of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 77.3 % and 79.9 % for experiments in the medium and soil microcosm, respectively. The percent germination of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds was increased from 20 % to 100 % upon bioremediation. Isolates sporulated optimally on minimal salts agar medium at pH 5, 25°C temperature, 1 %-1.5 % substrate (crude oil) and 4-6 g L(-1) N-P-K. These findings suggest that these fungal isolates are potential degraders for bioremediation in crude oil-contaminated areas in Ecuador. PMID:26215457

  1. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  2. Detailed analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon attenuation in biopiles by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Van Look, Dirk; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-02-27

    Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two biopiles was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC). The attenuation of 34 defined hydrocarbon classes was calculated by HPLC-GCXGC analysis of representative biopile samples at start-up and after 18 weeks of biopile operation. In general, a-cyclic alkanes were most efficiently removed from the biopiles, followed by monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more resistant to degradation. A-cyclic biomarkers farnesane, trimethyl-C13, norpristane, pristane and phytane dropped to only about 10% of their initial concentrations. On the other hand, C29-C31 hopane concentrations remained almost unaltered after 18 weeks of biopile operation, confirming their resistance to biodegradation. They are thus reliable indicators to estimate attenuation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in biopile processed soils.

  3. Forensic differentiation of biogenic organic compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons in biogenic and petrogenic compounds cross-contaminated soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Kelly-Hooper, F; Hollebone, B P; Peng, X; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Yang, Z

    2009-02-13

    "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPHs) or "petroleum hydrocarbons" (PHCs) are one of the most widespread soil pollutants in Canada, North America, and worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils and sediments costs the Canadian economy hundreds of million of dollars annually. Much of this activity is driven by the need to meet regulated levels of PHC in soil. These PHC values are legally required to be assessed using standard methods. The method most commonly used in Canada, specified by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), measures the total hydrocarbon concentrations in a soil by carbon range (Fraction 1: C(6)-C(10); Fraction 2: C(10)-C(16), Fraction 3: C(16)-C(34): and Fraction 4: C(34)+). Using the CCME method, all of the materials extractible by a mixture of 1:1 hexane:acetone are considered to be petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants. Many hydrocarbon compounds and other extractible materials in soil, however, may originate from non-petroleum sources. Biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) is a general term used to describe a mixture of organic compounds, including alkanes, sterols and sterones, fatty acids and fatty alcohols, and waxes and wax esters, biosynthesized by living organisms. BOCs are also produced during the early stages of diagenesis in recent aquatic sediments. BOC sources could include vascular plants, algae, bacteria and animals. Plants and algae produce BOCs as protective wax coating that are released back into the sediment at the end of their life cycle. BOCs are natural components of thriving plant communities. Many solvent-extraction methods for assessing soil hydrocarbons, however, such as the CCME method, do not differentiate PHCs from BOCs. The naturally occurring organics present in soils and wet sediments can be easily misidentified and quantified as regulated PHCs during analysis using such methods. In some cases, biogenic interferences can exceed regulatory levels, resulting in remediation of petroleum impacts that

  4. In situ oxidation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using passive ISCO system.

    PubMed

    Liang, S H; Kao, C M; Kuo, Y C; Chen, K F; Yang, B M

    2011-04-01

    petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifers. Results from this study will be useful in designing a scale-up system for field application.

  5. Anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments under sulfate-reducing and artificially imposed iron-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The potential use of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in-situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments was investigated. Previous studies have indicated that Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) can oxidize some electron donors more effectively than sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB). In contrast to previous results in freshwater sediments, the addition of Fe(III) to marine sediments from San Diego Bay, CA did not switch the terminal electron-accepting process (TEAP) from sulfate reduction to Fe-(III) reduction. Addition of Fe(III) also did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III)] followed by anaerobic incubation of the sediments, resulted in Fe-(III) reduction as the TEAP, but contaminant degradation was not stimulated and in some instances was inhibited. The difference in the ability of FeRB to compete with the SRB in the different sediment treatments was related to relative population sizes. Although the addition of Fe(III) did not stimulate hydrocarbon degradation, the results presented here as well as other recent studies demonstrate that there may be significant anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions in harbor sediments.

  6. Quantification and interpretation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples by a GC/MS method and comparison with EPA 418.1 and a rapid field method.

    PubMed

    Xie, G; Barcelona, M J; Fang, J

    1999-05-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three currently used methods (GC/MS, conventional EPA 418.1, and a rapid field method PetroFLAG) were performed to quantify the TPH content in samples collected from a site contaminated by transformer oil. To standardize the method and improve the comparability of TPH data, crucial GC-based quantification issues were examined, e.g., quantification based on internal standards (ISTD) vs external standards (ESTD), single vs multiple ISTD, and various area integration approaches. The interpretation of hydrocarbon chromatographic results was examined in the context of field samples. The performance of the GC/MS method was compared with those of EPA 418.1 and PetroFLAG. As a result, it was observed that the ISTD quantification method was preferred to the ESTD method, multiple ISTD might be better than single ISTD, and three different area integration approaches did not have a significant effect on TPH results. Evaluation of the chromatograms between a reference sample and three unknown samples showed that the extent of contamination varied appreciably with sample depth. It was also found that there existed a good positive correlation between GC/MS and both EPA 418.1 and PetroFLAG, and that EPA 418.1 produced the higher overall estimate while GC/MS and PetroFLAG resulted in lower, more statistically comparable TPH values.

  7. The Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons on Algae Can Be Reversed in the Presence of a Primary Consumer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyou; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hongli; Xing, Wenhui; Yu, Hua

    2015-09-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons were tested on densities of two algae, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Isochrysis galbana, and of a rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, by single-species and customized community experiments. Test concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 mg L(-1), while five to seven treatments were assessed in triplicate within 1 month. A significant decrease in densities during single-species toxicity tests were found when concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were above 1.0 mg L(-1). However, equilibrium densities of algae in the customized community showed a different pattern, which increased with concentration and reached a peak at 20.0 mg L(-1). The community-based no observed effect concentration (NOEC; 1.0 mg L(-1)) was different from the NOEC derived by single-species toxic tests (0.25 mg L(-1)). This demonstrates that ecotoxicological effects on plankton as part of a community is significantly different from single-species toxicity tests owing to ecological interactions.

  8. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Npetroleum-derived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  9. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  10. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  11. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently.

  12. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-04-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Report of EPA efforts to replace freon for the determination of oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a multiphase study to determine a suitable replacement solvent for Freon-113, a class I CFC used in several EPA wastewater and solid waste methods for the determination of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons. Conclusions from the Phase I study were used to narrow the list of alternative solvents to be considered in Phase II to n-hexane and cyclohexane. These solvents were evaluated for separatory funnel extraction and gravimetric determination of both oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in aqueous samples. Triplicate analyses were performed for each of the solvents tested (i.e Freon-113, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) on each of 34 samples from a combination of inprocess and effluent waste streams collected from 25 facilities encompassing 16 different industrial categories. The objectives of Phase II were to find the alternative solvent that produced results closest to the results produced by Freon-113 and to develop an analytical method that incorporated this extraction solvent. In addition to studies of alternative solvents, solid phase disk extraction, solid phase cartridge extraction (also known as solid phase column extraction), non-dispersive infra-red spectroscopy, and immunoassay were voluntarily evaluated by vendors of the products using splits of each sample collected as part of the Phase II study.

  14. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  15. The role of root exuded low molecular weight organic anions in facilitating petroleum hydrocarbon degradation: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Belinda C; George, Suman J; Price, Charles A; Ryan, Megan H; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-02-15

    Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby enhanced microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs within the plant root zone (rhizosphere). It is considered an effective and affordable 'green technology' for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). This paper critically reviews the potential role of root exuded compounds in rhizoremediation, with emphasis on commonly exuded low molecular weight aliphatic organic acid anions (carboxylates). The extent to which remediation is achieved shows wide disparity among plant species. Therefore, plant selection is crucial for the advancement and widespread adoption of this technology. Root exudation is speculated to be one of the predominant factors leading to microbial changes in the rhizosphere and thus the potential driver behind enhanced petroleum biodegradation. Carboxylates can form a significant component of the root exudate mixture and are hypothesised to enhance petroleum biodegradation by: i) providing an easily degradable energy source; ii) increasing phosphorus supply; and/or iii) enhancing the contaminant bioavailability. These differing hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, require further investigation to progress our understanding of plant-microbe interactions with the aim to improve plant species selection and the efficacy of rhizoremediation.

  16. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27381357

  17. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  18. Simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Serebrennikova, Marina K; Rubtsova, Ekaterina V; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V

    2013-08-01

    A method of simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. was developed that allowed the estimation of immobilized Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus ruber survival after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Spectrophotometric INT assay revealed high tolerance of gel-immobilized rhodococci to petroleum hydrocarbons, while among two Rhodococcus strains studied, R. ruber tolerated better to hydrocarbons compared to R. opacus. These findings were confirmed by respirometry results that showed increased respiratory activity of gel-immobilized Rhodococcus strains after 10-day incubation with 3% (v/v) petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Moreover, jointly incubated rhodococcal strains demonstrated higher oxidative activities toward petroleum hydrocarbons than individual strains. Both Rhodococcus species were recovered successfully in cryogel granules using 16S rDNA-targeted PCR, even though the granules were previously stained with INT and extracted with ethanol. The method developed can be used for rapid detection and monitoring of gel-immobilized bacterial inocula in bioreactors or contaminated soil systems.

  19. Distributions and sources of petroleum, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhang, Haijiang; He, Shijie; Lv, Shuangyan

    2015-01-15

    Surface sediment samples from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China, were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon, PAHs and biomarkers in order to determine the distribution, composition and source of organic matter in a coastal environment. Results suggested that the input of organic matter from anthropogenic activities has a more significant influence on its distribution than that from natural processes. Petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. PAHs were mostly of pyrogenic origin; while some sites in Yellow River Estuary were derived mainly from the petrogenic sources. The toxic assessment suggested that the PAHs in surface sediments will not cause immediately adverse biological effects in sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China. PMID:25499964

  20. Distributions and sources of petroleum, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhang, Haijiang; He, Shijie; Lv, Shuangyan

    2015-01-15

    Surface sediment samples from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China, were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon, PAHs and biomarkers in order to determine the distribution, composition and source of organic matter in a coastal environment. Results suggested that the input of organic matter from anthropogenic activities has a more significant influence on its distribution than that from natural processes. Petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. PAHs were mostly of pyrogenic origin; while some sites in Yellow River Estuary were derived mainly from the petrogenic sources. The toxic assessment suggested that the PAHs in surface sediments will not cause immediately adverse biological effects in sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

  1. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  2. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  3. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).

    PubMed

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod, Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and naphthalene-type metabolites. Biliary PAH-type metabolite concentrations varied with the type of oil spill remediation technique, route of exposure (food versus water), and exposure concentration. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil via the water exhibited the highest PAH-type biliary metabolite concentrations, relative to fish exposed to other treatments. In fish exposed via the diet, the highest concentration of both types of biliary metabolites also appeared in the dispersed oil-exposed individuals. The results suggest that chemically dispersing oil may have the greatest effect on bioavailability of hydrocarbons, both through waterborne and food chain exposures.

  4. Behavior of disperse systems of solid hydrocarbons from petroleum in a direct-current field

    SciTech Connect

    Gundyrev, A.A.; Kazakova, L.P.; Mukhin, M.L.; Mukhin, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    A microelectrophoretic technique was used with the aid of a polarizing microscope to investigate the separation of solid hydrocarbons from a residual raffinate in different types of solvents in an electric field. The time required for electroseparation of the slurries was determined mainly by solvent viscosity. The solvents tested included n-heptane, BR-1 naphtha, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and a methyl ethyl ketone-toluene mixture. The effects of charge on hydrocarbon precipitation yields on the electrodes were assessed. The precipitation of solid hydrocarbons from deresined raffinate proceeded through a stage of interelectrode circulation which indicated an unstable charge of the disperse phase.

  5. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters.

  6. Assessment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination in the surficial sediments and ground water at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water and sediment contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons resulting from leaks and overfills was detected during tank removal activities at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, near Columbia, South Carolina. Investigations were initiated to assess the effect of contamination to the surficial aquifer at Sites 1062, 2438, and 2444. These investigations involved the installation of permanent monitoring wells and the collection and analysis of sediment and ground-water samples at the three sites. Water-level data were collected at all sites to determine hydraulic gradients and the direction of ground-water flow. In addition, aquifer tests were made at Site 1062 to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial aquifer at that site. Sediment borings were made at the three sites to collect subsurface-sediment samples for lithologic description and laboratory analyses, and for the installation of ground-water monitoring wells. Laboratory analyses of sediment samples collected from boreholes at Site 1062 indicated elevated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons at three locations. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Diesel Range Organics were detected at one borehole at a concentration of 388,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations in sediment from the site ranged from less than 350 to over 100,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total lead was detected at concentrations ranging from 2,900 to 5,900 micrograms per kilogram. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at Site 2438 in one borehole at a trace concentration of 112 micrograms per kilogram of para- and meta-xylenes. No concentrations exceeding the detection limits were reported for petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected from Site 2444; however, total lead was detected in sediment samples from two boreholes, each at concentrations of 600 micrograms per kilogram. Ground-water samples were collected from each site for

  7. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  8. Hydrocarbon composition of authigenic inclusions: Application to elucidation of petroleum reservoir filling history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, Dag A.; Nedkvitne, Tor; Larter, Steve R.; Bjørlykke, Knut

    1993-08-01

    Geochemical analysis of petroleum inclusions trapped in authigenic feldspar and quartz in the Ula Formation in the North Sea Ula oil field revealed a petroleum of markedly different composition than the oil presently in the reservoir. Using microthermometry and the burial history as a dating tools, it is concluded that the petroleum in the K-feldspar inclusions was present in the more porous and permeable parts of the Ula Formation as early as 45-75 My Bp when the field was at a depth of about 1.0-1.5 km, as compared with the current depth of 3.4 km. This early petroleum, which was trapped as inclusions in authigenic K-feldspar, shows a distinctly different distribution of tricyclic terpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes from that of the current petroleum charge in the Ula Formation, which was derived from the Mandal Formation source rock in late Neogene time. Molecular parameters show that the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions is significantly less mature than the crude oil in the present reservoir. The approximate 90°C temperature increase occurring after entrapment of the early petroleum in Kfeldspar (the field is currently at 143°C) appears not to have reset the low maturity signature of the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions. This could suggest that the temperature in the inclusions is too low for isomerization/selective thermal degradation to occur (lack of catalysts?), or that there are other controls on the ratio of some of these parameters. Still, parameters like the ratio of C 21 to C 28 triaromatic steroids, and those based on dimethyl- and trimethyl-naphthalenes, are comparatively similar in both the inclusions and in the reservoir crude. The oil inclusions in authigenic quartz and albite, formed from about 10 My BP (burial depth ≈ 2.5 km) until the present (burial depth = 3.4 km), are interpreted as representing a palaeo-petroleum charge having a composition intermediate between the oil found in K-feldspar inclusions and the oil charge in the present

  9. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of “conditionally rare taxa,” in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. PMID:26590285

  10. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints.

  11. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20-50°C), salinity (0.5-2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40°C compared to MFC performance at 30°C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50°C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40°C was 1.15 mW/m(2) maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m(2), 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  12. Biostimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment with co-substrate: involved metabolic process and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of acetate and methanol as co-substrates on anaerobic biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs, C10-C40) in marine sediment. The findings evidenced that the degradation of TPH can be enhanced by adding acetate or methanol. The addition of acetate was generally more favorable than the addition of methanol for the TPH degradation. Both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis occurred in the acetate-treated sediment. However, the depletion of SO4 (2-) inhibited sulfate reduction over the incubation period. Only methanogenesis was prevalent in the methanol-treated sediment within the whole incubation period. The degradation of TPH fractions with higher carbon number ranges (C31-C40) was speculated to be more favored under sulfate-reducing condition, while TPH fractions with lower carbon number ranges (C10-C20) were preferentially degraded under methanogenic condition. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed that the addition of different co-substrates led to distinct structures of the microbial community. Clones related to sulfate-reducing Desulfobacterales were the most abundant in the sediment dosed with acetate. Clones related to Clostridiales predominated in the sediment dosed with methanol. Acetoclastic methanogens were found to be the predominant archaeal species in the sediment dosed with acetate, while both acetoclastic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens accounted for large proportions in the sediment dosed with methanol. The results obtained in this study will contribute to more comprehensive knowledge on the role of acetate and methanol as co-substrates in biostimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment. PMID:25661814

  13. Rapid methods for classification and quantitative assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution in soil samples using reflectance spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, G.; Eshel, G.; Ben-Haim, M.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2009-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most significant environmental polluter (for both soil and water) mainly due to its mass production and use (13.26 million cubic meters of crude oil per day). The commonly used method for PHC determination in soil samples is by PHC extraction from the soil sample using 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113) and afterwards determining the total PHC (TPH) by FTIR. This method is expensive and time consuming; in addition the use of Freon 113 was recently prohibited by the EPA. Therefore, there is a great need for alternative methods which are environmental friendly and can rapidly detect low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon in soils. The adoption of this approach to evaluate PHC contamination in soils is obvious and a few works have partially demonstrated this application. This study focused on using defused spectral analysis across the VNIR-SWIR region (400-2500 nm) to directly determine PHC in soil samples especially at low concentrations. We used artificially contaminated soil samples (diesel and fuel) that were analyzed by both the common method (extraction with Freon 113) and spectrally. Several statistical models were tested for predicting TPH in soils for a large concentration range (100 - 10000 ppm). More than one hundred field contaminated soil samples have been collected and analyzed in the same manner. Preliminary combined generic models are being tested, for in situ use for quantifying TPH in soils at high precisions levels, as well as identifying fuel type in the soil medium with great success. Our results show that PHC contamination in soils can be evaluated generically in situ, rapidly, accurately, and cost effectively.

  14. Biostimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment with co-substrate: involved metabolic process and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of acetate and methanol as co-substrates on anaerobic biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs, C10-C40) in marine sediment. The findings evidenced that the degradation of TPH can be enhanced by adding acetate or methanol. The addition of acetate was generally more favorable than the addition of methanol for the TPH degradation. Both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis occurred in the acetate-treated sediment. However, the depletion of SO4 (2-) inhibited sulfate reduction over the incubation period. Only methanogenesis was prevalent in the methanol-treated sediment within the whole incubation period. The degradation of TPH fractions with higher carbon number ranges (C31-C40) was speculated to be more favored under sulfate-reducing condition, while TPH fractions with lower carbon number ranges (C10-C20) were preferentially degraded under methanogenic condition. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed that the addition of different co-substrates led to distinct structures of the microbial community. Clones related to sulfate-reducing Desulfobacterales were the most abundant in the sediment dosed with acetate. Clones related to Clostridiales predominated in the sediment dosed with methanol. Acetoclastic methanogens were found to be the predominant archaeal species in the sediment dosed with acetate, while both acetoclastic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens accounted for large proportions in the sediment dosed with methanol. The results obtained in this study will contribute to more comprehensive knowledge on the role of acetate and methanol as co-substrates in biostimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment.

  15. Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites

  16. Microbial biomass in a shallow, urban aquifer contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons: analysis by phospholipid fatty acid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, P D; Patterson, B M; Power, T R; Nichols, P D; Davis, G B

    1996-06-01

    The city of Perth contains a number of sites that have been contaminated with hydrocarbons due to leakage from petroleum underground storage tanks. Microbial biomass in groundwater and sediment cores from above and below the water table, and from within and outside a plume of hydrocarbon contamination, was examined using phospholipid fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Microbial numbers, calculated from the phospholipid content, ranged from 0.9 x 10(6) to 7.8 x 10(6) 'Escherichia coli equivalent cells' g-1 dry wt of sediment. Over 96% of the microbial biomass was attached to the sediment and the proportion of attached cells did not decrease within the plume of contaminants. The amount of biomass within aquifer samples seemed to be related more to the proximity of the rhizosphere to the shallow aquifer, and other unknown urban inputs, rather than to the effects of the plume of contaminants. Fatty acids common to many bacterial groups dominated within the plume, and as such the analyses gave limited insight into microbial community structure. For site assessment of intrinsic remediation of shallow aquifers in urban areas, estimates of microbial biomass may not provide information that is readily applicable to plume management.

  17. Shakedown operation of group of units for aromatic hydrocarbon production at the Novopolotsk petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkovskii, A.D.; Chesnovitskii, K.G.; Koroleva, M.I.; Sulimov, A.D.; Teteruk, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    This article describes how technical xylene and C/sub 9/ aromatic hydrocarbons are produced in catalytic reformers operated in conjunction with diethylene glycol extraction units. In the operation of the unit, the greatest difficulties were encountered in purification of the p-xylene, owing to frequent mechanical failures of the equipment of the pulsed columns due to hydraulic shock and unstable operation under the process conditions required to obtain a product with a purity above 99%. As a result of the successful shakedown operations of individual aromatic hydrocarbons, the yields of commercial products (ethylbenzene, p-xylene, o-xylene, pseudocumene) have amounted to 76.9% of the technical xylene feed.

  18. Hydrologic and microbiological factors affecting persistence and migration of petroleum hydrocarbons spilled in a continuous-permafrost region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel spills, totaling about 1300 m3, occurred between 1976 and 1978 adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking water source near Barrow, AK. Substantial contamination of soils and groundwater near the lake persists. We examined the magnitude and direction of groundwater flux and the microbial activity at this site to understand the persistence of contamination and its effect on the lake. We found that groundwater flux is small due to shallow permafrost, which restricts the cross-sectional area available for flow, and to the short annual thaw season (ca. 90 days). The small flux and limited depth also constrain contaminant transport and dispersion, resulting in persistent, shallow contamination. The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their laboratory mineralization potentials for benzene (at 10 ??C) were higher in samples from contaminated areas than in reference samples. Benzene mineralization potentials in groundwater samples were comparable to more temperate systems (0.1-0.5 mg of benzene mineralized L-1 day-1) and were stimulated by nutrient additions. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, and sulfide in groundwater provided evidence that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is occurring in situ. Despite evidence of an active microbial population, microbial processes, like contaminant transport, are likely limited at this site by the short annual thaw season.

  19. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  20. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  1. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits.

  2. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

  3. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  4. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  5. MODELS AND METHODS FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON RISK ASSESSMENT: ONSITE, LUSTRISK, AND HSSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA has developed three tiers of models for analysis of fuel releases from underground storage tank (UST) systems: 1) OnSite; 2) LUSTRisk, and 3) the Hydrocarbon Spill Screening Model (HSSM). The tiered approach to modeling allows users to select a model based upon the amoun...

  6. Intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Gieg, L.M.; McInerney; Tanner, R.S.; Harris, S.H. Jr.; Sublette, K.L.; Suflita, J.M. ); Kolhatkar, R.V. . Center for Environmental Research and Technology)

    1999-08-01

    A study was designed to determine if the intrinsic bioremediation of gas condensate hydrocarbons represented an important fate process in a shallow aquifer underlying a natural gas production site. For over 4 yr, changes in the groundwater, sediment, and vadose zone chemistry in the contaminated portion of the aquifer were interpreted relative to a background zone. Changes included decreased dissolved oxygen and sulfate levels and increased alkalinity, Fe(II), and methane concentrations in the contaminated groundwater, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic respiration depleted oxygen reserves leaving anaerobic conditions in the hydrocarbon-impacted subsurface. Dissolved hydrogen levels in the contaminated groundwater indicated that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were predominant biological processes, corroborating the geochemical findings. Furthermore, 10--1000-fold higher numbers of sulfate reducers and methanogens were enumerated in the contaminated sediment relative to background. Putative metabolites were also detected in the contaminated groundwater, including methylbenzylsuccinic acid, a signature intermediate of anaerobic xylene decay. Laboratory incubations showed that benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and each of the xylene isomers were biodegraded under sulfate-reducing conditions as was toluene under methanogenic conditions. These results coupled with a decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations in contaminated sediment confirm that intrinsic bioremediation contributes to the attenuation of hydrocarbons in this aquifer.

  7. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  8. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  9. Screening the toxicity and biodegradability of petroleum hydrocarbons by a rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-02-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products have a wide variety of hazardous components with high toxicity and low biodegradability. Certain dyes change their colors by intercepting electron transfer reactions during the transformation processes. This study applied resazurin and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol indicators for a rapid screening biodegradation capability and toxicity response to various petroleum products such as motor oil, diesel, gasoline, and phenol. Colorimetry tests were performed in test tubes, and the absorbance values were measured over time. We observed different discoloration profiles after degradation tests using Bacillus subtilis inoculum. Phytotoxicity assays were also performed to compare colorimetric screening assays with a conventional toxicity testing with plants (seed germination). The results indicated that biotransformation of oils can increase its overall toxicity. Intermediate byproducts can be formed through biodegradation and thereby increase the toxicity of oils. The assessment of acute toxicity has shown that phenol is extremely toxic to petroleum-biodegrading microbial communities. Low molecular-weight gasoline was considered biodegradable, but it also exhibited a high acute toxic effect, mainly due to its high solubility and the presence of more volatile compounds that can penetrate cells and potentially damage cellular structures.

  10. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  11. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: part II. Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, M Indira; Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Kelley, John J

    2013-12-15

    Composition and concentration of hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes, triterpenoids, steranes, and PAHs) in nearshore surface sediments from Elson Lagoon (EL), Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay (CDPB) and Beaufort Lagoon (BL), Alaskan Beaufort Sea, were assessed for spatio-temporal variability. Principal component analysis of the molecules/biomarkers concentrations delineated CDPB and BL samples into two groups, and cluster analysis identified three station groups in CDPB. Overall there was no geographic distribution pattern in the groups. The diversities between groups and individual samples are attributed to differences in n-alkanes and PAHs contents, which are influenced predominantly by sediment granulometry and sitespecific fluvial input. The predominant hydrocarbon source is biogenic, mainly terrigenous, with hardly any contribution from natural oil seeps, oil drill effluents and/or refined crude. The terrigenous source is corroborated by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and OC/N of sediment organic matter. Time interval (1976-1977, 1984 and 1997) changes in hydrocarbon compositions and concentrations in CDPB are not significant.

  12. Embryotoxic effects of benzo(. cap alpha. )pyrene, chrysene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(. cap alpha. )anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-05-01

    In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryotoxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 ..mu../ was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryotoxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil. Retarded growth was accompanied by teratogenicity. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  13. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions.

  14. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature in the presence of the dispersant Corexit 9500.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Jon E; Braddock, Joan F

    2002-08-01

    Our study examined the effects of Corexit 9500 and sediment on microbial mineralization of specific aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil. We also measured gross mineralization of crude oil, dispersed crude oil and dispersant by a marine microbial consortium in the absence of sediment. When provided as carbon sources, our consortium mineralized Corexit 9500 the most rapidly, followed by fresh oil, and finally weathered oil or dispersed oil. However, mineralization in short term assays favored particular components of crude oil (2-methyl-naphthalene > dodecane > phenanthrene > hexadecane > pyrene) and was not affected by addition of nutrients or sediment (high sand, low organic carbon). Adding dispersant inhibited hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization but did not affect dodecane and 2-methyl-naphthalene mineralization. Thus, the effect of dispersant on biodegradation of a specific hydrocarbon was not predictable by class. The results were consistent for both high and low oiling experiments and for both fresh and weathered oil. Overall, our results indicate that environmental use of Corexit 9500 could result in either increases or decreases in the toxicity of residual oil through selective microbial mineralization of hydrocarbons.

  15. Monitoring of DNA damage in individuals exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Paz-y-Miño, César; López-Cortés, Andrés; Arévalo, Melissa; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2008-10-01

    Currently, it is known that several chemical agents used or generated by the oil industry are classified as mutagens and/or carcinogens. Among these we have gasoline, diesel, butane gas, styrene, benzene, chloroform, and others. Studies have verified that these chemicals have effects in fertility (abortions, sterility); produce various upheavals, such as dizziness, nausea, muscular pain; and produce chromosomal damage at the DNA level, which in the long or medium run, can develop into cancer and leukemia. The genetic damage in exposed individuals was measured by means of the comet test, chromosomal alterations test, and the study of the CYP 1A1 and MSH2 genes. These methods were applied to determine the genotoxicity of hydrocarbons and their residue in human beings. When conducting these tests on the blood samples of individuals exposed to hydrocarbons (workers of oil companies) and of a control population of the area of study and Quito, it was found that, in effect, the exposed individuals presented a greater amount of damage at the DNA level as well as at the chromosomal level than the individuals from the control populations (P< 0.001). Thus, it can be determined that populations that are exposed to hydrocarbons are susceptible to developing genetic damage. Therefore, risk groups can be determined in certain zones where the oil impact has been greater.

  16. A digital atlas of hydrocarbon accumulations within and adjacent to the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Naresh; Bird, Kenneth J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Grow, John A.; Evans, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated a project to reassess the hydrocarbon potential of the NPRA. Although exploration for hydrocarbons in the NPRA was initiated in 1944, it has taken fifty years for the first commercial discovery to be made. That discovery, the Alpine field (projected recoverable reserves of 430 million barrels), was made in 1994 along the eastern boundary of the NPRA. This field produces from a formation heretofore considered to be mostly a source rock. The Alpine discovery made such a reassessment necessary. As part of this assessment, we have compiled stratigraphic, structural, petrophysical, and seismic data related to nineteen accumulations within and nearby the NPRA. The goal is to provide basic documentation and a set of analog accumulations for the new assessment. The first two displays of this atlas consist of a location map and a stratigraphic column showing the stratigraphic settings for the primary reservoir and source rocks for these accumulations. The third display is a table listing each accumulation and providing the hydrocarbon fluid type, reservoir, operator, status, and discovery well and date for each. Compilation of basic information for each individual accumulation follows these displays. A typical compilation includes a structurecontour map on or near the reservoir horizon, a log display of the discovery well with reservoir characteristics along with figures for recoverable volumes, and one or two seismic lines across or near the accumulation.

  17. [Identification of Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Dietzia Bacteria from Petroleum Reservoirs Based on Phenotypic Properties and Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Shumkova, E S; Sokolova, D Sh; Babich, T L; Zhurina, M V; Xue, Yan-Fen; Osipov, G A; Poltaraus, A B; Tourova, T P

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic position of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacterial strains 263 and 32d isolated from formation water of the Daqing petroleum reservoir (PRC) was determined by polyphasic taxonomy techniques, including analysis of the 16S rRNA and the gyrB genes. The major chemotaxonomic characteristics of both strains, including the IV type cell wall, composition of cell wall fatty acids, mycolic acids, and menaquinones, agreed with those typical of Dietzia strains. The DNA G+C content of strains 263 and 32d were 67.8 and 67.6 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain 32d revealed 99.7% similarity to the gene of D. maris, making it possible to identify strain 32d as belonging to this species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 263 exhibited 99.7 and 99.9% similarity to those of D. natronolimnaea and D. cercidiphylli YIM65002(T), respectively. Analysis of the gyrB genes of the subterranean isolates and of a number of Dietzia type strains confirmed classiffication of strain 32d as a D. maris strain and of strain 263, as a D. natronolimnaea strain. A conclusion was made concerning higher resolving power of phylogenetic analysis of the gyrB gene compared to the 16S rRNA gene analysis in the case of determination of the species position of Dietzia isolates.

  18. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J

    2004-02-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  19. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation. PMID:16201659

  20. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation.

  1. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-11-01

    The natural attenuation option is getting more attention from site managers and regulators as a viable alternative to more costly engineered site remediation approaches. Natural attenuation was first demonstrated at sites with hydrocarbon contamination, but recent studies at sites contaminated by chlorinated compounds have shown that this approach often has merit for these more challenging contamination problems. Covering natural attenuation in media ranging from deep aquifers to shallow soils, and for contaminants ranging from fuels to solvents to herbicides, this volume offers the reader a comprehensive overview of case studies that represent the current state of the art in natural attenuation approaches to site remediation.

  2. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers.

  3. Sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates in landfill leachate using sand, activated carbon and peat filters.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Moona, Nashita; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Björklund, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Landfill leachates are repeatedly found contaminated with organic pollutants, such as alkylphenols (APs), phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at levels exceeding water quality standards. It has been shown that these pollutants may be present in the colloidal and truly dissolved phase in contaminated water, making particle separation an inefficient removal method. The aim of this study was to investigate sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), selected APs, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and PAHs from landfill leachate using sand, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and peat moss filters. A pilot plant was installed at an inactive landfill with mixed industrial and household waste and samples were collected before and after each filter during two years. Leachate pre-treated in oil separator and sedimentation pond failed to meet water quality standards in most samples and little improvement was seen after the sand filter. These techniques are based on particle removal, whereas the analysed pollutants are found, to varying degrees, bound to colloids or dissolved. However, even highly hydrophobic compounds expected to be particle-bound, such as the PHCs and high-molecular weight PAHs, were poorly removed in the sand filter. The APs and BPA were completely removed by the GAC filter, while mass balance calculations indicate that 50-80% of the investigated phenols were removed in the peat filter. Results suggest possible AP degradation in peat filters. No evidence of phthalate degradation in the landfill, pond or the filters was found. The PHCs were completely removed in 50% and 35% of the measured occasions in the GAC and peat filters, respectively. The opposite trend was seen for removal of PAHs in GAC (50%) and peat (63%). Oxygenated PAHs with high toxicity were found in the leachates but not in the pond sediment. These compounds are likely formed in the pond water, which is alarming because sedimentation ponds are commonly used

  4. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska, sampling three different matrices.

    PubMed

    Lance, Ellen W; Matz, Angela C; Reeves, Mari K; Verbrugge, Lori A

    2012-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were measured in sediments, bivalves and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in the relatively pristine marine environment of Nelson Lagoon, Alaska. Most PAH levels in Nelson Lagoon were low, and similar to global background concentrations. Sampling media type can significantly influence conclusions of PAH contamination in the environment. Concentration of a broad size range of PAHs was observed in the tissues of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). SPMDs collected some two- to three-ring PAHs from the dissolved water phase, while sediments collected five- to six-ring PAHs that were likely adsorbed onto particulate matter. Benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen, was found in mussels at levels similar to more industrialized harbors in Alaska.

  7. Biodepuration of petroleum-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from a bivalve mollusc

    SciTech Connect

    Tanacredi, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    Two species of bivalves, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria were analyzed to identify and quantify nine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons attributable to either natural environmental accumulation, or attributable to exposure in controlled laboratory aquarium system, respectively. Extracts from naturally occurring (e.g. Jamaica bay) and laboratory maintained organism samples were characterized using a 9-PAH reference exposure standard. The results clearly show that in-vitro exposed Mercenaria mercenaria sampled over a 45-day depuration period, do not depurate the 9-PAH's but rather bioaccumulate them at detectable levels. Due to the commercial importance of these clam species for human consumption, and the fact that these PAH's are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, the practice of clam depuration and clam relaying must be re-evaluated in light of potential public health implications.

  8. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors. PMID:18657318

  9. Use of a combined personal computer and Rock-Eval in an integrated petroleum evaluation work station to estimate volumes of hydrocarbons generated and migrated in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Lafargue, E.; Drouet, S.

    1989-09-01

    A petroleum evaluation work station consisting in a modified Rock-Eval apparatus connected to an IBM personal computer has been designed at Institut Francais du petrole to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon generated and migrated in sedimentary basins. The work-station is provided with specific software for Rock-Eval data analysis, quick determination of kinetic parameters (Optim model), and quantitative hydrocarbon generation (Matoil model). Along with the classical Rock-Eval parameters (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, S{sub 2}, TOC, and T{sub max}), new parameters concerning the source rocks, such as the transformation efficiency ratio (TER), the migration efficiency ration (MER), and the initial generation capacity (IGC), are defined. These new parameters combined with geological data give access to a rapid volumetric estimation (in 10{sup 6}MT/km{sup 2}) of hydrocarbon generation and migration in the studied area. These data can be displayed on different specific maps for rapid visualization. This work station has been successfully used in the Paris and Aquitaine basins, making possible a better assessment of their petroleum potential. The petroleum evaluation work station appears to be a very valuable tool that can be used in the different phases of exploration in a sedimentary basin.

  10. Application of real-time PCR, DGGE fingerprinting, and culture-based method to evaluate the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the control of petroleum-hydrocarbon plume.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Colin S; Tsa, Fu-Yu; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Chien, Chih-Ching; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Yang, Chin-an; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2010-06-15

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the culture-based method were applied in the intrinsic bioremediation study at a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated site. The genes of phenol hydroxylase (PHE), ring-hydroxylating toluene monooxygenase (RMO), naphthalene dioxygenase (NAH), toluene monooxygenase (TOL), toluene dioxygenase (TOD), and biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH4) were quantified by real-time PCR. Results show that PHE gene was detected in groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and this indicates that intrinsic bioremediation occurred at this contaminated site. Results from DGGE analyses reveal that the petroleum-hydrocarbon plume caused the variation in microbial communities. In this study, MTBE degraders including Pseudomonas sp. NKNU01, Bacillus sp. NKNU01, Klebsiella sp. NKNU01, Enterobacter sp. NKNU01, and Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 were isolated from the contaminated groundwater using the cultured-based method. Results from MTBE biodegradation experiment show that the isolated bacteria were affected by propane. This indicates that propane may influence the metabolic pathway of MTBE by these bacteria. Knowledge and comprehension obtained from this study will be helpful in evaluating the occurrence and effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the remediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein-Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Chouksey, Mithlesh Kumar; Kadam, A N; Zingde, M D

    2004-10-01

    The paper reports PHc contamination in water, sediment and biota of the coastal area of Bassein-Mumbai in relation to relatively less polluted sites (Dabhol and Ratnagiri) off the west coast of India. To facilitate inter-comparison three standards have been used though the results are reported in terms of SAM (Residue of Saudi Arabian Mix crude). The concentration of PHc in water off Bassein-Mumbai varies widely (2.9-39.2 microg l(-1)) as compared to the average baseline (2.8 microg l(-1)) with higher values generally confined to creeks and estuaries. The higher concentration of PHc in the bottom water of shallow areas is attributed to the contribution from the sediment-associated petroleum residue. High concentration of PHc in the surficial sediment of inshore area Ratnagiri (107.7 ppm, dry wt) is perhaps the remnants of an oil spill that occurred in the Bombay High region on May 17, 1993. The majority of values of PHc concentration in the surficial sediment of the Bassein-Mumbai region exceed 15 ppm (dry wt) against the expected background (<3 ppm, dry wt) and the trend is indicative of transfer of PHc loads from the inshore areas to the open-shore sediments. The PHc concentration of 0.8-2.6 ppm (dry wt) in sediment deposited prior to the first global commercial use of petroleum in core R5 represents the biogenic background. Based on the period of industrialisation and the horizon of PHc accumulation, a sedimentation rate of 0.2 and 1.0 cm y(-1) respectively is estimated for cores U11 and U12. Substantial increase in the concentration of PHc in sediment after 1950 in cores T8 and T10 correlates well with the establishment of refineries on the western shore of the Thane Creek in 1955-1960. A minor peak in most cores in the top 10 cm sediment probably results from biological transfer of PHc lower into the sediment by benthic organisms. Excess of PHc retained in the sediment of the Bassein-Mumbai region over the biogenic background is estimated at 40,000 t. The PHc

  12. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment.

  13. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  14. The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

  15. Numerical modelling on fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in an unsaturated subsurface system for varying source scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, M.; Vasudevan, M.; Kumar, G. Suresh; Nambi, Indumathi M.

    2015-04-01

    The vertical transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface spill through an unsaturated subsurface system is of major concern in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. A realistic representation on fate and transport of volatile organic compounds at different periods after spill is quite challenging due to the variation in the source behaviour at the surface of spill as well as the variation in the hydrodynamic parameters and the associated inter-phase partitioning coefficients within the subsurface. In the present study, a one dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the transport of benzene in an unsaturated subsurface system considering the effect of volatilization, dissolution, adsorption and microbial degradation of benzene for (i) constant continuous source, (ii) continuous decaying source, and (iii) residual source. The numerical results suggest that volatilization is the important sink for contaminant removal considering the soil air migration within the unsaturated zone. It is also observed that the coupled effect of dissolution and volatilization is important for the decaying source at the surface immediately after the spill, whereas rate-limited dissolution from residually entrapped source is responsible for the extended contamination towards later period.

  16. Differential expression of the transcripts of Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass) induced in response to petroleum hydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    RamanaRao, Mangu Venkata; Weindorf, David; Breitenbeck, Gary; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2012-05-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in soil are potentially toxic to plants and exert negative effect on the environment and human health. To understand the effect of PHC on the gene expression profile of a wetland plant Spartina alterniflora in the coastal Louisiana, plants were subject up to 40% PHC under greenhouse conditions. The plants exposed to PHC showed 21% reduction of leaf total chlorophyll after 2 weeks of stress. Using 20 annealing control primers, 28 differentially expressing genes (DEGs) were identified in leaf and root tissues of S. alterniflora in response to PHC stress. Eleven of these 28 DEGs had role in either molecular function (chlorophyll a-b binding protein, HSP70, NADH, RAN1-binding protein, and RNA-binding protein), biological processes (cell wall protein, nucelosome/chromatin assembly factor) or cellular function (30 S ribosomal protein). This indicated that genes in different regulatory pathways of S. alterniflora were involved in response to PHC. All DEGs showed reduced transcript accumulation in root under oil stress, whereas they showed up- or down-regulation in their transcript abundance in leaf depending on the concentration of the PHC. The genes identified through this study could be used in the genetic screen of S. alterniflora for resistance to PHC.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, plant identity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community determine assemblages of the AMF spore-associated microbes.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The root-associated microbiome is a key determinant of pollutant degradation, soil nutrient availability and plant biomass productivity, but could not be examined in depth prior to recent advances in high-throughput sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of vascular plants. They are known to enhance mineral uptake and promote plant growth and are postulated to influence the processes involved in phytoremediation. Amplicon sequencing approaches have previously shown that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentration strongly influences AMF community structure in in situ phytoremediation experiments. We examined how AMF communities and their spore-associated microbiomes were structured within the rhizosphere of three plant species growing spontaneously in three distinct waste decantation basins of a former petrochemical plant. Our results show that the AMF community was only affected by PHP concentrations, while the AMF-associated fungal and bacterial communities were significantly affected by both PHP concentrations and plant species identity. We also found that some AMF taxa were either positively or negatively correlated with some fungal and bacterial groups. Our results suggest that in addition to PHP concentrations and plant species identity, AMF community composition may also shape the community structure of bacteria and fungi associated with AMF spores. PMID:27376781

  18. Application of in situ biosparging to remediate a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site: field and microbial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, C Y; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Chen, Y L

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a full-scale biosparging investigation was conducted at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site. Field results reveal that natural attenuation was the main cause of the decrease in major contaminants [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] concentrations in groundwater before the operation of biosparging system. Evidence of the occurrence of natural attenuation within the BTEX plume includes: (1) decrease of DO, nitrate, sulfate, and redox potential, (2) production of dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, methane, and CO(2), (3) decreased BTEX concentrations along the transport path, (4) increased microbial populations, and (5) limited spreading of the BTEX plume. Field results also reveal that the operation of biosparging caused the shifting of anaerobic conditions inside the plume to aerobic conditions. This variation can be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the biosparging process: (1) increase in DO, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decrease dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total cultivable heterotrophs, and (4) decreased total cultivable anaerobes as well as methanogens. Results of polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal that three BTEX biodegraders (Candidauts magnetobacterium, Flavobacteriales bacterium, and Bacteroidetes bacterium) might exist at this site. Results show that more than 70% of BTEX has been removed through the biosparging system within a 10-month remedial period at an averaged groundwater temperature of 18 degrees C. This indicates that biosparging is a promising technology to remediate BTEX contaminated groundwater.

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, plant identity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community determine assemblages of the AMF spore-associated microbes.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The root-associated microbiome is a key determinant of pollutant degradation, soil nutrient availability and plant biomass productivity, but could not be examined in depth prior to recent advances in high-throughput sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of vascular plants. They are known to enhance mineral uptake and promote plant growth and are postulated to influence the processes involved in phytoremediation. Amplicon sequencing approaches have previously shown that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentration strongly influences AMF community structure in in situ phytoremediation experiments. We examined how AMF communities and their spore-associated microbiomes were structured within the rhizosphere of three plant species growing spontaneously in three distinct waste decantation basins of a former petrochemical plant. Our results show that the AMF community was only affected by PHP concentrations, while the AMF-associated fungal and bacterial communities were significantly affected by both PHP concentrations and plant species identity. We also found that some AMF taxa were either positively or negatively correlated with some fungal and bacterial groups. Our results suggest that in addition to PHP concentrations and plant species identity, AMF community composition may also shape the community structure of bacteria and fungi associated with AMF spores.

  20. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  1. Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2006-12-31

    The project developed, built, and tested three apparatuses for studying different interactions of carbon dioxide with geologic materials. In Year 1, an online instrument was constructed by coupling a high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction system with a flame ionization detector that can yield a real-time profile and quantitative measurements of hydrocarbons removed from materials such as coal and petroleum reservoir rock. In Years 2 and 3, one instrument was built to measure the excess sorption of carbon dioxide in geologic materials such as coal and showed that measurable uptake of carbon dioxide into the coal matrix is rapid. The final apparatus was built to expose geologic materials to carbon dioxide for long periods of time (weeks to months) under the range of pressures and temperatures relevant to carbon dioxide sequestration. The apparatus allows as many as twenty gram-sized samples of geologic materials to be exposed simultaneously and can also include exposures with geologic brines. The system was used to demonstrate complete conversion of magnesium silicate to magnesium carbonate in less than 4 weeks when exposed to clean water or brine, compared to no measurable conversion of dry magnesium carbonate.

  2. Diagenetic relationships and hydrocarbon resource implications, Nanushuk group and Torok/Topagoruk formation, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    Petrographic, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope investigations of Nanushuk Group and Torok/Topagoruk formation (Brookian) sandstones and siltstones from 9 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska resulted in recognition of features of interest regarding the diagenetic development of these rocks. Several kinds of labile materials are present, and secondary dissolution porosity has been developed to various degrees. Mineralogic, geochemical, and textural characteristics indicate the potential for development of appreciable porosity of this type in equivalent horizons and/or similar materials within the northern Alaska Cretaceous basin. Known regional geologic, geochemical, and geophysical relationships are consistent with this view. Considerations of hydrocarbon resource potential should include concern for these relationships as integral to appreciation of the overall diagenetic evolution of the region. Heretofore, the potential for the occurrence of significant reservoir rocks in these horizons has been considered to be rather low, based on primary petrologic characteristics. However, this should be reappraised in light of increased knowledge and understanding of the principles and realities regarding diagenetic events, inorganic and organic, including secondary porosity development, clay mineral relationships, and maturation of organic material.

  3. [Influences of petroleum hydrocarbons on accumulation of cadmium and induction of metallothionein in the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Ru; Mu, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Li; Wei, Shu-He

    2014-09-01

    Ragworm (Polychaeta) is an ecologically important species in intertidal mudflats and estuaries and is recognized as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the intertidal belt of China, the ragworm Perinereis aibuhitensis is frequently exposed to various toxicants including cadmium (Cd) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The present study investigated the influence of PHCs on accumulation of Cd and the induction of metallothionein (MT) in P. aibuhitensis by means of chronic microcosm experiment in which the ragworms were exposed to Cd or combinations of Cd and PHCs. The accumulation of Cd in P. aibuhitensis increased significantly with the Cd exposure concentration when exposed to Cd alone. Further, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for Cd in P. aibuhitensis increased with the duration of exposure. The addition of PHCs in Cd exposure solutions significantly increased the accumulation of Cd in P. aibuhitensis, compared with the control. Exposure to Cd induced the expression of MT, and the expression increased with the concen- tration up to 180 mg · kg(-1) DM Cd at which point the level of induction did not increase. PHCs without Cd did not significantly induce MT in P. aibuhitensis, but the addition of PHCs with Cd did influence the induction of MT compared to Cd without PHCs. Results indicated that PHCs could modulate the expression of MT during co-exposure with Cd. The potential substances other than metals influencing the interpretation of MT expression in wild P. aibuhitensis must be recognized when MT is used as a monitoring index.

  4. Integration of various subsurface exploration techniques to solve problems at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, J.C.; Hatheway, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    As a result of both regulatory and property transfer driven investigations of petroleum distribution and storage sites, countless contamination issues have been identified. Thoughtful selection and use of different geochemical, geologic, and geophysical subsurface exploration techniques can significantly increase the cost effectiveness of investigation, remedial design/implementation, and post-closure monitoring programs. Three case histories highlighting the approach are presented. In each case, careful consideration of data needs, methods capabilities and limitations resulted in the sequenced integration of specific investigatory tools to generate the required information. These are: (1) First discussed will be the use of ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction, active and passive soil vapor surveys, installation of monitoring wells, and use of lineament/fracture trace analysis to guide the remedial investigation and system design meant to evaluate and correct gasoline and diesel releases at a major highway truck stop. (2) The use of a passive soil vapor survey, grab soil and groundwater sampling, and traditional monitoring well program at a former retail gasoline distribution site in Colorado will be presented next. Data generated by this integrated investigation were used in support of a risk assessment and remediation system design. (3) Lastly, the use of an active soil vapor survey, grab sampling and field analyses and integration with results from previous remedial investigations and emergency response measures at a commercial truck leasing facility will be overviewed. The results identified areas of residual soil contamination not addressed during the emergency response measures.

  5. Integration of various subsurface exploration techniques to solve problems at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, J.C.; Hatheway, M.H. ); Tingley, A.C. )

    1996-01-01

    As a result of both regulatory and property transfer driven investigations of petroleum distribution and storage sites, countless contamination issues have been identified. Thoughtful selection and use of different geochemical, geologic, and geophysical subsurface exploration techniques can significantly increase the cost effectiveness of investigation, remedial design/implementation, and post-closure monitoring programs. Three case histories highlighting the approach are presented. In each case, careful consideration of data needs, methods capabilities and limitations resulted in the sequenced integration of specific investigatory tools to generate the required information. These are: (1) First discussed will be the use of ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction, active and passive soil vapor surveys, installation of monitoring wells, and use of lineament/fracture trace analysis to guide the remedial investigation and system design meant to evaluate and correct gasoline and diesel releases at a major highway truck stop. (2) The use of a passive soil vapor survey, grab soil and groundwater sampling, and traditional monitoring well program at a former retail gasoline distribution site in Colorado will be presented next. Data generated by this integrated investigation were used in support of a risk assessment and remediation system design. (3) Lastly, the use of an active soil vapor survey, grab sampling and field analyses and integration with results from previous remedial investigations and emergency response measures at a commercial truck leasing facility will be overviewed. The results identified areas of residual soil contamination not addressed during the emergency response measures.

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity.

  7. Control of hydrocarbon content of a reforming gas by using a hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    To control of hydrocarbon content in waste pyrolysis-gasification and reforming processes, the use of a hydrogenation catalyst was examined in a test system with a model gas. To reduce the concentration of benzene in the reforming gas, benzene was hydrogenated with a nickel catalyst. The catalyst is usually used to convert gas-phase unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated hydrocarbons, and the benzene was converted to cyclohexane at a temperature range of about 130 to 180 degrees C in the presence of steam. However, the conversion to methane occurred at about 250 to 300 degrees C. Methane seems to be a useful conversion compound because it does not cohere as a light tar. Sometimes the reforming gas needs to be cooled for use as generator fuel. In this case, it is possible to avoid the tar cohesion if the benzene in the gas is converted to methane at about 300 degrees C after the reforming. Reduction of the efficiency of conversion to methane was not observed over a 60h reaction period. The lower hydrocarbons (ethylene, ethane, and propylene) were also converted to methane at about 300 degrees C. Conversion of benzene was also possible when other hydrocarbons were present at high concentrations. PMID:20022077

  8. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  9. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  10. Use of surfactants to improve the biological degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a field site study.

    PubMed

    Martienssen, M; Schirmer, M

    2007-05-01

    Mineral oil products are produced and utilized to a large extent. During the production, storage, filling up and utilization many spills occurred during the last decades. As a result, mineral oil contamination is recently one of the main problems in soil remediation. The predominant portion of the different oil components is easily degradable by microorganisms. But, its biodegradation in natural environments is often limited by the availability of the substrate to the microorganisms or by limited concentrations of nutrients and electron acceptors. Thus, the optimization of the environmental conditions can significantly improve the efficiency of degradation in both soil and groundwater (Enhanced Natural Attenuation approach). One major limiting factor in terms of the bioavailability of mineral oil is its limited solubility in water. Enhancing the solubility of the contaminants e.g. by the use of surfactants can significantly improve the efficiency of biodegradation. But, for the purpose of bioremediation only those surfactants should be used that are themselves completely biodegradable. Moreover, they have to be compatible to the surfaces of the bacteria. These requirements are met by biosurfactants and by those surfactants that contain structures comparable to naturally occurring microbial surfactants. The efficiency of such a close-to-nature surfactant (BioVersal FW) has been demonstrated for the in situ remediation of a highly contaminated site at Halle/S. (Germany). During the field scale investigation up to 50 g hydrocarbons per kg soil were eliminated over a period of 15 months.

  11. Ordovician petroleum source rocks and aspects of hydrocarbon generation in Canadian portion of Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Osadetz, K.G.; Snowdon, L.R.

    1988-07-01

    Accumulation of rich petroleum source rocks - starved bituminous mudrocks in both the Winnipeg Formation (Middle Ordovician) and Bighorn Group (Upper Ordovician) - is controlled by cyclical deepening events with a frequency of approximately 2 m.y. Tectonics control both this frequency and the location of starved subbasins of source rock accumulation. Deepening cycles initiated starvation of offshore portions of the inner detrital and medial carbonate facies belts. Persistence of starved offshore settings was aided by marginal onlap and strandline migration in the inner detrital facies belt, and by low carbonate productivity in the medial carbonate facies belt. Low carbonate productivity was accompanied by high rates of planktonic productivity. Periodic anoxia, as a consequence of high rates of planktonic organic productivity accompanying wind-driven equatorial upwellings, is the preferred mechanism for suppressing carbonate productivity within the epeiric sea. The planktonic, although problematic, form Gloecapsamorpha prisca Zalesskey 1917 is the main contributing organism to source rock alginites. A long-ranging alga (Cambrian to Silurian), it forms kukersites in Middle and Upper Ordovician rocks of the Williston basin as a consequence of environmental controls - starvation and periodic anoxia. Source rocks composed of this organic matter type generate oils of distinctive composition at relatively high levels of thermal maturity (transformation ratio = 10% at 0.78% R/sub o/). In the Canadian portion of the Williston basin, such levels of thermal maturity occur at present depths greater than 2950 m within a region of geothermal gradient anomalies associated with the Nesson anticline. Approximately 193 million bbl (30.7 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of oil has been expelled into secondary migration pathways from thermally mature source rocks in the Canadian portion of the basin.

  12. Northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon seep communities: Implications to the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Avent, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Most animals consume organic food sources based on primary productivity at the base of the food web. Little food reaches deep-sea bottom animals which are usually small, fragile, and sparsely distributed. Recent discoveries of chemosynthetic organisms worldwide have led to investigations into the taxonomy. ecology, biochemistry, and physiology of these forms. The dominant animals in these communities, several large species of vestimentiferan tube worms and bivalve mollusks, energetically use dissolved gases (primarily methane and hydrogen sulfide) issuing from the sea bottom under certain geological conditions. Endosymbiotic bacteria aid metabolic pathways. The large chemosynthetic animals and their dense populations (orders of magnitude over background) are the exceptions that prove the rule that food is an important limiting factor in the deep sea. The discovery of relatively shallow, luxuriant gas-seep communities on the Louisiana upper slope raises concerns on the environmental effects of nearby petroleum operations. To protect these communities, the Minerals Management Service requires photographic bottom surveys in depths from 400 to 900 m if geophysical evidence of seeps (wipeout zones or streams of bubbles) is found. If found near proposed well locations, high-density communities must be avoided thereby preventing physical damage from any structure. Deep-sea community surveys can be expensive and can result in alternative siting plans and development delays. But Minerals Management Service's requirements should conserve these shallow communities that have considerable value as natural laboratories accessible to academic study. We know little about the permanence, dynamics, recruitment recovery potential. and life requirements of chemosynthetic communities. Additional studies, funded by the Minerals Management Service, have been proposed.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spanish olive oils: relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acuña, Rafael; del Carmen Pérez-Camino, María; Cert, Arturo; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2008-11-12

    Samples of Spanish virgin olive oils (VOOs) from different categories, origins, varieties, and commercial brands were analyzed by HPLC with a programmable fluorescence detector to determine the content of nine heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perilene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Samples of olive pomace and crude olive pomace oils were also investigated. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were below the allowed limit in the European Union (2 microg/kg) in 97% of the VOO samples. Only those samples coming from contaminated olive fruits or obtained in oil mills with highly polluted environments exceeded this value. High correlation coefficients (<0.99) were obtained between the contents of benzo(a)pyrene and the sum of the nine PAHs for all of the analyzed categories, suggesting that benzo(a)pyrene could be used as a marker of the content of these nine PAHs in olive oils.

  14. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  15. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  16. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  17. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    PubMed

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  18. The origin of light hydrocarbons in petroleum: Ring preference in the closure of carbocyclic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D. )

    1994-01-01

    In a proposal for the generation of light hydrocarbons (LHs), n-alkane parents are catalytically transformed into daughter isoalkanes and cycloalkanes through the closure of three, five-, and six-membered rings. Three reaction rate constants, k[sup 3] [yields] isoalkanes: k[sup 5] [yields] cyclopentanes: k[sup 6]: [yields] cyclohexanes, control this catalytic process, and thus the compositions of LHs. A catalyst that preferentially promotes ring-closure of a specific carbon number is said to express ring preference (RP) in that carbon number. For example, a catalyst that preferentially generates isoalkanes over cycloalkanes would be expressing three-ring preference (3RP), meaning that k[sup 3] is greater than k[sup 5] and k[sup 6] in the catalytic process generating LHs. Oils show large compositional variations in LHs, with ratios of isoalkanes to cycloalkanes showing coefficients of variation on the order of 100%, reflecting large variations in RP. Genetically related oils (homologous oils), however, are either invariant in composition (invariant in RP) or they display systematic changes in RP. In a striking example of this latter case, RP progressively shifts to smaller rings, 6RP [yields] 5RP [yields] 3-RP, as parent concentrations increase. This paper addresses a curious paradox, apparently unique to the LHs: homologous oils, displaying a uniform overall geochemical composition (i.e., gravity, sulfur concentration, isotopic composition, biomarker composition, and so on), show remarkable changes in LH composition reflecting systematic changes in RP. These apparent contradictions, on the one hand a uniform overall composition reflecting a static system and on the other hand systmatic changes in LH composition reflecting a dynamic system, are analyzed in the context of a steady-state catalytic hypothesis.

  19. The development of a method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbon components using thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Guanlin; Yan, Zengguang; Lu, Guilan; Wang, Qunhui; Li, Fasheng

    2010-01-15

    An analytical scheme to determine groups of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in crude oil was developed and used for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of crude oil samples from the Shengli oilfield, the second largest oilfield in China. Crude oil samples were fractionated and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID). Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for retention time, peak height and half peak width were less than 5.2% for all classes of compounds, based on nine independent replicates. The crude oil light fraction was further analyzed by GC-MS and the majority of identified compounds were methyl- or hydro-derivatives of long-chain hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds. The external standard method used in the present study can lower detection limits of petroleum hydrocarbon compound classes to 20.0 mg L(-1), and the crude oil concentration in the range of 30 and 35,000 mg L(-1) has a high linear correlation (r(2)>0.97, P<0.05) with peak area. A comparison between elution chromatography (EC) and TLC-FID regarding the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was carried out with aged crude oil contaminated soils of 50, 80, 200 and 300 mg g(-1). The tested TLC-FID method showed a 10% higher recovery for total extractable materials than the reference EC method. The calibration factor was fraction-dependent and varied with the recovery rate of TLC/EC. Regarding the tested extraction procedures, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) had a higher extraction efficiency for crude oil contaminated soils than Soxhlet and ultrasonic extractions.

  20. Influence of dispersants on the bioavailability and trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons to larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M F; Schwartz, G J; Singaram, S; Mielbrecht, E E; Tjeerdema, R S; Sowby, M L

    2001-03-01

    Use of chemical dispersants as oil spill clean-up agents may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility, resulting in increased bioavailability and altered interactions between dispersant, oil, and biological membranes. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer to larval fish from primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, [14C]naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527(R) (DO) and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary producer, Isochrysis galbana; and a primary consumer, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis; and larval topsmelt, Atherinops affinis. Direct aqueous (AQ) exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary (AQ&D) exposure. Dispersants altered the uptake and depuration processes of naphthalene, independent of aqueous concentrations, in primary trophic species of a marine food chain. The amount of naphthalene taken up by topsmelt was initially significantly (P < or = 0.05) enhanced in the presence of dispersant, reaching a maximum more quickly than undispersed samples. Dispersion treatment significantly increased naphthalene dispension in topsmelt (P < or = 0.05) from both AQ and AQ&D exposures. No significant change in naphthalene uptake by fish was observed with the addition of contaminated food for either WAF or DO medium; however, both uptake and depuration rate constants varied significantly with route of exposure consistent with greater naphthalene turnover. The majority (> or = 72%) of naphthalene-derived radioactivity from fish tissue following all exposures was in the parent form, with smaller quantities of alpha- and beta-naphthols, alpha- and beta-naphthyl sulfates, and an unidentified

  1. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field. PMID:27591631

  2. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  3. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  4. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  5. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and toluene biodegradation, Knox Street fire pits, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, S.L.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    ground-water toluene concentration data, a maximum rate constant for anaerobic biodegradation of toluene in the saturated zone was estimated to be as low as 0.002 d-1 or as high as 0.026 d-1. Based on analyses of ground-water/vapor samples, toluene was the prin- cipal TEX compound identified in ground water discharging to Beaver Creek. Observed decreases in ground-water/vapor toluene concentrations during the study period may reflect a decrease in source inputs, an increase in dilution caused by higher ground-water flow, and(or) removal by biological or other physical processes. Rate constants of toluene anaerobic biodegradation determined by laboratory measurements illustrate a typical acclimation response of micro-organisms to hydrocarbon contamination in sediments collected from the site. Toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from laboratory microcosm studies ranged from 0.001 to 0.027 d-1, which is similar to the range of 0.002 to 0.026 d-1 for toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from ground-water analytical data. The close agreement of toluene biodegradation rate constants reported using both approaches offer strong evidence that toluene can be degraded at environmentally significant rates at the study site.

  6. Combining HPLC-GCXGC, GCXGC/ToF-MS, and selected ecotoxicity assays for detailed monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil and leaching water.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-10-15

    HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) and GCXGC/ToF-MS (comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) were used to study the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil microcosms during 20 weeks. Two soils were studied: one spiked with fresh diesel and one field sample containing weathered diesel-like oil. Nutrient amended and unamended samples were included. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in spiked soil decreased from 15,000 to 7,500 mg/kg d.m. and from 12,0O0 to 4,000 mg/kg d.m. in the field soil. Linear alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were better biodegradable (>60% degraded) than iso-alkanes; cycloalkanes were least degradable (<40%). Aromatic hydrocarbons up to three rings showed better degradability than n-alkanes. GCXGC/ToF-MS analysis of leaching water showed that initially various oxygenated hydrocarbons were produced. Compound peaks seemed to move up and rightward in the GCXGC chromatograms, indicating that more polar and heavier compounds were formed as biodegradation proceeded. Nutrient amendment can increase TPH removal rates, but had adverse effects on ecotoxicity and leaching potential in our experiment This was explained by observed shifts in the soil microbial community. Ecotoxicity assays showed that residual TPH still inhibited cress (Lepidium sativum) seed germination, but the leaching water was no longer toxic toward luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). PMID:19921874

  7. Spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolong; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Anguo; Mao, Yuze; Li, Qiang; Zong, Humin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-06-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in surface sediments were investigated in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China in May, 2013. Ecological risk assessment indicated that most heavy metals cause low ecological risk to the estuarine environment, with the exception of Cd and Hg (considerable and moderate risk, respectively). Principal component analysis in combination with correlation analysis among heavy metals, PHCs and geological factors (e.g., granularity) was used to identify possible sources of pollutants in Shuangtaizi Estuary. Results showed that the main pollution sources of the area come from anthropogenic factors, such as sewage discharge and oil exploitation.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  9. Method for maximizing the pumpability efficiency of a hydrocarbon slurry by controlling the wax crystal content

    SciTech Connect

    Tackett, J.E.

    1982-01-12

    The efficiency of pumping a hydrocarbon slurry in a pipeline is determined prior to transportation by the relationship: delta P AEBX wherein delta P is the pressure drop expected to be experienced by the slurry in the pipeline in pounds per square inch (psi), ''A'' and ''B'' are constants relating to the size of the pipeline, the flow rate of the slurry and the hydrodynamic volume of the wax crystals, and ''X'' is the wax crystal content in the slurry from the congealed particles in percentage by weight. The wax crystal content of the slurry is measured, such as by nuclear magnetic resonance and/or differential scanning calorimetry, and is used in conjunction with the constants ''A'' and ''B'' to determine the expected pressure drop of the slurry in a particular pipeline. The wax crystal content of the slurry may then be modified, if necessary, to obtain desirable or optimum slurry pumpability conditions for the pipeline.

  10. The evolution of multicomponent systems at high pressures: VI. The thermodynamic stability of the hydrogen–carbon system: The genesis of hydrocarbons and the origin of petroleum

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, J. F.; Kutcherov, Vladimir A.; Bendeliani, Nikolai A.; Alekseev, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous genesis of hydrocarbons that comprise natural petroleum have been analyzed by chemical thermodynamic-stability theory. The constraints imposed on chemical evolution by the second law of thermodynamics are briefly reviewed, and the effective prohibition of transformation, in the regime of temperatures and pressures characteristic of the near-surface crust of the Earth, of biological molecules into hydrocarbon molecules heavier than methane is recognized. For the theoretical analysis of this phenomenon, a general, first-principles equation of state has been developed by extending scaled particle theory and by using the technique of the factored partition function of the simplified perturbed hard-chain theory. The chemical potentials and the respective thermodynamic Affinity have been calculated for typical components of the H–C system over a range of pressures between 1 and 100 kbar (1 kbar = 100 MPa) and at temperatures consistent with those of the depths of the Earth at such pressures. The theoretical analyses establish that the normal alkanes, the homologous hydrocarbon group of lowest chemical potential, evolve only at pressures greater than ≈30 kbar, excepting only the lightest, methane. The pressure of 30 kbar corresponds to depths of ≈100 km. For experimental verification of the predictions of the theoretical analysis, a special high-pressure apparatus has been designed that permits investigations at pressures to 50 kbar and temperatures to 1,500°C and also allows rapid cooling while maintaining high pressures. The high-pressure genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons has been demonstrated using only the reagents solid iron oxide, FeO, and marble, CaCO3, 99.9% pure and wet with triple-distilled water. PMID:12177438

  11. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated clayey soils from a sub-arctic site: the role of aggregate size and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Akbari, Ali; Snelgrove, Jessica; Frigon, Dominic; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) and the associated microbial activity in predominant aggregate sizes during a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. The in situ aggregate microstructure was characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray CT scanning. The soils in the nutrient (N)-amended and unamended biopile tanks were comprised of macroaggregates (>2 mm) and mesoaggregates (0.25-2 mm). Nutrient addition significantly enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in macroaggregates, but not in mesoaggregates. At the end of 65-d biopile experiment, 42% of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons were degraded in the nutrient-amended macroaggregates, compared to 13% in the mesoaggregates. Higher microbial activity in the macroaggregates of the nutrient amended biopile was inferred from a larger increase in extractable protein concentrations, compared to the other aggregates. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes showed that there was no selection of bacterial populations in any of the aggregates during biopile treatment, suggesting that the enhanced biodegradation in nutrient-amended macroaggregates was likely due to metabolic stimulation. X-ray micro CT scanning revealed that the number of pores wider than 4 μm, which would be easily accessible by bacteria, were an order of magnitude higher in macroaggregates. Also, N2 adsorption analyses showed that pore surface areas and pore volumes per unit weight were four to five-times larger, compared to the mesoaggregates. Thus the higher porosity microstructure in macroaggregates allowed greater hydrocarbon degradation upon biostimulation by nutrient addition and aeration.

  12. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  13. The peroxidase-mediated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a H2O2-induced SBR using in-situ production of peroxidase: Biodegradation experiments and bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-08-01

    A bacterial peroxidase-mediated oxidizing process was developed for biodegrading total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Almost complete biodegradation (>99%) of high TPH concentrations (4g/L) was attained in the bioreactor with a low amount (0.6mM) of H2O2 at a reaction time of 22h. A specific TPH biodegradation rate as high as 44.3mgTPH/gbiomass×h was obtained with this process. The reaction times required for complete biodegradation of TPH concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4g/L were 21, 22, 28, and 30h, respectively. The catalytic activity of hydrocarbon catalyzing peroxidase was determined to be 1.48U/mL biomass. The biodegradation of TPH in seawater was similar to that in fresh media (no salt). A mixture of bacteria capable of peroxidase synthesis and hydrocarbon biodegradation including Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were identified in the bioreactor. The GC/MS analysis of the effluent indicated that all classes of hydrocarbons could be well-degraded in the H2O2-induced SBR. Accordingly, the peroxidase-mediated process is a promising method for efficiently biodegrading concentrated TPH-laden saline wastewater. PMID:27060866

  14. Exploring petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater by double solid phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Escolano Segovia, Olga; del Reino Querencia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical procedure for measuring aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons fractions present in groundwater. In this method, hydrocarbons are solid phase extracted (SPE) twice from the groundwater and the resulting fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first SPE disposes the hydrocarbons present in groundwater in organic solvents and the second SPE divides them into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The validation study is carried out and its uncertainties are discussed. Identifying the main sources of uncertainty is evaluated through applying the bottom-up approach. Limits of detection for hydrocarbons ranges are below 5 µg L(-1), precision is not above of 30%, and acceptable recoveries are reached for aliphatic and aromatic fractions studied. The uncertainty due to volume of the sample, factor of calibration and recovery are the highest contributions. The expanded uncertainty range from 13% to 26% for the aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges and from 14% to 23% for the aromatic hydrocarbons ranges. As application, the proposed method is satisfactorily applied to a set of groundwater samples collected in a polluted area where there is evidence to present a high degree of hydrocarbons. The results have shown the range of aliphatic hydrocarbons >C21-C35 is the most abundant, with values ranging from 215 µg L(-1) to 354 µg L(-1), which it is associated to a contamination due to diesel.

  15. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p < 0.05) in the oil-polluted soils, especially at subsurface depth. Whilst the oil spillage could be said to be indirectly responsible for the enhanced concentrations of nickel and vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such

  16. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p < 0.05) in the oil-polluted soils, especially at subsurface depth. Whilst the oil spillage could be said to be indirectly responsible for the enhanced concentrations of nickel and vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such

  17. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions.

  18. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    PubMed

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  19. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    PubMed

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures. PMID:27151238

  20. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes.

  1. Enhancing degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and uptake of heavy metals in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis by humic acids addition.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kijune; Kim, Ki Seob; Park, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on heavy-metal uptake by plants and degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis were evaluated by comparing waterlogged soils and water-drained upland soils. Experiments were conducted on soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni) and diesel fuel. HA showed a positive influence on biomass increase for all conditions, but more for belowground than aboveground biomass, and lower in contaminated than uncontaminated soil. The bioavailability and leachability factor (BLF) for all heavy metals except Ni increased with HA addition in both the control and the P. communis planted microcosms, suggesting that more heavy metals could be potentially phytoavailable for plant uptake. Microbial activities were not affected by both heavy metals and TPH contamination, and HA effects on stimulating microbial activities were much greater in the contaminated soil than under uncontaminated conditions. HA addition enhanced the degradation of TPH and n-alkane in waterlogged conditions. The results show that HA can increase the remedial performance in P. communis dominated wetlands simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons and thus prevent contamination of groundwater or other adjacent ecosystems.

  2. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. PMID:25039790

  3. Application of a biofilm formed by a mixture of yeasts isolated in Vietnam to degrade aromatic hydrocarbon polluted wastewater collected from petroleum storage.

    PubMed

    Nhi Cong, Le Thi; Ngoc Mai, Cung Thi; Thanh, Vu Thi; Nga, Le Phi; Minh, Nghiem Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three good biofilm-forming yeast strains, including Candida viswanathii TH1, Candida tropicalis TH4 and Trichosporon asahii B1, were isolated from oil-contaminated water and sediment samples collected in coastal zones of Vietnam. These strains were registered in the GenBank database with the accession numbers JX129175, JX129176 and KC139404 for strain TH1, TH4 and B1, respectively. The biofilm formed by a mixture of these organisms degraded 90, 85, 82 and 67% of phenol, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, after a 7-day incubation period using an initial concentration of 600 ppm phenol and 200 ppm of each of the other compounds. In addition, this biofilm completely degraded these aromatic compounds, which were from wastewater collected from petroleum tanks in Do Xa, Hanoi after 14 days of incubation based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. To the best of our knowledge, reports on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phenol degradation by biofilm-forming yeasts are limited. The results obtained indicate that the biofilm formed by multiple yeast strains may considerably increase the degradation efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and may lead to a new approach for eliminating petroleum oil-contaminated water in Vietnam.

  4. "Density equilibrium" method for the quantitative and rapid in situ determination of lipid, hydrocarbon, or biopolymer content in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ela; Melis, Anastasios

    2009-04-01

    The work provides a simple method, based on a direct density equilibrium measurement, for the rapid in situ estimation of total lipid, hydrocarbon or biopolymer content in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic samples. The method can be readily applied to live microalgae and photosynthetic bacteria, single-celled or colonial microorganisms, as well as cellular fractions and isolated subcellular compartments or components. In this approach, the absolute lipid, hydrocarbon, or biopolymer content of the cells can be readily calculated. This method is especially useful for tracking the oil or polymer content of strains of microalgae and other microorganisms, whose lipid, hydrocarbon or biopolymer content may change with cultivation conditions and/or time, as the case would be in microorganism lipid-induction industrial processes. The method is also useful for the direct in situ measurement of storage polymer accumulation in live cells, such as starch in microalgae and polyhydroxybutyrate, or other polyhydroxyalkanoates, in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:19031427

  5. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils. PMID:24912225

  6. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  7. PetroSPIRE: a multimodal content-based retrieval system for petroleum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Lawrence D.; Castelli, Vittorio; Li, Chung-Sheng; Tilke, Peter; Bryant, Ian

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we present a novel content-based search application for petroleum exploration and production. The target application is specification of and search for geologically significant features to be extracted from 2D imagery acquired from oil well bores, in conjunction with 1D parameter traces. The PetroSPIRE system permits a user to define rock strata using image examples in conjunction with parameter constraints. Similarity retrieval is based multimodal search, an relies on texture-matching techniques using pre-extracted texture features, employing high- dimensional indexing and nearest neighbor search. Special- purpose visualization techniques allow a user to evalute object definitions, which can then be iteratively refined by supplying multiple positive and negative image examples as well as multiple parameter constraints. Higher-level semantic constructs can be created from simpler entities by specifying sets of inter-object constraints. A delta-lobe riverbed, for examples, might be specified as layer of siltstone which is above and within 10 feet of a layer of sandstone, with an intervening layer of shale. These 'compound objects', along with simple objects, from a library of searchable entities that can be used in an operational setting. Both object definition and search are accomplished using a web-based Java client, supporting image and parameter browsing, drag-and-drop query specification, and thumbnail viewing of query results. Initial results from this search engine have been deemed encouraging by oil- industry E and P researchers. A more ambitious pilot is underway to evaluate the efficacy of this approach on a large database from a North Sea drilling site.

  8. Proof-of-concept study of an aerobic vapor migration barrier beneath a building at a petroleum hydrocarbon-impacted site.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul R; Johnson, Paul C; Peargin, Tom

    2013-02-19

    A proof-of-concept study was conducted to evaluate an alternative to traditional extraction-based subslab vapor mitigation systems at sites with petroleum hydrocarbon and/or methane vapor impact concerns. The system utilizes the slow delivery of air beneath a foundation to attenuate vapor migration to the building via aerobic biodegradation. The study was conducted at a site having elevated hydrocarbon plus methane and depleted O(2) vapor concentrations (160 mg/L and <1% v/v, respectively) beneath a building having a 195 m(2) footprint and a basement extending 1.5 m below ground surface (BGS). Nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-impacted soils, first encountered at about 7.6 to 9.1 m BGS, were the source of hydrocarbon and methane vapors, with the latter being generated by anaerobic methanagenesis of the former. O(2) concentrations beneath and around the building were monitored prior to and during air injection through a horizontal well installed about 1.5 m beneath the foundation. The air injection rate was increased from 1 to 5 to 10 L/min, with each held steady until the O(2) distribution stabilized (46-60 d). The 10 L/min flow rate achieved >5% v/v soil gas O(2) concentrations beneath the foundation and spanning a 1.5 m vertical interval. It was within 3× of the pretest stoichiometric requirement estimate of 3.8 L/min. This resulted in reductions in subslab hydrocarbon plus methane concentrations from 80 to <0.01 mg/L and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) reductions to below detection limits (0.5-0.74 ppb(v)). This air injection rate is <1% of flows for typical extraction-based mitigation systems.

  9. Ambient Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Content as Determined by Gas Chromatographic Techniques from Rural Tidewater Virginia in Late Spring 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Davis, R.; Maroulis, P.; Bandy, A. R.; Denyszyn, R.; Kindle, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain the naturally generated hydrocarbon contribution to the air quality of the Hampton Roads region of Tidewater Virginia, a series of 27 air samples was obtained in two rural locations during late spring of 1974. These samples were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content (carbon number range C5 to C10) using gas chromatographic techniques. The thirty different hydrocarbon species were identified and monitored in the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates an average concentration of 397 parts per billion by weight (carbon) for the total non-methane hydrocarbon loading for C5 to C10 during the experiment. This value exceeds the National Primary Air Quality Standards as set by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. The total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in residues from biogas production.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    In the situation of increasing agricultural utilization of residues from biogas production (RBP) it is important to determine the concentration of contaminants, which could occur in these materials. The group of contaminants that requires special attention are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of the study was to determine the total and freely dissolved (Cfree) of PAHs in RBP from 6 different biogas plants operating under various temperature conditions and without or with the separation into the solid and liquid fractions. The freely dissolved PAHs were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM method). The total content of the Σ16 PAHs in RBP varied from 449 to 6147 μg/kgdw, while that of Cfree PAHs was at the level from 57 to 653 ng/L. No significant differences were noted in the content of the Σ16 PAHs (total) between the solid and the liquid fractions. This indicates that in the course of the separation, the PAHs are distributed proportionally between the fractions. However in the case of Cfree, PAHs content in the solid fraction was over twice as high as in the liquid fraction. This was probably due to the greater affinity of the particles present in the liquid fraction to the analysed PAHs than to the particles of the solid fraction. Higher affinity to liquid fraction was also confirmed by the distribution coefficients KTOC determined on the basis of Cfree.

  11. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  12. Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-07-30

    Chromosomal aberration (CA) assays have been widely used, not only to assess the genotoxic effects of chemical agents, but also to evaluate their action mechanisms on the genetic material of exposed organisms. This is of particular interest, since such analyses provide a better knowledge related to the action of these agents on DNA. Among test organisms, Allium cepa is an outstanding species due to its sensitivity and suitable chromosomal features, which are essential for studies on chromosomal damage or disturbances in cell cycle. The goal of the present study was to analyze the action mechanisms of chemical agents present in petroleum polluted waters. Therefore, CA assay was carried out in A. cepa meristematic cells exposed to the Guaecá river waters, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, which had its waters impacted by an oil pipeline leak. Analyses of the aberration types showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects for the roots exposed to the polluted waters from Guaecá river, besides the induction of cell death. Probably all the observed effects were induced by the petroleum hydrocarbons derived from the oil leakage.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity associated with Eleocharis obtusa and Panicum capillare growing in an extreme petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted sedimentation basin.

    PubMed

    de la Providencia, Ivan E; Stefani, Franck O P; Labridy, Manuel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been extensively studied in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but little is known about their diversity and community structure in highly petroleum-polluted soils. In this study, we described an unexpected diversity of AMF in a sedimentation basin of a former petrochemical plant, in which petroleum hydrocarbon (PH) wastes were dumped for many decades. We used high-throughput PCR, cloning and sequencing of 18S rDNA to assess the molecular diversity of AMF associated with Eleocharis obtusa and Panicum capillare spontaneously inhabiting extremely PH-contaminated sediments. The analyses of rhizosphere and root samples over two years showed a remarkable AMF richness comparable with that found in temperate natural ecosystems. Twenty-one taxa, encompassing the major families within Glomeromycota, were detected. The most abundant OTUs belong to genera Claroideoglomus, Diversispora, Rhizophagus and Paraglomus. Both plants had very similar overall community structures and OTU abundances; however, AMF community structure differed when comparing the overall OTU distribution across the two years of sampling. This could be likely explained by variations in precipitations between 2011 and 2012. Our study provides the first view of AMF molecular diversity in soils extremely polluted by PH, and demonstrated the ability of AMF to colonize and establish in harsh environments.

  14. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries.

  15. Dispersion pattern of petroleum hydrocarbon in coastal water of Bay of Bengal along Odisha and West Bengal, India using geospatial approach.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, P K; Satapathy, D R; Panda, C R; Kar, R N

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) concentration was monitored in water of estuaries, ports, and coastal transects up to 10-km distance in East Coast of India once in every year during 2002-2009. The highest concentration was observed at Haldia port (1.60-20.11 μg/l) due to the impact of hydrocarbon discharges from nearby oil refinery, petrochemical industries, handling of crude oils, etc. The concentration of PHC exhibited relatively higher values during low tide than the high tide in all the four estuaries indicating riverine inputs and land-based discharges, which contribute substantial amounts of PHC to the coastal water. Hoogly estuary recorded higher values of PHC (1.17-18.50 μg/l) due to the influence of industrial wastes, land runoff, and port activities. The spatial distribution of PHC estimated by the kriging method showed a variation in concentration of PHC over the whole region. To discriminate the dispersion pattern of PHC, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix.

  16. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries. PMID:27230152

  17. Visualizing and Quantifying Bioaccessible Pores in Field-Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Clay Soils Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Kim, J.; Zhu, N.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial hydrocarbon degradation is environmentally significant and applicable to contaminated site remediation practices only when hydrocarbons (substrates) are physically bioaccessible to bacteria in soil matrices. Powerful X-rays are produced by synchrotron radiation, allowing for bioaccessible pores in soil (larger than 4 microns), where bacteria can be accommodated, colonize and remain active, can be visualized at a much higher resolution. This study visualized and quantified such bioaccessible pores in intact field-aged, oil-contaminated unsaturated soil fractions, and examined the relationship between the abundance of bioaccessible pores and hydrocarbon biodegradation. Using synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) at the Canadian Light Source, a large dataset of soil particle characteristics, such as pore volumes, surface areas, number of pores and pore size distribution, was generated. Duplicate samples of five different soil fractions with different soil aggregate sizes and water contents (13, 18 and 25%) were examined. The method for calculating the number and distribution of bioaccessible pores using CT images was validated using the known porosity of Ottawa sand. This study indicated that the distribution of bioaccessible pore sizes in soil fractions are very closely related to microbial enhancement. A follow-up aerobic biodegradation experiment for the soils at 17 °C (average site temperature) over 90 days confirmed that a notable decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations occurred in soils fractions with abundant bioaccessible pores and with a larger number of pores between 10 and 100 μm. The hydrocarbon degradation in bioactive soil fractions was extended to relatively high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C16-C34). This study provides quantitative information about how internal soil pore characteristics can influence bioremediation performance.

  18. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process.

  19. Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Analytical Methods, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment Research: Seafood Safety after a Petroleum Spill as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edward; Frickel, Scott; Howard, Jessi; Wilson, Mark; Simon, Bridget; Echsner, Stephen; Nguyen, Daniel; Gauthe, David; Blake, Diane; Miller, Charles; Elferink, Cornelis; Ansari, Shakeel; Fernando, Harshica; Trapido, Edward; Kane, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant and widespread environmental chemicals. They are produced naturally and through man-made processes, and they are common in organic media, including petroleum. Several PAHs are toxic, and a subset exhibit carcinogenic activity. PAHs represent a range of chemical structures based on two or more benzene rings and, depending on their source, can exhibit a variety of side modifications resulting from oxygenation, nitrogenation, and alkylation. Objectives: Here we discuss the increasing ability of contemporary analytical methods to distinguish not only different chemical structures among PAHs but also their concentrations in environmental media. Using seafood contamination following the Deepwater Horizon accident as an example, we identify issues that are emerging in the PAH risk assessment process because of increasing analytical sensitivity for individual PAHs, and we describe the paucity of toxicological literature for many of these compounds. Discussion: PAHs, including the large variety of chemically modified or substituted PAHs, are naturally occurring and may constitute health risks if human populations are exposed to hazardous levels. However, toxicity evaluations have not kept pace with modern analytic methods and their increased ability to detect substituted PAHs. Therefore, although it is possible to measure these compounds in seafood and other media, we do not have sufficient information on the potential toxicity of these compounds to incorporate them into human health risk assessments and characterizations. Conclusions: Future research efforts should strategically attempt to fill this toxicological knowledge gap so human health risk assessments of PAHs in environmental media or food can be better determined. This is especially important in the aftermath of petroleum spills. Citation: Wickliffe J, Overton E, Frickel S, Howard J, Wilson M, Simon B, Echsner S, Nguyen D, Gauthe D, Blake D, Miller C

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) incident.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sericano, José L; Sweet, Stephen T; Knap, Anthony H; Guinasso, Norman L

    2016-02-15

    Pre-spill background concentrations of TPH and PAH in water samples from the Gulf of Mexico are compared with samples (over 20,000) collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident (13,000 stations). Samples were collected by multiple response agencies, trustees and BP and reported in the Gulf Science Data. The samples were collected from a few m to over 800 km in all directions from the wellhead. During the incident, samples with the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons were collected proximal to the wellhead or in samples collected from surface slicks and dispersant use. Of the 13,172 water sample TPH concentrations reported, 84% were below 1 μg/L (background). Of the 16,557 water sample PAH concentrations reported, 79% were below 0.056 μg/L (the median field blank, background). The percentage of samples below background increased rapidly after the well was capped. The spatial and temporal distributions of these hydrocarbon data are presented. PMID:26774441

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) incident.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sericano, José L; Sweet, Stephen T; Knap, Anthony H; Guinasso, Norman L

    2016-02-15

    Pre-spill background concentrations of TPH and PAH in water samples from the Gulf of Mexico are compared with samples (over 20,000) collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident (13,000 stations). Samples were collected by multiple response agencies, trustees and BP and reported in the Gulf Science Data. The samples were collected from a few m to over 800 km in all directions from the wellhead. During the incident, samples with the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons were collected proximal to the wellhead or in samples collected from surface slicks and dispersant use. Of the 13,172 water sample TPH concentrations reported, 84% were below 1 μg/L (background). Of the 16,557 water sample PAH concentrations reported, 79% were below 0.056 μg/L (the median field blank, background). The percentage of samples below background increased rapidly after the well was capped. The spatial and temporal distributions of these hydrocarbon data are presented.

  2. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Victoria A; Brubaker, Gaylen R; Zenker, Matthew J; Prince, Roger C; Gieg, Lisa M; Da Silva, Marcio L B; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2009-03-01

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assays were used to assess the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underlying a former refinery. Benzene, ethylbenzene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were targeted as contaminants of greatest regulatory concern (COC) whose intrinsic remediation has been previously reported. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization of alkylbenzenes, including the trimethylbenzene COC, PAHs and several n-alkanes in the contaminated portions of the aquifer. Anaerobic biodegradation experiments designed to mimic in situ conditions showed no loss of exogenously amended COC; however, a substantive rate of endogenous electron acceptor reduction was measured (55 ± 8 µM SO(4) day(-1)). An assessment of hydrocarbon loss in laboratory experiments relative to a conserved internal marker revealed that non-COC hydrocarbons were being metabolized. Purge and trap analysis of laboratory assays showed a substantial loss of toluene, m- and o-xylene, as well as several alkanes (C(6)-C(12)). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that benzene is persistent under the prevailing site anaerobic conditions. We could find no in situ benzene intermediates (phenol or benzoate), the parent molecule proved recalcitrant in laboratory assays and low copy numbers of Desulfobacterium were found, a genus previously implicated in anaerobic benzene biodegradation. This study also showed that there was a reasonable correlation between field and laboratory findings, although with notable exception. Thus, while the intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation was clearly evident at the site, non-COC hydrocarbons were preferentially metabolized, even though there was ample literature precedence for the biodegradation of the target molecules.

  3. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  4. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  5. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  6. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  7. In situ biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by nitrate and phosphate injection using a dipole well configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Coulomb, Bruno; Guelorget, Yves; Maier, Joachim; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of source zone bioremediation by nitrate and nutrient injection in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer using a recirculating well dipole. Groundwater pumped from a downgradient well at a rate of 2.5 m3 h- 1 was enriched with bromide (tracer), nitrate and ammonium phosphate and injected in a well 40 m upgradient. The test was run for 49 days with solute injection, followed by 65 days of dipole operation without solute addition. The resulting bromide breakthrough curve allowed quantifying a first-order leakage coefficient of 0.017 day- 1 from the dipole, whereas from the nitrate data a first-order nitrate consumption rate of 0.075 day- 1 was determined. Dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations including benzene decreased to non-detect in 84 days but experienced important rebounds after ending circulation. Nitrite accumulated temporarily but was consumed entirely when solute injection stopped. The mass balance calculations revealed that about 83% of the nitrate was used for hydrocarbon degradation, with the remaining being used for oxidation of reduced sulfur. A reactive transport model was used for the delineation of the treated zone. This model suggested that denitrification influenced flow and transport in the dipole. It is concluded that successful promotion of denitrifying hydrocarbon degradation is easily obtained in this aquifer and enables to abate dissolved concentrations, and that dipole configuration is a good option.

  8. Petroleum refinery process and apparatus for the production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons from fuel gas and catalytic reformate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Kushnerick, J.D.; Owen, H.

    1991-02-12

    This paper describes a process for the production of gasoline. It comprises: contacting a feed stream comprising C{sub 4}{sup {minus}} olefin hydrocarbons with a feed stream comprising C{sub 6} to C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons at an aromatic to olefin weight ratio of 5:1 to 20:1 over a fluidized zeolite catalyst at a temperature of 350{degrees} to 900{degrees}F a pressure of 20 to 650 psig in a riser reactor having multiple olefin feed injection points to alkylate the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} aromatics with the olefins to form C{sub 7} to C{sub 11} alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon gasoline products, wherein the multiple olefin feed injection points are spaced along the height of the riser reactor and the aforethe aromatic to olefin weight ratio is maintained throughout the riser reactor and withdrawing a portion of the catalyst from the riser for regeneration of the catalyst the withdrawn catalyst containing only a minor amount of deposited coke.

  9. In situ biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by nitrate and phosphate injection using a dipole well configuration.

    PubMed

    Ponsin, Violaine; Coulomb, Bruno; Guelorget, Yves; Maier, Joachim; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of source zone bioremediation by nitrate and nutrient injection in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer using a recirculating well dipole. Groundwater pumped from a downgradient well at a rate of 2.5m(3)h(-1) was enriched with bromide (tracer), nitrate and ammonium phosphate and injected in a well 40 m upgradient. The test was run for 49 days with solute injection, followed by 65 days of dipole operation without solute addition. The resulting bromide breakthrough curve allowed quantifying a first-order leakage coefficient of 0.017 day(-1) from the dipole, whereas from the nitrate data a first-order nitrate consumption rate of 0.075 day(-1) was determined. Dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations including benzene decreased to non-detect in 84days but experienced important rebounds after ending circulation. Nitrite accumulated temporarily but was consumed entirely when solute injection stopped. The mass balance calculations revealed that about 83% of the nitrate was used for hydrocarbon degradation, with the remaining being used for oxidation of reduced sulfur. A reactive transport model was used for the delineation of the treated zone. This model suggested that denitrification influenced flow and transport in the dipole. It is concluded that successful promotion of denitrifying hydrocarbon degradation is easily obtained in this aquifer and enables to abate dissolved concentrations, and that dipole configuration is a good option.

  10. Changes in the contents of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of various types.

    PubMed

    Banach-Szott, Magdalena; Debska, Bozena; Wisniewska, Alicja; Pakula, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the stability and the decomposition intensity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene) in soils that are under agricultural use. Soil was sampled from the arable layer that is representative of the Kujawy and Pomorze Provinces, which are located in the northwestern part of Poland. The soil samples were polluted with selected PAHs at an amount corresponding to 10 mg PAHs/kg. PAH-polluted soil samples were incubated for 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 days at a temperature of 20-25 °C and a fixed moisture of 50% field water capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of PAHs. It was found that the process of the degradation of PAHs was most intensive during the first 30 days of the experiment; however, three-ring PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) definitely decomposed faster than the four-ring ones (pyrene and chrysene). The results also confirm the significant role of soil organic matter in sorption and activation processes of PAHs.

  11. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  12. Long-term effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the life cycle and productivity of the littoral oligochaete lumbricillus lineatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt-Lillge, D.

    Cultures of Lumbricillus lineatus, a dominant inhabitant of sandy shore lines, have been exposed to water-soluble fractions of crude oil (Arabian Light) through 5 generations (15 months). Although, in short-term tests very resistant to high hydrocarbon concentrations, long-term exposure of the worms considerably reduced the fertility of eggs and hatching success of embryos. However, the depressed reproduction and general viability was in part compensated by an increased cocoon production Mixtures of oil and the dispersants Corexit 7664 and Finasol OSR-5 proved to be drastically more toxic than oil per se, diminishing cocoon production and fertility of eggs markedly.

  13. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  14. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  15. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills. PMID:26384865

  16. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills.

  17. Field survey of Canadian background soils: Implications for a new mathematical gas chromatography-flame ionization detection approach for resolving false detections of petroleum hydrocarbons in clean soils.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2014-08-01

    The reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil provides laboratories with methods for generating accurate and reproducible soil analysis results. The CWS PHC tier 1 generic soil-quality guidelines apply to 4 carbon ranges/fractions: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). The methods and guidelines were developed and validated for soils with approximately 5% total organic carbon (TOC). However, organic soils have much higher TOC levels because of biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) originating from sources such as plant waxes and fatty acids. Coextracted BOCs can have elevated F2-F4 concentrations, which can cause false exceedances of PHC soil guidelines. The present study evaluated false PHC detections in soil samples collected from 34 background sites. The list of analytes included soil type, TOC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), F2, F3, F4, F3a (C16-C22), and F3b (C22-C34). Soils with 3% to 41% TOC falsely exceeded the CWS PHC 300 mg/kg F3 coarse soil guideline. It was previously demonstrated that clean peat had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, while crude oil spiked peat and spiked sand had higher ratios of greater than 0.10. In the present background study, all of the clean organic soils with at least 300 mg/kg F3 had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, which indicated false guideline exceedances. Clean inorganic soils had low F3 concentrations, resulting in high F2:F3b ratios of greater than 0.10. Validation field studies are required to determine if the F2:F3b 0.10 PHC presence versus absence threshold value is applicable to crude oil- and diesel-contaminated sites.

  18. Accumulation trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in commercial shellfish from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Soriano, J A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in three species of commercial shellfish, namely razor shells (Ensis arcuatus and Ensis siliqua), goose barnacle (Pollicipes cornucopia) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), living in different habitats and exhibiting different feeding behaviors. The samples were collected monthly, from January 2003 to October 2004, in three stations of the Galicia coast (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill, with the aim of assessing their response to the spill and, therefore, their suitability for monitoring purposes. The aliphatic fractions were mostly dominated by biogenic hydrocarbons, reflecting the diet composition of the organisms and their low metabolic capacity. The presence of oil was assessed by the determination of chemical markers. The analysis of the aromatic fractions revealed the occurrence of 3-6 ring parent and alkylated PAHs, consistent with a mixed petrogenic-pyrolytic origin, with the common feature of the predominance of chrysene in all samples collected after the spill. However, the distributions exhibited both temporal and interspecies variations. The PAH concentrations (Sigma13) increased significantly after the spill and decreased 6-7 months later close to background levels for the region. One year after the accident, the median values were: 58 microg/kg for razor shells, 26 microg/kg for barnacles, and 25 microg/kg for sea urchins. The temporal evolution of the PAH concentrations along the survey period was used to estimate loss rates for bioavailable PAHs in barnacles and sea urchins after the spill. Half-life values were in the order of 30 and 60 d, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that barnacles can be suitable species for oil spill monitoring.

  19. Influence of soil fertilization by sewage sludge on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Baran, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the influence of the addition of different sewage sludge doses on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fertilized soil. Sewage sludge was introduced into the soil in the following doses: 30, 75, 150, 300, and 600 Mg/ha. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was determined by means of HPLC-UV method. The addition of increasing doses of sludge into the soil resulted in a gradual increase in the amount of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained therein. During the period of the study, continuous changes in the content of all the compounds studied were found in all the experimental variants. Finally, on the last day of the study, the highest degree of degradation (73%) of 16 PAHs' sum (US EPA) was noted for sludge doses of 30 and 300 Mg/ha. In the case of individual PAHs, the change in their content differed and clearly depended on the sewage sludge dose. The introduction of sewage sludge into the soil influenced the increase of the sum of 16 PAHs in the plants grown in this soil. The influence mentioned above depended on the sewage sludge dose and the plant species grown, as well as the PAH content in the soil. The evaluation of individual PAHs in plants showed an increase in their content with the increase of the amount of sewage sludge. A statistically significant increase in their content was most often observed for sewage sludge doses above 150 Mg/ha. Moreover, it was found that fertilization of the soil with sewage sludge resulted in pollution of the plants with PAHs of high molecular weight.

  20. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay.

  1. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    PubMed

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  3. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M.; Connell, D. W.; Bodero, J.; Miller, G. J.; Back, R.

    1986-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the chemical nature, occurrence, and possible origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, water, and a suite of seven species from widely separated coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef area were analysed by gas chromatography, and by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons found were substantially of biogenic origin. The major components were n-pentadecane, n-heptadecane, pristane and mono-alkenes based on heptadecane, and were believed to originate from benthic algae and phytoplankton. There was no evidence to suggest that lipid content had any influence on hydrocarbon content. Hydrocarbons from the organisms and sediments have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. An unresolved complex mixture, usually considered indicative of petroleum contamination, was found in greater than trace amounts only in Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Acropora (coral) from the Capricorn Group, and in some sediment samples from the Capricorn Group and Lizard Island area.

  4. Influence of some anti-inflammatory drugs on the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, M.H.; Sheweita, S.A.; Abdel-Moneam, N.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The metabolism of benzo({alpha})pyrene is mediated by the mixed function oxidase system including the cytochrome P450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The data of the present study revealed the ability of various commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs to alter the activity of this enzyme system, where all the tested drugs, namely phenyl butazone, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and acetaminophen, caused an increase in both the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content whether administered as a single dose or as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The percentage of change for all drugs except phenyl butazone was proportional to the duration of drug administration. On the other hand, pyrazole which is chemically related to phenyl butazone, had no significant effect when administered as a single dose but caused a decrease in both studied parameters when administered as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The mechanisms by which these commonly used drugs modify the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and the cytochrome p450 content are discussed in the text.

  5. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  6. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, S. G.; Atreya, S. K.; Wilson, E. H.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Fletcher, L. N.; Momary, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over eleven years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere (the solar inclination was 24 degrees) to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds. Our previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. Similarly, we assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere. We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze. The research described in this

  7. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Wilson, Eric; Baines, Kevin; West, Robert; Bjoraker, Gordon; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  8. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  9. Comparison of the effects of variable site temperatures and constant incubation temperatures on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in pilot-scale experiments with field-aged contaminated soils from a cold regions site.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Temporal atmospheric temperature changes during summers at sub-Arctic sites often cause periodic fluctuations in shallow landfarm and surface soil temperatures. However, little information is available on the effect of site-relevant variations on biodegradation performance in cold climates. This study compares the rate and extents of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at variable site temperatures (1-10 °C) representative of summers at a sub-Arctic site reported previously with those obtained under a constant average temperature of 6 °C. The biodegradation was evaluated in pilot-scale landfarming experiments with field-aged petroleum-contaminated soils shipped from Resolution Island (61°30'N, 65°00'W), Nunavut, Canada. Under the variable site temperature conditions biodegradation rate constants of semi- (F2) and non-volatile (F3) hydrocarbon fractions were enhanced by over a factor of two during the 60-d experiment, compared to the constant temperature mode. The decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under the variable site temperature mode was 55% compared to only 19% under the constant average temperature mode. The enhanced biodegradation is attributable to the non-linear acceleration of microbial activity between 4.7 and 10°C and faster growth of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations. The first-order biodegradation rate constants of 0.018, 0.024 and 0.016 d(-1) for TPH, F2 and F3 fractions at the variable site temperature were in agreement with those determined by an on-site experiment at the same site.

  10. Numerical simulation of in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons using a coupled model for bio-geochemical reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, I. S.; Molson, J. W.

    2013-05-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) are a major source of groundwater contamination, being a worldwide and well-known problem. Formed by a complex mixture of hundreds of organic compounds (including BTEX - benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), many of which are toxic and persistent in the subsurface and are capable of creating a serious risk to human health. Several remediation technologies can be used to clean-up PHC contamination. In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and intrinsic bioremediation (IBR) are two promising techniques that can be applied in this case. However, the interaction of these processes with the background aquifer geochemistry and the design of an efficient treatment presents a challenge. Here we show the development and application of BIONAPL/Phreeqc, a modeling tool capable of simulating groundwater flow, contaminant transport with coupled biological and geochemical processes in porous or fractured porous media. BIONAPL/Phreeqc is based on the well-tested BIONAPL/3D model, using a powerful finite element simulation engine, capable of simulating non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, density-dependent advective-dispersive transport, and solving the geochemical and kinetic processes with the library Phreeqc. To validate the model, we compared BIONAPL/Phreeqc with results from the literature for different biodegradation processes and different geometries, with good agreement. We then used the model to simulate the behavior of sodium persulfate (NaS2O8) as an oxidant for BTEX degradation, coupled with sequential biodegradation in a 2D case and to evaluate the effect of inorganic geochemistry reactions. The results show the advantages of a treatment train remediation scheme based on ISCO and IBR. The numerical performance and stability of the integrated BIONAPL/Phreeqc model was also verified.

  11. Homology modeling, simulation and molecular docking studies of catechol-2, 3-Dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia: Involved in degradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ajao, At; Kannan, M; Yakubu, Se; Vj, Umoh; Jb, Ameh

    2012-01-01

    Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase is present in several types of bacteria and undergoes degradation of environmental pollutants through an important key biochemical pathways. Specifically, this enzyme cleaves aromatic rings of several environmental pollutants such as toluene, xylene, naphthalene and biphenyl derivatives. Hence, the importance of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase and its role in the degradation of environmental pollutants made us to predict the three-dimensional structure of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia. The 10ns molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to check the stability of the modeled Catechol 2, 3- dioxygenase. The results show that the model was energetically stable, and it attains their equilibrium within 2000 ps of production MD run. The docking of various petroleum hydrocarbons into the Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase reveals that the benzene, O-xylene, Toluene, Fluorene, Naphthalene, Carbazol, Pyrene, Dibenzothiophene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Biphenyl makes strong hydrogen bond and Van der waals interaction with the active site residues of H150, L152, W198, H206, H220, H252, I254, T255, Y261, E271, L276 and F309. Free energy of binding and estimated inhibition constant of these compounds demonstrates that they are energetically stable in their binding cavity. Chrysene shows positive energy of binding in the active site atom of Fe. Except Pyrene all the substrates made close contact with Fe atom by the distance ranges from 1.67 to 2.43 Å. In addition to that, the above mentioned substrate except pyrene all other made π-π stacking interaction with H252 by the distance ranges from 3.40 to 3.90 Å. All these docking results reveal that, except Chrysene all other substrate has good free energy of binding to hold enough in the active site and makes strong VdW interaction with Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. These results suggest that, the enzyme is capable of catalyzing the above-mentioned substrate.

  12. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  13. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  14. Modelling of iron cycling and its impact on the electron balance at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site in Hnevice, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vencelides, Zbynek; Sracek, Ondra; Prommer, Henning

    2007-01-30

    Over a period of several decades multiple leaks of large volumes from storage facilities located near Hnevice (Czech Republic) have caused the underlying Quaternary aquifer to be severely contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) petroleum hydrocarbons. Beginning in the late 1980's the NAPL plume started to shrink as a consequence of NAPL dissolution exceeding replenishment and due to active remediation. The subsurface was classified geochemically into four different zones, (i) a contaminant-free zone never occupied by NAPL or dissolved contaminants, (ii) a re-oxidation zone formerly occupied by NAPL, (iii) a zone currently occupied by NAPL, and (iv) a lower fringe zone between the overlying NAPL and the deeper underlying contaminant-free zone. The study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the redox zonation at the Hnevice site and quantified the influence of iron-cycling on the overall electron balance. As a first step inverse geochemical modelling was carried out to identify possible reaction models and mass transfer processes. In a subsequent step, two-dimensional (forward) multi-component reactive transport modelling was performed to evaluate and quantify the major processes that control the geochemical evolution at the site. The study explains the observed enrichment of the lower fringe zone with ferrihydrite as a result of the re-oxidation of ferrous iron. It suggests that once the NAPL zone started to shrink the dissolution of previously formed siderite and FeS by oxygen and nitrate consumed a significant part of the oxidation capacity for a considerable time period and therefore limited the penetration of electron acceptors into the NAPL contaminated zone.

  15. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  16. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-01-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties. PMID:27431281

  17. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-01-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties. PMID:27431281

  18. [Petroleum pollution and the microbial community structure in the soil of Shengli Oilfield].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Song, Xue-Ying; Sun, Rui-Lian; Xie, Fu-Ju; Wang, Ren-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xing

    2014-03-01

    Soils around a new oil well (2011- ) and an old oil well (1966-2003) were sampled to investigate the characteristics of petroleum pollution in the oilfield. The structure of soil microbial community was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and clone sequencing techniques. Results showed that the soils around the two oil wells were generally contaminated with petroleum, and the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons mostly exceeded the threshold of the environmental quality standards of soil (500 mg x kg(-1)). The total petroleum hydrocarbons concentration of the polluted soil was significantly positively correlated with the contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen and available potassium, respectively. The microbial diversity index in the soil around the old oil well decreased with the increasing total petroleum hydrocarbons concentration, however, it was reversed for the soil around the new oil well. Sequence analysis of the prominent bands in DGGE profiles showed that some dominant species existed in the petroleum-contaminated soils around the oil wells and mostly were oil-associated and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, including Microbacterium, Streptomyces, Dietzia, Flavobacterium, alpha-Proteobacteria, and gamma-Proteobacteria.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium rufum JS14(T), a polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Li, Qing X; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium rufum JS14(T) (=ATCC BAA-1377(T), CIP 109273(T), JCM 16372(T), DSM 45406(T)), a type strain of the species Mycobacterium rufum sp. . belonging to the family Mycobacteriaceae, was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil in Hilo (HI, USA) because it harbors the capability of degrading PAH. Here, we describe the first genome sequence of strain JS14(T), with brief phenotypic characteristics. The genome is composed of 6,176,413 bp with 69.25 % G + C content and contains 5810 protein-coding genes with 54 RNA genes. The genome information on M. rufum JS14(T) will provide a better understanding of the complexity of bacterial catabolic pathways for degradation of specific chemicals.

  20. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium rufum JS14(T), a polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Li, Qing X; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium rufum JS14(T) (=ATCC BAA-1377(T), CIP 109273(T), JCM 16372(T), DSM 45406(T)), a type strain of the species Mycobacterium rufum sp. . belonging to the family Mycobacteriaceae, was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil in Hilo (HI, USA) because it harbors the capability of degrading PAH. Here, we describe the first genome sequence of strain JS14(T), with brief phenotypic characteristics. The genome is composed of 6,176,413 bp with 69.25 % G + C content and contains 5810 protein-coding genes with 54 RNA genes. The genome information on M. rufum JS14(T) will provide a better understanding of the complexity of bacterial catabolic pathways for degradation of specific chemicals. PMID:27486485

  1. Petroleum contamination of soil and water, and their effects on vegetables by statistically analyzing entire data set.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-kai; Yang, Jun-cheng; Du, Xiao-ming; Li, Fa-sheng; Hou, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons have been used to assess total oil concentrations, petroleum sources, and petroleum degradation. In this study, surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and vegetables were collected from the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China, and the samples were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon contents. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 1.06-4.01 μg/g in the soil. The concentrations and the geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes showed that the low carbon number hydrocarbons were mainly from petroleum sources, whereas the high carbon number hydrocarbons received more hydrocarbons from herbaceous plants. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 9.20-93.44 μg/L and 23.74-118.27 μg/L in the groundwater and the surface water, respectively. The water had characteristics of petroleum and submerged/floating macrophytes and was found in concentrations that would cause chronic disruption of sensitive organisms. The concentrations and geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes in Brassica chinensis L. and Apium graveolens were different, but both were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the sorption of n-alkanes to soil particles could not be described by linear models. The distributions of n-alkanes in vegetables were positively correlated with those in soil, and the correlation coefficient was up to 0.9310 using the constructed vectors. Therefore, the researchers should pay close attention to the effect of soil contamination on vegetables.

  2. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content.

  3. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term biodegradation of petroleum in planted and unplanted sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial populations and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Lam. 'Passerel Plus' planted and unplanted contaminated sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, r