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Sample records for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

  1. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

  2. Pilot-scale feasibility of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    An environmental project was conducted to evaluate in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Results of laboratory column studies determined that nutrient loadings stimulated biodegradation rates and that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at Kwajalein was possible using indigenous microbes. The column studies were followed by an {approximately}10-month on-site demonstration at Kwajalein to further evaluate in situ bioremediation and to determine design and operating conditions necessary to optimize the process. The demonstration site contained low levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) in the soil near the ground surface, with concentrations increasing to {approximately}10,000 mg/kg in the soil near the groundwater. The demonstration utilized 12 in situ plots to evaluate the effects of various combinations of water, air, and nutrient additions on both the microbial population and the hydrocarbon concentration within the treatment plots as a function of depth from the ground surface.

  3. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  4. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  5. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  6. [Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and impact on soil characteristics from oilfield Momoge Wetland].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Feng, Jiang; Wang, Jing

    2009-08-15

    Momoge Wetland is an important international wetland. Crude oil exploration and production have been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil residuals on wetland soils, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were examined, as well as for pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oilfield and uncontaminated area in Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH than those of the uncontaminated areas. For 5 a, 10 a and 20 a oil wells, the TPH were 30-fold, 60-fold, and 111-fold of the control sites. Soils from 10 a or over 10 a oil wells in oilfield were the major petroleum contamination area with values ranging from 16,885 mg x kg(-1) to 31,230 mg x kg(-1). There was a significantly positive correlation between TOC and TPH contents in oilfield(r = 0.88, p < 0.05). Oil residuals in soil caused the decrease of TN and TP and the maximum of decline were 33% and 28%, respectively. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C:N and C:P ratios. These trends became progressively obvious with the length of time the oil well was in production. Soil petroleum contamination also resulted the increase of the EC, however the impact of TPH on EC were not significant(p > 0.05). Collectively, petroleum hydrocarbon pollution has caused some major changes in soil properties in Momoge Wetland.

  7. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Renoux, A.Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Roy, Y.; Samson, R.

    1995-12-31

    A battery of bioassays [barley seed germination, barley plant growth, lettuce seed germination, worm mortality, Microtox{reg_sign}, lettuce root elongation, algae Selenastrum capricornutum growth, Daphnia magna mortality, and SOS Chromotest ({+-}S9)] was used to assess an above-ground heap pile treatment of a soil contaminated with aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons (12 to 24 carbons). Despite an initial oil and grease concentration of 2,000 mg/kg, no significant (geno)toxicity was apparent in the soil sample before treatment. During the treatment, which decreased oil and grease concentrations to 800 mg/kg, slight toxicity was revealed by three bioassays (barley seed germination, worm mortality, Daphnia magna mortality), and a significant increase in genotoxicity was measured with the SOS Chromotest ({+-} S9). It appears that ecotoxicological evaluation revealed harmful condition(s) that were not detected by chemical assessment. This suggests that the remediation had ceased before complete detoxification occurred. This phenomenon must be further investigated, however, to furnish solid conclusions on the toxicological effectiveness of the biotreatment.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by composting in biopiles.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K S; Puustinen, J; Suortti, A M

    2000-02-01

    Composting of contaminated soil in biopiles is an ex situ technology, where organic matter such as bark chips are added to contaminated soil as a bulking agent. Composting of lubricating oil-contaminated soil was performed in field scale ( [Formula: see text] m(3)) using bark chips as the bulking agent, and two commercially available mixed microbial inocula as well as the effect of the level of added nutrients (N,P,K) were tested. Composting of diesel oil-contaminated soil was also performed at one level of nutrient addition and with no inoculum. The mineral oil degradation rate was most rapid during the first months, and it followed a typical first order degradation curve. During 5 months, composting of the mineral oil decreased in all piles with lubrication oil from approximately 2400 to 700 mg (kg dry w)(-1), which was about 70% of the mineral oil content. Correspondingly, the mineral oil content in the pile with diesel oil-contaminated soil decreased with 71% from 700 to 200 mg (kg dry w)(-1). In this type of treatment with addition of a large amount of organic matter, the general microbial activity as measured by soil respiration was enhanced and no particular effect of added inocula was observed.

  10. Comparison of PAH Biodegradation and Desorption Kinetics During Bioremediation of Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2000-09-20

    It is commonly assumed that mass-transfer limitations are the cause for slow and incomplete biodegradation of PAHs in aged soils. In order to test this hypothesis, the biodegradation rate and the abiotic release rate were measured and compared for selected PAHs in three different soils. It was found that PAH biodegradation was not mass-transfer limited during slurry bioremediation of an aged loamy soil. By contrast, PAH biodegradation rates were much larger than abiotic release rates in kaolinite clay indicating that sorbed-phase PAHs can apparently be biodegraded directly from mineral surfaces without prior desorption or dissolution into the aqueous phase. A comparison of PAH biodegradation rates and abiotic release rates at termination of the slurry bioremediation treatment revealed that abiotic release rates are much larger than the respective biodegradation rates. In addition, it was found that the number of hydrocarbon degraders decreased by four orders of magnitude during the bioremediation treatment. It can therefore be concluded that the slow and incomplete biodegradation of PAHs is not caused by mass-transfer limitations but rather by microbial factors. Consequently, the residual PAHs that remain after extensive bioremediation treatment are still bioavailable and for that reason could pose a greater risk to environmental receptors than previously thought.

  11. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg(-1) soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm(-1). Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  12. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  13. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  14. Assessment of three approaches of bioremediation (Natural Attenuation, Landfarming and Bioagumentation - Assistited Landfarming) for a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Guarino, C; Spada, V; Sciarrillo, R

    2017-03-01

    Contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) subsequent to refining activities, is currently one of the major environmental problems. Among the biological remediation approaches, landfarming and in situ bioremediation strategies are of great interest. Purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of a remediation process wholly based on biological degradation applied to contaminated soils from a decommissioned refinery. This study evaluated through a pot experiment three bioremediation strategies: a) Natural Attenuation (NA), b) Landfarming (L), c) Bioaugmentation-assisted Landfarming (LB) for the treatment of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). After a 90-days trial, Bioagumentation - assistited Landfarming approach produced the best results and the greatest evident effect was shown with the most polluted samples reaching a reduction of about 86% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), followed by Landfarming (70%), and Natural Attenuation (57%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of bioremediation strategies was the most advantageous option for the treatment of contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or landfarming applied alone. Besides, our results indicate that incubation with an autochthonous bacterial consortium may be a promising method for bioremediation of TPH-contaminated soils.

  15. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Regine; Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen; Broll, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for stimulating the biodegradation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons was tested under the application of two fertilizer levels. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were significantly reduced. As for fertilization, the lower fertilizer level led to higher biomass production. The specific root surface area was reduced under the effects of petroleum. However, vetiver was found to tolerate crude-oil contamination in a concentration of 5% (w/w). Concerning total oil and grease content in soil, no significant decrease under the influence of vetiver was detected when compared to the unplanted control. Thus, there was no evidence of vetiver enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil in soil under the conditions of this trial. However, uses of vetiver grass in relation to petroleum-contaminated soils are promising for amelioration of slightly polluted sites, to allow other species to get established and for erosion control.

  16. Proceedings of Conference on Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils (3rd) Held in Amherst, Massachusetts on September 1989 (Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Volume 3)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Cleanup of Contaminated Soil, Patricia L. D. Janssen ............. 29 5. Environment Canada Research on Land Treatment of Petroleum Wastes, T. L...141 PART IV REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIES 13. Biological Treatment of Soils Contaminated by Petroleum Products, Robert N. Block, Thomas P. Clark...349 PART VI REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS 26. State of Florida Policy for Soil Treatment at Petroleum Contaminated Sites, Win. Gordon Dean and

  17. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils.

    PubMed

    Aislabie, Jackie; Saul, David J; Foght, Julia M

    2006-06-01

    Bioremediation is increasingly viewed as an appropriate remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils. As for all soils, the successful application of bioremediation depends on appropriate biodegradative microbes and environmental conditions in situ. Laboratory studies have confirmed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria typically assigned to the genera Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas or Pseudomonas are present in contaminated polar soils. However, as indicated by the persistence of spilled hydrocarbons, environmental conditions in situ are suboptimal for biodegradation in polar soils. Therefore, it is likely that ex situ bioremediation will be the method of choice for ameliorating and controlling the factors limiting microbial activity, i.e. low and fluctuating soil temperatures, low levels of nutrients, and possible alkalinity and low moisture. Care must be taken when adding nutrients to the coarse-textured, low-moisture soils prevalent in continental Antarctica and the high Arctic because excess levels can inhibit hydrocarbon biodegradation by decreasing soil water potentials. Bioremediation experiments conducted on site in the Arctic indicate that land farming and biopiles may be useful approaches for bioremediation of polar soils.

  18. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  19. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    PubMed

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  20. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites by DNA diagnosis-based bioslurping technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-11-01

    The application of effective remediation technologies can benefit from adequate preliminary testing, such as in lab-scale and Pilot-scale systems. Bioremediation technologies have demonstrated tremendous potential with regards to cost, but they cannot be used for all contaminated sites due to limitations in biological activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a DNA diagnostic method that reduces the time to select contaminated sites that are good candidates for bioremediation. We applied an oligonucleotide microarray method to detect and monitor genes that lead to aliphatic and aromatic degradation. Further, the bioremediation of a contaminated site, selected based on the results of the genetic diagnostic method, was achieved successfully by applying bioslurping in field tests. This gene-based diagnostic technique is a powerful tool to evaluate the potential for bioremediation in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

  1. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    PubMed

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  2. Prediction of ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using physicochemical parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Chai, E.Y.; Chu, K.K.; Dorn, P.B.

    1999-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of eight hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were used to predict toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants. The toxicity of these preremediated soils was assessed using earthworm avoidance, survival, and reproduction and seed germination and root growth in four plant species. No-observed-effect and 25% inhibitory concentrations were determined from the earthworm and plant assays. Physical property measurements and metals analyses of the soils were conducted. Hydrocarbon contamination was characterized by total petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and GC boiling-point distribution. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine relationships between physical and chemical properties and biological endpoints. Soil groupings based on physicochemical properties and toxicity from cluster and principal component analyses were generally similar. Correlation analysis identified a number of significant relationships between soil parameters and toxicity that were used in univariate model development. Total petroleum hydrocarbons by gas chromatography and polars were identified as predictors of earthworm avoidance and survival and seed germination, explaining 65 to 75% of the variation in the data. Asphaltenes also explained 83% of the variation in seed germination. Gravimetric total petroleum hydrocarbons explained 40% of the variation in earthworm reproduction, whereas 43% of the variation in plant root growth was explained by asphaltenes. Multivariate one-component partial least squares models, which identified predictors similar to those identified by the univariate models, were also developed for worm avoidance and survival and seed germination and had predictive powers of 42 and 29%, respectively.

  3. Visualizing and Quantifying Bioaccessible Pores in Field-Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Clay Soils Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Kim, J.; Zhu, N.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial hydrocarbon degradation is environmentally significant and applicable to contaminated site remediation practices only when hydrocarbons (substrates) are physically bioaccessible to bacteria in soil matrices. Powerful X-rays are produced by synchrotron radiation, allowing for bioaccessible pores in soil (larger than 4 microns), where bacteria can be accommodated, colonize and remain active, can be visualized at a much higher resolution. This study visualized and quantified such bioaccessible pores in intact field-aged, oil-contaminated unsaturated soil fractions, and examined the relationship between the abundance of bioaccessible pores and hydrocarbon biodegradation. Using synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) at the Canadian Light Source, a large dataset of soil particle characteristics, such as pore volumes, surface areas, number of pores and pore size distribution, was generated. Duplicate samples of five different soil fractions with different soil aggregate sizes and water contents (13, 18 and 25%) were examined. The method for calculating the number and distribution of bioaccessible pores using CT images was validated using the known porosity of Ottawa sand. This study indicated that the distribution of bioaccessible pore sizes in soil fractions are very closely related to microbial enhancement. A follow-up aerobic biodegradation experiment for the soils at 17 °C (average site temperature) over 90 days confirmed that a notable decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations occurred in soils fractions with abundant bioaccessible pores and with a larger number of pores between 10 and 100 μm. The hydrocarbon degradation in bioactive soil fractions was extended to relatively high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C16-C34). This study provides quantitative information about how internal soil pore characteristics can influence bioremediation performance.

  4. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Tomás; Vosáhlová, Simona; Matejů, Vít; Kovácová, Nora; Novotný, Cenek

    2007-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. The initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. An amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 L of the bacterial preparation GEM-100 containing Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) CFU.mL(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. The concentration of TPHs in the soil decreased by 65.5% after bioremediation. Different organisms such as the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, terrestrial plants Sinapis alba, Lactuca sativa, and Hordeum vulgare, the water plant Lemna minor, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and the crustacean Heterocypris incongruens were used for ecotoxicity evaluation. The highest toxicity was detected in the first period of bioremediation. However, certain toxic effects were detectable during the whole bioremediation process. The contact tests with plants, earthworms, and crustaceans were the most sensitive of all of the bioassays. Therefore, the contact tests performed directly on soil samples were shown to be a better tool for ecotoxicity evaluation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than the tests performed on soil elutriates. The ecotoxicity measured by the responses of the tests did not always correlate with the decrease in TPH concentrations in the soil during bioremediation.

  5. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  6. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neil, Kyle; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  7. Monitored natural attenuation of a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a case study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Ravi; Nandy, Subhas; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kumar, R P; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu; Chen, Zuliang; Bowman, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater at a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site in Australia. Source characterization revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the major contaminant of concern in the smear zone and groundwater. Multiple lines of evidence involving the geochemical parameters, microbiological analysis, data modelling and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis all demonstrated natural attenuation of hydrocarbons occurring in the groundwater via intrinsic biodegradation. Groundwater monitoring data by Mann-Kendall trend analysis using properly designed and installed groundwater monitoring wells shows the plume is stable and neither expanding nor shrinking. The reason for stable plume is due to the presence of both active source and natural attenuation on the edge of the plume. Assuming no retardation and no degradation the contaminated plume would have travelled a distance of 1,096 m (best case) to 11,496 m (worst case) in 30 years. However, the plume was extended only up to about 170 m from its source. The results of these investigations provide strong scientific evidence for natural attenuation of TPH in this contaminated aquifer. Therefore, MNA can be applied as a defensible management option for this site following significant reduction of TPH in the source zone.

  8. Bioventing to treat hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, H.J. Jr.; Muniz, H.R.; Geyer, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Hart Crowser has designed or is currently operating 9 in situ and 6 ex situ bioventing systems in various locations throughout the state of Alaska. The objective of these projects was to design, install, and operate a remediation system capable of reducing the existing petroleum hydrocarbon levels to below the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation clean-up action levels. Prior to the design of the bioventing systems, Hart Crowser initiated site investigations including soil borings and installation of monitoring wells to determine site geological characteristics, and the extent of the hydrocarbon impacted soils. Laboratory biofeasibility testing or in situ respirometry testing was accomplished to determine the biological activity at the sites and provide information to optimize the remedial design. Degradation rates for the various sites ranged from 0.92 mgkg{sup -1}d{sup -1} to 17.6 mgkg{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Three in situ bioventing case studies will be presented. The results of treatability testing, considerations for the design of the bioventing systems, systems installation, and the results from two years of operation will be outlined.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  10. Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon Contaminants by Patuxent River Soil Microbial Communities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Organic Chemicals in Ground Water - Prevention, Detection, and Restoration. November 13-15, National Water Well Association and American Petroleum Institute . pp...Restoration, National Water Well Association and American Petroleum Institute . pp274-298. Wilson, B., and J.F. Rees. 1985. Biotransformation of Gasoline...and Restoration November 13-15, National Water Well Association and American Petroleum Institute . pp.128-139. Wilson, B.H., G.B. Smith, and J.F

  11. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  12. Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Viramontes-Ramos, Sabina; Cristina Portillo-Ruiz, Martha; Ballinas-Casarrubias, María de Lourdes; Torres-Muñoz, José Vinicio; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca Estela; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were grown in liquid medium, and surface tension and emulsification index were determined in cell-free supernantant and cell suspension. A total of 324 bacterial strains were tested, and 17 were positive for the drop-collapse and hydrocarbon-layer agar methods. Most of the strains were Pseudomonas, except for three strains (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus). Surface tension was similar in cell-free and cell suspension measurements, with values in the range of 58 to 26 (mN/m), and all formed stable emulsions with motor oil (76-93% E24). Considering the variety of molecular structures among microbial biosurfactants, they have different chemical properties that can be exploited commercially, for applications as diverse as bioremediation or degradable detergents.

  13. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  14. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shay, T.A. ); Hoddinott, K. )

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  15. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  16. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  17. Biodegradation of anthracene by a novel actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Oluwafemi S; Olatoye, Nojeem O

    2014-01-01

    A novel anthracene-degrading Gram-positive actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. strain SL10 was isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a mechanical engineering workshop in Lagos, Nigeria. The polluted soil had an unusually high total hydrocarbon content of 157 g/kg and presence of various heavy metals. The isolate tolerated salt concentration of more than 4%. It resisted cefotaxime, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to meropenem, linezolid and vancomycin. The isolate exhibited growth rate and doubling time of 0.82 days(-1) and 0.84 days, respectively on anthracene. It degraded 57.5 and 90.12% of anthracene within 12 and 21 days, respectively while the rate of anthracene utilization by the isolate was 4.79 mg l(-1) d(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of anthracene-degrading Microbacterium sp.

  18. Phytoremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Cook, Rachel L.; Landmeyer, James E.; Atkinson, Brad; Malone, Donald R.; Shaw, George; Woods, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over approximately 579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95 percent mass loss for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and a 99 percent mass loss for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX and methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations have decreased in groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival was higher than the willows or pines on-site, even in a noncontaminated control area. All four Populus clones survived well at the site.

  19. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  20. Influence of compost amendment on microbial community and ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Isabella; Sicolo, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Fontanarosa, Eleonora; Santagostino, Angela; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a high quality compost amendment on two soils contaminated with diesel oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, respectively, was evaluated, with respect to contaminant biodegradation, microbial community composition and soil toxicity and genotoxicity. For each of the two soils, two 20-kg biopiles were set up, one without amendments and one compost-amended. GC/FID analyses revealed that compost was effective in enhancing biodegradation of diesel oil and of four-ring PAHs. It also influenced microbial community composition, as inferred by ARDRA analyses and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA of clones from libraries constructed from each soil sample. Microtox analyses on soil aqueous saline extracts and Solid Phase Tests showed some toxicity reduction due to compost addition, while the Comet assay, performed on coelomocytes of earthworms exposed to contaminated soils, did not show genotoxicity reduction. In general, the use of compost amendment to hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a bioremediation process proved to be effective for depletion of contaminants and reduction of toxicity.

  1. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils, Comprehensive Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2001-01-12

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system.

  2. Ecotoxicological and analytical assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and application to ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Saterbak, A.; Toy, R.J.; Wong, D.C.L.; McMain, B.J.; Williams, M.P.; Dorn, P.B.; Brzuzy, L.P.; Chai, E.Y.; Salanitro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated soil aim to understand the effect of introduced chemicals on the soil flora and fauna. Ecotoxicity test methods were developed and conducted on hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and on adjacent uncontaminated control soils from eight field locations. Tests included 7-d, 14-d, and chronic survival tests and reproduction assays for the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and seed germination, root length, and plant growth assays for corn, lettuce, mustard, and wheat. Species-specific responses were observed with no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from <1 to 100% contaminated soil. The 14-d earthworm survival NOEC was equal to or greater than the reproduction NOEC values for numbers of cocoons and juveniles, which were similar to one another. Cocoon and juvenile production varied among the control soils. Germination and root length NOECs for mustard and lettuce were less than NOECs for corn and wheat. Root length NOECs were similar to or less than seed germination NOECs. Statistically significant correlations for earthworm survival and seed germination as a function of hydrocarbon measurements were found. The 14-d earthworm survival and the seed germination tests are recommended for use in the context of a risk-based framework for the ecological assessment of contaminated sites.

  3. Use of dissolved and vapor-phase gases to investigate methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amos, R.T.; Mayer, K.U.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Williams, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] At many sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, methanogenesis is a significant degradation pathway. Techniques to estimate CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes are needed to understand the geochemical system, provide a complete carbon mass balance, and quantify the hydrocarbon degradation rate. Dissolved and vapor-phase gas data collected at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota, demonstrate that naturally occurring nonreactive or relatively inert gases such as Ar and N2 can be effectively used to better understand and quantify physical and chemical processes related to methanogenic activity in the subsurface. In the vadose zone, regions of Ar and N2 depletion and enrichment are indicative of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones, and concentration gradients between the regions suggest that reaction-induced advection can be an important gas transport process. In the saturated zone, dissolved Ar and N2 concentrations are used to quantify degassing driven by methanogenesis and also suggest that attenuation of methane along the flow path, into the downgradient aquifer, is largely controlled by physical processes. Slight but discernable preferential depletion of N2 over Ar, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones near the free-phase oil, suggests reactivity of N2 and is consistent with other evidence indicating that nitrogen fixation by microbial activity is taking place at this site. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently.

  5. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    PubMed

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  6. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  7. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation.

  8. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics associated with high soil conductivities in a shallow hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legall, Franklyn David

    Data collected from a network of in-situ vertical resistivity probes (VRPs) deployed at a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in SW Michigan showed high conductivities associated with the zone of contamination. Within the contaminated portion of the aquifer, different phases of hydrocarbon impact are recognized, namely, zones with residual and dissolved phase hydrocarbons (RDH) and zones where these phases coexist with free product (RDFH). Bulk soil conductivities were highest (12 to 30 mS/m) in the RDFH zone compared to the RDH zone (10 to 25 mS/m). Geochemical and isotopic data from closely spaced vertical samples within the high conductive zones were used to provide geochemical evidence for biodegradation and to investigate redox processes occurring within the conductive zones. Depth distribution of TEAs and educts showed evidence of reduction of nitrate, iron, manganese, and sulfate across steep vertical gradients. Within the portion of the plume characterized by RDH, SO4 reduction has supplanted denitrification via dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and the reduction of Fe (III) and Mn(IV) as the major observed redox process. This zone was also characterized by the highest DIC. The delta 13CDIC values of -16.9 to -9.5‰ suggest that DIC evolution within this zone is controlled by carbonate dissolution through enhanced CO2 production related to microbial hydrocarbon degradation. Within the portion of the aquifer with RDFH, DIC was lower compared to the RDH location with an associated delta13CDIC in the range of +6.5 to -4.4‰. Both the DIC and delta 13CDIC suggest that methanogenesis is the dominant redox process. With respect to mineral weathering as a possible source of ions contributing to high conductivities, the results show higher concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg in the contaminated portion of the aquifer compared to uncontaminated parts. This is consistent with the weathering of carbonate and Na and Ca feldspars, the dominant minerals in the aquifer. Higher

  9. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  10. On site bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic tundra soils in inoculated biopiles.

    PubMed

    Mohn, W W; Radziminski, C Z; Fortin, M C; Reimer, K J

    2001-10-01

    There is a need to develop technology to allow the remediation of soil in polar regions that have been contaminated by hydrocarbon fuel spills. Bioremediation is potentially useful for this purpose, but has not been well demonstrated in polar regions. We investigated biopiles for on-site bioremediation of soil contaminated with Arctic diesel fuel in two independent small-scale field experiments at different sites on the Arctic tundra. The results were highly consistent with one another. In biopiles at both sites, extensive hydrocarbon removal occurred after one summer. After 1 year in treatments with optimal conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons were reduced from 196 to below 10 mg per kg of soil at one site, and from 2,109 to 195 mg per kg of soil at the other site. Addition of ammonium chloride and sodium phosphate greatly stimulated hydrocarbon removal and indicates that biodegradation was the primary mechanism by which this was achieved. Inoculation with cold-adapted, mixed microbial cultures further stimulated hydrocarbon removal during the summer immediately following inoculation. At one site, soil temperature was monitored during the summer season, and a clear plastic cover increased biopile soil temperature, measured as degree-day accumulation, by 30-49%. Our results show that on-site bioremediation of fuel-contaminated soil at Arctic tundra sites is feasible.

  11. Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 ± 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 ± 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P < 0.01). This data suggests that the microbial community in the activated sludge inoculum contributed to the enhanced removal of hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  13. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  14. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  15. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) end low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) and low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus

  16. Characterization of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an alpine former military site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    We characterized the culturable, heterotrophic bacterial community in soil collected from a former alpine military site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiologically active eubacterial community, as revealed by fluorescence-in situ-hybridization, accounted for 14.9 % of the total (DAPI-stained) bacterial community. 4.0 and 1.2 % of the DAPI-stained cells could be attributed to culturable, heterotrophic bacteria able to grow at 20 and 10 °C, respectively. The majority of culturable bacterial isolates (23/28 strains) belonged to the Proteobacteria with a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. The remaining isolates were affiliated with the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Five strains could be identified as representatives of novel species. Characterization of the 28 strains demonstrated their adaptation to the temperature and nutrient conditions prevailing in the studied soil. One-third of the strains was able to grow at subzero temperatures (-5 °C). Studies on the effect of temperature on growth and lipase production with two selected strains demonstrated their low-temperature adaptation.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  18. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  19. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    These two sites illustrate how the efficiency of natural attenuation processes acting on petroleum hydrocarbons can be systematically evaluated using hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiologic methods.  These methods, in turn, can be used to assess the role that the natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons can play in achieving overall site remediation.

  20. Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination of Bottom Sediments of Gulf of Oman area, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, A.; El Tokhi, M.; Abed, S. Al; Mahmoud, B.

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), total organic carbon (%TOC) and petroleum related heavy metals beside the grain size distribution of 4 stations in Gulf of Oman area (Khor Kalbaa , Debba ,Khor Fakan and Fujairah) , UAE were determined in the bottom sediment. Copper, zinc, nickel, lead, cadmium and vanadium concentration were found within the lowest effect, The contamination levels were found due to petrogenic origin and their sources are either weathered or highly weathered crude oils and or used lubricating oil. Their detection gives an indication of recent and continuous petroleum inputs.

  1. Persistence and degrading activity of free and immobilised allochthonous bacteria during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rivelli, Valentina; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Cordoni, Sergio; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2013-02-01

    Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. bioremediation experiments were carried out using free and immobilized cells on natural carrier material (corncob powder) in order to evaluate the feasibility of its use in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA gene as molecular fingerprinting method in order to assess the persistence of inoculated strains in the soil over time. Immobilized Pseudomonas cells degraded hydrocarbons more efficiently in the short term compared to the free ones. Immobilization seemed also to increase cell growth and stability in the soil. Free and immobilized Rhodococcus cells showed comparable degradation percentages, probably due to the peculiarity of Rhodococcus cells to aggregate into irregular clusters in the presence of hydrocarbons as sole carbon source. It is likely that the cells were not properly adsorbed on the porous matrix as a result of the small size of its pores. When Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas cells were co-immobilized on the matrix, a competition established between the two strains, that probably ended in the exclusion of Pseudomonas cells from the pores. The organic matrix might act as protective agent, but it also possibly limited cell density. Nevertheless, when the cells were properly adsorbed on the porous matrix, the immobilization became a suitable bioremediation strategy.

  2. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray–Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg−1 hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities. PMID:23985744

  3. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Dendooven, L

    2006-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil restoration. Soil of Texcoco and an agricultural Acolman soil, which served as a control, were spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, added with or without biosolid or inorganic fertilizer (N, P), and dynamics of PAHs, N and P were monitored in a 112-day incubation. Concentrations of phenanthrene did not change significantly in sterilized Acolman soil, but decreased 2-times in unsterilized soil and >25-times in soil amended with biosolid and NP. The concentration of phenanthrene in unsterilized soil of Texcoco was 1.3-times lower compared to the sterilized soil, 1.7-times in soil amended with NP and 2.9-times in soil amended with biosolid. In unsterilized Acolman soil, degradation of BaP was faster in soil amended with biosolid than in unamended soil and soil amended with NP. In unsterilized soil of Texcoco, degradation of BaP was similar in soil amended with biosolid and NP but faster than in the unamended soil. It was found that application of biosolid and NP increased degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, but to a different degree in alkaline-saline soil of Texcoco compared to an agricultural Acolman soil.

  4. Contrasting the Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated and Uncontaminated Soils following Willow (Salix spp. L.) Planting

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Denis, David; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species. PMID:25032685

  5. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L.) planting.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad El-Din; Bell, Terrence H; Stefani, Franck O P; Denis, David; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  6. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area.

  8. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    PubMed

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  9. Assessment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination in the surficial sediments and ground water at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    laboratory analysis and field-property determinations. Petroleum hydrocarbons and lead were detected at concentrations exceeding regulatory limits for drinking water in ground water from Site 1062 only. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in ground water from three wells at Site 1062, with the highest concentrations occurring in the area of the former underground storage tanks. Benzene was detected at concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter; toluene as much as 558 micrograms per liter; para- and meta-xylenes as much as 993 micrograms per liter; and naphthalene as much as 236 micrograms per liter. Ethylbenzene and ortho-xylene were detected in one well at concentrations of 70 and 6 micrograms per liter, respectively. Dissolved lead was detected in ground water from four wells at concentrations from 5 to 152 micrograms per liter. Analysis of ground-water samples collected from Sites 2438 and 2444 showed little evidence of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in any of the ground-water samples collected from Site 2438. With the exception of a low concentration of naphthalene (11 micrograms per liter) detected in ground water from one well, petroleum hydrocarbons and lead were not detected in ground water collected from Site 2444.

  10. The performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water.

    PubMed

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-08-05

    Nitrogen deficiency has been identified as the main inhibiting factor for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low nutrient environments. This study examines the performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water within laboratory scale flow cells. Biofilm formation and biodegradation were accelerated by the exchange of cations in soil water with ammonium in the pores of the exchanged zeolite when compared with natural zeolite flow cells. These results have implications for sequenced permeable reactive barrier design and the longevity of media performance within such barriers at petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites deficient in essential soil nutrients.

  11. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  12. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  13. Magnetic Parameter Changes in Soil and Sediments in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M. L.; Ameen, N. N.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic proxies were successfully used for fast and non-destructive detection of fly ash related heavy metal pollution. Correlations of magnetic signals with organic contaminants in soils and sediments were also reported; however, their significance is unclear because of co-existing heavy metal pollution. At a hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated former military airbase (Hradcany, Czech Rep.), where heavy metal contents are insignificant, we detected clearly higher magnetic concentrations at the top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. Frequent GWF by up to ca. one meter was caused through remediation by air sparging. In this study and all previous ones magnetite was identified as the dominant phase for higher magnetic concentrations. To determine the importance of microbial activity and soil parameters on changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) laboratory batch experiments with different microbially active and sterile soils without carbon addition and with gasoline amendment were setup. MS of these microcosms was followed weekly. Depending on the soil MS either increased or decreased by up to ~7% and remained constant afterwards. The main findings were that MS changes were mainly microbially driven and influenced by the bioavailable Fe content, the initial MS and the organic carbon content of the soils. Moreover, we tested magnetic changes in laboratory columns, filled with sand from the field site Hradcany, by simulating water level changes. The observed changes were small and hardly statistically significant. Our laboratory studies revealed that different factors influence changes in magnetic properties of soil/sediments after HC contamination, with much smaller effects than expected from anomalies observed at field sites. With the present results, the ambitious goal of using magnetic monitoring for detecting HC contaminations by oil spills seem far from practical application.

  14. Biostimulation Reveals Functional Redundancy of Anthracene-Degrading Bacteria in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Dunlevy, Sage R; Singleton, David R; Aitken, Michael D

    2013-11-01

    Stable-isotope probing was previously used to identify bacterial anthracene-degraders in untreated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site. However, subsequent pyrosequence analyses of total bacterial communities and quantification of 16S rRNA genes indicated that relative abundances of the predominant anthracene-degrading bacteria (designated Anthracene Group 1) diminished as a result of biological treatment conditions in lab-scale, aerobic bioreactors. This study identified Alphaproteobacterial anthracene-degrading bacteria in bioreactor-treated soil which were dissimilar to those previously identified. The largest group of sequences was from the Alterythrobacter genus while other groups of sequences were associated with bacteria within the order Rhizobiales and the genus Bradyrhizobium. Conditions in the bioreactor enriched for organisms capable of degrading anthracene which were not the same as those identified as dominant degraders in the untreated soil. Further, these data suggest that identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated but untreated soil may be a poor indicator of the most active degraders during biological treatment.

  15. Application of aqueous saponin on the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Kaminaga, Hirohisa; Navarro, Ronald R; Iimura, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of aqueous saponin for the removal and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil. Dissolution test confirmed the ability of saponin to increase the apparent solubility of the tested 3-5 rings PAH above the critical micelle concentration (approximately 1000 mg/L). Microbial test with pure culture of Sphingomonas sp. showed that saponin significantly enhanced the degradation of pyrene. For example, the percent degradation was 2.1 times higher in the presence of 2500 mg/L saponin than that of control without saponin after 60 hours incubation at around 10(8) CFU/mL initial cell loading. These results suggest that the binding of pyrene with saponin does not pose a serious constraint to bacterial uptake. Contrary to pyrene, saponin was chemically stable against the PAHs degrader. It is also not toxic to the cell at least up to 2500 mg/L. Finally, using a spiked soil sample, extraction tests with 10,000 mg/L of saponin showed that around 52.7% and 0.3% of pyrene was removed from low and high organic spiked soils, respectively. The results from this study indicate that aqueous saponin is appropriate as a washing agent as well as biodegradation enhancer for the detoxification of PAHs-contaminated low organic carbon soil.

  16. Biostimulation Reveals Functional Redundancy of Anthracene-Degrading Bacteria in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Dunlevy, Sage R.; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stable-isotope probing was previously used to identify bacterial anthracene-degraders in untreated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site. However, subsequent pyrosequence analyses of total bacterial communities and quantification of 16S rRNA genes indicated that relative abundances of the predominant anthracene-degrading bacteria (designated Anthracene Group 1) diminished as a result of biological treatment conditions in lab-scale, aerobic bioreactors. This study identified Alphaproteobacterial anthracene-degrading bacteria in bioreactor-treated soil which were dissimilar to those previously identified. The largest group of sequences was from the Alterythrobacter genus while other groups of sequences were associated with bacteria within the order Rhizobiales and the genus Bradyrhizobium. Conditions in the bioreactor enriched for organisms capable of degrading anthracene which were not the same as those identified as dominant degraders in the untreated soil. Further, these data suggest that identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated but untreated soil may be a poor indicator of the most active degraders during biological treatment. PMID:24302851

  17. Soil-Water Repellency and Critical Humidity as Cleanup Criteria for Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Adams, Randy H.

    2010-05-01

    , the FC dropped to 25,6% H, likely due to organic matter decomposition. However, during the following year+ (13½ months) the FC increased to 33,8%H probably due to an increase of soil humic substances while a vigorous vegetative growth was established. During two years of treatment the MED values were reduced 30% from 5,13 to 3,58M, and WDPT values were reduced over 25 times (from 10 exp5,6 s to 10 exp4,2 s). Critical humidity values varied from ~16,9 - 19,5%H for penetration in <5 s and from ~15,1 - 15,5%H for penetration in <60 s, in both treated and untreated material. During the driest part of the year, in May before the first rains, the soil humidity was 20,3%, and thus values below the critical levels were not experienced. This permitted the development of a complete vegetative cover, vigorous growth, and transformation of a geologic substrate (bentonitic drilling muds) into a soil-like material apt for agricultural use. This focus on soil-water relationships and the use of soil fertility parameters in general is important in establishing cleanup criteria for the real remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites in agricultural areas. As seen in this study, relatively high WDPT and MED values may not necessarily indicate soil moisture problems and these need to be complemented with actual site information on soil humidity during the annual cycle and with determinations of critical humidity. Additionally, the augmentation of field capacity using organic conditioners may effectively mitigate potential critical humidity problems.

  18. Long-term simulation of in situ biostimulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stephen D; Jones, Maiysha D; Singleton, David R; Aitken, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in situ biostimulation on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from a manufactured gas plant site. Simulated groundwater amended with oxygen and inorganic nutrients was introduced into one column, while a second column receiving unamended groundwater served as a control. PAH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, as well as microbial community profiles, were monitored along the column length immediately before and at selected intervals up to 534 days after biostimulation commenced. Biostimulation resulted in significantly greater PAH removal than in the control condition (73% of total measured PAHs vs. 34%, respectively), with dissolution accounting for a minor amount of the total mass loss (~6%) in both columns. Dissolution was most significant for naphthalene, acenaphthene, and fluorene, accounting for >20% of the total mass removed for each. A known group of PAH-degrading bacteria, 'Pyrene Group 2' (PG2), was identified as a dominant member of the microbial community and responded favorably to biostimulation. Spatial and temporal variations in soil PAH concentration and PG2 abundance were strongly correlated to DO advancement, although there appeared to be transport of PG2 organisms ahead of the oxygen front. At an estimated oxygen demand of 6.2 mg O(2)/g dry soil and a porewater velocity of 0.8 m/day, it took between 374 and 466 days for oxygen breakthrough from the 1-m soil bed in the biostimulated column. This study demonstrated that the presence of oxygen was the limiting factor in PAH removal, as opposed to the abundance and/or activity of PAH-degrading bacteria once oxygen reached a previously anoxic zone.

  19. Long-term simulation of in situ biostimulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in situ biostimulation on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from a manufactured gas plant site. Simulated groundwater amended with oxygen and inorganic nutrients was introduced into one column, while a second column receiving unamended groundwater served as a control. PAH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, as well as microbial community profiles, were monitored along the column length immediately before and at selected intervals up to 534 days after biostimulation commenced. Biostimulation resulted in significantly greater PAH removal than in the control condition (73% of total measured PAHs vs. 34%, respectively), with dissolution accounting for a minor amount of the total mass loss (~6%) in both columns. Dissolution was most significant for naphthalene, acenaphthene, and fluorene, accounting for >20% of the total mass removed for each. A known group of PAH-degrading bacteria, ‘Pyrene Group 2’ (PG2), was identified as a dominant member of the microbial community and responded favorably to biostimulation. Spatial and temporal variations in soil PAH concentration and PG2 abundance were strongly correlated to DO advancement, although there appeared to be transport of PG2 organisms ahead of the oxygen front. At an estimated oxygen demand of 6.2 mg O2/g dry soil and a porewater velocity of 0.8 m/day, it took between 374 and 466 days for oxygen breakthrough from the 1-m soil bed in the biostimulated column. This study demonstrated that the presence of oxygen was the limiting factor in PAH removal, as opposed to the abundance and/or activity of PAH-degrading bacteria once oxygen reached a previously anoxic zone. PMID:22311590

  20. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in subantarctic soils: an effective management option.

    PubMed

    Bramley-Alves, Jessica; Wasley, Jane; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane; Robinson, Sharon A

    2014-09-01

    Accidental fuel spills on world heritage subantarctic Macquarie Island have caused considerable contamination. Due to the island's high latitude position, its climate, and its fragile ecosystem, traditional methods of remediation are unsuitable for on-site clean up. We investigated the tolerance of a subantarctic native tussock grass, Poa foliosa (Hook. f.), to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel and its potential to reduce SAB fuel contamination via phytoremediation. Toxicity of SAB fuel to P. foliosa was assessed in an 8 month laboratory growth trial under growth conditions which simulated the island's environment. Single seedlings were planted into 1 L pots of soil spiked with SAB fuel at concentrations of 1000, 5 000, 10,000, 2000 and 40,000 mg/kg (plus control). Plants were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 8 months and a range of plant productivity endpoints were measured (biomass production, plant morphology and photosynthetic efficiency). Poa foliosa was highly tolerant across all SAB fuel concentrations tested with respect to biomass, although higher concentrations of 20,000 and 40,000 mg SAB/kg soil caused slight reductions in leaf length, width and area. To assess the phytoremediation potential of P. foliosa (to 10 000 mg/kg), soil from the planted pots was compared with that from paired unplanted pots at each SAB fuel concentration. The effect of the plant on SAB fuel concentrations and the associated microbial communities found within the soil (total heterotrophs and hydrocarbon degraders) were compared between planted and unplanted treatments at the 0, 2, 4 and 8 month harvest periods. The presence of plants resulted in significantly less SAB fuel in soils at 2 months and a return to background concentration by 8 months. Microbes did not appear to be the sole driving force behind the observed hydrocarbon loss. This study provides evidence that phytoremediation using P. foliosa is a valuable remediation option for use at Macquarie Island, and may be

  1. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  2. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  3. Field screening of polycyclic hydrocarbons contamination in soil using a portable synchronous scanning spectrofluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie, Jean P.; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Don; Hyfantis, George J., Jr.; Peeler, George; Engelmann, William H.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1995-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination is a considerable problem at various hazardous waste sites. Sources of PAH contamination include incomplete combustion processes, wood preservatives, and the fuel industry. The development of rapid, cost-effective field screening techniques to qualitate or quantitate potential PAH contamination could result in improved remediation efficiency. We have recently developed a portable spectrofluorometer for screening potential PAH contaminants at field sites using the synchronous fluorescence approach. Synchronous fluorescence differs from the more conventional excitation or emission fluorescence as both monochromators are scanned simultaneously with a constant wavelength offset ((Delta) (lambda) ) between the two. The portable spectrofluorometer was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Exposure Research Laboratory, and recently field tested at the American Creosote Works Superfund Site in Jackson, Tennessee. In this paper, the portable spectrofluorometer was used to field screen several contaminated soil areas located at the Morristown Industrial Site in Morristown, Tennessee using the synchronous fluorescence technique. An attempt to quantify PAH contamination was performed using the NIST 1647a priority pollutant standard to generate a calibration curve. Representative samples were subsequently related to the results obtained from standard laboratory measurements.

  4. Utilization of soil gas monitoring to determine feasibility and effectiveness of in situ bioventing in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Hall, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of in situ bioventing, careful monitoring of soil gas chemistry is essential. Prior to design of a bioventing system, initial soil gas surveys should be performed. Concentrations of three constituents, oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and total volatile hydrocarbons (TVH), are used in bioventing design. TVH are an indicator of contaminant distribution; O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are indicators of biodegradation activity. Analysis of soil gas data collected during pilot-scale testing is the primary design basis for full-scale remediation systems. Biodegradation rates determined from respiration tests are used to estimate the length of time that a system will have to operate to remediate the contamination. Air permeability of the soil, calculated from permeability testing, determines the number and spacing of air injection wells that will be required to ensure adequate oxygen influence through the entire contaminated area.

  5. Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isis Serrano; Santos, Eder da Costa dos; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin de; Faria, Andréia Fonseca de; Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2009-10-01

    Biodegradation of a mixture of PAHs was assessed in forest soil microcosms performed either without or with bioaugmentation using individual fungi and bacterial and a fungal consortia. Respiratory activity, metabolic intermediates and extent of PAH degradation were determined. In all microcosms the low molecular weight PAH's naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, showed a rapid initial rate of removal. However, bioaugmentation did not significantly affect the biodegradation efficiency for these compounds. Significantly slower degradation rates were demonstrated for the high molecular weight PAH's pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benz[a]pyrene. Bioaugmentation did not improve the rate or extent of PAH degradation, except in the case of Aspergillus sp. Respiratory activity was determined by CO(2) evolution and correlated roughly with the rate and timing of PAH removal. This indicated that the PAHs were being used as an energy source. The native microbiota responded rapidly to the addition of the PAHs and demonstrated the ability to degrade all of the PAHs added to the soil, indicating their ability to remediate PAH-contaminated soils.

  6. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization for treatment of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sludge from Fort Polk Army Installation, Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, M.G.; Preston, K.T.

    1996-09-01

    In the course of normal operations and training, soldiers and civilian personnel operate many Army vehicles on a day-today basis. These vehicles must be cleaned before they can be returned to the motor pool area of an Army base. The cleaning of these vehicles bas posed a problem with the operation and maintenance of oil/water separators located at vehicle washrack facilities. An oily sludge forms in the oil/water separator and is hard to handle and cannot be disposed of in an ordinary manner. This study used solidification/stabilization to treat the oily sludge found in the vehicle washrack oil/water separators. Solidification/stabilization is usually used to treat soils and sludges that contain heavy metals. Organic compounds, such as petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge, interfere with the setting of the solidification binding materials and thus produce a material that is not desirable for a treatment alternative. This study incorporates the use of dicalcium silicate as an additive to the solidification process to increase the strength and reduce the leachability of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge. This study shows that dicalcium silicate improves the handling characteristics of the sludge and reduces the leachability of the contaminants from the washrack sludge.

  7. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in cold regions: Development of a pre-optimized biostimulation biopile-scale field assay in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, L M; Ruberto, Lam; Lo Balbo, A; Mac Cormack, W P

    2017-03-02

    Bioremediation proved to be an effective approach to deal with soil contamination, especially in isolated, cold environments such as Antarctica. Biostimulation, involving the addition of macronutrients -mainly nitrogen and phosphorous- is considered the simplest and cheapest bioremediation process. Optimizing the levels of these nutrients is a key step prior to the application of a biostimulation strategy. In this work, N and P levels, optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) at lab-scale, were applied to an Antarctic hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The process was performed on-site, using high density polyethylene geomembranes (800μm) to isolate treated soil from the surroundings and under environmental conditions at Carlini station (Antarctica) during 50days. Two 0.5ton biopiles were used as experimental units; a control biopile (CC), and a biostimulated system (BS), amended with N and P. At the end of the assay, hydrocarbon removal was significantly higher in BS system compared to CC (75.79% and 49.54% respectively), showing that the applied strategy was effective enough to perform a field-assay in Antarctica that significantly reduce soil contamination levels; and proving that RSM represents a fundamental tool for the optimization of nutrient levels to apply during bioremediation of fuel contaminated cold soils.

  8. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  9. Comparison of plant families in a greenhouse phytoremediation study on an aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Olson, Paul E; Castro, Ana; Joern, Mark; DuTeau, Nancy M; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants and their associated rhizosphere microbes can promote PAH dissipation, offering an economic and ecologically attractive remediation technique. This study focused on the effects of different types of vegetation on PAH removal and on the interaction between the plants and their associated microorganisms. Aged PAH-polluted soil with a total PAH level of 753 mg kg(-1) soil dry weight was planted with 18 plant species representing eight families. The levels of 17 soil PAHs were monitored over 14 mo. The size of soil microbial populations of PAH degraders was also monitored. Planting significantly enhanced the dissipation rates of all PAHs within the first 7 mo, but this effect was not significant after 14 mo. Although the extent of removal of lower-molecular-weight PAHs was similar for planted and unplanted control soils after 14 mo, the total mass of five- and six-ring PAHs removed was significantly greater in planted soils at the 7- and 14-mo sampling points. Poaceae (grasses) were the most effective of the families tested, and perennial ryegrass was the most effective species; after 14 mo, soils planted with perennial ryegrass contained 30% of the initial total PAH concentration (compared with 51% of the initial concentrations in unplanted control soil). Although the presence of some plant species led to higher populations of PAH degraders, there was no correlation across plant species between PAH dissipation and the size of the PAH-degrading population. Research is needed to understand differences among plant families for stimulating PAH dissipation.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Soils of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala: Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kasaraneni, Varun K; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sum of the concentrations of these PAHs at the urban and peri-urban sites ranged from 460 to 3251 μg kg (mean, 1401 μg kg), whereas at agricultural sites the range was 350 to 2087 μg kg (mean, 1038 μg kg). Analysis to identify and apportion the source showed that the PAHs emitted from wood stoves contributed 71 and 76% of the total PAHs in urban and agricultural areas soils, respectively. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk due to the ingestion of soil, dermal contact, and dietary intake through corn consumption was greater than the acceptable level of 10 established by the USEPA. Our findings suggest that the residents of rural communities can be at increased cancer risk despite little or no industrial activity in the local area. Alternate domestic fuel sources should be considered to reduce the health risk in local communities.

  11. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene.

  12. Use of Substrate-Induced Gene Expression in Metagenomic Analysis of an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Matthew J.; Paterson, E. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics allows the study of genes related to xenobiotic degradation in a culture-independent manner, but many of these studies are limited by the lack of genomic context for metagenomic sequences. This study combined a phenotypic screen known as substrate-induced gene expression (SIGEX) with whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. SIGEX is a high-throughput promoter-trap method that relies on transcriptional activation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in response to an inducing compound and subsequent fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate individual inducible clones from a metagenomic DNA library. We describe a SIGEX procedure with improved library construction from fragmented metagenomic DNA and improved flow cytometry sorting procedures. We used SIGEX to interrogate an aromatic hydrocarbon (AH)-contaminated soil metagenome. The recovered clones contained sequences with various degrees of similarity to genes (or partial genes) involved in aromatic metabolism, for example, nahG (salicylate oxygenase) family genes and their respective upstream nahR regulators. To obtain a broader context for the recovered fragments, clones were mapped to contigs derived from de novo assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA which, in most cases, contained complete operons involved in aromatic metabolism, providing greater insight into the origin of the metagenomic fragments. A comparable set of contigs was generated using a significantly less computationally intensive procedure in which assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA was directed by the SIGEX-recovered sequences. This methodology may have broad applicability in identifying biologically relevant subsets of metagenomes (including both novel and known sequences) that can be targeted computationally by in silico assembly and prediction tools. PMID:26590287

  13. Use of Substrate-Induced Gene Expression in Metagenomic Analysis of an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthew J; Paterson, E Suzanne; Lambert, Iain B

    2015-11-20

    Metagenomics allows the study of genes related to xenobiotic degradation in a culture-independent manner, but many of these studies are limited by the lack of genomic context for metagenomic sequences. This study combined a phenotypic screen known as substrate-induced gene expression (SIGEX) with whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. SIGEX is a high-throughput promoter-trap method that relies on transcriptional activation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in response to an inducing compound and subsequent fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate individual inducible clones from a metagenomic DNA library. We describe a SIGEX procedure with improved library construction from fragmented metagenomic DNA and improved flow cytometry sorting procedures. We used SIGEX to interrogate an aromatic hydrocarbon (AH)-contaminated soil metagenome. The recovered clones contained sequences with various degrees of similarity to genes (or partial genes) involved in aromatic metabolism, for example, nahG (salicylate oxygenase) family genes and their respective upstream nahR regulators. To obtain a broader context for the recovered fragments, clones were mapped to contigs derived from de novo assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA which, in most cases, contained complete operons involved in aromatic metabolism, providing greater insight into the origin of the metagenomic fragments. A comparable set of contigs was generated using a significantly less computationally intensive procedure in which assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA was directed by the SIGEX-recovered sequences. This methodology may have broad applicability in identifying biologically relevant subsets of metagenomes (including both novel and known sequences) that can be targeted computationally by in silico assembly and prediction tools.

  14. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  15. Soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for sub-Antarctic islands contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Sub-Antarctic islands have been subjected to petroleum hydrocarbon spills, yet no information is available regarding the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to these subpolar soils. The purpose of the present study was to identify soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sub-Antarctic soil. Soil from Macquarie Island, a sub-Antarctic island south of Australia, was collected and exposed to 10 concentrations of Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel, ranging from 0 to 50,000 mg fuel/kg soil, for a 21-d period. The sensitivity of nitrification, denitrification, carbohydrate utilization, and total soil respiration to SAB fuel was assessed. Potential nitrification activity was the most sensitive indicator of SAB contamination assessed for nitrogen cycling, with an IC20 (concentration that results in a 20% change from the control response) of 190 mg fuel/ kg soil. Potential denitrification activity was not as sensitive to SAB contamination, with an IC20 of 950 mg fuel/kg soil for nitrous oxide production. Nitrous oxide consumption was unaffected by SAB contamination. Carbohydrate utilization (respiration caused by sucrose) was a more sensitive indicator (IC20, 16 mg fuel/kg soil) of SAB contamination than total respiration (IC20, 220 mg fuel/kg soil). However, total soil respiration was a more responsive measurement end point, increasing soil respiration over a 72-h period by 17 mg of CO2, compared to a change of only 2.1 mg of CO2 for carbohydrate utilization. Our results indicate that IC20s varied between 16 to 950 mg fuel/kg soil for Macquarie Island soil spiked with SAB diesel fuel. These results indicate that current cleanup levels derived from temperate zones may be too liberal for soil contamination in sub-Antarctic islands.

  16. Treatability of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils of different textures along a vertical profile by mechanical soil aeration: A laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Shi, Yi; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhifen; Xu, Zhu; Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technology that is suitable for sites contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs). Conventionally, this technique is used to treat the mixed soil of a site without considering the diversity and treatability of different soils within the site. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration for remediating soils of different textures (silty, clayey, and sandy soils) along a vertical profile at an abandoned chloro-alkali chemical site in China. The collected soils were artificially contaminated with chloroform (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Mechanical soil aeration was effective for remediating VCHs (removal efficiency >98%). The volatilization process was described by an exponential kinetic function. In the early stage of treatment (0-7hr), rapid contaminant volatilization followed a pseudo-first order kinetic model. VCH concentrations decreased to low levels and showed a tailing phenomenon with very slow contaminant release after 8hr. Compared with silty and sandy soils, clayey soil has high organic-matter content, a large specific surface area, a high clay fraction, and a complex pore structure. These characteristics substantially influenced the removal process, making it less efficient, more time consuming, and consequently more expensive. Our findings provide a potential basis for optimizing soil remediation strategy in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Enzymes for enhancing bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Fan, C Y; Krishnamurthy, S

    1995-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, hundreds of thousands of underground storage tanks (and above-ground storage tanks) containing petroleum products and hazardous chemicals were installed. Many of these tanks either have been abandoned or have exceeded their useful lives and are leaking, thereby posing a serious threat to the nation's surface and groundwater supplies, as well as to public health. Cleaning up releases of petroleum hydrocarbons or other organic chemicals in the subsurface environment is a real-world problem. Biological treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil is considered to be a relatively low-cost and safe technology; however, its potential for effectively treating recalcitrant wastes has not been fully explored. For millions of years, microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycete, protozoa, and others have performed the function of recycling organic matter from which new plant life can grow. This paper examines the biological treatment technology for cleaning up petroleum product-contaminated soils, with special emphasis on microbial enzyme systems for enhancing the rate of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Classifications and functions of enzymes, as well as the microbes, in degrading the organic contaminants are discussed. In addition, the weathering effect on biodegradation, types of hydrocarbon degraders, advantages associated with enzyme use, methods of enzyme extraction, and future research needs for development and evaluation of enzyme-assisted bioremediation are examined.

  18. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m{sup 3}/min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 {micro}g/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented.

  19. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils.

  20. Validating potential toxicity assays to assess petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in polar soil.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Potential microbial activities are commonly used to assess soil toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and are assumed to be a surrogate for microbial activity within the soil ecosystem. However, this assumption needs to be evaluated for frozen soil, in which microbial activity is limited by liquid water (θ(liquid)). Influence of θ(liquid) on in situ toxicity was evaluated and compared to the toxicity endpoints of potential microbial activities using soil from an aged diesel fuel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica. To determine in situ toxicity, gross mineralization and nitrification rates were determined by the stable isotope dilution technique. Petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)), packed at bulk densities of 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 g cm(-3) to manipulate liquid water content, was incubated at -5°C for one, two, and three months. Although θ(liquid) did not have a significant effect on gross mineralization or nitrification, gross nitrification was sensitive to PHC contamination, with toxicity decreasing over time. In contrast, gross mineralization was not sensitive to PHC contamination. Toxic response of gross nitrification was comparable to potential nitrification activity (PNA) with similar EC25 (effective concentration causing a 25% effect in the test population) values determined by both measurement endpoints (400 mg kg(-1) for gross nitrification compared to 200 mg kg(-1) for PNA), indicating that potential microbial activity assays are good surrogates for in situ toxicity of PHC contamination in polar regions.

  1. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on oats in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum to enhance phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Xun, Feifei; Xie, Baoming; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phytoremediation in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum, saline-alkali soil samples were artificially mixed with different amount of oil, 5 and 10 g/kg, respectively. Pot experiments with oat plants (Avena sativa) were conducted under greenhouse condition for 60 days. Plant biomass, physiological parameters in leaves, soil enzymes, and degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon were measured. The result demonstrated that petroleum inhibited the growth of the plant; however, inoculation with PGPR in combination with AMF resulted in an increase in dry weight and stem height compared with noninoculated controls. Petroleum stress increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and free proline and the activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. Application of PGPR and AMF augmented the activities of three enzymes compared to their respective uninoculated controls, but decreased the MDA and free proline contents, indicating that PGPR and AMF could make the plants more tolerant to harmful hydrocarbon contaminants. It also improved the soil quality by increasing the activities of soil enzyme such as urease, sucrase, and dehydrogenase. In addition, the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon during treatment with PGPR and AMF in moderately contaminated soil reached a maximum of 49.73%. Therefore, we concluded the plants treated with a combination of PGPR and AMF had a high potential to contribute to remediation of saline-alkali soil contaminated with petroleum.

  2. Effects of nutrient and temperature on degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated sub-Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Pelletier, Emilien; Gourhant, Lénaick; Delille, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Mesocosm studies using sub-Antarctic soil artificially contaminated with diesel or crude oil were conducted in Kerguelen Archipelago (49 degrees 21' S, 70 degrees 13' E) in an attempt to evaluate the potential of a bioremediation approach in high latitude environments. All mesocosms were sampled on a regular basis over six months period. Soils responded positively to temperature increase from 4 degrees C to 20 degrees C, and to the addition of a commercial oleophilic fertilizer containing N and P. Both factors increased the hydrocarbon-degrading microbial abundance and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. In general, alkanes were faster degraded than polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After 180 days, total alkane losses of both oils reached 77-95% whereas total PAHs never exceeded 80% with optimal conditions at 10 degrees C and fertilizer added. Detailed analysis of naphthalenes, dibenzothiophenes, phenanthrenes, and pyrenes showed a clear decrease of their degradation rate as a function of the size of the PAH molecules. During the experiment there was only a slight decrease in the toxicity, whereas the concentration of TPH decreased significantly during the same time. The most significant reduction in toxicity occurred at 4 degrees C. Therefore, bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sub-Antarctic soil appears to be feasible, and various engineering strategies, such as heating or amending the soil can accelerate hydrocarbon degradation. However, the residual toxicity of contaminated soil remained drastically high before the desired cleanup is complete and it can represent a limiting factor in the bioremediation of sub-Antarctic soil.

  3. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  4. Assessment of the distortions caused by a pipe and an excavation in the electric and electromagnetic responses of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Hilda Patricia; Robledo, Fabiana Elizabeth; Osella, Ana María; de la Vega, Matías

    2012-02-01

    Here, we present the results of a geophysical survey performed to characterize a hydrocarbon contamination plume, arising from a puncture in a master crude oil pipe in Argentina. This pipe was buried in an inhabited suburban yard with flat topography. At the moment of the event a stretch of the duct was uncovered and the leaked oil flooded the terrain up to several meters around the puncture. The contamination was produced by infiltration from the surface and also by flowing through the inner layers. The first steps in the treatment of the spill were to pump the oil, excavate the sector nearby the puncture and repair the pipe. Around one year later, we preformed the geophysical prospecting, which goal was to determine the extent of the contaminant plume, required for selecting adequate remediation strategies. We combined dual-coil, frequency domain electromagnetic induction surveys and 2D dipole-dipole geoelectrical profiling. Besides, we performed Wenner soundings at several positions on the walls of the excavation, where contaminated and clean sediments were exposed. From the 1D inversion of the electromagnetic data, 2D inversion of the dipole-dipole data, and Wenner data, we found that, in general, the contamination decreased the resistivity of the affected subsoil volumes. However, three of the geoelectrical profiles exhibited localized, very resistive anomalies, which origin was not clear. They did not seem to be associated to the presence of high concentrations of poorly or non-degraded hydrocarbon, since two of these profiles crossed the more contaminated area, but the other was located quite further away. As an attempt to identify the cause of these anomalies, we carried out a 3D numerical simulation of the effects of the pipe and the excavation on the 2D dipole-dipole images. From this study, we could effectively determine that they were mainly distortions generated by those structures. This allowed for providing a proper interpretation of the images of

  5. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  6. Association of microbial community composition and activity with lead, chromium, and hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Becker, J; Bischoff, M; Turco, R F; Konopka, A E

    2002-08-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil(-1), 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil(-1), and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil(-1). Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil samples. Statistical analyses suggested that the variation in PLFA was more correlated with soil hydrocarbons than with the levels of Cr and Pb. The metal sensitivity of the microbial community was determined by extracting bacteria from soil and measuring [(3)H]leucine incorporation as a function of metal concentration. Six soil samples collected in the spring of 1999 had IC(50) values (the heavy metal concentrations giving 50% reduction of microbial activity) of approximately 2.5 mM for CrO(4)2- and 0.01 mM for Pb2+. Much higher levels of Pb were required to inhibit [14C]glucose mineralization directly in soils. In microcosm experiments with these samples, microbial biomass and the ratio of microbial biomass to soil organic C were not correlated with the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. However, microbial C respiration in samples with a higher level of hydrocarbons differed from the other soils no matter whether complex organic C (alfalfa) was added or not. The ratios of microbial C respiration to microbial biomass differed significantly among the soil samples (P < 0.05) and were relatively high in soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Our results suggest that the soil microbial community was predominantly affected by hydrocarbons.

  7. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated areas by multivariate statistical analysis: Case studies.

    PubMed

    Saenz, G; Pingitore, N E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of soil gases is a relatively rapid and inexpensive method to delineate and measure hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface caused by diesel or gasoline. Techniques originally developed for petroleum exploration have been adapted to tracking hydrocarbons which have leaked or spilled at or below the earth's surface.Discriminant analysis (a multivariate statistical technique) is used to classify soil gas samples of C1 to C7 hydrocarbons as biogenic (natural soil gases) or thermogenic (contaminant hydrocarbons). Map plots of C1 to C7 total interstitial hydrocarbons, C2 to C7 interstitial hydrocarbons, and C1/ΣC n rations are used to further delineate and document the extent and migration of contamination.Three case studies of the technique are presented: each involves leakage of hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Soil gas analysis clearly defines the spread of contamination and can serve as the basis for the correct placement of monitoring wells. The method proved to be accurate, rapid, and cost-effective; it therefore has potential for widespread application to the identification of soil and groundwater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

  9. Manganese peroxidase mRNA and enzyme activity levels during bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil with Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, B W; Schoenike, B; Lamar, R T; Cullen, D

    1996-01-01

    mRNA extraction from soil and quantitation by competitive reverse transcription-PCR were combined to study the expression of three manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes during removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in presterilized soil. Periods of high mnp transcript levels and extractable MnP enzyme activity were temporally correlated, although separated by a short (1- to 2-day) lag period. This time frame also coincided with maximal rates of fluorene oxidation and chrysene disappearance in soil cultures, supporting the hypothesis that high ionization potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized in soil via MnP-dependent mechanisms. The patterns of transcript abundance over time in soil-grown P. chrysosporium were similar for all three of the mnp mRNAs studied, indicating that transcription of this gene family may be coordinately regulated under these growth conditions. PMID:8779576

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  11. Association of Microbial Community Composition and Activity with Lead, Chromium, and Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shi, W.; Becker, J.; Bischoff, M.; Turco, R. F.; Konopka, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil−1, 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil−1, and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil−1. Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil samples. Statistical analyses suggested that the variation in PLFA was more correlated with soil hydrocarbons than with the levels of Cr and Pb. The metal sensitivity of the microbial community was determined by extracting bacteria from soil and measuring [3H]leucine incorporation as a function of metal concentration. Six soil samples collected in the spring of 1999 had IC50 values (the heavy metal concentrations giving 50% reduction of microbial activity) of approximately 2.5 mM for CrO42− and 0.01 mM for Pb2+. Much higher levels of Pb were required to inhibit [14C]glucose mineralization directly in soils. In microcosm experiments with these samples, microbial biomass and the ratio of microbial biomass to soil organic C were not correlated with the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. However, microbial C respiration in samples with a higher level of hydrocarbons differed from the other soils no matter whether complex organic C (alfalfa) was added or not. The ratios of microbial C respiration to microbial biomass differed significantly among the soil samples (P < 0.05) and were relatively high in soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Our results suggest that the soil microbial community was predominantly affected by hydrocarbons. PMID:12147482

  12. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  13. Characterization of cultures enriched from acidic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil for growth on pyrene at low pH.

    PubMed

    Uyttebroek, Maarten; Vermeir, Steven; Wattiau, Pierre; Ryngaert, Annemie; Springael, Dirk

    2007-05-01

    Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils of pH 2 were successfully used as inoculum to enrich cultures growing on phenanthrene and pyrene at different pHs, including pH 3. Selected pyrene-utilizing cultures obtained at pH 3, pH 5, and pH 7 were further characterized. All showed rapid [14C]pyrene mineralization at pH 3 and pH 5 and grew on pyrene at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. Eubacterial and mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing indicated that the cultures were dominated by a single bacterium closely related to Mycobacterium montefiorense, belonging to the slow-growing Mycobacterium sp. In contrast, a culture enriched on pyrene at pH 7 from a slightly alkaline soil sampled at the same site was dominated by Pseudomonas putida and a fast-growing Mycobacterium sp. The M. montefiorense-related species dominating the pyrene-utilizing cultures enriched from the acidic soils was also the dominant Mycobacterium species in the acidic soils. Our data indicate that a slow-growing Mycobacterium species is involved in PAH degradation in that culture and show that bacteria able to degrade high-molecular-weight PAHs at low pH are present in acidic PAH-contaminated soil.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Bioremediation on Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil Using Genetically Engineered, Higher Eukaryotic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Nakamura, Jun; Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is one of the commonly applied remediation strategies at sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, remediation goals are typically based on removal of the target contaminants rather than on broader measures related to health risks. We investigated changes in the toxicity and genotoxicity of PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site before and after two simulated bioremediation processes: a sequencing batch bioreactor system and a continuous-flow column system. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the residues from solvent extracts of the soil were determined by the chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic cell line and its DNA-repair-deficient mutants. Although both bioremediation processes significantly removed PAHs from the contaminated soil (bioreactor 69% removal; column 84% removal), bioreactor treatment resulted in an increase in toxicity and genotoxicity over the course of a treatment cycle, whereas long-term column treatment resulted in a decrease in toxicity and genotoxicity. However, when screening with a battery of DT40 mutants for genotoxicity profiling, we found that column treatment induced DNA damage types that were not observed in untreated soil. Toxicity and genotoxicity bioassays can supplement chemical analysis-based risk assessment for contaminated soil when evaluating the efficacy of bioremediation. PMID:22443351

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation. A microbial study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Banks, M.K. )

    1993-12-01

    The degradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of alfalfa was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Petroleum contaminated and uncontaminated soils were spiked with 100 ppm of polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Unspiked, uncontaminated soil was used as a control. Microbial counts for soils with and without plants for each soil treatment were performed 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after planting. Microbial numbers were substantially greater in soil with plants when compared to soil containing no plants, indicating that plant roots enhanced microbial populations in contaminated soil. Soil treatments had no effect on microbial numbers in the presence of plants. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions.

  18. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  19. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren; Terry Brown

    2006-03-02

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.

  20. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  1. Bioslurping/bioventing demonstration in tight soils at Tinker Air Force Base southwest tanks site. Technical report, October 1995-July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, B.; Leeson, A.; Gibbs, J.

    1997-04-01

    Innovative bioremediation technology was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants from a site featuring clay soils underlain by a partially-cemented sandstone with an extensive smear zone was dewatered to facilitate soil aeration and the clay layer was aerated by forced air injection. Significant mass removal mechanisms included volatilization and biodegradtion.

  2. State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay

  3. Bioremediation of leachate and soil contaminated with petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum products are generally accepted to be biodegradable, whether they are contaminating a liquid or solid phase. Considerable reference material exist to support this ascertain. However, no parameters exist for design of engineered treatment systems and little is known about how mixed cultures degrade sparingly soluble substrates, particularly in the soil environment. Further the heterogeneity of contaminant distribution in the soil environment, inhibit understanding of the processes involved. This dissertation is an attempt to provide methodologies for the assessment of biodegradation of petroleum products in these environments, together with development of procedures applicable to assessment of remediation in soils with heterogenous distribution of contaminants.

  4. Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Su, J.; Wetzel, S.; Pekarek, S.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-06-01

    A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of hydrocarbons with a nonpolar solvent may be less efficient. A shaking method was designed to fill the need for simpler and more efficient extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil. A systematic study of extraction conditions was performed for various soil types, soil weights, solvents, extraction times, and extraction cycles. The results were compared to those for Soxhlet extraction. Shaking 1 g of soil with a sequence of three 10-mL aliquots of dichloromethane or acetone was found to be equivalent to Soxhlet extraction for total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Shaking with acetone was more consistent than all other methods for the extraction of specific compounds from aged, contaminated soil. The shaking method appears to be applicable to a wide range of soil types and petroleum contaminants but should be compared to Soxhlet extraction for new conditions.

  5. Laboratory and greenhouse assessment of phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.; Wang, X.

    1996-12-31

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum and associated priority pollutants was evaluated in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. Mineralization of several PAHs was measured in rhizosphere soil, non-rhizosphere soil, and sterile soil amended with simulated root exudates. The least amount of mineralization was observed in sterile soil, but there were no differences among all other soils. Mineralization of 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene was determined in chambers to determine the effects of tall fescue on dissipation of this compound. After 180 days, the soils with fescue had more than twice the mineralization than soils without plants. In the soils with plants, evolution of 14CO2 from the soil was five times greater than from the plant biomass. These experiments demonstrate that the presence of plants is a necessary part of the phytoremediation process. There appears to be no residual rhizosphere effect, and the simple exudation of organic compounds does not mimic fully the presence of roots.

  6. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  7. Biodegradation of petroleum sludge and petroleum polluted soil by a bacterial consortium: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Milic, J S; Solevic, T M; Beskoski, V P; Ilic, M V; Djokic, L S; Narancic, T M; Vrvic, M M

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a study of the efficiency and degradation pattern of samples of petroleum sludge and polluted sandy soil from an oil refinery. A bacterial consortium, consisting of strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Micromonospora, was isolated from a petroleum sludge sample and characterized. The addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients and a chemical surfactant to both the samples and bioaugmentation to the soil sample were applied under laboratory conditions. The extent of biodegradation was monitored by the gravimetric method and analysis of the residual oil by gas chromatography. Over a 12-week experiment, the achieved degree of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) degradation amounted to 82-88% in the petroleum sludge and 86-91% in the polluted soil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to determine the biodegradability and degradation rates of n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes, diasteranes and terpanes. Complete degradation of the n-alkanes and isoprenoids fractions occurred in both the samples. In addition, the intensities of the peaks corresponding to tricyclic terpenes and homohopanes were decreased, while significant changes were also observed in the distribution of diasteranes and steranes.

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (< 0.1 microgram/g), followed by ringed seal, (0.1-1 microgram/g range). Levels are an order of magnitude higher in beluga and narwhal (1-10 micrograms/g range). It appears that metabolism and excretion of S-DDT and PCBs may be less efficient in cetaceans, leading to greater biomagnification. Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St

  9. Changes in Magnetic Mineralogy Through a Depth Sequence of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, N. N.; Klüglein, N.; Appel, E.; Petrovsky, E.; Kappler, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments, soils and groundwater can act as a natural storage for many types of pollution. This study aims to investigate ferro(i)magnetic phase formation and transformation in the presence of organic contaminants (hydrocarbons) and its relation to bacterial activity, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). Due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use the site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, until the base was closed in 1991. This site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. During remediation processes the groundwater level in the sediments fluctuated, driving the hydrocarbon contaminants to lower depth levels along with the groundwater and leading to magnetite formation (Rijal et al., Environ.Pollut., 158, 1756-1762, 2010). In our study we drilled triplicate cores at three locations which were studied earlier. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain the ferro(i)magnetic concentration distributions along the depth sections. Additionally the sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were studied. The triplicate cores were used to statistically discriminate outliers and to recognize significant magnetic signatures with depth. The results show that the highest concentration of ferrimagnetic phases (interpreted as newly formed magnetite) exists at the probable top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. For example at one of the sites this zone is found between 1.4-1.9 m depth (groundwater table at ~2.3 m depth). High S-ratio and the correlation of ARM with MS values confirm the contribution of magnetite for the ferro(i)magnetic enhancement in the GWF zone. In the previous studies the MS

  10. Effects of soil moisture on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, H.Y.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1995-12-31

    Soil water content has been shown empirically to affect the rate of degradation of petroleum products by indigenous microorganisms in a highly polluted soil. The kinetics of degradation under different soil water content were evaluated by measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} produced and released by microbes as they metabolized n-[1-{sup 14}C]hexadecane, [methyl-{sup 14}C]toluene, [ring-{sup 14}C]toluene, [1-{sup 14}C]naphthalene, [9-{sup 14}C]phenanthrene, and [side ring-{sup 14}C]anthracene. Measurements from batch kinetic experiments showed that the degradation of {sup 14}C-labeled petroleum compounds depends strongly on soil water content for the silt loam soil tested. The dependency, however, is compound specific, and very likely soil specific as well, although only one soil type was tested here. For aromatic hydrocarbons, a soil water content between 50% and 70% of field capacity appears to be optimum for the biodegradation process to proceed at a maximum rate. The fit of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements to a first-order kinetic model also depends on the complexity of the hydrocarbons and the soil water content.

  11. Stimulation of hybrid poplar growth in petroleum-contaminated soils through oxygen addition and soil nutrient amendments.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Chapman, Brad; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34) were grown in a green-house using hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from a phytoremediation demonstration site in Health, Ohio. Two independent experiments investigated the effect of nutrient addition on poplar growth and the importance of oxygen addition to root development and plant growth. Biomass measurements, poplar height, and leaf color were used as indicators of plant health in the selection of a 10/5/5 NPK fertilizer applied at 1121 kg/ha (112 kg-N, 24.4 kg-P, 46.5 kg-K per ha) to enhance hybrid poplar growth at the Health site. Five passive methods of oxygen delivery were examined, including aeration tubes, gravel addition, and an Oxygen Release Compound (ORC). When ORC was placed in coffee filters above hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, a statistically significant increase of 145% was observed in poplar biomass growth, relative to unamended controls. The ORC in filters also stimulated significant increases in root density. A 15.2-cm interval of soil directly below ORC addition exhibited an increase from 2.6 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3 to 4.8 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3, showing stimulation of root growth in hydrocarbon-stained soil. The positive response of hybrid poplars to oxygen amendments suggests that overcoming oxygen limitation to plants should be considered in phytoremediation projects when soil contamination exerts a high biochemical oxygen demand, such as in former refinery sites.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils with higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1996-10-01

    Introduction of higher plants into a bioremediation system can enhance degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and target compounds, particularly relatively immobile and recalcitrant organic molecules. Over the past several years, an interdisciplinary team of civil engineers, chemical engineers, soil chemists, soil microbiologists, and plant scientists at Kansas State University have been studying phytoremediation systems. Greenhouse experiments have focused on selecting plants that are most adapted to degrading target compounds and to surviving in soils highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Plant species do not seem to differ in their ability to aid in the decomposition of pyrene and anthracene, but benzo[a]pyrene is much more difficult to degrade. Most species are ineffective in enhancing the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Four field studies have been initiated in California, Texas, New Jersey, and Virginia to test some of our greenhouse observations.

  13. Assessment of five bioaccessibility assays for predicting the efficacy of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Dandie, Catherine E; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Adetutu, Eric M; Ball, Andy S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2010-11-01

    required using soils from a range of hydrocarbon contamination sources in order to develop robust assays for predicting bioremediation endpoints in the field.

  14. Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by hydrocarbon mixtures: the residual concentration problem.

    PubMed

    Nocentini, M; Pinelli, D; Fava, F

    2000-10-01

    The phenomenon of residual concentration was investigated in the aerobic biodegradation of three different petroleum commercial products (i.e., kerosene, diesel fuel and a lubricating mineral oil) in static microcosms. Two different soils exhibiting different physical-chemical characteristics were used (i.e., a biologically treated hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and a pristine soil). Residual concentrations were observed and a simple way to take this phenomenon into account was proposed.

  15. Degradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers by a bacterial consortium obtained from rhizosphere soil of Cyperus sp. grown in a petroleum-contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Ortega-González, Diana Katherine; Zaragoza, Diego; Aguirre-Garrido, José; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Jan-Roblero, Janet

    2013-11-01

    Increasing contamination of soil and groundwater with benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) due to activities of the chemical and oil refinery industry has caused serious environmental damage. Efficient methods are required to isolate and degrade them. Microorganisms associated with rhizosphere soil are considered efficient agents to remediate hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, we obtained a stabilized bacterial consortium from the rhizosphere soil of Cyperus sp. grown in a petroleum-contaminated field in Southern Mexico. This consortium was able to completely degrade BTX in 14 days. Bacteria isolated from the consortium were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ralstonia insidiosa, Cellulomonas hominis, Burkholderia kururiensis, and Serratia marcescens. The BTX-degradation capacity of the bacterial consortium was confirmed by the detection of genes pheA, todC1, and xylM, which encoded phenol hydroxylase, toluene 1,2-dioxygenase, and xylene monooxygenase, respectively. Our results demonstrate feasibility of BTX biodegradation by indigenous bacteria that might be used for soil remediation in Southern Mexico.

  16. Bioventing vs. prepared beds for remediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Kastner, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Bioventing is an in situ biostimulation technique that has become extremely popular recently for remediation of near-surface sediment (soil) contaminated with petroleum products. Prepared Bed bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil involves the use of a centralized controlled above ground facility that uses contained land-farming techniques. Several sites at the U.S. DOE Savannah River Site have been evaluated and remediated using these two technologies. The characterization cost, capital costs, safety, implementation time, remediation rate, monitoring requirements, final disposition requirements, regulatory requirements, and public acceptance make these techniques better then any other conventional technology, e.g. incineration, and make it difficult to decide which of the two is the best alternative. New rapid site characterization and treatability techniques e.g. laser induced fluorescence and microrespirometry, have allowed better decisions as to which of these two technologies is the most appropriate for a given site.

  17. INVESTIGATING THE GEOELECTRICAL RESPONSE OF HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION UNDERGOING BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon contaminated sites predicts high
    conductivities coincident with t he Contaminated zone a s opposed t o t he traditionally accepted low conductivity. The model attributes the high conductivities to mineral weathering resulti...

  18. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake

    PubMed Central

    Medaura, M. Cecilia; Ércoli, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10–12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8–12 to C24–26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35) were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale. PMID:24031241

  19. Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollutants in Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2004-08-02

    During bioremediation, petroleum hydrocarbons are converted by naturally occurring or indigenous soil microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water, bacterial cells (biomass), and humic materials. Numerous factors are known to affect both the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils. These include soil properties such as moisture content, aeration, nutrient status, pH, and temperature as well as waste characteristics such as the concentration and molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds or classes, the presence of inhibitors and cometabolic substrates, and the degree of contaminant sequestration which often leads to serious bioavailability limitations, particularly in aged soils. It is the objective of this chapter to outline a strategy for optimizing the hydrocarbon bioremediation process by adjusting the various operational parameters so that none of them become a limiting factor during treatment.

  20. A soil flushing study for petroleum hydrocarbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Dedek, K.S.; O`Connell, T.P.; Dell, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    A 5-week soil column treatability study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a closed-loop groundwater recovery and reinjection system to enhance soil flushing and biodegradation of petroleum contaminants. The site soil and groundwater are impacted with BTEX and PAH contaminants due to the release of No. 2 and No. 6 fuel oil from a UST. Nutrients and two nonionic surfactants, Tergitol NP-10 and Tween 80, were evaluated for the potential of enhancing soil flushing and biodegradation. The amendments were added to unimpacted oxygenated site groundwater which was continuously pumped to the top of the soil columns and allowed to percolate vertically downward through the columns to simulate unsaturated flow through the soil. Total heterotrophic microbial plate counts conducted at the end of the 5-week study were highest in soil amended with Tergitol NP-10 and nutrients (1.9 X 10{sup 8} CFU/dry gram soil) compared to 6.2 X 10{sup 6} CFU/dry gram soil in the initial soil sample. Initial concentrations of total BTEX (270 {mu}g/kg) and naphthalene (8,500 {mu}g/kg) were reduced to below detectable limits in all of the soil columns. Total PAH removal rates were 52% and 51% in unamended and nutrient-amended soils, respectively, from an initial total soil PAH concentration of-approximately 70 mg/kg. Amendment with nutrients and Tergitol NP-10 resulted in a 48% reduction in total soil PAHs compared to 39% in a microbially-inhibited Tergitol NP-10 + nutrient-amended soil. The Tween 80 + nutrient-amendment resulted in only a 34% reduction in total soil PAHs. TPH concentrations measured in the effluent groundwater were highest in the Tergitol NP-10 + nutrient-amended soil (37.6 mg/{ell}) after 1 week. However, after 5 weeks, the effluent TPH concentration had leveled off to 6.5 mg/1 compared to 29.4 mg/{ell} in the microbially-inhibited Tergitol NP-10 + nutrient-amended soil.

  1. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  2. Soil contamination by petroleum products. Southern Algerian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, Amina; Boutoutaou, Djamel; Segaï, Sofiane; Segni, Ladjel

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of soil by petroleum products is a current problem in several countries in the world. In Algeria, this negative phenomenon is highly remarked in Saharan region. Numerous studies at the University of Ouargla that we will review in this paper, have tried to find an effective solution to eliminate the hydrocarbons from the soil by the technique of "biodegradation" which is a natural process based on microorganisms such as Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presence of aboriginal strain Bacillus megaterium in the soil samples with different ages of contamination has shown a strong degradation of pollutants. This strain chosen for its short time of generation which is performing as seen the best yields of elimination of hydrocarbons assessed at 98 % biostimule by biosurfactant, also 98% on a sample wich bioaugmente by urea, and 86 % of the sample which biostimule by nutrient solution. The rate of biodegradation of the contaminated soil by crude oil using the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa is higher in the presence of biosurfactant 53 % that in his absence 35 %. Another elimination technique wich is washing the contaminated soil's sample by centrifugation in the presence of biosurfactant where The rate of hydrocarbons mobilized after washing soil by centrifugation is of 50 % and 76 % but without centrifugation it was of 46% to 79%. Those processes have great capacity in the remobilization of hydrocarbons and acceleration of their biodegradation; thus, they deserve to be further developed in order to prevent environmental degradation in the region of Ouargla.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination.

    PubMed

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  4. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  5. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Haghollahi, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin

    2016-09-15

    In this research the bioremediation of four different types of contaminated soils was monitored as a function of time and moisture content. The soils were categorized as sandy soil containing 100% sand (type I), clay soil containing more than 95% clay (type II), coarse grained soil containing 68% gravel and 32% sand (type III), and coarse grained with high clay content containing 40% gravel, 20% sand, and 40% clay (type IV). The initially clean soils were contaminated with gasoil to the concentration of 100 g/kg, and left on the floor for the evaporation of light hydrocarbons. A full factorial experimental design with soil type (four levels), and moisture content (10 and 20%) as the factors was employed. The soils were inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms. Soil samples were taken on days 90, 180, and 270, and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The moisture content of the soils was kept almost constant during the process by intermittent addition of water. The results showed that the efficiency of bioremediation was affected significantly by the soil type (Pvalue < 0.05). The removal percentage was the highest (70%) for the sandy soil with the initial TPH content of 69.62 g/kg, and the lowest for the clay soil (23.5%) with the initial TPH content of 69.70 g/kg. The effect of moisture content on bioremediation was not statistically significant for the investigated levels. The removal percentage in the clay soil was improved to 57% (within a month) in a separate experiment by more frequent mixing of the soil, indicating low availability of oxygen as a reason for low degradation of hydrocarbons in the clay soil.

  6. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process.

  7. [Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Shan, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Cao, Qiao-Ling; Kang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Shu-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    To select appropriate native species in Northern Shaanxi for phytoremediation, the growth index of six kinds of leguminous plants planted in petroleum contaminated soils were investigated through pot culture. Petroleum concentrations were set at 0, 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 mg x kg(-1) respectively with three replicates. Using different levels of seed germination rate, germination time, individual height, wilting rate, dry weight and chlorophyll content in leaves of tested plants as the ecological indicator. The results showed that tested plants have significantly different responses to petroleum pollution. Compared with those planted in clean soils, seed germination rate and individual height were promoted when petroleum concentration was lower than 5000 mg x kg(-1), but inhibition occurred when petroleum concentrations were higher than 10000 mg x kg(-1). Strong endurance of Medicago sativa was observed to petroleum polluted soil, especially at lower petroleum concentration. Leaf wilting of Robinia pseudoacacia was unobserved even when petroleum concentration was 40 000 mg x kg(-1), thus displaying the potential of remediating petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with seed germination rate, individual height and dry weight, but positively correlated with chlorophyll content in leaves.

  8. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    PubMed

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment.

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbons and organic chemicals in ground water -- prevention, detection and restoration: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Petroleum Hydrocarbons Conference was comprised of 3 days of technical presentations within the following topic areas: pollution prevention and cost control; development of remediation levels; free-phase and dissolved hydrocarbon contamination management; investigation and analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons; applications of computer modeling for remediation; design and implementation of bioventing; design and implementation of air sparging; soil vapor extraction as a remediation technique; and ground water remediation using natural bacteria. In addition, more than 100 leading companies in the ground water and petroleum industries participated in the Conference Exposition in which a variety of equipment and services for preventing, detecting and remediating ground water contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals was showcased. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Three-dimensional geologic modeling to determine the spatial attributes of hydrocarbon contamination, Noval Facility Fuel Farm, El Centro, California

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Mutch, S.; Padgett, D.; Roche, L. )

    1994-04-01

    An investigation was conducted at the Naval Air Facility located in El Centro (NAFEC), to determine the vertical and horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the facilities fuel farm. The fuel products are the result of tank and pipeline leakage, past tank cleaning, and past disposal of fuel dispensing and filter cleaning practices. Subsurface soil and groundwater data was collected via soil borings, monitoring wells, and CPT probes. Soil, groundwater, and analytical data were integrated using the LYNX geoscience modeling system (GMS). Interactive sessions with the data visualizer helped guide the modeling and identify data gaps. Modeling results indicate a continuous surface confining clay layer to a depth of about 12 to 15 ft. Groundwater is confined beneath this clay layer and monitoring wells indicate about 3 to 5 ft of artesian head. Hydrocarbon contamination is concentrated within this clay layer from about 5 to 12 ft below the ground surface. Residual fuel products located in the groundwater are attributed to slow leakage through the confirming clay layer. LYNX was also used to compute volumes of contaminated soil to aid in remediation cost analysis. Preliminary figures indicate about 60,000 yards[sup 3] of contaminated soil. Since the contamination is primarily confined to relatively impermeable clayey soils, site remediation will likely be ex-situ land farming.

  11. Impacts of soil petroleum contamination on nutrient release during litter decomposition of Hippophae rhamnoides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Luc, Nhu Trung; Yu, Qi; Liu, Xiaobo; Liang, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum exploitation causes contamination of shrub lands close to oil wells. Soil petroleum contamination affects nutrient release during the litter decomposition of shrubs, which influences nutrient recycling and the maintenance of soil fertility. Hence, this contamination may reduce the long-term growth and stability of shrub communities and consequently, the effects of phytoremediation. Fresh foliar litter of Hippophae rhamnoides, a potential phytoremediating species, was collected for this study. The litter was placed in litterbags and then buried in different petroleum-polluted soil media (the petroleum concentrations were 15, 30, and 45 g kg(-1) dry soil, which were considered as slightly, moderately and seriously polluted soil, respectively) for a decomposition test. The impacts of petroleum contamination on the release of nutrients (including N, P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg) were assessed. The results showed that (1) after one year of decomposition, the release of all nutrients was accelerated in the slightly polluted soil. In the moderately polluted soil, P release was accelerated, while Cu, Zn and Mn release was inhibited. In the seriously polluted soil, Cu and Zn release was accelerated, while the release of the other nutrients was inhibited. (2) The effect of petroleum on nutrient release from litter differed in different periods during decomposition; this was mainly due to changes in soil microorganisms and enzymes under the stress of petroleum contamination. (3) To maintain the nutrient cycling and the soil fertility of shrub lands, H. rhamnoides is only suitable for phytoremediation of soils containing less than 30 g kg(-1) of petroleum.

  12. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  13. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage.

  14. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  15. [Dynamic changes in functional genes for nitrogen bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil cycle during].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin-Bin; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Microorganisms in nitrogen cycle serve as an important part of the ecological function of soil. The aim of this research was to monitor the abundance of nitrogen-fixing, denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria during bioaugmentation of petroleum-contaminated soil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) of nifH, narG and amoA genes which encode the key enzymes in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and ammoniation respectively. Three different kinds of soils, which are petroleum-contaminated soil, normal soil, and remediated soil, were monitored. It was shown that the amounts of functional microorganisms in petroleum-contaminated soil were far less than those in normal soil, while the amounts in remediated soil and normal soil were comparable. Results of this experiment demonstrate that nitrogen circular functional bacteria are inhibited in petroleum-contaminated soil and can be recovered through bioremediation. Furthermore, copies of the three functional genes as well as total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for soils with six different treatments were monitored. Among all treatments, the one, into which both E. cloacae as an inoculant and wheat straw as an additive were added, obtained the maximum copies of 2.68 x 10(6), 1.71 x 10(6) and 8.54 x 10(4) per gram dry soil for nifH, narG and amoA genes respectively, companying with the highest degradation rate (48% in 40 days) of TPH. The recovery of functional genes and removal of TPH were better in soil inoculated with E cloacae and C echinulata collectively than soil inoculated with E cloacae only. All above results suggest that the nitrogen circular functional genes could be applied to monitor and assess the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

  16. [Petroleum pollution and the microbial community structure in the soil of Shengli Oilfield].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Song, Xue-Ying; Sun, Rui-Lian; Xie, Fu-Ju; Wang, Ren-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xing

    2014-03-01

    Soils around a new oil well (2011- ) and an old oil well (1966-2003) were sampled to investigate the characteristics of petroleum pollution in the oilfield. The structure of soil microbial community was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and clone sequencing techniques. Results showed that the soils around the two oil wells were generally contaminated with petroleum, and the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons mostly exceeded the threshold of the environmental quality standards of soil (500 mg x kg(-1)). The total petroleum hydrocarbons concentration of the polluted soil was significantly positively correlated with the contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen and available potassium, respectively. The microbial diversity index in the soil around the old oil well decreased with the increasing total petroleum hydrocarbons concentration, however, it was reversed for the soil around the new oil well. Sequence analysis of the prominent bands in DGGE profiles showed that some dominant species existed in the petroleum-contaminated soils around the oil wells and mostly were oil-associated and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, including Microbacterium, Streptomyces, Dietzia, Flavobacterium, alpha-Proteobacteria, and gamma-Proteobacteria.

  17. Evaluation of pulsed corona discharge plasma for the treatment of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yanan; Mu, Ruiwen; Cheng, Wenyan; Ognier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons released to the environment caused by leakage or illegal dumping pose a threat to human health and the natural environment. In this study, the potential of a pulsed corona discharge plasma system for treating petroleum-polluted soils was evaluated. This system removed 76.93 % of the petroleum from the soil in 60 min with an energy efficiency of 0.20 mg/kJ. Furthermore, the energy and degradation efficiencies for the remediation of soil contaminated by single polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, were also compared, and the results showed that this technology had potential in organic-polluted soil remediation. In addition, the role of water molecules was investigated for their direct involvement in the formation and transportation of active species. The increase of soil moisture to a certain extent clearly benefitted degradation efficiency. Then, treated soils were analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS for proposing the degradation mechanism of petroleum. During the plasma discharging processes, the change of functional group and the detection of small aromatic hydrocarbons indicated that the plasma active species attached petroleum hydrocarbons and degradation occurred. This technique reported herein demonstrated significant potential for the remediation of heavily petroleum-polluted soil, as well as for the treatment of organic-polluted soils.

  18. Understanding plant-microbe interactions for phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Wang, Yijing; Yu, Jiayi; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Lifen; Yang, Ji; Fang, Changming; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Bo

    2011-03-18

    Plant-microbe interactions are considered to be important processes determining the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum pollution, however relatively little is known about how these interactions are influenced by petroleum pollution. In this experimental study using a microcosm approach, we examined how plant ecophysiological traits, soil nutrients and microbial activities were influenced by petroleum pollution in Phragmites australis, a phytoremediating species. Generally, petroleum pollution reduced plant performance, especially at early stages of plant growth. Petroleum had negative effects on the net accumulation of inorganic nitrogen from its organic forms (net nitrogen mineralization (NNM)) most likely by decreasing the inorganic nitrogen available to the plants in petroleum-polluted soils. However, abundant dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was found in petroleum-polluted soil. In order to overcome initial deficiency of inorganic nitrogen, plants by dint of high colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might absorb some DON for their growth in petroleum-polluted soils. In addition, through using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method, we quantified hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial traits based on their catabolic genes (i.e. alkB (alkane monooxygenase), nah (naphthalene dioxygenase) and tol (xylene monooxygenase) genes). This enumeration of target genes suggests that different hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria experienced different dynamic changes during phytoremediation and a greater abundance of alkB was detected during vegetative growth stages. Because phytoremediation of different components of petroleum is performed by different hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, plants' ability of phytoremediating different components might therefore vary during the plant life cycle. Phytoremediation might be most effective during the vegetative growth stages as greater abundances of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria containing alkB and tol genes were observed at

  19. Temporal evolution of the geoelectrical response on a hydrocarbon contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, Amélie; Schmutz, Myriam; Franceschi, Michel; Tichané, Frédéric; Carles, Margaux

    2014-04-01

    A geoelectrical campaign was initiated in 2009 to delineate a massive hydrocarbon spill, which occurred because of a petroleum pipe breakdown in 2009. These measurements have been compared with both field resistivity measurements made in 2009 and with laboratory measurements. From a physicochemical point of view, a hydrocarbon contamination has to be understood as a spatially and temporally varying object, responsible for a change in geoelectrical response. To evaluate the signal measured on site, geoelectrical laboratory measurements were performed on the petroleum oil extracted from the site during two stages of degradation. On the laboratory scale, the non-degraded oil shows an increase in resistivity, normalized chargeability and quadrature conductivity with oil content, whereas the degraded oil indicates a slight decrease in resistivity, but no modification of the phase-lag and chargeability parameters. In the field, resistivity measurements performed in 2009, just after the pipe breakdown, show weak changes in resistivity measured over the contaminated area. However, between 2009 and 2012, biodegradation of the oil has led to a clear decrease in the resistivity within the impacted zone. No variations in normalized chargeability or quadrature conductivity were measured in 2012 between the contaminated and the non-contaminated areas, despite the presence of biofilms. In the field, the studied hydrocarbon contamination under degradation appears not to modify the capacitive part of conduction, but rather it concerns the ohmic part of conduction. The field and laboratory measurements led us to the conclusion that to choose the most discriminatory and efficient geophysical parameters, it is necessary to have a priori information about the oil (i.e. non-degraded or partially degraded). In the present case study, there is no need to acquire chargeability and phase-lag parameters to locate the contamination in the field, as they do not undergo any change. On the other

  20. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  1. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  2. Temporal biogeophysical signatures at hydrocarbon contaminated sites associated with long-term remediation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E.; Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E.; Werkema, D. D.

    2009-05-01

    Biogeophysical signatures of hydrocarbon contaminated sites provide ideal laboratories for investigating microbial-geophysical relationships as the excess organic carbon present at these sites stimulates microbial activity. As such geophysical investigations have documented characteristic changes associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation in both field and laboratory experiments. The conceptual model that results from almost a decade of studies from these environments is one in which over time, the geophysical signatures due to bio-physicochemical changes imparted on the aquifer by the microbial activity reach some maximum or minimum related to the availability of terminal electron acceptors, the organic carbon source concentration, and microbial activity. However, with continuous removal of the contaminant mass either by natural attenuation (e.g., intrinsic bioremediation) or engineered (bio) remediation, a decrease in the microbial activity is predicted to cause associated changes in the geophysical properties (i.e., geophysical signatures revert to original conditions). This paper will present the results of repeated geophysical investigations at a hydrocarbon contaminated site acquired over an eleven-year period documenting changes in geophysical signatures associated with removal of hydrocarbon mass in the contaminated zone. Initial investigations at the site showed that relative to background, the contaminated area was characterized by higher bulk electrical conductivity, positive SP anomaly, and attenuated GPR reflections. Over time, the contaminated zone bulk electrical conductivity had reverted to near background conditions, the positive SP anomaly became more negative, and the zone of attenuated GPR reflections showed increased signal strength. The removal of hydrocarbon mass in the vadose zone over the plume by a soil vapor extraction system decreased the level of biological activity and therefore the magnitude of the geophysical signatures. We conclude

  3. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  4. Application of in situ bioventing in the remediation of deep soils at arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Blicker, B.R.; Hall, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    In situ bioventing, or low flow rate soil ventilation for the enhanced aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants, has been shown to be a cost-effective remedial alternative for vadose zone soils. The success of the technology relies on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbon contaminants as a primary growth substrate. The rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation at a given site depends on a variety of factors, including the concentration of soil microorganisms present. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES) has conducted bioventing pilot tests at six U.S. Air Force sites in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, where petroleum hydrocarbon contamination has migrated to depths ranging from 19.8 to 67 meters (65 to 220 feet) below ground surface (bgs). Test results demonstrated that bioventing can be a viable remedial alternative in deep soils in and regions. Petroleum biodegradation was shown to be occurring at significant rates at three of the six subject sites. Average oxygen consumption rates ranged from 4.6 to 12.8 percent per day during initial in situ respiration testing at these three sites. At five of the six sites, average soil total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) concentrations ranged from 50 to 150 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), generally indicating that significant bacterial populations may exist in deep soils at these sites, and that enough nitrogen was present to support aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation. At Site 35, located at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (AFB) in Arizona, the average TKN concentration in soil was 16 mg/kg and the average oxygen consumption rate was 0.22 percent per day, demonstrating that the lack of a significant microbial population may contribute to the low hydrocarbon biodegradation rates estimated at this site. During these initial pilot tests, soil moisture was found to be present in adequate amounts at all subject sites to support aerobic petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  5. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  6. Microbial communities along biogeochemical gradients in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Karolin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Fetzer, Ingo; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Florian; Lohse, Ute; Franz, Janett; Neumann, Franziska; Gerling, Sarah; Schmidt, Christian; Hasselwander, Eyk; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2013-09-01

    Micro-organisms are known to degrade a wide range of toxic substances. How the environment shapes microbial communities in polluted ecosystems and thus influences degradation capabilities is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a highly complex environment: the capillary fringe and subjacent sediments in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Sixty sediment sections were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, complemented by chemical analyses of petroleum hydrocarbons, methane, oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors. Multivariate statistics revealed concentrations of contaminants and the position of the water table as significant factors shaping the microbial community composition. Micro-organisms with highest T-RFLP abundances were related to sulphate reducers belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus, fermenting bacteria of the genera Sedimentibacter and Smithella, and aerobic hydrocarbon degraders of the genus Acidovorax. Furthermore, the acetoclastic methanogens Methanosaeta, and hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanocella and Methanoregula were detected. Whereas sulphate and sulphate reducers prevail at the contamination source, the detection of methane, fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea further downstream points towards syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation.

  7. Distribution of petroleum degrading genes and factor analysis of petroleum contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinglong; Tang, Jingchun; Bai, Zhihui; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-18

    Genes that encode for enzymes that can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are critical for the ability of microorganisms to bioremediate soils contaminated with PHs. Distributions of two petroleum-degrading genes AlkB and Nah in soils collected from three zones of the Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China were investigated. Numbers of copies of AlkB ranged between 9.1 × 10(5) and 1.9 × 10(7) copies/g dry mass (dm) soil, and were positively correlated with total concentrations of PHs (TPH) (R(2) = 0.573, p = 0.032) and alkanes (C33 ~ C40) (R(2) = 0.914, p < 0.01). The Nah gene was distributed relatively evenly among sampling zones, ranging between 1.9 × 10(7) and 1.1 × 10(8) copies/g dm soil, and was negatively correlated with concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH) (R(2) = -0.567, p = 0.035) and ∑16 PAHs (R(2) = -0.599, p = 0.023). Results of a factor analysis showed that individual samples of soils were not ordinated as a function of the zones.

  8. Distribution of petroleum degrading genes and factor analysis of petroleum contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinglong; Tang, Jingchun; Bai, Zhihui; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Genes that encode for enzymes that can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are critical for the ability of microorganisms to bioremediate soils contaminated with PHs. Distributions of two petroleum-degrading genes AlkB and Nah in soils collected from three zones of the Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China were investigated. Numbers of copies of AlkB ranged between 9.1 × 105 and 1.9 × 107 copies/g dry mass (dm) soil, and were positively correlated with total concentrations of PHs (TPH) (R2 = 0.573, p = 0.032) and alkanes (C33 ~ C40) (R2 = 0.914, p < 0.01). The Nah gene was distributed relatively evenly among sampling zones, ranging between 1.9 × 107 and 1.1 × 108 copies/g dm soil, and was negatively correlated with concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH) (R2 = −0.567, p = 0.035) and ∑16 PAHs (R2 = −0.599, p = 0.023). Results of a factor analysis showed that individual samples of soils were not ordinated as a function of the zones. PMID:26086670

  9. Short-term biodegradation of petroleum in planted and unplanted sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial populations and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Lam. 'Passerel Plus' planted and unplanted contaminated sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, rhizosphere microbial population, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation were determined. Petroleum contamination resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and macro- and micronutrient content. Filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate to high petroleum contamination. In general, unplanted containers had lower bacterial colony forming units compared with planted containers. Thus, bacterial populations were stimulated by the rhizosphere effect of when compared with fungal populations. Degradation of TPH was greater in the lower petroleum concentration when compared with the higher petroleum concentrations in the soil and was not affected by plant presence. Nevertheless, the TPH biodegradation occurred at greater rates: 48 mg kg d for concentration of 3000 mg kg and 66 and 165 mg kg d for concentrations of 6000 and 15,000 mg kg, respectively, which concurs with the high fungal and bacterial populations with increasing petroleum concentrations regardless of plant presence.

  10. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  11. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  12. Hydrocarbon Contamination Decreases Mating Success in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics. PMID:22053187

  13. Effect of electric intensity on the microbial degradation of petroleum pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo; Li, Fengmei; Niu, Zhixin

    2010-01-01

    Electro-bioremediation is an innovative method to remedy organic-polluted soil. However, the principle of electrokinetic technology enhancing the function of microbes, especially the relationship of electric intensity and biodegradation efficiency, is poorly investigated. Petroleum was employed as a target organic pollutant at a level of 50 g/kg (mass of petroleum/mass of dry soil). A direct current power supply was used for tests with a constant direct current electric voltage (1.0 V/cm). The petroleum concentrations were measured at 3275-3285 nm after extraction using hexane, the group composition of crude oil was analyzed by column chromatography. The water content of soil was kept 25% (m/m). The results indicated the degradation process was divided into two periods: from day 1 to day 40, from day 41 to day 100. The treatment of soil with an appropriate electric field led the bacteria to have a persistent effect in the whole period of 100 days. The highest biodegradation efficiency of 45.5% was obtained after treatment with electric current and bacteria. The electric-bioremediation had a positive effect on alkane degradation. The degradation rate of alkane was 1.6 times higher in the soil exposed to electric current than that treated with bacteria for 100 days. A proper direct current could stimulate the microbial activities and accelerate the biodegradation of petroleum. There was a positive correlation between the electric intensities and the petroleum bioremediation efficiencies with a coefficient of 0.9599.

  14. Induced Polarization methodology: application to a hydrocarbon contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, Amelie; Schmutz, Myriam; Tichane, Frederic; Franceschi, Michel; Carles, Margaux

    2013-04-01

    Induced Polarization (IP) is a promising method for environmental studies (Vaudelet et al., 2011; Abdel Aal et al., 2006). This method has already been successful for the study of contaminations in the laboratory scale (Vanhala, 1997; Revil et al., 2011; Schmutz et al., 2012) but is still not trivial on the field. Temporal IP seems relatively common for field studies. When contamination implies a significative change of the polarization parameters, successful studies have been lead (Fiandaca et al. 2012; Dahlin et al., 2002 on landfills). Otherwise hydrocarbon contamination may induce small changes on IP parameters (Vaudelet et al., 2011). Spectral induced polarization has not been widely used for field application yet: this method is sensitive to coupling effects and time consuming. Moreover, all the phenomenon responsible of the signal is not completely understood yet (Kemna et al., 2012). The main aim of our presentation is about IP methodology, applied on site affected by a hydrocarbon contamination. In this case, precautions have to be taken to get explicit answers from the contamination. Field investigations have been made: chargeability measurements in order to delineate the free phase contamination extension and spectral induced polarization soundings in order to characterize more precisely the contamination. We would like to provide recommendations to improve induced polarization measurements especially on three aspects, (i) propose a different measurement sequence to make chargeability measurements and (ii) evaluate the influence of the current injection time on chargeability measurements (iii) give general precautions to achieve SIP measurements. A different new chargeability sequence is proposed integrating the use of separated injection and measure cables to avoid coupling phenomena in multicore cables. Indeed, this kind of coupling can significantly decrease the signal / noise ratio (Dahlin et al., 2012). Direct and reverse measurements have been made

  15. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory.

  16. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  17. Modeling of heat transfer in a rotary kiln thermal desorder for removal of petroleum from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Hsien-Tsung; Krasnoperov, L.V.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    A continuous feed rotary kiln thermal desorber was designed and constructed to study the heat transfer in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A mathematical model of heat transfer that correlates temperatures of gas, soil, and kiln wall will purge gas flow, soil feed rate, kiln rotation speed and soil residence time in the kiln desorber is developed. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to numerically integrate the heat transfer process along the kiln length and to calculate the temperature profiles. Comparison of predicted and measured gas and soil temperature profile is presented.

  18. Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.

    PubMed

    Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72,000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130,000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport.

  19. PGPR enhanced phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and rhizosphere microbial community response.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinyu; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate petroleum phytoremediation enhancement by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), specifically the correlation between petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and bacterial community structure affected by remediation and PGPR inocula. Aged petroleum contaminated soil was remediated by tall fescue (Testuca arundinacea L.) inoculated with two PGPR strains. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured by GC-MS (Gas-chromatography Mass-spectrometer) based on carbon fraction numbers (C8-C34). Changes in bacterial community structure were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA. PGPR inoculation increased tall fescue biomass and petroleum hydrocarbons were removed in all the treatments. Maximum hydrocarbon removal, particular high molecular weight (C21-C34) aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was observed in tall fescue inoculated with PGPR. The relative abundance of phyla γ-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased after different treatments compared with controls. Moreover, a bacterial guild mainly comprising the genera Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Planctomyces, Nocardioides, Hydrogenophaga, Ohtaekwangia was found to be positively correlated with C21-C34 petroleum hydrocarbons fractions removal by RDA analysis, implying that petroleum degradation was unrelated to bacterial community diversity but positively correlated with specific petroleum degraders and biosurfactant producers.

  20. Toxicity assessment for petroleum-contaminated soil using terrestrial invertebrates and plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Lachhab, Radhia; Ayadi, Mariem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of soil quality after a chemical or oil spill and/or remediation effort may be measured by evaluating the toxicity of soil organisms. To enhance our understanding of the soil quality resulting from laboratory and oil field spill remediation, we assessed toxicity levels by using earthworms and springtails testing and plant growth experiments. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated soil samples were collected from an oilfield in Sfax, Tunisia. Two types of bioassays were performed. The first assessed the toxicity of spiked crude oil (API gravity 32) in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development artificial soil. The second evaluated the habitat function through the avoidance responses of earthworms and springtails and the ability of Avena sativa to grow in TPH-contaminated soils diluted with farmland soil. The EC50 of petroleum-contaminated soil for earthworms was 644 mg of TPH/kg of soil at 14 days, with 67 % of the earthworms dying after 14 days when the TPH content reached 1,000 mg/kg. The average germination rate, calculated 8 days after sowing, varied between 64 and 74 % in low contaminated soils and less than 50 % in highly contaminated soils.

  1. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem.

  2. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory



    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County...

  3. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers <12 were much easier to lose in contrast to the n-alkanes with high carbon numbers. With n-octadecane/phytane as index for the weathering rate of oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  4. In situ bioventing in deep soils at arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Blicker, B.R.; Hall, J.F.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-11-01

    In situ bioventing has been shown to be a cost-effective remedial alternative for vadose zone soils. The success of the technology relies on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to utilize petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants as a primary metabolic substrate. Soil microbial populations are typically elevated in shallow soils due to an abundance of naturally occurring substrates and nutrients, but may be limited at greater depths due to a lack of these constituents. Therefore, the effectiveness of in situ bioventing is questionable in contaminated soil zones that extend far below the ground surface. Also, because the soil microbial population relies on soil moisture to sustain hydrocarbon degradation, the viability of bioventing is questionable in arid climates, where the soil moisture content is suspected to be minimal.

  5. Identification of refined petroleum products in contaminated soils using an identification index for GC chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrocarbons found in the environment are typically characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The shape of the GC chromatogram has been used to identify the source of petroleum contamination. However, the conventional practice of simply comparing the peak patterns of source products to those of environmental samples is dependent on the subjective decisions of individual analysts. We have developed and verified a quantitative analytical method for interpreting GC chromatograms to distinguish refined petroleum products in contaminated soils. We found that chromatograms for gasoline, kerosene, and diesel could be divided into three ranges with boundaries at C6, C8, C16, and C26. In addition, the relative peak area (RPA(GC)) of each range, a dimensionless ratio of the peak area within each range to that of the total range (C6-C26), had a unique value for each petroleum product. An identification index for GC chromatograms (ID(GC)), defined as the ratio of RPA(GC) of C8-C16 to that of C16-C26, was able to identify diesel and kerosene sources in samples extracted from artificially contaminated soils even after weathering. Thus, the ID(GC) can be used to effectively distinguish between refined petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  6. Effects of petroleum contamination on soil microbial numbers, metabolic activity and urease activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Qian, Yiguang; Guo, Yue; Richnow, Hans H; Blake, Ruth E; Doni, Serena; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2012-06-01

    The influence of petroleum contamination on soil microbial activities was investigated in 13 soil samples from sites around an injection water well (Iw-1, 2, 3, 4) (total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 7.5-78 mg kg(-1)), an oil production well (Op-1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (TPH: 149-1110 mg kg(-1)), and an oil spill accident well (Os-1, 2, 3, 4) (TPH: 4500-34600 mg kg(-1)). The growth rate constant (μ) of glucose stimulated organisms, determined by microcalorimetry, was higher in Iw soil samples than in Op and Os samples. Total cultivable bacteria and fungi and urease activity also decreased with increasing concentration of TPH. Total heat produced demonstrated that TPH at concentrations less than about 1 g kg(-1) soil stimulated anaerobic respiration. A positive correlation between TPH and soil organic matter (OM) and stimulation of fungi-bacteria-urease at low TPH doses suggested that TPH is bound to soil OM and slowly metabolized in Iw soils during OM consumption. These methods can be used to evaluate the potential of polluted soils to carry out self-bioremediation by metabolizing TPH.

  7. Effects of petroleum mixture types on soil bacterial population dynamics associated with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil environments.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Ward, David M; Inskeep, William P

    2013-07-01

    Soil bacterial population dynamics were examined to assess patterns in microbial response to contamination by different petroleum mixtures with variation in n-alkane profiles or toxic constituents such as pentachlorophenol (PCP). Three soil types from distinct areas of the United States (Montana, Oregon, and Arizona) were used in controlled perturbation experiments containing crude oil, kerosene, diesel, or diesel plus PCP spiked with (14)C-hexadecane or (14)C-tridecane. After a 50-day incubation, 30-70% of added (14)C-alkanes were mineralized to (14)CO₂ in Montana and Oregon soils. In contrast, significantly lower mineralization was observed with diesel or kerosene (< 5%) compared to crude-oil treatment (~45%) in the Arizona soil. Different hydrocarbon mixtures selected both unique and common microbial populations across all three soils. Conversely, the contamination of different soils with the same mixture selected for distinct microbial populations. The most consistent genotype observed, a Rhodococcus-like population, was present in the Montana soil with all mixture types. The addition of PCP selected for PCP-tolerant alkane-degrading specialist populations. The results indicated that petroleum mixture type influenced hydrocarbon degradation rates and microbial population selection and that soil characteristics, especially organic content, could also be an important determinant of community responses to hydrocarbon perturbation.

  8. The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation has proven successful in numerous applications to petroleum contaminated soils. However, questions remain as to the efficiency of bioremediation in lowering long-term soil toxicity. In the present study, the bioassays Spirotox, Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit F, umu-test with S-9 activation, and plant assays were applied, and compared to evaluate bioremediation processes in heavily petroleum contaminated soils. Six higher plant species (Secale cereale L., Lactuca sativa L., Zea mays L., Lepidium sativum L., Triticum vulgare L., Brassica oleracea L.) were used for bioassay tests based on seed germination and root elongation. The ecotoxicological analyses were made in DMSO/H2O and DCM/DMSO soil extracts. Soils were tested from two biopiles at the Czechowice oil refinery, Poland, that have been subjected to different bioremediation applications. In biopile 1 the active or engineered bioremediation process lasted four years, while biopile 2 was treated passively or non-engineered for eight months. The test species demonstrated varying sensitivity to soils from both biopiles. The effects on test organisms exposed to biopile 2 soils were several times higher compared to those in biopile 1 soils, which correlated with the soil contaminants concentration. Soil hydrocarbon concentrations indeed decreased an average of 81% in biopile 1, whereas in biopile 2 TPH/TPOC concentrations only decreased by 30% after eight months of bioremediation. The bioassays were presented to be sensitive indicators of soil quality and can be used to evaluate the quality of bioremediated soil. The study encourages the need to combine the bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of the bioremediation effectiveness and assessing of the contaminated/remediated soils.

  9. Biosurfactant-enhanced removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chin-Chi; Huang, Yi-Chien; Wei, Yu-Hong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2009-08-15

    A screening method was developed to evaluate the oil removal capability of biosurfactants for oil-contaminated soils collected from a heavy oil-polluted site. The ability of removing total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from soil by two biosurfactants was identified and compared with that of synthetic surfactants. The results show that biosurfactants exhibited much higher TPH removal efficiency than the synthetic ones examined. By using 0.2 mass% of rhamnolipids, surfactin, Tween 80, and Triton X-100, the TPH removal for the soil contaminated with ca. 3,000 mg TPH/kg dry soil was 23%, 14%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, while removal efficiency increased to 63%, 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, for the soil contaminated with ca. 9000 mg TPH/kg dry soil. The TPH removal efficiency also increased with an increase in biosurfactant concentration (from 0 to 0.2 mass%) but it did not vary significantly for the contact time of 1 and 7 days.

  10. SCREENING PLANT SPECIES FOR GROWTH ON WEATHERED, PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS. (R825413)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Study on redox zones of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ming; Ma, Zhenmin; Jiang, Peng

    2017-03-01

    When the terminal electron acceptors such as O2, NO3-, SO42- were used by microbes to degrade contamination, due to the terminal electron acceptor taking the electronics' capacity are different, the ease of redox reaction is different and it will develop an ordered oxidation reduction zone from the beginning of pollution source to the lower reaches. This research designed a dynamic simulation column experiment which chose limestone pebble as packing medium and the contaminated water in this study was mixture of gasoline#97, diesel#0 and underground water. The redox zones will be divided based on the space distribution status of reducing sensitive material in stimulation column. Research results: The content of electron acceptor in the bottom of stimulation column, like O2, NO3-, SO42-, is lower than that in the top of stimulation column. It develops an ordered redox zone from the bottom to the top, they are respectively the sulfate reduction zone, the nitrate reduction zone and the oxygen reduction zone which will migrate upwards along with time going on.

  12. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  13. Potential reuse of petroleum-contaminated soil: A directory of permitted recycling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, S.; Wolf, G.; Avery, M.; Nash, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group of owners, or a large multinational corporation. They may need a starting point in their search for an appropriate solution, such as recycling. The report provides initial assistance in two important areas. First it discusses four potential recycling technologies that manufacture marketable products from recycled petroleum-contaminated soil: the hot mix asphalt process, the cold mix asphalt system, cement production, and brick manufacturing. The report also presents the results of a project survey designed to identify recycling facilities. It lists recycling facilities alphabetically by location within each state, organized by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region. The report also includes detailed addresses, recycling locations, telephone numbers, and contacts for these facilities. The scope of the project limits listings to fixed facilities or small mobile facility owners that recycle soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products into marketable commodities. It does not address site-specific or commercial hazardous waste remediation facilities.

  14. [Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils with Iris pseudacorus L. and the Metabolic Analysis in Roots].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we performed a greenhouse pot-culture experiment to investigate the potential of a wild ornamental plant Iris pseudacorus L. in remediating petroleum contaminated soils from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results suggested that Iris pseudacorus L. had great resistance to ≤ 40,000 mg · kg(⁻¹ of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The removal rate of TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils by Iris pseudacorus L. was 42.1%, 33.1% 31.2%, respectively, much higher than those in the corresponding controls (31.8%, 21.3% 11.9%, respectively) (P < 0.05). The root specific surface area of Iris pseudacorus L. was determined by the root scanner. The results suggested that TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils increased the root specific surface area comparing with the controls. Additionally, the metabolic analysis showed that root metabolism changed to different degrees under the stress of TPHs, and the levels or species of metabolites had a significant change (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results showed that 5 of 11 metabolites (VIP value > 1.2) with the root specific surface area from the PLS-DA model analysis, including ethanedioic acid, lactic acid, 2-butenedioic acid, phosphate and propanedioic acid, were positively correlated with the root specific surface area, but the others, gluconic acid, uridine, butanoic acid, maltose, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, phenylalanine, were negatively correlated with it. In conclusion, using Iris pseudacorus L. to remediate petroleum contaminated soils is feasible, and the metabolic analysis in roots is useful to better understand the metabolic response of plants exposure to petroleum contaminated soils, and then reveals its remediated mechanisms.

  15. Sphingomonas from petroleum-contaminated soils in Shenfu, China and their PAHs degradation abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lisha; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Han, Siqin; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Sphingomonas genus are often isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils due to their unique abilities to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are important for in situ bioremediation. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach using streptomycin-containing medium and Sphingomonas-specific PCR was developed to isolate and identify culturable Sphingomonas strains present in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Shenfu wastewater irrigation zone. Of the 15 soil samples examined, 12 soils yielded yellow streptomycin-resistant colonies. The largest number of yellow colony-forming units (CFUs) could reach 10(5)CFUsg(-1)soil. The number of yellow CFUs had a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with the ratio of PAHs to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), indicating that Sphingomonas may play a key role in degrading the PAH fraction of the petroleum contaminants at this site. Sixty yellow colonies were selected randomly and analyzed by colony PCR using Sphingomonas-specific primers, out of which 48 isolates had PCR-positive signals. The 48 positive amplicons generated 8 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, and 7 out of 8 phylotypes were identified as Sphingomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the representative strains. Within these 7 Sphingomonas strains, 6 strains were capable of using fluorene as the sole carbon source, while 2 strains were phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples.

  16. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, G.E.; Richmond, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) offers a rapid and accurate method for the analysis of non-volatile organic materials. If the instrument is properly calibrated and the operational parameters are standardized, TLC-FID permits a rapid and accurate quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and offers the possibility of separation and quantification of the major types of components in petroleum and petroleum products. Petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soil were extracted overnight with a mixture of chloroform:methanol. The analysis method consisted of spotting a small volume of the samples on silica-coated quartz rods followed by three chromatographic developments in solvent systems of increasing polarities. This series of chromatographic steps resulted in the complete separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, starting from mixtures of the materials. This method also allows the quantification of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons without interference from biogenic lipids present in the soil. A simplified version of this method allowed excellent separation of aliphatics plus aromatics (forming a single peak) from resins and asphaltenes. The instrument provides the complete analysis of 10 samples in about one hour after extraction. This rapid analytical tool is especially suited for synoptic studies or for the screening of a large number of samples prior to the consideration of more detailed and costly analyses.

  17. Direct soil contact values for ecological receptors exposed to weathered petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2.

    PubMed

    Angell, Robin A; Kullman, Steve; Shrive, Emma; Stephenson, Gladys L; Tindal, Miles

    2012-11-01

    Ecological tier 1 Canada-wide standards (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2 (F2; >nC10-C16) in soil were derived using ecotoxicological assessment endpoints (effective concentrations [ECs]/lethal concentrations [LCs]/inhibitory concentrations, 25% [IC25s]) with freshly spiked (fresh) fine- and coarse-grained soils. These soil standards might be needlessly conservative when applied to field samples with weathered hydrocarbons. The purpose of the present study was to assess the degradation and toxicity of weathered PHC F2 in a fine-grained soil and to derive direct soil contact values for ecological receptors. Fine-grained reference soils were spiked with distilled F2 and weathered for 183 d. Toxicity tests using plants and invertebrates were conducted with the weathered F2-spiked soils. Endpoint EC/IC25s were calculated and used to derive soil standards for weathered F2 in fine-grained soil protective of ecological receptors exposed via direct soil contact. The values derived for weathered F2 were less restrictive than current ecological tier 1 CWS for F2 in soil.

  18. Soil Physical Constraints on Intrinsic Biodegradation of Petroleum Vapors in a Layered Subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Andreas H.; Henriksen, Kaj; Mortensen, Lars; Scow, Kate M.; Moldrup, Per

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the vadose zone depends on the physical soil environment influencing field-scale gas exchange and pore-scale microbial metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil physical heterogeneity on biodegradation of petroleum vapors in a 16-m-deep, layered vadose zone. Soil slurry experiments (soil/water ratio 10:30 w/w, 25°C) on benzene biodegradation under aerobic and well-mixed conditions indicated that the biodegradation potential in different textured soil samples was related to soil type rather than depth, in the order: sandy loam > fine sand > limestone. Similarly, O2 consumption rates during in situ respiration tests performed at the site were higher in the sandy loam than in the fine sand, although the difference was less significant than in the slurries. Laboratory and field data generally agreed well and suggested a significant potential for aerobic biodegradation, even with nutrient-poor and deep subsurface conditions. In slurries of the sandy loam, the biodegradation potential declined with increasing in situ water saturation (i.e., decreasing air-filled porosity in the field). This showed a relation between antecedent undisturbed field conditions and the slurry biodegradation potential, and suggested airfilled porosity to be a key factor for the intrinsic biodegradation potential in the field. PMID:21617737

  19. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    SciTech Connect

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil.

  20. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.

  1. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  2. Relationship between water repellency and native and petroleum-derived organic carbon in soils.

    PubMed

    Roy, J L; McGill, W B; Lowen, H A; Johnson, R L

    2003-01-01

    Some soils develop severe and persistent water repellency following contamination with crude oil. This study was conducted to characterize and compare the spatial distribution of soil water repellency and residual oil contamination at 12 such sites. The molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test was used to assess soil water repellency and the content of dichloromethane-extractable organics (DEO) was used to quantify residual oil in soil. We found a relatively strong positive correlation between MED and DEO in soil (r2 = 0.74). Both variables tended to decrease abruptly with depth at 11 of the 12 study sites. Dichloromethane-extractable organics similarly decreased with depth in control adjacent soil (MED = 0 M), but from an average concentration one to two orders of magnitude lower than in water-repellent soil. Using data from corresponding control adjacent and water-repellent soils, we determined that approximately 29 and 10% of measured total organic carbon in water-repellent A- and B-horizon soil, respectively, consists of dichloromethane-insoluble organic carbon of petroleum origin. We propose that this fraction contains most of the causative agents of soil water repellency at the studied sites.

  3. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  4. Effects of Temperature Changes on Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soils from an Arctic Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Klemm, S.; Whyte, L.; Ghoshal, S.

    2009-05-01

    Bioremediation is being considered as a cost-effective and a minimally disruptive remedial option at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic impacted by petroleum NAPL contamination. The implementation of on-site bioremediation in cold environments has been generally limited in the short, non-freezing summer months since ground remains frozen for 8-9 months of the year. This study evaluates the effect of different temperature regimes on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates and extent, as well as on the microbial activity. A series of pilot-scale landfarming bioremediation experiments (1 m×0.6 m×0.35 m soil tank dimension) was performed using aged, petroleum fuel-contaminated soils shipped from Resolution Island, Nunavut, Canada. These experiments were conducted under the following temperature conditions: (1) variable daily average field temperatures (1 to 10°C) representative of summers at the site; (2) constant mean temperature-mode with 6°C, representing typical stable laboratory incubation; and (3) under seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (-8°C to 10°C). Data to be presented include changes with time of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration fractionated by C-lengths, soil moisture (unfrozen water) contents, O2 and CO2 concentrations in soil pore gas, microbial population size and community composition in nutrient- amended and untreated landfarms. Hydrocarbon biodegradation and heterotrophic respiration activity was more rapid under the variable temperature cycle (1 to 10°C) than at a constant average temperature of 6°C, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were reduced by 55% due to biodegradation over a 60 day test period under the variable temperature regime, compared to only 21% in soil tanks which were subjected to a constant temperature of 6°C. Shifts in microbial community were clearly observed in the both temperature modes using PCR-DGGE analyses and the emergence of a hydrocarbon-degrading population, Alkanindiges, was

  5. Total petroleum hydrocarbon distribution in soils and groundwater in Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Dan; Song, Liuting; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in groundwater and soil, a total of 71 groundwater samples (26 unconfined groundwater samples, 37 confined groundwater samples, and 8 deeper confined groundwater samples) and 80 soil samples were collected in the Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China, and the vertical variation and spatial variability of TPH in groundwater and soil were assessed. For the groundwater from the unconfined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in three samples, and for the other 23 samples, concentrations were in the range 0.01-1.74 mg/l. In the groundwater from the confined aquifer, petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in two samples, and in the other 35 samples, the concentrations were 0.04-0.82 mg/l. The TPH concentration in unconfined aquifer may be influenced by polluted surface water and polluted soil; for confined aquifer, the injection wells leakage and left open hole wells may be mainly responsible for the pollution. For soils, the concentrations of TPH varied with sampling depth and were 0-15 cm (average concentration, 0.63 mg/g), >40-55 cm (average concentration, 0.36 mg/g), >100-115 cm (average concentration, 0.29 mg/g), and >500-515 cm (average concentration, 0.26 mg/g). The results showed that oil spillage and losses were possibly the main sources of TPH in soil. The consequences concluded here suggested that counter measures such as remediation and long-term monitoring should be commenced in the near future, and effective measures should be taken to assure that the oilfields area would not be a threat to human health.

  6. Natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants: Hydraulic conductivity dependency of biodegradation rates in a field case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-07-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  7. Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants: Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-10-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  8. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously

  9. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Andreas H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Mortensen, Lars; Moldrup, Per

    2010-07-15

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16 m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analysed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered, resulting in an accumulation of pollution within coarse sandy lenses. Air-filled porosity, readily available phosphorous, and the first-order rate constant (k(1)) of benzene obtained from slurry biodegradation experiments were found to depend on geologic sample characterization (P<0.05), while inorganic nitrogen was homogenously distributed across the soil stratigraphy. Semivariogram analysis showed a spatial continuity of 4-8.6 m in the vertical direction, while it was 2-5 times greater in the horizontal direction. Values of k(1) displayed strong spatial autocorrelation. Even so, the soil potential for biodegradation was highly variable, which from autoregressive state-space modeling was partly explained by changes in soil air-filled porosity and gravimetric water content. The results suggest considering biological heterogeneity when evaluating the fate of contaminants in the subsurface.

  10. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  11. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Ong, S.K. )

    1992-10-01

    A in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O[sub 2]) and production of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O[sub 2]/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O[sub 2] utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO[sub 2] production, CO[sub 2] produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Hinchee, R E; Ong, S K

    1992-10-01

    An in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O2) and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O2/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O2 utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO2 production. CO2 produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions.

  13. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S.

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Respirometry for assessing the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ulfig, K; Worsztynowicz, A; Malina, G; Krzeminska, B; Brigmon, R L

    2005-02-01

    The respiration method using the Micro-Oxymax respirometer was applied to evaluate the bioremediation potential of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in two biopiles at the oil refinery in Czechowice-Dziedzice, Poland. In biopiles 1 and 2, two different technologies, i.e., enhanced (engineered) bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation (MNA) were used, respectively. In biopiles 1 and 2, the bioremediation process lasted 6 years and 8 months, respectively. The biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated on the basis of CO2 production and O2 uptake. The CO2 production and O2 consumption rates during hydrocarbon biodegradation were calculated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The results confirmed the hydrocarbon biodegradation process in both biopiles. However, in biopile 2 the process was more effective compared to biopile 1. In biopile 2, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 3.37 and 2.4 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. Whereas, in biopile 1, the O2 consumption and CO2 production means were 1.52 and 1.07 milliliters per kilogram of soil (dry weight) per minute, respectively. The mean biodegradation rate for biopile 2 was two times higher--67 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-1) compared with biopile 1, where the mean was 30 mg hydrocarbons kg d.w.(-1)day(-l). The results were correlated with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and microbial activity measured by dehydrogenase assay.

  15. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  16. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  17. A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting as an Oxygen Source with Moisture and Nutrient Addition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AND SUBTITLF A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting...24 Enhanced Biodegradation Through Soil Venting ...................... 30 MATERIALS AND METHODS...378 ABSTRACT xx’ A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting as an

  18. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  19. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  20. Restoration of taxonomic and functional genes after bioaugmentation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zuojun; Zou, Liangdong; Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Soil microbial ecosystems are responsive to environmental changes that underpin the biological functions of the soil. The present study was conducted to profile variations in the microbial ecological system of remediated soil (R) and petroleum contaminated soil (P) based on comparisons with soil that had not been contaminated (N), using a cloning library of taxonomic genes (16S rRNA gene for bacteria and 18S rRNA gene for eukaryotes) and functional genes (nifH, amoA and narG). The results showed that N and R had a similar distribution in both the taxonomic genes and functional genes for bacteria and eukaryotes, which were dominated by Proteobacteria and Arthropoda, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nifH gene showed that the sequences from the three soils were clustered into six taxonomic groups, Actinobacteridae, and Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta-proteobacteria, as well as an unclassified group. Evaluation of the amoA gene revealed that all sequences derived from the three samples belonged to Betaproteobacteria. The R and N soil had similar Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') values, both of which were significantly higher than that of the P soil. The most abundant bacterial phylotype identified in the N and R soils were the same and were related to an uncultured bacterial clone (GAN-SB17, FN423475). None of the narG genes were found in the P soil. Similar results in terms of distribution, composition and the related index were obtained for nifH and amoA. These parameters may comprise a biological ecology index that may be applied to aid the design, implementation and evaluation of soil bioremediation.

  1. Bacterial community shift and hydrocarbon transformation during bioremediation of short-term petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Manli; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the impact of bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (BR, added both nutrients and bacterial consortia), and natural attenuation (NA) on hydrocarbon degradation efficiency and microflora characterization during remediation of a freshly contaminated soil. After 112 days of remediation, the initial level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (61,000 mg/kg soil) was reduced by 4.5% and 5.0% in the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Bioremediation did not significantly enhance TPH biodegradation compared to natural attenuation. The degradation of the aliphatic fraction was the most active with the degradation rate of 30.3 and 28.7 mg/kg/day by the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Soil microbial activities and counts in soil were generally greater for bioremediation than for natural attenuation. MiSeq sequencing indicated that the diversity and structure of microbial communities were affected greatly by bioremediation. In response to bioremediation treatment, Promicromonospora, Pseudomonas, Microcella, Mycobacterium, Alkanibacter, and Altererythrobacter became dominant genera in the soil. The result indicated that combining bioaugmentation with biostimulation did not improve TPH degradation, but soil microbial activities and structure of microbial communities are sensitive to bioremediation in short-term and heavily oil-contaminated soil.

  2. Assessing spatial variability of soil petroleum contamination using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C; Zhu, Yuanda; Li, Bin; Morgan, Cristine L S; Ge, Yufeng; Galbraith, John

    2012-11-01

    Visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-destructive method for sensing the presence and amount of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in soil. This study demonstrates the feasibility of VisNIR DRS to be used in the field to proximally sense and then map the areal extent of TPH contamination in soil. More specifically, we evaluated whether a combination of two methods, penalized spline regression and geostatistics could provide an efficient approach to assess spatial variability of soil TPH using VisNIR DRS data from soils collected from an 80 ha crude oil spill in central Louisiana, USA. Initially, a penalized spline model was calibrated to predict TPH contamination in soil by combining lab TPH values of 46 contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples and the first-derivative of VisNIR reflectance spectra of these samples. The r(2), RMSE, and bias of the calibrated penalized spline model were 0.81, 0.289 log(10) mg kg(-1), and 0.010 log(10) mg kg(-1), respectively. Subsequently, the penalized spline model was used to predict soil TPH content for 128 soil samples collected over the 80 ha study site. When assessed with a randomly chosen validation subset (n = 10) from the 128 samples, the penalized spline model performed satisfactorily (r(2) = 0.70; residual prediction deviation = 2.0). The same validation subset was used to assess point kriging interpolation after the remaining 118 predictions were used to produce an experimental semivariogram and map. The experimental semivariogram was fitted with an exponential model which revealed strong spatial dependence among soil TPH [r(2) = 0.76, nugget = 0.001 (log(10) mg kg(-1))(2), and sill 1.044 (log(10) mg kg(-1))(2)]. Kriging interpolation adequately interpolated TPH with r(2) and RMSE values of 0.88 and 0.312 log(10) mg kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, in the kriged map, TPH distribution matched with the expected TPH variability of the study site. Since the

  3. Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: oil matrix of constructed biopiles.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Whelan, Michael J; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Villa, Raffaella; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-12-01

    A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC(5-7)). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC(5-6) and EC(6-8)) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC(16-21) and EC(21-35). Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC(5-6) which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

  4. Oxygen transport from the atmosphere to soil gas beneath a slab-on-grade foundation overlying petroleum-impacted soil.

    PubMed

    Lundegard, Paul D; Johnson, Paul C; Dahlen, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Modeling and field study results suggest that, in the case of a building overlying an aerobically biodegradable vapor source (i.e., petroleum-impacted soil), the significance of vapor intrusion into the building depends on the source vapor concentration, the relative position of the vapor source and building, and the rate of O2 transport from the atmosphere to the soil gas beneath the building. This work quantified the latter at a house having about a 250 m2 slab-on-grade foundation footprint. It was constructed on 1.5 m of clean fill overlying a petroleum hydrocarbon-impacted soil layer undergoing methanogenesis. Soil gas O2 and CH4 profiles adjacent to and beneath the foundation were measured and then the soil gas beneath the slab was rapidly displaced with N2. The natural replenishment of O2 was monitored for 90 days using in situ O2 sensors, and the responses with time were similar, independent of location. The O2 replenishment rate was about 2500 g-O2/d immediately after the N2 flood and then it declined to 200-500 g-O2/d over 30 days. Weather events affected the O2 replenishment rate; an increase occurred during a strong wind period (> 3 m/s), and a decrease occurred during a heavy rainfall event. The spatial and temporal patterns in the O2 sensor responses and quantified O2 replenishment rates could not be accounted for by simple mechanistic hypotheses involving lateral diffusion or advection through the bulk soil, and instead the data suggest rapid replenishment immediately below the foundation followed by downward diffusion.

  5. Effect of hydrocarbon pollution on the microbial properties of a sandy and a clay soil.

    PubMed

    Labud, Valeria; Garcia, Carlos; Hernandez, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain the effects of different types of hydrocarbon pollution on soil microbial properties and the influence of a soil's characteristics on these effects. For this, toxicity bioassays and microbiological and biochemical parameters were studied in two soils (one sandy and one clayey) contaminated at a loading rate of 5% and 10% with three types of hydrocarbon (diesel oil, gasoline and crude petroleum) differing in their volatilisation potential and toxic substance content. Soils were maintained under controlled conditions (50-70% water holding capacity, and room temperature) for six months and several microbiological and toxicity parameters were monitored 1, 60, 120 and 180 days after contamination. The toxic effects of hydrocarbon contamination were greater in the sandy soil. Hydrocarbons inhibited microbial biomass, the greatest negative effect being observed in the gasoline-polluted sandy soil. In both soils crude petroleum and diesel oil contamination increased microbial respiration, while gasoline had little effect on this parameter, especially in the sandy soil. In general, gasoline had the highest inhibitory effect on the hydrolase activities involved in N, P or C cycles in both soils. All contaminants inhibited hydrolase activities in the sandy soil, while in the clayey soil diesel oil stimulated enzyme activity, particularly at the higher concentration. In both soils, a phytotoxic effect on barley and ryegrass seed germination was observed in the contaminated soils, particularly in those contaminated with diesel or petroleum.

  6. Endophytic root bacteria associated with the natural vegetation growing at the hydrocarbon contaminated Bitumount Provincial Historic site.

    PubMed

    Blain, Natalie Pierrette; Helgason, Bobbi; Germida, James J

    2017-02-24

    The Bitumount Provincial Historic site is the location of two of the world's first oil extracting and refining operations. Despite hydrocarbons levels ranging from 330 to 24 700 mg kg-1 soil, plants have been able to recolonize the site through means of natural revegetation. This study was designed to achieve a better understanding of the plant root-associated bacterial partnerships occurring within naturally revegetated hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Root endophytic bacterial communities were characterized from representative plant species throughout the site using both high-throughput sequencing and culturing techniques. Population abundance of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria was significantly influenced (p<0.05) by plant species and sampling location. In general, members of the Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, and Sphingomonadales orders were the most commonly identified orders. Community structure of root-associated bacteria was influenced by both plant species and sampling location. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the potential functional diversity of the root endophytic bacteria. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and two hydrocarbon degrading genes (CYP153 and alkB) were significantly affected (p<0.05) by the interaction of plant species and sampling location. Our findings suggest that some of the bacterial communities detected are known to exhibit plant growth promotion characteristics.

  7. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-08

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  8. Petroleum contamination of soil and water, and their effects on vegetables by statistically analyzing entire data set.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-kai; Yang, Jun-cheng; Du, Xiao-ming; Li, Fa-sheng; Hou, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons have been used to assess total oil concentrations, petroleum sources, and petroleum degradation. In this study, surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and vegetables were collected from the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China, and the samples were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon contents. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 1.06-4.01 μg/g in the soil. The concentrations and the geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes showed that the low carbon number hydrocarbons were mainly from petroleum sources, whereas the high carbon number hydrocarbons received more hydrocarbons from herbaceous plants. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 9.20-93.44 μg/L and 23.74-118.27 μg/L in the groundwater and the surface water, respectively. The water had characteristics of petroleum and submerged/floating macrophytes and was found in concentrations that would cause chronic disruption of sensitive organisms. The concentrations and geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes in Brassica chinensis L. and Apium graveolens were different, but both were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the sorption of n-alkanes to soil particles could not be described by linear models. The distributions of n-alkanes in vegetables were positively correlated with those in soil, and the correlation coefficient was up to 0.9310 using the constructed vectors. Therefore, the researchers should pay close attention to the effect of soil contamination on vegetables.

  9. Characterisation of the rhizoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil: effect of different influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. C.; Wang, R. G.; Niu, X. W.; Wang, M.; Chu, H. R.; Zhou, Q. X.

    2010-12-01

    Pilot experiments were conducted to analyse the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue and alfalfa), the addition of fertilizer, different concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agents (EMA) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during the bioremediation process of TPH. The results show that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plant species. The order of effectiveness of the plants was the following: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition, and a moderate urea level of 20 g N (Nitrogen)/m2 was best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. A high TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The results showed that a 5% TPH content gave the best degradation in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and PGPR yielded the following results for TPH degradation: cotton+EMA+PGPR > cotton+EMA > cotton+PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms. A continuous increase of degradation rate was found during the 30-90 days period followed by a slow increase during the 90-150 days period. These results suggest that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  10. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran) and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase) was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w). Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities. PMID:23369665

  11. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg(-1); C1 18,000 mg kg(-1); C2 31,700 mg kg(-1); C3 47,100 mg kg(-1)) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P < 0.05). Among all trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  12. The effect of Piriformospora indica on the root development of maize (Zea mays L.) and remediation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    As the depth of soil petroleum contamination can vary substantially under field conditions, a rhizotron experiment was performed to investigate the influence of endophyte, P. indica, on maize growth and degradation of petroleum components in a shallow and a deep-reaching subsurface layer of a soil. For control, a treatment without soil contamination was also included. The degree in contamination and the depth to which it extended had a strong effect on the growth of the plant roots. Contaminated soil layers severely inhibited root growth thus many roots preferred to bypass the shallow contaminated layer and grow in the uncontaminated soil. While the length and branching pattern of these roots were similar to those of uncontaminated treatment. Inoculation of maize with P. indica could improve root distribution and root and shoot growth in all three contamination treatments. This inoculation also enhanced petroleum degradation in soil, especially in the treatment with deep-reaching contamination, consequently the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plant tissues were increased.

  13. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

  14. Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Zhang; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Zhineng; Chen, Cuihong

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to decontaminate soils polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, this technique usually requires a long time due to the slow degradation rate by bacteria. By applying U-tube microbial fuel cells (MFCs) designed here, the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons close to the anode (<1 cm) was enhanced by 120% from 6.9 ± 2.5% to 15.2 ± 0.6% with simultaneous 125 ± 7 C of charge output (0.85 ± 0.05 mW/m(2) , 1 kΩ) in the tested period (25 days). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rate of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was accelerated. The decrease of initial water content from 33% to 28% and 23% resulted in a decrease on charge output and hydrocarbon degradation rate, which could be attributed to the increase of internal resistance. A salt accumulation was observed in each reactor due to the evaporation of water from the air-cathode, possibly inhibited the activity of exoelectrogenic bacteria (EB) and resulted in the elimination of the current at the end of the tested period. The number of hydrocarbon degradation bacteria (HDB) in soil close to the anode increased by nearly two orders of magnitude in the MFC assisted system (373 ± 56 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil) than that in the disconnected control (8 ± 2 × 10(3)  CFU/g-soil), providing a solid evidence for in situ biostimulation of HDB growth by colonization of EB in the same system.

  15. Most Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in the Total Environment are Diazotrophic, which Highlights Their Value in the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Eliyas, Mohamed; Khanafer, Majida; Sorkhoh, Naser A.; Radwan, Samir S.

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-two out of the 100 hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species that have been already isolated from oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sites, characterized by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequencing, and preserved in our private culture collection, grew successfully in a mineral medium free of any nitrogenous compounds with oil vapor as the sole carbon source. Fifteen out of these 82 species were selected for further study based on the predominance of most of the isolates in their specific sites. All of these species tested positive for nitrogenase using the acetylene reduction reaction. They belonged to the genera Agrobacterium, Sphingomonas, and Pseudomonas from oily desert soil and Nesiotobacter, Nitratireductor, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Arthrobacter, Marinobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Diatzia, Mycobacterium, and Microbacterium from the Arabian/Persian Gulf water body. A PCR-DGGE-based sequencing analysis of nifH genes revealed the common occurrence of the corresponding genes among all the strains tested. The tested species also grew well and consumed crude oil effectively in NaNO3 -containing medium with and without nitrogen gas in the top space. On the other hand, these bacteria only grew and consumed crude oil in the NaNO3 -free medium when the top space gas contained nitrogen. We concluded that most hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are diazotrophic, which allows for their wide distribution in the total environment. Therefore, these bacteria are useful for the cost-effective, environmentally friendly bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. PMID:25740314

  16. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  17. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  18. Effect of petroleum on decomposition of shrub-grass litters in soil in Northern Shaanxi of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Yu, Qi; Luc, Nhu Trung; Bing, Yuanhao; Zhu, Bochao; Wang, Wenxuan

    2015-07-01

    The impacts of petroleum contamination on the litter decomposition of shrub-grass land would directly influence nutrient cycling, and the stability and function of ecosystem. Ten common shrub and grass species from Yujiaping oil deposits were studied. Litters from these species were placed into litterbags and buried in petroleum-contaminated soil with 3 levels of contamination (slight, moderate and serious pollution with petroleum concentrations of 15, 30 and 45 g/kg, respectively). A decomposition experiment was then conducted in the lab to investigate the impacts of petroleum contamination on litter decomposition rates. Slight pollution did not inhibit the decomposition of any litters and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Hippophae rhamnoides, Caragana korshinskii, Amorpha fruticosa, Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa, Periploca sepium, Medicago sativa and Bothriochloa ischaemum. Moderate pollution significantly inhibited litter decomposition of M. sativa, Coronilla varia, Artemisia vestita and Trrifolium repens and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of C. korshinskii, Z. jujuba var. spinosa and P. sepium. Serious pollution significantly inhibited the litter decomposition of H. rhamnoides, A. fruticosa, B. ischaemum and A. vestita and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, P. sepium and M. sativa. In addition, the impacts of petroleum contamination did not exhibit a uniform increase or decrease as petroleum concentration increased. Inhibitory effects of petroleum on litter decomposition may hinder the substance cycling and result in the degradation of plant communities in contaminated areas.

  19. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-06

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m(-2) while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28-C36 of n-alkanes and 4-6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  20. Thermal soil desorption for total petroleum hydrocarbon testing on gas chromatographs

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, J.

    1995-12-31

    Testing for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is one of the most common analytical tests today. A recent development in chromatography incorporates Thermal Soil Desorption technology to enable analyses of unprepared soil samples for volatiles such as BTEX components and semi-volatiles such as diesel, PCBs, PAHs and pesticides in the same chromatogram, while in the field. A gas chromatograph is the preferred method for determining TPH because the column in a GC separates the individual hydrocarbons compounds such as benzene and toluene from each other and measures each individually. A GC analysis will determine not only the total amount of hydrocarbon, but also whether it is gasoline, diesel or another compound. TPH analysis with a GC is typically conducted with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Extensive field and laboratory testing has shown that incorporation of a Thermal Soil Desorber offers many benefits over traditional analytical testing methods such as Headspace, Solvent Extraction, and Purge and Trap. This paper presents the process of implementing Thermal Soil Desorption in gas chromatography, including procedures for, and advantages of faster testing and analysis times, concurrent volatile and semi-volatile analysis, minimized sample manipulation, single gas (H{sub 2}) operation, and detection to the part-per billion levels.

  1. A Petroleum Vapor Intrusion Model Involving Upward Advective Soil Gas Flow Due to Methane Generation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yue; Verginelli, Iason; Zeng, Tian; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Wen, Yuezhong; Ma, Jie

    2015-10-06

    At petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites at which there is significant methane generation, upward advective soil gas transport may be observed. To evaluate the health and explosion risks that may exist under such scenarios, a one-dimensional analytical model describing these processes is introduced in this study. This new model accounts for both advective and diffusive transport in soil gas and couples this with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, limited by oxygen availability. The predicted results from the new model are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from a three-dimensional numerical model. These results suggest that this analytical model is suitable for describing cases involving open ground surface beyond the foundation edge, serving as the primary oxygen source. This new analytical model indicates that the major contribution of upward advection to indoor air concentration could be limited to the increase of soil gas entry rate, since the oxygen in soil might already be depleted owing to the associated high methane source vapor concentration.

  2. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m−2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability. PMID:27597387

  3. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil.

  4. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m‑2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing kinetics determined in soil core, microcosm, and tubing cluster studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.E.; Ostendorf, D.W.; Richards, R.J.; Goodwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of vapor-phase petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in an intact soil core from the site of an aviation gasoline release. An unsaturated zone soil core was subjected to a flow of nitrogen gas, oxygen, water vapor, and vapor-phase hydrocarbons in a configuration analogous to a biofilter or an in situ bioventing or sparging situation. The vertical profiles of vapor-phase hydrocarbon concentration in the soil core were determined by gas chromatography of vapor samples. Biodegradation reduced low influent hydrocarbon concentrations by 45 to 92% over a 0.6-m interval of an intact soil core. The estimated total hydrocarbon concentration was reduced by 75% from 26 to 7 parts per million. Steady-state concentrations were input to a simple analytical model balancing advection and first-order biodegradation of hydrocarbons. First-order rate constants for the major hydrocarbon compounds were used to calibrate the model to the concentration profiles. Rate constants for the seven individual hydrocarbon compounds varied by a factor of 4. Compounds with lower molecular weights, fewer methyl groups, and no quaternary carbons tended to have higher rate constants. The first-order rate constants were consistent with kinetic parameters determined from both microcosm and tubing cluster studies at the field site.

  6. Radon emanation from NORM-contaminated pipe scale and soil at petroleum industry sites.

    PubMed

    White, G J; Rood, A S

    2001-01-01

    Radon-222 emanation fractions were determined for barite scale deposits associated with petroleum production tubing and soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were analyzed for 226Ra concentration, the results of which were used to calculate the 222Rn emanation fraction for the sample. An important parameter determining the overall Rn activity flux from a solid medium, 222Rn emanation fraction represents the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether 222Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale and soil from petroleum production sites are similar to those of uranium mill tailings. Pipe scale samples were collected at four sites representing a wide geographical area, and consisted primarily of barite scale where Ra atoms have replaced a fraction of the Ba within the crystal lattice of the scale. Soil samples were collected at five sites, from areas exhibiting elevated surface gamma exposure rates indicating the presence of NORM. For comparison, 226Ra concentrations and 222Rn emanation fraction were also determined for uranium mill tailings samples provided from a site in Utah. Although 2226Ra concentrations from pipe scale samples were similar to those found in uranium mill tailings, 222Rn emanation fractions from scale were generally lower. Emanation fractions from each data set were statistically different from those of mill tailings (p < or = 0.01). The differences are probably due to physical differences between the two media and to the method by which the Ra is deposited in the material. Radon emanation from soils was extremely variable owing not only to differences in physical and chemical soil properties, but also to the means by which NORM has entered the soil. Although additional emanation measurements from other sites are needed, the data collected

  7. The role of biominerals in enhancing the geophysical response at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewafy, Farag Mohamed

    There are several source mechanisms by which microbial activity in the subsurface can change geophysical signatures. To date the source mechanisms generating the geophysical signatures in microbially active environments remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between the biogeochemical processes resulting in biotransformation of metallic iron mineral phases and the associated biogeophysical signatures. Hydrocarbon contaminated environments provide excellent laboratories for investigating iron mineral biotransformation. In particular, we investigated the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the complex conductivity (CC) signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota. For the MS study, we investigated the changes in the MS response for cores retrieved from the site as well as down boreholes. The contaminated location revealed two enriched MS zones. The first MS lies within the hydrocarbon smear zone, which is limited to the zone of water table fluctuation with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and organic carbon content. Magnetite and siderite were the dominant minerals formed during this process. However, magnetite was responsible for the bulk of MS changes. The second zone of MS enhancement lies within the vadose zone which is characterized by methane depletion suggesting that aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of methane is coupled to iron-reduction resulting in magnetite precipitation. For the CC work, we conducted laboratory CC measurements along four cores in addition to field CC survey. We found that the real (sigma‧) and imaginary (sigma″) conductivity are higher for samples from within the oil plume especially within the smear zone compared to background uncontaminated samples. Using magnetite as an example of the biometallic minerals in the smear zone at the site, a clear increase in the sigma″ response with increasing magnetite content was observed suggesting that the presence of bio-metallic mineral

  8. Sorption of nonionic organic compounds in soil-water systems containing petroleum sulfonate-oil surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.; Boyd, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    The effects of petroleum sulfonate-oil (PSO) surfactants (commercial petronates) on sorption of representative nonionic organic contaminants naphthalene, phenanthrene, and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl(2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-PCB) in an Oahtemo (B) soil-water system are presented in this report. In the range of petronate equilibrium aqueous concentrations from 0 to 170 mg L{sup -1}, we have observed a slight increase of the soil-water distribution coefficient (K) for naphthalene, a moderate decrease of K for phenanthrene, and a large (202-fold) decrease of K for 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-PCB. Both aqueous and soil-sorbed PSO surfactant act as partition phases for NOCs. Solute partition coefficients between water and the PSO emulsions in the solution and soil-sorbed form, K{sup -em} and K{sup -sem}, respectively, were determined. The K{sup -em} values were consistently but only slightly larger (1.1-3 times) than K{sup -sem}, demonstrating that sorbed PSO is nearly as effective as aqueous-phase PSO emulsion as a partition phase for phenanthrene and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-PCB. The ratios of K{sup -sem} to K{sup -em} for phenanthrene and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-PCB were consistently about four, indicating that on a unit mass basis sorbed PSO is about four times more effective as a sorptive phase for these contaminants than natural soil organic matter. We have developed and evaluated a model that can predict accurately the apparent soil-water distribution coefficient of a nonionic organic compound at different petronate concentrations. 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Laboratory and field verification of a method to estimate the extent of petroleum biodegradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Gregory S; Hardenstine, Jeffery H; Liu, Bo; Uhler, Allen D

    2012-08-07

    We describe a new and rapid quantitative approach to assess the extent of aerobic biodegradation of volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons in crude oil, using Shushufindi oil from Ecuador as an example. Volatile hydrocarbon biodegradation was both rapid and complete-100% of the benzene, toluene, xylenes (BTEX) and 98% of the gasoline-range organics (GRO) were biodegraded in less than 2 days. Severe biodegradation of the semivolatile hydrocarbons occurred in the inoculated samples with 67% and 87% loss of the diesel-range hydrocarbons (DRO) in 3 and 20 weeks, respectively. One-hundred percent of the naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene, and 46% of the chrysene in the oil were biodegraded within 3 weeks. Percent depletion estimates based on C(30) 17α,21β(H)-hopane (hopane) underestimated the diesel-range organics (DRO) and USEPA 16 priority pollutant PAH losses in the most severely biodegraded samples. The C(28) 20S-triaromatic steroid (TAS) was found to yield more accurate depletion estimates, and a new hopane stability ratio (HSR = hopane/(hopane + TAS)) was developed to monitor hopane degradation in field samples. Oil degradation within field soil samples impacted with Shushufindi crude oil was 83% and 98% for DRO and PAH, respectively. The gas chromatograms and percent depletion estimates indicated that similar levels of petroleum degradation occurred in both the field and laboratory samples, but hopane degradation was substantially less in the field samples. We conclude that cometabolism of hopane may be a factor during rapid biodegradation of petroleum in the laboratory and may not occur to a great extent during biodegradation in the field. We recommend that the hopane stability ratio be monitored in future field studies. If hopane degradation is observed, then the TAS percent depletion estimate should be computed to correct for any bias that may result in petroleum depletion estimates based on hopane.

  10. Bioremediation of weathered petroleum hydrocarbon soil contamination in the Canadian High Arctic: laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Sanscartier, David; Laing, Tamsin; Reimer, Ken; Zeeb, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The bioremediation of weathered medium- to high-molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) in the High Arctic was investigated. The polar desert climate, contaminant characteristics, and logistical constraints can make bioremediation of persistent HCs in the High Arctic challenging. Landfarming (0.3 m(3) plots) was tested in the field for three consecutive years with plots receiving very little maintenance. Application of surfactant and fertilizers, and passive warming using a greenhouse were investigated. The field study was complemented by a laboratory experiment to better understand HC removal mechanisms and limiting factors affecting bioremediation on site. Significant reduction of total petroleum HCs (TPH) was observed in both experiments. Preferential removal of compounds nC16 occurred, whereas in the field, TPH reduction was mainly limited to removal of compounds nC16 was observed in the fertilized field plots only. The greenhouse increased average soil temperatures and extended the treatment season but did not enhance bioremediation. Findings suggest that temperature and low moisture content affected biodegradation of HCs in the field. Little volatilization was measured in the laboratory, but this process may have been predominant in the field. Low-maintenance landfarming may be best suited for remediation of HCs compounds

  11. Soil sampling strategies for site assessments in petroleum-contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lin, Yen-Min; Lu, Chih-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Environmental site assessments are frequently executed for monitoring and remediation performance evaluation purposes, especially in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-contaminated areas, such as gas stations. As a key issue, reproducibility of the assessment results must be ensured, especially if attempts are made to compare results between different institutions. Although it is widely known that uncertainties associated with soil sampling are much higher than those with chemical analyses, field guides or protocols to deal with these uncertainties are not stipulated in detail in the relevant regulations, causing serious errors and distortion of the reliability of environmental site assessments. In this research, uncertainties associated with soil sampling and sample reduction for chemical analysis were quantified using laboratory-scale experiments and the theory of sampling. The research results showed that the TPH mass assessed by sampling tends to be overestimated and sampling errors are high, especially for the low range of TPH concentrations. Homogenization of soil was found to be an efficient method to suppress uncertainty, but high-resolution sampling could be an essential way to minimize this.

  12. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil on Kwajalein Island: Microbiological characterization and biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, H.I.; Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1992-05-01

    Bioremediation technology is being evaluated for use on the Kwajalein Atoll, which is located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The study was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on behalf of the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA). During February of 1991, a team from ORNL and The University of Tennessee (UT) visited the USAKA. In addition to making on-site observations regarding microbial abundance and distribution of petroleum contaminants, they brought back to Oak Ridge various soil and water samples for detailed analyses. This report documents the biological studies of these samples and presents observations made during the period from February to April of 1991 by investigators at ORNL, UT, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  14. Diversity of culturable fungi inhabiting petroleum-contaminated soils in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Elham; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah

    2017-03-28

    The present study was aimed at characterising species diversity of fungi inhabiting petroleum-contaminated soils of oil fields in a southern region of Iran. Two different techniques were used for fungal isolation including enrichment on atmospheres of phenolic hydrocarbons and crude oil as substrate. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA was used for taxonomic identification with additional information from the β-tubulin gene for selected taxa. Overall, 183 strains from 14 genera and five orders were obtained: Pleosporales (Alternaria, Curvularia, Stemphylium, Ulocladium), Chaetothyriales (Exophiala), Eurotiales (Aspergillus), Hypocreales (Acremonium, Emericellopsis, Sarocladium, Stachybotrys, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Beauveria), and Capnodiales (Cladosporium). The most frequently isolated strains belonged to the genera Alternaria, Exophiala and Aspergillus. The crude oil substrate was the most successful isolation method, and among the four hydrocarbon enrichments, toluene substrate yielded the highest number of strains. Enrichment on xylene and benzene also yielded herpotrichiellaceous and other filamentous fungi.

  15. Soil pollution by petroleum products, II. Adsorption-desorption of ``kerosene'' vapors on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaron, B.; Sutherland, P.; Galin, T.; Acher, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Adsorption and desorption of vapor hydrocarbons from a synthetic "kerosene" source on different soils was studied. The "kerosene" used consisted of a mixture containing 20% aromatic components (m-xylene, n-butylbenzene, ps-cumene) and 80% aliphatic components (n-decane, n-dodecane). Three different types of soils were used: Mediterranean red sandy clays, arid brown loessial silty loam and Evesham clay. The most influential parameter in the adsorption-desorption processes was the moisture content, which was examined over a range from oven dry to -1 bar water pressure (70% field capacity). The highest adsorption values were on the arid brown loessial silty loam soil, having the following order of adsorption: n-decane > m-xylene > ps-cumene > n-butylbenzene > n-dodecane. From the "kerosene" components the fastest desorption rate was exhibited by m-xylene and the slowest by n-dodecane, in all the soil studied.

  16. Soil pollution by petroleum products, I. Multiphase migration of kerosene components in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acher, A. J.; Boderie, P.; Yaron, B.

    1989-09-01

    A laboratory study of soil contamination by a synthetic "kerosene" is reported. Soil (Mediterranean red sandy clay) samples with different moisture contents (0.0, 0.8, 4.0, and 12%, w/w) were contaminated by vapors and/or liquid from a mixture containing 5 kerosene components (m-xylene, pseudo-cumene, t-butylbenzene, n-decane and n-dodecane). The contribution of the different kerosene components to the adsorption, volatilization and transport processes is described. Vapor adsorption was found to be dependent on the vapor concentration of each component (except for the n-decane), and on the soil moisture content. The sorption coefficients of the kerosene components decreased with increasing temperature but showed only a very slight variability between 20 and 34°C, in air-dried soil. The volatilization from soil was high: more than 90% of the aromatic components were desorbed in less than 2 h. The transport of the kerosene, in liquid and vapor phases, through the soil columns, was studied using amounts of kerosene which were less (1 mL) or more (10 mL) than the retention capacity of the soil columns. The increase in the moisture content of the soil increased the rate and the depth of kerosene downward penetration. It stopped however, the vapor movement (at 4%) and the upward liquid movement (at 12%). Among the properties of the kerosene components, volatility seems to be the prime factor which determines kerosene movement once liquid phase movement has ceased.

  17. Hydrocarbon wastes at petroleum- and creosote-contaminated sites. Rapid characterization of component classes by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, S.J.; Hrudey, S.E. ); Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.; Tosto, F. )

    1992-12-01

    Adaptation of thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the semiquantitative characterization of residual hydrocarbon contamination at petroleum and wood-preserving hazardous waste sites is described. Soils collected from an abandoned oilfield battery site and a former creosote wood treatment facility in Alberta were solvent extracted and the residues characterized using two mobile-phase systems, one capable of separating polar waste components and the other of separating constituent aromatics according to ring number. The method provides a rapid component class fingerprint of the saturate, aromatic, and polar components of heavy hydrocarbon wastes, is analogous to column chromatography, and is useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by aged hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it can be useful for preliminary screening of the potential biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. XPS study of the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon) exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon contamination on the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) markedly affects the oxygen uptake, and hence the wettability, of this polymer when exposed to an oxygen plasma. As revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) for such a polymer can increase sharply, and correspondingly the fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) can decrease sharply, at very short exposure times; at longer times, however, such changes in the O/C and F/C ratios reverse direction, and these ratios then assume values similar to those of the unexposed PTFE. The greater the extent of hydrocarbon contamination in the PTFE, the larger are the amplitudes of the 'spikes' in the O/C- and F/C-exposure time plots. In contrast, a pristine PTFE experiences a very small, monotonic increase of surface oxidation or O/C ratio with time of exposure to oxygen atoms, while the F/C ratio is virtually unchanged from that of the unexposed polymer (2.0). Unless the presence of adventitious hydrocarbon is taken into account, anomalous surface properties relating to polymer adhesion may be improperly ascribed to PTFE exposed to an oxygen plasma.

  19. An Excel(®)-based visualization tool of 2-D soil gas concentration profiles in petroleum vapor intrusion.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a petroleum vapor intrusion tool implemented in Microsoft(®) Excel(®) using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and integrated within a graphical interface. The latter helps users easily visualize two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles and indoor concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, biodegradation reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. This tool is based on a two-dimensional explicit analytical model that combines steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, in which rate is limited by oxygen availability. As recommended in the recently released United States Environmental Protection Agency's final Petroleum Vapor Intrusion guidance, a sensitivity analysis and a simplified Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis are also included in the spreadsheet.

  20. Carbon fiber enhanced bioelectricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wan, Lili; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising biotechnology for the bioelectricity recovery as well as the remediation of organics contaminated soil. However, the electricity production and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC are seriously limited by the tremendous internal resistance of soil. Conductive carbon fiber was mixed with petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil and significantly enhanced the performance of soil MFC. The maximum current density, the maximum power density and the accumulated charge output of MFC mixed carbon fiber (MC) were 10, 22 and 16 times as high as those of closed circuit control due to the carbon fiber productively assisted the anode to collect the electron. The internal resistance of MC reduced by 58%, 83% of which owed to the charge transfer resistance, resulting in a high efficiency of electron transfer from soil to anode. The degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbons enhanced by 100% and 329% compared to closed and opened circuit controls without the carbon fiber respectively. The effective range of remediation and the bioelectricity recovery was extended from 6 to 20cm with the same area of air-cathode. The mixed carbon fiber apparently enhanced the bioelectricity generation and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC by means of promoting the electron transfer rate from soil to anode. The use of conductively functional materials (e.g. carbon fiber) is very meaningful for the remediation and bioelectricity recovery in the bioelectrochemical remediation.

  1. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants.

  2. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  3. Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, C.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Duris, J. W.; Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ownby, C.; Rossbach, S.

    2007-05-01

    Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity. However, a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the processes and sources resulting in the measured electrical response remains uncertain. The recent discovery of bacterial nanowires and their electron transport capabilities suggest that if bacterial nanowires permeate the subsurface, they may in part be responsible for the anomalous conductivity response. In this study we investigated the microbial population structure, the presence of nanowires, and microbial-induced alterations of a hydrocarbon contaminated environment and relate them to the sediments' geoelectrical response. Our results show that microbial communities varied substantially along the vertical gradient and at depths where hydrocarbons saturated the sediments, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed signatures of microbial communities adapted to hydrocarbon impact. In contrast, RISA profiles from a background location showed little community variations with depth. While all sites showed evidence of microbial activity, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of sediment from the contaminated location showed pervasive development of "nanowire-like structures" with morphologies consistent with nanowires from laboratory experiments. SEM analysis suggests extensive alteration of the sediments by microbial Activity. We conclude that, excess organic carbon (electron donor) but limited electron acceptors in these environments cause microorganisms to produce nanowires to shuttle the electrons as they seek for

  4. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  5. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  6. Natural attenuation of chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; a hydrogeochemical and microbiological investigation workplan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lilly, Michael R.; Braddock, Joan F.; Hinzman, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes include biological degradation, by which microorganisms break down contaminants into simpler product compounds; adsorption of contaminants to soil particles, which decreases the mass of contaminants dissolved in ground water; and dispersion, which decreases dissolved contaminant concentrations through dilution. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) assess the degree to which such natural processes are attenuating chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination in ground water, and (2) evaluate the effects of ground-water/surface-water interactions on natural-attenuation processes in the area of the former East and West Quartermasters Fueling Systems for Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The study will include investigations of the hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological processes occurring at this site that influence the transport and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water. To accomplish these objectives, a data-collection program has been initiated that includes measurements of water-table elevations and the stage of the Chena River; measurements of vertical temperature profiles within the subsurface; characterization of moisture distribution and movement in the unsaturated zone; collection of ground-water samples for determination of both organic and inorganic chemical constituents; and collection of ground-water samples for enumeration of microorganisms and determination of their potential to mineralize contaminants. We will use results from the data-collection program described above to refine our conceptual model of hydrology and contaminant attenuation at this site. Measurements of water-table elevations and river stage will help us to understand the magnitude and direction of ground-water flow and how changes in the stage of the Chena River affect ground-water flow. Because ambient ground water and surface water typically have different temperature characteristics, temperature monitoring will likely provide further insight

  7. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals.

  8. Remediation of soil co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals by the integration of electrokinetics and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Wen-Hui; Xing, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Feng

    2013-09-15

    Successful remediation of soil co-contaminated with high levels of organics and heavy metals is a challenging task, because that metal pollutants in soil can partially or completely suppress normal heterotrophic microbial activity and thus hamper biodegradation of organics. In this study, the benefits of integrating electrokinetic (EK) remediation with biodegradation for decontaminating soil co-contaminated with crude oil and Pb were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 30 days. The treated soil contained 12,500 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 450 mg/kg Pb. The amendments of EDTA and Tween 80, together with a regular refreshing of electrolyte showed the best performance to remediate this contaminated soil. An important function of EDTA-enhanced EK treatment was to eliminate heavy metal toxicity from the soil, thus activating microbial degradation of oil. Although Tween 80 reduced current, it could serve as a second substrate for enhancing microbial growth and biodegradation. It was found that oil biodegradation degree and microbial numbers increased toward the anode and cathode. Microbial metabolism was found to be beneficial to metal release from the soil matrix. Under the optimum conditions, the soil Pb and TPH removal percentages after 30 days of running reached 81.7% and 88.3%, respectively. After treatment, both the residual soil Pb and TPH concentrations met the requirement of the Chinese soil environmental quality standards.

  9. Analysis of petroleum contaminated soils by spectral modeling and pure response profile recovery of n-hexane.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C; Li, Bin; Ali, Md Nasim; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-07-01

    This pilot study compared penalized spline regression (PSR) and random forest (RF) regression using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) derived spectra of 164 petroleum contaminated soils after two different spectral pretreatments [first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate (SNV) followed by detrending] for rapid quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Additionally, a new analytical approach was proposed for the recovery of the pure spectral and concentration profiles of n-hexane present in the unresolved mixture of petroleum contaminated soils using multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The PSR model using FD spectra (r(2) = 0.87, RMSE = 0.580 log10 mg kg(-1), and residual prediction deviation = 2.78) outperformed all other models tested. Quantitative results obtained by MCR-ALS for n-hexane in presence of interferences (r(2) = 0.65 and RMSE 0.261 log10 mg kg(-1)) were comparable to those obtained using FD (PSR) model. Furthermore, MCR ALS was able to recover pure spectra of n-hexane.

  10. Petroleum mass removal from low permeability sediment using air sparging/soil vapor extraction: impact of continuous or pulsed operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland, Brian C.; Aelion, C. Marjorie

    2000-02-01

    Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) are innovative remediation techniques that utilize volatilization and microbial degradation to remediate petroleum spills from soils and groundwater. This in situ study investigated the use of AS/SVE to remediate a gasoline spill from a leaking underground storage tank (UST) in the low permeability, clayey soil of the Appalachian Piedmont. The objectives of this study were to evaluate AS/SVE in low permeability soils by quantifying petroleum mass removal rates, monitoring vadose zone contaminant levels, and comparing the mass extraction rates of continuous AS/SVE to 8 and 24 h pulsed operation. The objectives were met by collecting AS/SVE exhaust gas samples and vadose zone air from multi-depth soil vapor probes. Samples were analyzed for O 2, CO 2, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), and total combustible hydrocarbon (TCH) concentrations using portable hand meters and gas chromatography. Continuous AS/SVE was effective in removing 608 kg of petroleum hydrocarbons from low permeability soil in 44 days (14.3 kg day -1). Mass removal rates ranged from 2.6 times higher to 5.1 times lower than other AS/SVE studies performed in sandy sediments. BTEX levels in the vadose zone were reduced from about 5 ppm to 1 ppm. Ten pulsed AS/SVE tests removed 78 kg in 23 days and the mean mass removal rate (17.6 kg day -1) was significantly higher than the last 15 days of continuous extraction. Pulsed operation may be preferable to continuous operation because of increased mass removal and decreased energy consumption.

  11. Determination of microbial carbon sources and cycling during remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil using natural abundance (14)C analysis of PLFA.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Benjamin R; Greenberg, Bruce M; Slater, Gregory F

    2010-04-01

    In a petroleum impacted land-farm soil in Sarnia, Ontario, compound-specific natural abundance radiocarbon analysis identified biodegradation by the soil microbial community as a major pathway for hydrocarbon removal in a novel remediation system. During remediation of contaminated soils by a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS), the measured Delta(14)C of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers ranged from -793 per thousand to -897 per thousand, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons (Delta(14)C(PHC) = -1000 per thousand). Isotopic mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial PLFA carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and a maximum of 20% was obtained from metabolism of more modern carbon sources. These PLFA from the contaminated soils were the most (14)C-depleted biomarkers ever measured for an in situ environmental system, and this study demonstrated that the microbial community in this soil was subsisting primarily on petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, the microbial community in a nearby uncontaminated control soil maintained a more modern Delta(14)C signature than total organic carbon (Delta(14)C(PLFA) = +36 per thousand to -147 per thousand, Delta(14)C(TOC) = -148 per thousand), indicating preferential consumption of the most modern plant-derived fraction of soil organic carbon. Measurements of delta(13)C and Delta(14)C of soil CO(2) additionally demonstrated that mineralization of PHC contributed to soil CO(2) at the contaminated site. The CO(2) in the uncontaminated control soil exhibited substantially more modern Delta(14)C values, and lower soil CO(2) concentrations than the contaminated soils, suggesting increased rates of soil respiration in the contaminated soils. In combination, these results demonstrated that biodegradation in the soil microbial community was a primary pathway of petroleum hydrocarbon removal in the PEPS system. This study

  12. Sequential production of amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes by bacterium strain isolated from petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nayara Bezerra; de Souza, Ranyere Lucena; de Castro, Heizir F; Zanin, Gisella M; Lima, Alvaro Silva; Soares, Cleide M F

    2008-07-01

    Amylases and lipases are highly demanded industrial enzymes in various sectors such as food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and detergents. Amylases are of ubiquitous occurrence and hold the maximum market share of enzyme sales. Lipases are the most versatile biocatalyst and bring about a range of bioconversion reactions such as hydrolysis, inter-esterification, esterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis, and aminolysis. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility for amylolitic and lipolytic production using a bacterium strain isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in the same submerged fermentation. This was a sequential process based on starch and vegetable oils feedstocks. Run were performed in batchwise using 2% starch supplemented with suitable nutrients and different vegetable oils as a lipase inducers. Fermentation conditions were pH 5.0; 30 degrees C, and stirred speed (200 rpm). Maxima activities for amyloglucosidase and lipase were, respectively, 0.18 and 1,150 U/ml. These results showed a promising methodology to obtain both enzymes using industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils.

  13. Biodegradation of Hopane Prevents Use As Conservative Biomarker During Bioremediation of PAHs in Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2003-04-01

    The pentacyclic triterpane C30 17a (H), 21b (H)-hopane, a biomarker commonly used in hydrocarbon bioremediation laboratory experiments and field studies, was found to be completely removed without the formation of the demethylated intermediate nor-hopane in a crude oil contaminated soil undergoing slurry biotreatment while PAHs such as benzo(e)pyrene were recalcitrant. The partial or complete biodegradation of hopane has also been previously reported in a few bioremediation studies and has been explored by petroleum geochemists in an effort to characterize crude oil deposits. It is currently not clear what conditions induce hopane biodegradation or biotransformation, although the use of microbial enrichment cultures appears to speed up the process. Considering that hopane is not necessarily conserved during a bioremediation study, the uncritical normalization of hydrocarbon concentrations using this biomarker can lead to incorrect estimates of biodegradation rates and extents. If hopane is found to be unstable in a particular case, other potential biomarkers such as pentahopane, oleanane, or vanadium may be used instead.

  14. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed.

  15. Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis.

    PubMed

    Meudec, Anna; Poupart, Nathalie; Dussauze, Jacques; Deslandes, Eric

    2007-08-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to study the effects of heavy fuel oil contamination on the growth and the development of Salicornia fragilis Ball and Tutin, a salt-marsh edible species. Plants were sampled in spring at the "Aber du Conquet" (Finistère, France), and artificially exposed by coating shoot sections with N degrees 6 fuel oil or by mixing it in their substratum. The impact of petroleum on plant development was followed by phytotoxicity assessments and PAH shoots assays. The plants exhibited visual symptoms of stress, i.e. chlorosis, yellowing, growth reduction and perturbations in developmental parameters. The contamination of plants by shoot coating appeared to be less than through soil. Moreover, the increase of the degree of pollution induced more marked effects on plants, likely because of the physical effects of fuel. However, bioaccumulation of PAHs in shoot tissues was also found to be significant, even at very low levels of contamination, and highly related to the conditions of exposure to oil. The strong relationships between the PAH contents of Salicornia plants and growth reduction suggest a chemical toxicity of fuel oil, compounds like PAHs being known to inhibit physiological processes in plants.

  16. Engineering and Design: Use of Petroleum Contaminated Soil in Cold-Mix Asphalt Stabilized Base Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1110-3-487 1 Mar 98 A-1 APPENDIX A REFERENCES ER 1110-345-100. Design Policy for Military Construction American Petroleum Institute (API...fuel. Other sources of test procedures are the American Petroleum Institute and several states which have developed test methods of their own. c

  17. Simulation of the migration and transformation of petroleum pollutants in the soils of the Loess plateau: a case study in the Maling oil field of northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Ma, Jinzhu; Wang, Yunquan; Zhang, Yali; Chen, Lihua; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-10-01

    We developed a coupled water-oil simulation model to simulate the migration and transformation of petroleum-derived contaminants in the soil of the Xifeng oil field. To do so, we used the HYDRUS-2D model, which simulates the diffusion, adsorption or desorption, and microbial degradation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the soil-water system. The saturated soil hydraulic conductivity of petroleum-derived pollutants was 0.05 cm day(-1), which is about 1 to 2 % of the soil moisture permeability coefficient. Our numerical simulation results show that spilled crude oil was mainly concentrated in the surface horizons of the soil. The organic pollutant concentration tended to be highest nearest to the pollution source. The pollutant migration was generally concentrated within the top 20 to 30 cm of the soil, with the maximum concentration in the top 5 cm of the soil. With passing time, the pollutant accumulation increased and the adsorption and degradation functions reached a dynamic balance with the input rate at depths greater than 30 cm below the soil surface. The oil-derived pollutants totaled 50 to 100 mg kg(-1) under the dynamic balance condition, which occurred after 20 to 30 years. The petroleum-derived pollutant concentration in the loess soil was inversely correlated with the horizontal distance from the oil well, and the concentration decreased greatly at a distance greater than 40 m from the well.

  18. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Okparanma, Reuben N; Coulon, Frederic; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that partial least-squares regression analysis with full cross-validation of spectral reflectance data estimates the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated tropical rainforest soils. We applied the approach to 137 field-moist intact soil samples collected from three oil spill sites in Ogoniland in the Niger Delta province (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria. We used sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction-gas chromatography as the reference chemical method. We took soil diffuse reflectance spectra with a mobile fibre-optic visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer (350-2500 nm). Independent validation of combined data from studied sites showed reasonable prediction precision (root-mean-square error of prediction = 1.16-1.95 mg kg(-1), ratio of prediction deviation = 1.86-3.12, and validation r(2) = 0.77-0.89). This suggests that the methodology may be useful for rapid assessment of the spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Niger Delta to inform risk assessment and remediation.

  19. Functional Metagenomics of a Biostimulated Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Reveals an Extraordinary Diversity of Extradiol Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Terrón-González, Laura; Martín-Cabello, Guadalupe; Ferrer, Manuel; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A metagenomic library of a petroleum-contaminated soil was constructed in a fosmid vector that allowed heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA. The library, consisting of 6.5 Gb of metagenomic DNA, was screened for extradiol dioxygenase (Edo) activity using catechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as the substrates. Fifty-eight independent clones encoding extradiol dioxygenase activity were identified. Forty-one different Edo-encoding genes were identified. The population of Edo genes was not dominated by a particular gene or by highly similar genes; rather, the genes had an even distribution and high diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genes could not be ascribed to previously defined subfamilies of Edos. Rather, the Edo genes led to the definition of 10 new subfamilies of type I Edos. Phylogenetic analysis of type II enzymes defined 7 families, 2 of which harbored the type II Edos that were found in this work. Particularly striking was the diversity found in family I.3 Edos; 15 out of the 17 sequences assigned to this family belonged to 7 newly defined subfamilies. A strong bias was found that depended on the substrate used for the screening: catechol mainly led to the detection of Edos belonging to the I.2 family, while 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl led to the detection of most other Edos. Members of the I.2 family showed a clear substrate preference for monocyclic substrates, while those from the I.3 family showed a broader substrate range and high activity toward 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. This metagenomic analysis has substantially increased our knowledge of the existing biodiversity of Edos.

  20. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    PubMed

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016.

  1. Functional Metagenomics of a Biostimulated Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Reveals an Extraordinary Diversity of Extradiol Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Terrón-González, Laura; Martín-Cabello, Guadalupe; Ferrer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library of a petroleum-contaminated soil was constructed in a fosmid vector that allowed heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA. The library, consisting of 6.5 Gb of metagenomic DNA, was screened for extradiol dioxygenase (Edo) activity using catechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as the substrates. Fifty-eight independent clones encoding extradiol dioxygenase activity were identified. Forty-one different Edo-encoding genes were identified. The population of Edo genes was not dominated by a particular gene or by highly similar genes; rather, the genes had an even distribution and high diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genes could not be ascribed to previously defined subfamilies of Edos. Rather, the Edo genes led to the definition of 10 new subfamilies of type I Edos. Phylogenetic analysis of type II enzymes defined 7 families, 2 of which harbored the type II Edos that were found in this work. Particularly striking was the diversity found in family I.3 Edos; 15 out of the 17 sequences assigned to this family belonged to 7 newly defined subfamilies. A strong bias was found that depended on the substrate used for the screening: catechol mainly led to the detection of Edos belonging to the I.2 family, while 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl led to the detection of most other Edos. Members of the I.2 family showed a clear substrate preference for monocyclic substrates, while those from the I.3 family showed a broader substrate range and high activity toward 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. This metagenomic analysis has substantially increased our knowledge of the existing biodiversity of Edos. PMID:26896130

  2. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbo-contaminated soils, comprehensive report, December 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2000-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU), Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. A major focus of this program has been the demonstration of bioremediation techniques to cleanup the soil and sediment associated with a waste lagoon at the Czechowice Oil Refinery (CZOR) in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization (ESC), treatability study, and risk assessment study, a remediation system was designed that took advantage of local materials to minimize cost and maximize treatment efficiency. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system. The CZOR, our industrial partner for this project, was chosen because of their foresight and commitment to the use of new approaches for environmental restoration. This program sets a precedent for Poland in which a portion of the funds necessary to complete the project were provided by the company responsible for the problem. The CZOR was named by PIOS (State Environmental Protection Inspectorate of Poland) as one of the top 80 biggest polluters in Poland. The history of the CZOR dates back more than 100 years to its establishment by the Vacuum Oil Company (a U.S. company and forerunner of Standard Oil). More than a century of continuous use of a sulfuric acid-based oil refining method by the CZOR has produced an estimated 120,000 tons of acidic, highly weathered, petroleum sludge. This waste has been deposited into three open, unlined process waste lagoons, 3 meters deep, now covering 3.8 hectares. Initial analysis indicated that the sludge was composed mainly of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall objective of this full-scale demonstration project was to characterize, assess

  3. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Zedelius, Johannes; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5 × 0.8 μm. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkane n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes. PMID:25806023

  5. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  6. Iron reduction in the sediments of a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuccillo, M.E.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Herman, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Sediments sampled at a hydrocarbon-contaminated, glacial-outwash, sandy aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, were analyzed for sediment-associated Fe with several techniques. Extraction with 0.5 M HCl dissolved poorly crystalline Fe oxides and small amounts of Fe in crystalline Fe oxides, and extracted Fe from phyllosilicates. Use of Ti-citrate-EDTA-bicarbonate results in more complete removal of crystalline Fe oxides. The average HCl-extractable Fe(III) concentration in the sediments closest to the crude-oil contamination (16.2 ??mol/g) has been reduced by up to 30% from background values (23.8 ??mol/g) as a result of Fe(III) reduction in contaminated anoxic groundwater. Iron(II) concentrations are elevated in sediments within an anoxic plume in the aquifer. Iron(II) values under the oil body (19.2 ??mol/g) are as much as 4 times those in the background sediments (4.6 ??mol/g), indicating incorporation of reduced Fe in the contaminated sediments. A 70% increase in total extractable Fe at the anoxic/oxic transition zone indicates reoxidation and precipitation of Fe mobilized from sediment in the anoxic plume. Scanning electron microscopy detected authigenic ferroan calcite in the anoxic sediments and confirmed abundant Fe(III) oxyhydroxides at the anoxic/oxic boundary. The redox biogeochemistry of Fe in this system is coupled to contaminant degradation and is important in predicting processes of hydrocarbon degradation.

  7. Analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater metagenomes as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Abbai, Nathlee S; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-07-01

    The tendency for chlorinated aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons to accumulate in environments such as groundwater and sediments poses a serious environmental threat. In this study, the metabolic capacity of hydrocarbon (aromatics and chlorinated aliphatics)-contaminated groundwater in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been elucidated for the first time by analysis of pyrosequencing data. The taxonomic data revealed that the metagenomes were dominated by the phylum Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria). In addition, Flavobacteriales, Sphingobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Rhodocyclales were the predominant orders present in the individual metagenomes. These orders included microorganisms (Flavobacteria, Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, and Azoarcus) involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and various other hydrocarbons that were present in the groundwater. Although the metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome represented composite cell networks, the information obtained was sufficient to address questions regarding the metabolic potential of the microbial communities and to correlate the data to the contamination profile of the groundwater. Genes involved in the degradation of benzene and benzoate, heavy metal-resistance mechanisms appeared to provide a survival strategy used by the microbial communities. Analysis of the pyrosequencing-derived data revealed that the metagenomes represent complex microbial communities that have adapted to the geochemical conditions of the groundwater as evidenced by the presence of key enzymes/genes conferring resistance to specific contaminants. Thus, pyrosequencing analysis of the metagenomes provided insights into the microbial activities in hydrocarbon-contaminated habitats.

  8. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cam, D; Gagni, S

    2001-11-01

    Manual solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is investigated as a possible alternative for the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils. Spiked onto an agricultural soil is a commercial diesel fuel (DF) with the following composition by weight: 12% linear alkanes, 52% saturated hydrocarbons (branched and cyclic), 21% alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, 6% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 9% unidentified compounds. The spiked soil samples are aged three days at room temperature before analysis. The optimal conditions for the SPME of DF from soils are examined and maximum sensitivity is obtained using a 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at a sampling temperature of 47 degrees C by sonication both in the headspace and directly through a water medium. The reproducibility of the whole technique showed a relative standard deviation of 10%. The parameters that can influence the recovery of DF (such as the time of SPME extraction, the presence of organic solvent and water, and the matrix) are investigated. The linearity is verified in the range of 40 to 1200 mg/L for the direct injection of DF, 0.1 to 1 mg/L for the SPME of DF from water, and 1 to 50 mg/Kg of dry soil for the SPME of DF from soils. The detection limits are respectively 0.5 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, and 0.1 mg/Kg of dry soil. The method is corroborated by comparing the results with those obtained by the traditional way.

  9. Efficiency of Indigenous Filamentous Fungi for Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Medium and Soil: Laboratory Study from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Maddela, N R; Scalvenzi, L; Pérez, M; Montero, C; Gooty, J M

    2015-09-01

    The competence of two fungal isolates for degrading petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated. The filamentous fungi were isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil in northeastern Ecuador, and were 99 %-100 % similar in 18S rDNA sequence to the genus Geomyces. Their efficiencies of degradation were tested in vitro for 30 days, using medium and soil microcosm. Residual hydrocarbons were tracked by gas liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The maximum removal percentages of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 77.3 % and 79.9 % for experiments in the medium and soil microcosm, respectively. The percent germination of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds was increased from 20 % to 100 % upon bioremediation. Isolates sporulated optimally on minimal salts agar medium at pH 5, 25°C temperature, 1 %-1.5 % substrate (crude oil) and 4-6 g L(-1) N-P-K. These findings suggest that these fungal isolates are potential degraders for bioremediation in crude oil-contaminated areas in Ecuador.

  10. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species.

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of petroleum products in soil and ground water at Longmire, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumioka, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The removal of an underground waste-oil storage tank in Mount Rainier National Park, at Longmire, Washington, led to the discovery that soil surrounding the tank was saturated with unidentified petroleum hydrocarbons. Subsequent investigations by the National Park Service indicated that a petroleum product smelling like diesel oil was present in the unsaturated zone as far as 120 feet from the tank site. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service to determine the extent to which the petroleum hydrocarbons have affected the unsaturated zone and ground water in the Longmire area. Measurements of water levels in wells and of water-surface elevations of the Nisqually River and a wetland west of Longmire indicate that ground water does not flow from the maintenance area to the river or to the wetland. Waste oil and diesel oil were detected in soil samples from the site closest to the waste-oil storage-tank site. Diesel oil was also detected in samples from a site about 200 feet northwest of the storage-tank site. Organic compounds of undetermined origin were detected in soil samples from all of the other sites. Waste oil was not conclusively detected in any of the ground-water samples. Diesel oil was detected in water samples from the well closest to the storage tank and from a well about 200 feet west of the storage-tank site. Ground-water samples from all of the other wells contained organic compounds of undetermined origin.

  12. Field survey of Canadian background soils: Implications for a new mathematical gas chromatography-flame ionization detection approach for resolving false detections of petroleum hydrocarbons in clean soils.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2014-08-01

    The reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil provides laboratories with methods for generating accurate and reproducible soil analysis results. The CWS PHC tier 1 generic soil-quality guidelines apply to 4 carbon ranges/fractions: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). The methods and guidelines were developed and validated for soils with approximately 5% total organic carbon (TOC). However, organic soils have much higher TOC levels because of biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) originating from sources such as plant waxes and fatty acids. Coextracted BOCs can have elevated F2-F4 concentrations, which can cause false exceedances of PHC soil guidelines. The present study evaluated false PHC detections in soil samples collected from 34 background sites. The list of analytes included soil type, TOC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), F2, F3, F4, F3a (C16-C22), and F3b (C22-C34). Soils with 3% to 41% TOC falsely exceeded the CWS PHC 300 mg/kg F3 coarse soil guideline. It was previously demonstrated that clean peat had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, while crude oil spiked peat and spiked sand had higher ratios of greater than 0.10. In the present background study, all of the clean organic soils with at least 300 mg/kg F3 had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, which indicated false guideline exceedances. Clean inorganic soils had low F3 concentrations, resulting in high F2:F3b ratios of greater than 0.10. Validation field studies are required to determine if the F2:F3b 0.10 PHC presence versus absence threshold value is applicable to crude oil- and diesel-contaminated sites.

  13. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions.

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops.

  15. [Rhizospheric Mechanisms of Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. Remediating Petroleum-contaminated Soil and Metabonomic Analyses of the Root Systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-05-15

    The effects of a special ornamental plant Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. on remediating petroleum-contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China, was studied by a greenhouse pot-culture experiment and the gradients of TPHs were 0, 10,000 and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹. The results suggested that H. middendorfii had a high tolerance to TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹). And H. middendorfii significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the removal rate of TPHs (53.7% and 33.4%) compared with corresponding controls (31.8% and 12.0%) by natural degradation, respectively. The relative abundance of amino acids, organic acids and sugars and others in soil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PCA and PLS-DA models were to investigate the rhizospheric mechanisms. The results suggested that H. middendorfii changed the distribution characteristics of each component in soil, and the glucopyranoside played a key role in the removal of TPHs. Furthermore, the results about comparative metabolic profile showed that some special metabolites were only found in the contaminated groups, including alanine, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Additionally, the exposure of TPHs changed the primary metabolic flux of roots, and caused the significant (P < 0.01) change of metabolites. In conclusion, H. middendorfii might be an enduring ornamental plant for effective remediating TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹) in soil. But the exposure of TPHs had changed the metabolic profile of H. middendorfii in roots, which might be the metabolic response of H. middendorfii to petroleum-contaminated soil.

  16. Remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil after composting by sequential treatment with Fenton-like oxidation and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Qiao, Wei; Wei, Xiaofang; Guan, Yueming; Ma, Qingxia; Guan, Yingchun

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to enhance removal of residual contaminants after composting in a highly petroleum-contaminated soil by combining Fenton-like pretreatment with biodegradation. The contaminants were characterized by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) during soil treatment. The optimum molar ratio of H(2)O(2) and Fe(3+) was 300/1 determined in batch experiments. At the end of Fenton-like treatment, total dichloromethane-extractable organics (TEO) decreased from 32,400 to 21,800 mg kg(-1) soil, and the toxicity of soil was reduced greatly in the preoxidation process. A significant loss of the number of soil microorganisms was observed in the Fenton-like reaction. During the microbial treatment period, 50.6% of TEO was destroyed. Numerous varieties of polar compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen were identified by FT-ICR MS. The number of compounds containing two oxygen atoms dropped from 604 to 163 during Fenton-like oxidation, and increased again to 577 after biodegradation.

  17. Investigation of ethyl lactate as a green solvent for desorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Seyedeh Pegah; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Abdul Talib, Suhaimi

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a major environmental concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to examine the applicability of a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), in desorption of diesel aliphatic fraction within total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil and to determine the associated desorption kinetics. Batch desorption experiments were carried out on artificially contaminated soil at different EL solvent percentages (%). In analysing the diesel range of TPH, TPH was divided into three fractions and the effect of solvent extraction on each fraction was examined. The experimental results demonstrated that EL has a high and fast desorbing power. Pseudo-second order rate equation described the experimental desorption kinetics data well with correlation coefficient values, R (2), between 0.9219 and 0.9999. The effects of EL percentage, initial contamination level of soil and liquid to solid ratio (L/S (v/w)) on initial desorption rate have also been evaluated. The effective desorption performance of ethyl lactate shows its potential as a removal agent for remediation of TPH-contaminated soil worldwide.

  18. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  19. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  20. ENZYMES FOR ENHANCING BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM- CONTAMINATED SOILS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 1950s and 1960s, hundreds of thousands of underground storage tanks (and above-ground storage tanks) containing petroleum products and hazardous chemicals were installed. Many of these tanks either have been abandoned or have exceeded their useful lives and are leakin...

  1. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The

  2. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  3. A cost effective bioremediation strategy using low technology resources for reclamation of dry land hydrocarbon contamination: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, A.J. III; Hoggatt, P.R.

    1995-12-01

    Hydrocarbon containing soil was bioremediated at a combination wastewater and slop oil skim evaporation pond utilizing cost effective low technology resources. Fluids and sludge from the football field-sized pond were extraction procedure toxicity and purgeable organics tested, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations determined. An impact risk analysis was performed, and a corrective action plan developed and implemented. The three year project was closely coordinated with the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) who established the closure level. The impacted soils at the pond were completely excavated and closure was immediately granted by KDHE for the excavated area. The 24,000 cubic yards of excavated soil were then surface spread on adjacent Mobil property. A nutrient and microbial base was applied to bioaugment the soil. The preapplication land surface and the subsequently land farmed soil was periodically disced and chiseled. A job safety plan including industrial hygiene measures to eliminate workforce exposure was developed and implemented. The final remediation cost analysis amounts to $1.48 per cubic yard compared to the $30 to $150 per cubic yard industry o estimates for similar projects. Several factors were critical in ailing costs to remain so low: (1) assessment and implementation by local in-house staff, (2) conservative remedial action plan and sampling strategy; (3) local contractors; (4) locally available soil amendment; and (5) effective regulatory coordination. The methods described can be used to cost effectively characterize and bioremediate other sites where hydrocarbon-impacted soils exist in similar dry-land environments.

  4. Vapor extraction, air sparging, and bioventing in combination form a technically and cost effective scenario to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.A.; Baker, J.N.; Mailloux, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    When the appropriate site conditions exist, air sparging, vapor extraction and bioventing can be combined to form a technically and cost effective scenario to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. A former Gulf Terminal in Upstate New York meets these conditions. The site geology consists of highly permeable sands and gravels with only trace amounts of silt. The groundwater table is approximately 15 feet below the ground surface which provides an ideal vadose zone. The site contaminants are petroleum fuel residuals primarily from the former storage and transfer of gasoline distillates. A series of pilot studies were conducted at the site in July, August, and September of 1994 to determine the validity of the proposed technologies. Based on the pilot study results, it was determined that the combined technologies of soil vapor extraction, air sparging, and bioventing could be used to effectively remediate the site. Using the pilot study data as the design basis, Parsons ES designed and installed a full-scale remediation system to address both the vadose and phreatic zone contaminants. The SVE portion of the system was placed into operation in April of 1995, and to date has removed over 12,000 pounds of petroleum hydrocarbons, including over 30 pounds of benzene. The overall costs for remediating the site including pilot studies, detailed design, system installation, and one year of operation are estimated at $5.60 per cubic yard for the estimated 35,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil at the site. The pilot study, full-scale operational results, and projected remediation costs are the focus of this paper.

  5. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  6. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes.

  7. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-01-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties. PMID:27431281

  8. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  9. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  10. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost.

  11. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil spiked with model mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles using biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irina; Kostina, Ludmila; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya; Kuyukina, Maria; Peshkur, Tatyana; Anderson, Peter; Cunningham, Colin

    2016-07-15

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using biosurfactants (BS) produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 was studied in soil columns spiked with model mixtures of major petroleum constituents. A crystalline mixture of single PAHs (0.63g/kg), a crystalline mixture of PAHs (0.63g/kg) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and an artificially synthesized non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) containing PAHs (3.00g/kg) dissolved in alkanes C10-C19 were used for spiking. Percentage of PAH removal with BS varied from 16 to 69%. Washing activities of BS were 2.5 times greater than those of synthetic surfactant Tween 60 in NAPL-spiked soil and similar to Tween 60 in crystalline-spiked soil. At the same time, amounts of removed PAHs were equal and consisted of 0.3-0.5g/kg dry soil regardless the chemical pattern of a model mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles used for spiking. UV spectra for soil before and after BS treatment were obtained and their applicability for differentiated analysis of PAH and PASH concentration changes in remediated soil was shown. The ratios A254nm/A288nm revealed that BS increased biotreatability of PAH-contaminated soils.

  12. Using variances in hydrocarbon concentration and carbon stable isotope to determine the important influence of irrigated water on petroleum accumulation in surface soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Yang, Juncheng; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiaoming; Dai, Jiulan

    2013-05-01

    Hunpu is a wastewater-irrigated area southwest of Shenyang. To evaluate petroleum contamination and identify its sources at the area, the aliphatic hydrocarbons and compound-specific carbon stable isotopes of n-alkanes in the soil, irrigation water, and atmospheric deposition were analyzed. The analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that the water is moderately contaminated by degraded heavy oil. According to the isotope analysis, inputs of modern C3 plants and degraded petroleum are present in the water, air, and soil. The similarities and dissimilarities among the water, air, and soil samples were determined by concentration, isotope, and multivariate statistical analyses. Hydrocarbons from various sources, as well as the water/atmospheric deposition samples, are more effectively differentiated through principal component analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) relative to hydrocarbon concentrations. Redundancy analysis indicates that 57.1 % of the variance in the δ(13)C of the soil can be explained by the δ(13)C of both the water and air, and 35.5 % of the variance in the hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil can be explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of both the water and the air. The δ(13)C in the atmospheric deposition accounts for 28.2 % of the δ(13)C variance in the soil, which is considerably higher than the variance in hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of the atmospheric deposition (7.7 %). In contrast to δ(13)C analysis, the analysis of hydrocarbon concentrations underestimates the effect of petroleum contamination in the irrigated water and air on the surface soil. Overall, the irrigated water exerts a larger effect on the surface soil than does the atmospheric deposition.

  13. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  14. Reduction of Toxicity and PAH Bioaccumulation Potential During Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    A set of model soils (e.g., quartz sands, loams, clays, peat, silica gels) was spiked with crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and subjected to bench-scale slurry bioremediation treatment for 90 weeks. At various times, slurry samples were removed from the bioreactors, analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and assayed for toxicity using the solid-phase MicrotoxTM test. In addition, the PAH bioaccumulation potential in tissues of soil dwelling organisms was estimated by exposing semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for 14 days to initial (t=0) and final (t=90 wks) slurry samples. In most cases, soil toxicity (EC50) was reduced 5- to 10 fold during the first 20 weeks of bioremediation treatment but it rarely reached the EC50 value of the respective clean reference soils, indicating that some residual toxicity still remained after 20 weeks of bioremediation. The reduction of soil toxicity most closely correlated with the biodegradation of the sum of 4, 5, and 6 ring PAHs. A comparison of PAH concentrations in SPMDs exposed to initial and final slurry samples revealed that the potential of PAH accumulation in exposed animal tissues was reduced 50 to 300 fold as a result of slurry biotreatment. While in most soils the bioavailable PAH fraction was preferentially removed by the microorganisms, several high molecular weight PAHs that had reached an apparent concentration asymptote after 90 weeks of treatment were still bioavailable to a significant extent in several soils since they were readily taken up by the SPMDs. In summary, it can be concluded that bioremediation significantly reduces both toxicity and PAH bioaccumulation potential. However, the remaining undegraded contaminants are likely to pose some residual risk to environmental receptors since they still exhibit toxicity relative to uncontaminated background soils and are bioavailable to animal tissues.

  15. Identification and biodegradation potential of a novel strain of Dietzia cinnamea isolated from a petroleum-contaminated tropical soil.

    PubMed

    von der Weid, Irene; Marques, Joana M; Cunha, Claudia D; Lippi, Ralph K; Dos Santos, Silvia C C; Rosado, Alexandre S; Lins, Ulysses; Seldin, Lucy

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain, named P4, isolated previously from microcosms containing oil-contaminated soil collected from an environmentally protected area of a tropical Atlantic forest (Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas) located in Brazil was identified as Dietzia cinnamea by morphological, biochemical and genotypic tests. Arabian Light and Marlin oils were both degraded when strain P4 was tested for oil degradation ability in microplates. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) analysis, determined by gas chromatography, showed that strain P4 degraded a wide range of n-alkanes, and also pristane and phytane. Furthermore, this strain was also able to grow in mineral liquid media amended with carbazole, quinoline, naphthalene, toluene, gasoline and diesel as the sole carbon sources. The species D. cinnamea has been previously described with only one representative strain isolated from a perianal swab of a patient with a bone marrow transplant. With the results presented here this species is implicated not only as a human pathogen but also as a potential strain for further studies concerning its role for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  16. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of “conditionally rare taxa,” in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. PMID:26590285

  17. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints.

  18. Evidence that bio-metallic mineral precipitation enhances the complex conductivity response at a hydrocarbon contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewafy, Farag M.; Werkema, D. Dale; Atekwana, Estella A.; Slater, Lee D.; Abdel Aal, Gamal; Revil, André; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    The complex conductivity signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site, undergoing biodegradation, near Bemidji, Minnesota were investigated. This site is characterized by a biogeochemical process where iron reduction is coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The biogeochemical transformations have resulted in precipitation of different bio-metallic iron mineral precipitates such as magnetite, ferroan calcite, and siderite. Our main objective was to elucidate the major factors controlling the complex conductivity response at the site. We acquired laboratory complex conductivity measurements along four cores retrieved from the site in the frequency range between 0.001 and 1000 Hz. Our results show the following: (1) in general higher imaginary conductivity was observed for samples from contaminated locations compared to samples from the uncontaminated location, (2) the imaginary conductivity for samples contaminated with residual and free phase hydrocarbon (smear zone) was higher compared to samples with dissolved phase hydrocarbon, (3) vadose zone samples located above locations with free phase hydrocarbon show higher imaginary conductivity magnitude compared to vadose zone samples from the dissolved phase and uncontaminated locations, (4) the real conductivity was generally elevated for samples from the contaminated locations, but not as diagnostic to the presence of contamination as the imaginary conductivity; (5) for most of the contaminated samples the imaginary conductivity data show a well-defined peak between 0.001 and 0.01 Hz, and (6) sample locations exhibiting higher imaginary conductivity are concomitant with locations having higher magnetic susceptibility. Controlled experiments indicate that variations in electrolytic conductivity and water content across the site are unlikely to fully account for the higher imaginary conductivity observed within the smear zone of contaminated locations. Instead, using magnetite as an example of the

  19. Selection of Specific Endophytic Bacterial Genotypes by Plants in Response to Soil Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Steven D.; Fortin, Nathalie; Mihoc, Anca; Wisse, Gesine; Labelle, Suzanne; Beaumier, Danielle; Ouellette, Danielle; Roy, Real; Whyte, Lyle G.; Banks, M. Kathy; Schwab, Paul; Lee, Ken; Greer, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    Plant-bacterial combinations can increase contaminant degradation in the rhizosphere, but the role played by indigenous root-associated bacteria during plant growth in contaminated soils is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if plants had the ability to selectively enhance the prevalence of endophytes containing pollutant catabolic genes in unrelated environments contaminated with different pollutants. At petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, two genes encoding hydrocarbon degradation, alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and naphthalene dioxygenase (ndoB), were two and four times more prevalent in bacteria extracted from the root interior (endophytic) than from the bulk soil and sediment, respectively. In field sites contaminated with nitroaromatics, two genes encoding nitrotoluene degradation, 2-nitrotoluene reductase (ntdAa) and nitrotoluene monooxygenase (ntnM), were 7 to 14 times more prevalent in endophytic bacteria. The addition of petroleum to sediment doubled the prevalence of ndoB-positive endophytes in Scirpus pungens, indicating that the numbers of endophytes containing catabolic genotypes were dependent on the presence and concentration of contaminants. Similarly, the numbers of alkB- or ndoB-positive endophytes in Festuca arundinacea were correlated with the concentration of creosote in the soil but not with the numbers of alkB- or ndoB-positive bacteria in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that the enrichment of catabolic genotypes in the root interior is both plant and contaminant dependent. PMID:11375152

  20. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" CHEMETRICS, INC., AND AZUR ENVIRONMENTAL LTD REMEDIAID TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON STARTER KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit (RemediAidTm kit) developed by CHEMetries, Inc. (CHEMetrics), and AZUR Environmental Ltd was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the ...

  1. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  2. Assessment of Bioavailability Limitations During Slurry Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Aged Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2003-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether bioavailability limitations are responsible for the slow or incomplete hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged soils, both the rate of desorption (rdes) and biodegradation (rbio) was measured for n-alkanes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different times during the slurry biotreatment of six different soils. While all n-alkanes were biodegraded to various degrees depending on their respective carbon number and the soil organic matter content, none of them were desorbed to a significant extent indicating that these saturated hydrocarbons do not need to be transferred from the soil particles into the aqueous phase in order to be metabolized by microorganisms. Most 2 and 3 ring PAHs biodegraded as fast as they were desorbed (rbio=rdes), i.e., desorption rates controlled biodegradation rates. By contrast, the biodegradation kinetics of 4, 5, and 6 ring PAHs was limited by microbial factors during the initial phase (rbio < rdes) while becoming mass-transfer rate limited during the final phase of bioremediation treatment (rbio=rdes). Whenever PAH biodegradation stalled or did not occur at all (rbio=0), it was never due to bioavailability limitations (rdes >> 0) but was more likely caused by microbial factors such as the absence of specific PAH degraders or cometabolic substrates. Consequently, PAHs that are found to be microbially recalcitrant in aged soils may not be so because of limited bioavailability and thus could pose a greater risk to the environment than previously thought.

  3. Hot air vapor extraction system for remediation of petroleum contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, D.; Karr, L.; Fann, S.; Mathews, A.P.; Price, P.A.; Linginemi, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a demonstration of a technology entitled ``Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)`` at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site (HNTS), Port Hueneme, California. The demonstration of the HAVE technology at HNTS was conducted over a 3-month period between August 21, 1995 and November 22, 1995 and the lessons learned from the demonstration are discussed in details to guide the Department of Defense decision makers in analyzing the applicability of this technology to their contaminated sites. This technology demonstration was conducted under the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of the National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program (NETDP). The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) validate the efficacy of the HAVE technology to treat a wide range of hydrocarbons contaminated soils, (2) gather data to estimate treatment costs, and (3) develop engineering guidance needed to apply this remediation technology DoD-wide. Test runs were made on 5 different treatment cells containing various fuel hydrocarbons, ranging from gasoline to heavier petroleum fractions such as lubricating oil. Computer modeling was conducted to analyze the test results and also to optimize the HAVE system design. An economic analysis conducted for various remediation project sizes ranging from 750 to 9,000 cubic yards, the per cubic yard treatment costs are found to vary from $64.05 down to $36.54 respectively.

  4. Evaluation of immunoassay-based field test kits for the detection of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify, experimentally evaluate and implement the use of alternative field screening methods that are specific for environmental contaminants of interest and concern to the Department of Energy. Immunochemical techniques are rapidly becoming a significant component in the arsenal of field screening methods. Analytical results obtained by immunoassay have been shown to correlate well with those obtained by traditional laboratory methods. Also, the use of immunoassay-based field screening methods can significantly reduce the cost and time required for environmental assessment. The authors are currently evaluating the effectiveness of several immunoassay-based test kits for detecting petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil. Evaluations of two kits, one a semiquantitative assay and the other a quantitative assay, have been completed. The samples analyzed were either solvent or soil spiked with either a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomers of xylene (BTEX), or gasoline. The kits performed well and according to the manufacturers` claims. Of the 50 assays made with the semiquantitative test, the concentrations of 44 samples were correctly determined. The other six samples were determined to be false positives. A soil matrix effect was observed that could account for some of the false positive results. Experimental results using the quantitative test with BTEX (68 assays) correlated well with those expected; R{sup 2} of 0.976 to 0.983 with slopes of 0.94 to 0.97. With gasoline (38 assays) R{sup 2} values of 0.957 to 0.987 and slopes of 0.76 to 0.78 were obtained. The lower slopes with gasoline are indicative of the lower immunoreactivity of that particular sample of gasoline relative to BTEX.

  5. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of recent sediments and marine organisms from Xiamen Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhao; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Changzhou

    2010-04-01

    Surface marine sediments from 12 sites within Xiamen Bay (XMB) and marine organisms (clam, crab, and fish) from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated site at Yuandang Lagoon were sampled and analyzed for 16 priority PAH content by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations in sediments ranged from 203.7 to 1590.5 ng/g, with an average value of 670.0 ng/g. Overall, the total PAH concentrations were relatively lower in the east coastal zone and significantly higher in Yuandang Lagoon. These concentrations were intermediate in comparison with those observed in other estuaries in China. The sources of PAH inputs to sediments in XMB were quantitatively determined by principal components analysis with multiple linear regression. The results showed that, on average, vehicle emissions, petroleum spills, and coal combustion contributed to 41, 36, and 23% of the total PAHs, respectively. Analysis of the PAH composition pattern in marine organisms showed that the total PAHs levels of fishes were lower than those of the clam and crab. The PAH burden of the crab and calm was characterized by the non-negligible occurrence of high-molecular-weight compounds, whereas the fish PAH pattern was dominated by the lower-molecular-weight compounds. In addition, the carcinogenic PAH benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples. Molecular indices based on isomeric PAH ratios differentiated the uptake pathway among organisms. The water soluble matter and the petroleum seemed to be the most favorable uptake pathway in fish from Yuandang Lagoon, whereas the crab and clam shared a mix uptake by the water-soluble and the particulate matter.

  7. Rehabilitation of Seven (7) Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites in a Brackish Water/Lagoon Environment in South Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Avryl; Ramnath, Kelvin; Dyal, Shyam; Lalla, Francesca; Roopchand, Jaipersad

    2007-12-01

    The Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited operates in a wide diversity of tropical habitats in South Trinidad one of which is a brackish water environment known as the Godineau Swamp. Historically this field was operated by predecessor multinational companies, who at that time employed operational practices based on the absence of legal requirements, that were not environmentally considerate. Following a detailed environmental audit of the field (also known as the Oropouche Field), seven (7) contaminated sites were found, that presented a risk to the lagoon and its associated mangrove swamp ecology. Remediation of the seven (7) sites was done in two (2) phases; phase 1 being sampling and characterization of the waste inclusive of migration and phase 2 the actual on-site soil remediation. Phase 1 conducted during the period December 2004 to February 2005, indicated a total of 19,484 m3 of contaminated material with TPH being the main contaminant. The average concentration of TPH was 3.25%. Phase 2 remediation was initiated in October 2005 and involved the following three (3) aspects to achieve a TPH concentration of less than 1%: ▪ Preparation of waste remediation sites adjacent to contaminated sites and excavation and spreading onto cells ▪ Bioremediation onsite using naturally occurring bacteria and rototilling ▪ Rehabilitation and closure of the site following accepted lab results. The benefits of conducting this project in the petroleum industry are to ensure compliance to the national Sensitive Areas Rules and Draft Waste Management Rules, conformance to ISO 14001 Certification requirements and conservation of biodiversity in the mangrove swamp.

  8. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (<2 μm clay, 2-20 μm silt, 20-200 μm fine sand, and >200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand>coarse sand>silt>clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay>silt>coarse sand>fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites.

  10. In situ remediation of hydrocarbon contamination using an injection-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, A.; Tremblay, C.; Boulanger, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosite Inc. has developed a soil treatment technology to be applied in situ using an injection-extraction system (IES). This new restoration process uses custom-designed equipment for recovering free-phase hydrocarbons and for injection/recovery of different treatment solutions through cyclic manipulation of the water table level. Process development applied the basic principles of soil washing with improved distribution of the washing solution and improved hydraulic control using air sparging and vacuum capability. In this case study, free-phase recovery and soil washing have been used successfully to remediate the site. During the fall and winter of 1993--94, in situ restoration of soil contaminated with cutting oil below a machine shop was begun. The contamination extended from 1.83 to 4.27 m underneath the concrete slab. This represents a volume of 1,800 m{sup 3} of oil-laden soil with concentrations reaching 200,000 mg/kg. Moreover, free-floating phase hydrocarbons up to 1 m thick were observed. To clean the site, 400 injection/recovery points were arranged into three networks. A data collection system was used to monitor the water table level. A total of 160,000 kg of oil was extracted from the subsoil in less than 110 days of operation.

  11. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-12-31

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C{sub 3}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 3}-phenanthrenes, and C{sub 2}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 2}-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  12. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-01-01

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C[sub 3]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 3]-phenanthrenes, and C[sub 2]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 2]-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  13. Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon (PHC) Contaminated Soil by Using Mimosa pudica L. .

    PubMed

    Budhadev, Basumatary; Rubul, Saikia; Sabitry, Bordoloi; Hari Prasad, Sarma

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Mimosa pudica L. that could be effective in phytoremediation of PHC-contaminated soil. Experiments were conducted in net house to determine the tolerance of this species to a heavy crude oil contaminated soil under the application of two fertilizer levels and reduction of PHC was monitored for 180 days. Assessment of plant growth, biomass and Total Oil and Grease (TOG) degradation were carried out at an interval of 60 days. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were reduced up to 27% and 10.4% respectively. Experiments with different percentages of crude oil showed that M. pudica could tolerate crude-oil contamination up to 6.2% (w/w). The estimation of TOG in soil of the tested plants revealed that M. pudica could decrease 31.7% of crude oil contaminants in low fertilizer level (200N, 100P, 100K) and 24.7% in high fertilizer level (240N, 120P, 120K). In case of unplanted pots, the reduction of TOG was 13.7% in low fertilizer level and 11.2% in high fertilizer level. This experiment has identified the suitability of a native candidate plant species for further investigation of their phytoremediation potential.

  14. Microbial community analysis of soils contaminated with lead, chromium and petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Joynt, Janet; Bischoff, Marianne; Turco, Ron; Konopka, Allan; Nakatsu, Cindy H

    2006-02-01

    The impact on the microbial community of long-term environmental exposure to metal and organic contamination was investigated. Twenty-four soil samples were collected along a transect dug in soils contaminated with road paint and paint solvents, mainly toluene. Chemical analysis along the transect revealed a range from high to low concentrations of metals (lead and chromium) and organic solvent compounds. Principal components analysis of microbial community structure based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene and fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) showing samples with similar fingerprints also had similar contaminant concentrations. There was also a weak positive correlation between microbial biomass and the organic carbon concentration. Results indicated that microbial populations are present despite some extreme contaminant levels in this mixed-waste contaminated site. Nucleotide sequence determination of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse bacteria belonging to the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Proteobacteria, the high and low G + C Gram-positive bacteria, green nonsulfur, OP8, and others that did not group within a described division. This indicates that soils contaminated with both heavy metals and hydrocarbons for several decades have undergone changes in community composition, but still contain a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria (including novel phylotypes) that warrant further investigation.

  15. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their effects on phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuxing; Hou, Jinyu; Wang, Qingling; Ding, Linlin; Luo, Yongming

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to isolate promising halotolerant and alkalotolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and to study their effects on the growth of tall fescue and phytodegradation efficiency in a petroleum-contaminated saline-alkaline soil. A total of 115 PGPR strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of tall fescue grown in petroleum-contaminated saline-alkaline soils. Of these, 5 strains indicating 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid deaminase activity>1.0M α-KB mg(-1)h(-1) were selected for further studies. The isolate D5A presented the highest plant-growth-promoting activity and was identified as Klebsiella sp. It grew well on the Luria-Bertani medium containing 9% NaCl and at a pH range of 4-10. A pot experiment was then conducted to study the effect of isolates on phytoremediation. The results showed that inoculation of D5A promoted tall fescue growth and enhanced remediation efficiency in petroleum-contaminated saline-alkaline soil.

  16. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  17. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; Ogugbue, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel phenanthrene (PHE) degrading strain Psuedomonas sp. USTB-RU from petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Chen, Huilun

    2013-12-15

    The phenanthrene degrading novel bacterium strain USTB-RU was isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in Dagan oilfield, southeast of Tianjin, northeast China. The novel isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. USTB-RU on the basis of morphological, physicochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequence. The strain could degrade 86.65% of phenanthrene at an initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) in 8 days and identified intermediate metabolite evident the biodegradation of phenanthrene through protocatechuate metabolic pathway. The strain showed the potential to produce surface-active compounds that may have caused for the resulted efficient biodegradation through enhancing the substrate bioavailability. The results highlighted that the adaptability of USTB-RU to grow in a range of temperature, pH and potential to utilize various commonly co-exist pollutants in contaminated site other than phenanthrene as sole carbon and energy source. Further, susceptibility of the strain for the tested antibiotics inferred the possibility to absence of risk of spreading drug resistant factor to other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the isolated novel strain USTB-RU may have a high potential for application in in situ bioremediation of phenanthrene contaminated environment.

  19. Biodegradation Ability and Catabolic Genes of Petroleum-Degrading Sphingomonas koreensis Strain ASU-06 Isolated from Egyptian Oily Soil

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Yasser M.; Shoreit, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06) was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period. PMID:25177681

  20. Structural and physicochemical characterization of crude biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Wongpanit, Panya; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2008-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SP4, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Thailand, was used to produce a biosurfactant from a nutrient broth with palm oil as the carbon source. The key components of the crude biosurfactant were fractionated by using HPLC-ELSD technique. With the use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, in combination with (1)H NMR and MS analyses, chemical structures of the fractionated components of the crude biosurfactant were identified as rhamnolipid species. When compared to synthetic surfactants, including Pluronic F-68, which is a triblock nonionic surfactant containing poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), and sodium dodecyl sulfate, the crude biosurfactant showed comparable physicochemical properties, in terms of the surface activities. The crude biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of pure water to 29.0 mN/m with a critical micelle concentration of approximately 200 mg/l, and it exhibited good thermal and pH stability. The crude biosurfactant also formed stable water-in-oil microemulsions with crude oil and various types of vegetable oils, but not with short-chain hydrocarbons.

  1. Biodegradation ability and catabolic genes of petroleum-degrading Sphingomonas koreensis strain ASU-06 isolated from Egyptian oily soil.

    PubMed

    Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Mawad, Asmaa M M; Mostafa, Yasser M; Shoreit, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06) was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period.

  2. Intracellular distribution of fatty alcohol oxidase activity in Mucor circinelloides YR-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Durón-Castellanos, Arelí; Rodríguez-Robelo, Carmen; Leal-Morales, Carlos A; Zazueta-Sandoval, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    In previous studies, Mucor circinelloides YR-1 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils grown in decane as sole carbon source, showed fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) activities in either particulate or soluble fractions from a cell-free extract. One is associated to internal membranes (mFAO) and the other one is soluble (sFAO). Both activities appear to be located in the cells in specific compartments other than peroxisomes. Results suggested that mFAO could be located on the inner face of the membrane of these compartments, and sFAO could be in the lumen of the specific compartments. This study reports on the intracellular distribution of FAO activity and the purification of sFAOs and mFAO after several different procedures for release from the membranous fraction using the mixed membrane fraction (MMF) after cellular homogenization as enzymatic source. Results with the purified mFAO show, by molecular weight criteria, that the enzyme has only one type of subunit with molecular mass of 46 kDa, with two isoelectric point components: 6.0 and 6.3. We found that mFAO is strongly associated to the MMF, possibly in a transitory fashion. Using non-denaturating gels, we suggest that sFAO and mFAO have the same subunits in their native structures, and, due to their native molecular weight of approximately 350 kDa, each could be natively structured as an octameric complex.

  3. Evaluation of a miniaturised single-stage thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Matthew R; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Shellie, Robert A

    2016-09-09

    A novel miniaturised single-stage resistively heated thermal modulator was investigated as an alternative to cryogenic modulation for use in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The single-stage thermal modulator described herein yielded average retention time relative standard deviations (RSD) of ≤0.2% RSD (first-dimension) and ≤3.4% RSD (second-dimension). The average peak widths generated by the modulator were 72±3ms, and the peak area precision was better than 5.3% RSD for a range of polar and non-polar test analytes. GC×GC analysis can be performed using this modulator without the requirement for cryogenic cooling or additional pressure control modules for flow modulation. The modulator and associated electronics are compact and amenable towards field analysis. The modulator was used for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of petroleum-contaminated soils derived from a sub-Antarctic research station at Macquarie Island. The limit of detection compared to standard 1D GC analysis was improved from 64 to 11mgkg(-1). An automated method of analysing and categorising samples using principal component analysis is presented.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-243 Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Bioremediation Pad, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-033

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-11-07

    The 600-243 waste site consisted of a bioremediation pad for petroleum-contaminated soils resulting from the 1100 Area Underground Storage Tank (UST) upgrades in 1994. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions.

  6. Hydrocarbon contamination and plant species determine the phylogenetic and functional diversity of endophytic degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Smalla, Kornelia; Cunha, Ângela

    2014-03-01

    Salt marsh sediments are sinks for various anthropogenic contaminants, giving rise to significant environmental concern. The process of salt marsh plant survival in such environment is very intriguing and at the same time poorly understood. The plant–microbe interactions may play a key role in the process of environment and in planta detoxification.In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular approaches [enrichment cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing] were used to investigate the effect of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) contamination on the structure and function[polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dioxygenase genes] of endophytic bacterial communities of salt marsh plant species (Halimione portulacoides and Sarcocornia perennis)in the estuarine system Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Pseudomonads dominated the cultivable fraction of the endophytic communities in the enrichment cultures. In a set of fifty isolates tested, nine were positive for genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases (nahAc)and four were positive for plasmid carrying genes encoding PAH degradation enzymes(nahAc). Interestingly, these plasmids were only detected in isolates from most severely PH-polluted sites. The results revealed site-specific effects on endophytic communities,related to the level of PH contamination in the sediment, and plant-species-specific ‘imprints’ in community structure and in genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases. These results suggest a potential ecological role of bacterial plant symbiosis in the process of plant colonization in urban estuarine areas exposed to PH contamination.

  7. Combining HPLC-GCXGC, GCXGC/ToF-MS, and selected ecotoxicity assays for detailed monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil and leaching water.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-10-15

    HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) and GCXGC/ToF-MS (comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) were used to study the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil microcosms during 20 weeks. Two soils were studied: one spiked with fresh diesel and one field sample containing weathered diesel-like oil. Nutrient amended and unamended samples were included. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in spiked soil decreased from 15,000 to 7,500 mg/kg d.m. and from 12,0O0 to 4,000 mg/kg d.m. in the field soil. Linear alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were better biodegradable (>60% degraded) than iso-alkanes; cycloalkanes were least degradable (<40%). Aromatic hydrocarbons up to three rings showed better degradability than n-alkanes. GCXGC/ToF-MS analysis of leaching water showed that initially various oxygenated hydrocarbons were produced. Compound peaks seemed to move up and rightward in the GCXGC chromatograms, indicating that more polar and heavier compounds were formed as biodegradation proceeded. Nutrient amendment can increase TPH removal rates, but had adverse effects on ecotoxicity and leaching potential in our experiment This was explained by observed shifts in the soil microbial community. Ecotoxicity assays showed that residual TPH still inhibited cress (Lepidium sativum) seed germination, but the leaching water was no longer toxic toward luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri).

  8. The influence of PAH concentration and distribution on real-time in situ measurements of petroleum products in soils using laser induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Lieberman, S.H.; McGinnis, W.C.; Knowles, D.; Peven, C.

    1995-12-31

    Real-time laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in situ measurements of soil samples provide a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for hydrocarbon site assessments. The site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS), is a truck-mounted cone penetrometer probe modified with a sapphire window and connected to a laser by fiber optics. The pulsed nitrogen laser 337-nm excitation source induces fluorescence in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are present in petroleum products. The fluorescence response of these compounds is measured with a fluorometer. The SCAPS can provide continuous hydrocarbon screening measurements to soil depths greater than 100 feet. Discrete soil samples collected from the SCAPS boreholes were extracted and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 16 parent and over 100 alkyl substituted PAH compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). This method provides a basis for evaluating the relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations in the soil samples and laser induced fluorescence measurements from the soil borings.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Surfactant-Driven Microbial Population Shifts in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil†

    PubMed Central

    Colores, Gregory M.; Macur, Richard E.; Ward, David M.; Inskeep, William P.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of surfactant addition on hydrocarbon mineralization kinetics and the associated population shifts of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in soil. A mixture of radiolabeled hexadecane and phenanthrene was added to batch soil vessels. Witconol SN70 (a nonionic, alcohol ethoxylate) was added in concentrations that bracketed the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in soil (CMC′) (determined to be 13 mg g−1). Addition of the surfactant at a concentration below the CMC′ (2 mg g−1) did not affect the mineralization rates of either hydrocarbon. However, when surfactant was added at a concentration approaching the CMC′ (10 mg g−1), hexadecane mineralization was delayed and phenanthrene mineralization was completely inhibited. Addition of surfactant at concentrations above the CMC′ (40 mg g−1) completely inhibited mineralization of both phenanthrene and hexadecane. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene segments showed that hydrocarbon amendment stimulated Rhodococcus and Nocardia populations that were displaced by Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes populations at elevated surfactant levels. Parallel cultivation studies revealed that the Rhodococcus population can utilize hexadecane and that the Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes populations can utilize both Witconol SN70 and hexadecane for growth. The results suggest that surfactant applications necessary to achieve the CMC alter the microbial populations responsible for hydrocarbon mineralization. PMID:10877792

  10. Metagenome-Based Metabolic Reconstruction Reveals the Ecophysiological Function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sulfidic Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas H.; Schleinitz, Kathleen M.; Starke, Robert; Bertilsson, Stefan; Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with 13C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood. Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of an sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was recently

  11. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  12. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  13. In situ air sparging for bioremediation of groundwater and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, D.; Lei, J.; Chapdelaine, M.C.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1995-12-31

    Activities at a former petroleum products depot resulted in the hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater over a 30,000-m{sup 2} area. Site remediation activities consisted of three phases: site-specific characterization and treatability study, pilot-scale testing, and full-scale bioremediation. During Phase 1, a series of site/soil/waste characterizations was undertaken to ascertain the degree of site contamination and to determine soil physical/chemical and microbiological characteristics. Treatability studies were carried out to simulate an air sparging process in laboratory-scale columns. Results indicated 42% mineral oil and grease removal and 94% benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) removal over an 8-week period. The removal rate was higher in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone. Phase 2 involved pilot-scale testing over a 550-m{sup 2} area. The radius of influence of the air sparge points was evaluated through measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater and of groundwater mounding. A full-scale air sparging system (Phase 3) was installed on site and has been operational since early 1994. Physical/chemical and microbiological parameters, and contaminants were analyzed to evaluate the system performance.

  14. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  15. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in feces of river otters from the southern Pacific coast of Canada, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Guertin, Daniel A; Balke, Jennifer M E

    2008-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in coastal river otters (Lontra canadensis) were evaluated by sampling feces (scats) collected on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. A broad survey of industrialized areas of the Strait of Georgia region was conducted in 1998, and a subsequent survey of working harbours in 2004. Samples from 1998 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), while in 2004, chemistry was confined to summation operatorPCBs and OC pesticides. Concentrations of OC pesticides were low in both years, with only dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; range: 0.01-2.12 mg/kg lw) and hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB; range: 0.003-0.25 mg/kg lw) detected in all samples. In 1998, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and other higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs were found in most samples, with OCDD ranging from 120 ng/kg lw in Clayoquot Sound to 19,100 ng/kg lw in a pooled sample from two latrines in Nanaimo. PCBs were present in all samples. In 1998 geometric mean concentrations of the sum of 59 PCB congeners ranged from 0.49 mg/kg lw in Nanaimo to 12.3 mg/kg lw in Victoria Harbour. Six years later, mean summation operatorPCBs remained elevated (geometric mean 9.5 mg/kg lw) in Victoria Harbour. Geometric mean concentrations of summation operatorPCBs from Victoria Harbour in 1998 and 2004 were >9 mg/kg lw, a published adverse effect level for reproduction. At some latrines in both Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours, concentrations of TCDD-toxic equivalents exceeded 1500 ng/kg lw, a value for health effects in otters that we derived using published information. As shown in previous studies, analysis of scats provides an efficient and non-intrusive approach to assessing contaminant threats to otter populations, and to documenting spatial trends in residues.

  17. Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with two rapeseed varieties and petroleum degraders reveals different responses of the plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Zukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Ciszewska, Liliana; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lisiecki, Piotr; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Voss, Ingo; Scheibe, Renate; Tomaszewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil. The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST) activity was found in these plants at a much higher level than in HEAR, which correlated with a more efficient diesel removal performed by LEAR in the polluted soil and upon bioaugmentation. A distinct profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was detected in leaves of these plants. Neither LEAR nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment from total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sediments: potential candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Seven hydrocarbonoclastic new bacterial isolates were isolated from dredged sediments of a river estuary in Italy. The sediments were contaminated by shipyard activities since decades, mainly ascribable to the exploitation of diesel oil as the fuel for recreational and commercial navigation of watercrafts. The bacterial isolates were able to utilize diesel oil as sole carbon source. Their metabolic capacities were evaluated by GC-MS analysis, with reference to the depletion of both the normal and branched alkanes, the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. They were taxonomically identified as different species of Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas spp. by the combination of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis. The metabolic activities of interest were analyzed both in relation to the single bacterial strains and to the combination of the latter as a multibacterial species system. After 6 days of incubation in mineral medium with diesel oil as sole carbon source, the Stenotrophomonas sp. M1 strain depleted 43-46 % of Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30, 70 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the 46 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas sp. NM1 strain depleted the 76 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester, the 50 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The bacterial multispecies system was able to completely deplete Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30 and to deplete the 95 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The isolates, either as single strains and as a bacterial multispecies system, were proposed as candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes for the decontamination of dredged sediments.

  19. Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

  20. Bacterial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon amendments in freshwater, marine, and hypersaline water-containing microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-10-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

  1. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  2. Indications of Coupled Carbon and Iron Cycling at a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site from Time-Lapse Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, A.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Bekins, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) data acquired at hydrocarbon contaminated sites have documented enhanced MS within the smear zone (zone of water table fluctuation at hydrocarbon contaminated location) coincident with the free phase (mobile or free liquids moving down through the unsaturated zone independent of the direction of flow of the groundwater or surface water) hydrocarbon plume These studies suggest that magnetic susceptibility can be used as a tool to: (1) infer regions of hydrocarbon contamination, and (2) investigate intrinsic bioremediation by iron reducing bacteria. We performed a campaign of time-lapse MS monitoring at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site (Bemidji, MN) between July 2011 and August 2015. This highly instrumented site has multiple boreholes installed through the free phase, dissolved phase and uncontaminated portions of the aquifer impacted by an oil spill resulting from a pipeline rupture in 1979. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) data acquired in 2011 showed that MS values in the smear zone are higher than in the dissolved phase plume and background, leading to the hypothesis that MS measurements could be used to monitor the long-term progress of biodegradation at the site. However, repeated MS data acquired in 2014 and 2015 showed strong changes in the character of the MS signal in the smear zone with multiple free phase contamination locations showing a strong suppression of the signal relative to that observed in 2011. Other locations in the dissolved phase of the plume show evidence for vertical migration of the zone of enhanced MS, possibly due to changes in the redox profiles driven by hydrology. Such changes in the MS signal are hypothesized to result from either variations in Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the magnetite or changes in the magnetite concentration associated with coupled carbon and iron biogeochemistry. This work is generating a unique time-lapse geophysical dataset providing information on

  3. Comparing Migration Pathways of Biodegradation Products from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Natural Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, E.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Mackay, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants frequently exist in both the vadose and saturated zones at contaminated fuel sites. Natural biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants occur in in situ reactive zones present in both the vadose and saturated zones. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons results in a mass discharge of gaseous biodegradation products through the vadose zone and transport of dissolved gases through the saturated zone. While previous studies have focused solely on transport of degradation products or geochemical parameters in groundwater or efflux of gaseous byproducts from the vadose zone, this study examines both pathways for discharge of degradation products. Quantifying the mass discharge of the biodegradation products through these zones is important to estimate the rates of natural source attenuation, assess the success of monitored natural attenuation, and quantify and document contaminant mass loss. In this study, surface efflux and groundwater mass discharge rates of biodegradation products (carbon dioxide, methane, and other intermediates) were quantified using field data. Field and analytical methodologies will be presented along with the results of the data analysis and a discussion of the uncertainties. Based on the data analysis, the surface efflux pathway through the vadose was found to be the dominant pathway for carbon loss at the monitored field site.

  4. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  5. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  6. Effects of contaminated soil on the growth performance of young Salix (Salix schwerinii E. L. Wolf) and the potential for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Salam, Mir Md Abdus; Kaipiainen, Erik; Mohsin, Muhammad; Villa, Aki; Kuittinen, Suvi; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Pelkonen, Paavo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari

    2016-12-01

    Salix schwerinii was tested in a pot experiment to assess plant growth performance i.e., relative height and dry biomass and the potential for heavy metal uptake in soils polluted with chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The soil used in the pot experiment was collected from a landfill area in Finland. Peat soil was added at different quantities to the polluted soil to stimulate plant growth. The plants were irrigated with tap water or processed water (municipal waste water) to further investigate the effects of nutrient loading on plant biomass growth. The soil was treated at two pH levels (4 and 6). The results showed that the addition of 40-70% peat soil at pH 6 to a polluted soil, and irrigation with processed water accelerated plant growth and phytoextraction efficiency. In the pot experiment, Salix grown in chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and total petroleum hydrocarbons -contaminated field soil for 141 days were unaffected by the contaminated soil and took up excess nutrients from the soil and water. Total mean chromium concentration in the plant organs ranged from 17.05 to 250.45 mg kg(-1), mean zinc concentration ranged from 142.32 to 1616.59 mg kg(-1), mean copper concentration ranged from 12.11 to 223.74 mg kg(-1) and mean nickel concentration ranged from 10.11 to 75.90 mg kg(-1). Mean chromium concentration in the plant organs ranged from 46 to 94%, mean zinc concentration ranged from 44 to 76%, mean copper concentration ranged from 19 to 54% and mean nickel concentration ranged from 8 to 21% across all treatments. Under the different treatments, chromium was taken up by Salix in the largest quantities, followed by zinc, copper and nickel respectively. Salix also produced a moderate reduction in total petroleum total petroleum hydrocarbons in the polluted soil. The results from the pot experiment suggest that Salix schwerinii has the potential to accumulate significant amounts of chromium, zinc, copper and nickel

  7. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated clayey soils from a sub-arctic site: the role of aggregate size and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Akbari, Ali; Snelgrove, Jessica; Frigon, Dominic; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) and the associated microbial activity in predominant aggregate sizes during a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. The in situ aggregate microstructure was characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray CT scanning. The soils in the nutrient (N)-amended and unamended biopile tanks were comprised of macroaggregates (>2 mm) and mesoaggregates (0.25-2 mm). Nutrient addition significantly enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in macroaggregates, but not in mesoaggregates. At the end of 65-d biopile experiment, 42% of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons were degraded in the nutrient-amended macroaggregates, compared to 13% in the mesoaggregates. Higher microbial activity in the macroaggregates of the nutrient amended biopile was inferred from a larger increase in extractable protein concentrations, compared to the other aggregates. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes showed that there was no selection of bacterial populations in any of the aggregates during biopile treatment, suggesting that the enhanced biodegradation in nutrient-amended macroaggregates was likely due to metabolic stimulation. X-ray micro CT scanning revealed that the number of pores wider than 4 μm, which would be easily accessible by bacteria, were an order of magnitude higher in macroaggregates. Also, N2 adsorption analyses showed that pore surface areas and pore volumes per unit weight were four to five-times larger, compared to the mesoaggregates. Thus the higher porosity microstructure in macroaggregates allowed greater hydrocarbon degradation upon biostimulation by nutrient addition and aeration.

  8. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-12-23

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a ¹³CO₂ pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root-shoot ratio for both plant biomass and ¹³C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated ¹³C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution.

  9. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. ); Kato, T.T. )

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  10. Low Temperature Thermal Desorption Processes for the Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Solvents, Hydrocarbons, and Petroleum Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS ATTN: ENAEC-TS-D PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5401 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include...If these soils are used as aggregate for concrete, fine organic particles may weaken cement bonds and other chemicals, notably any soluble metal...projects may be considered elements of system operating parameters, contaminant characteristics, and soil characteristics. The following will expand on each

  11. Biopolymer as an Alternative to Petroleum-based Polymers to Control Soil Erosion: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    increased overall drought tolerance . In summary, the treatability study on the use of biopolymer amendment to improve slope stability of bermed soil and...technology. The R. tropici bacteria are not added to the soil, just the processed biopolymer they produce. End users for the technology are installations...around roots, and nutrient accumulation (Laspidou and Rittmann, 2002). The secretion of EPS by bacteria is recognized as a cohesive force in promoting

  12. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  13. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    have been based on total contaminant concentrations in soil, as determined by laboratory extraction methods that use vigorous physical and chemical procedures. Numerous data collected from bioavailability studies in this study and others carried out by GTI and other organizations conducted on contaminated soils and sediments continue to show that not all contaminants are available to environmental receptors including man or ecologically forms. In short, there exist fractions of contaminants in soil that cannot be released from the soil matrix by normal means. These sequestered contaminant fractions should not be considered a risk to human health or the environment. This project focused on CAB technology to treat soil contaminants to these acceptable levels. Therefore, the primary objective of this project was to determine what these contaminant levels are and to reach or exceed cleanup standards using CAB. These determinations were demonstrated and verified using toxicity and chemical mobility tests. Based on GTI's experience with a form of CAB for the remediation of soils at Manufactured Gas Plant sites, use of the technology demonstrated in this project could save the oil and gas industry an estimated $200 million to $500 million over the next ten years. The merging of CAB with the use of EAE for calibration and evaluation of treatment effectiveness addressed the following research objectives: (1) Determination of the kinetics of contaminant desorption and bioavailability; (2) Further development of CAB technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; (3) Finalization of the methods, procedures and processes needed to apply CAB technology using EAE; and (4) Verification of the applicability of EAE for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  14. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments.

  15. A novel bioremediation strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using salt tolerant Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hairong; Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Lin; Liu, Juncheng; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Sun, Kejing

    2016-09-01

    The present work aimed to develop a novel strategy to bioremediate the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the environment. Salt tolerant bacterium was isolated from Dagang oilfield, China and identified as Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium had a high salt tolerant capability and biochar was developed as carrier for the bacterium. The bacteria with biochar were most effective in degradation of n-alkanes (C16, C18, C19, C26, C28) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NAP, PYR) mixture. The result demonstrated that immobilization of C. variabile HRJ4 with biochar showed higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (THPs) up to 78.9% after 7-day of incubation as compared to the free leaving bacteria. The approach of this study will be helpful in clean-up of petroleum-contamination in the environments through bioremediation process using eco-friendly and cost effective materials like biochar.

  16. Evaluating the efficacy of bioremediating a diesel-contaminated soil using ecotoxicological and bacterial community indices.

    PubMed

    Khudur, Leadin Salah; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Miranda, Ana F; Morrison, Paul D; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Diesel represents a common environmental contaminant as a result of operation, storage, and transportation accidents. The bioremediation of diesel in a contaminated soil is seen as an environmentally safe approach to treat contaminated land. The effectiveness of the remediation process is usually assessed by the degradation of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration, without considering ecotoxicological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of two bioremediation strategies in terms of reduction in TPH concentration together with ecotoxicity indices and changes in the bacterial diversity assessed using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The biostimulation strategy resulted in a 90 % reduction in the TPH concentration versus 78 % reduction from the natural attenuation strategy over 12 weeks incubation in a laboratory mesocosm-containing diesel-contaminated soil. In contrast, the reduction in the ecotoxicity resulting from the natural attenuation treatment using the Microtox and earthworm toxicity assays was more than double the reduction resulting from the biostimulation treatment (45 and 20 % reduction, respectively). The biostimulated treatment involved the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus in order to stimulate the microorganisms by creating an optimal C:N:P molar ratio. An increased concentration of ammonium and phosphate was detected in the biostimulated soil compared with the naturally attenuated samples before and after the remediation process. Furthermore, through PCR-DGGE, significant changes in the bacterial community were observed as a consequence of adding the nutrients together with the diesel (biostimulation), resulting in the formation of distinctly different bacterial communities in the soil subjected to the two strategies used in this study. These findings indicate the suitability of both bioremediation approaches in treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, particularly biostimulation. Although

  17. Effect of the ultrasound-Fenton oxidation process with the addition of a chelating agent on the removal of petroleum-based contaminants from soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Fangmin; Li, Fanxiu; Yuan, Fuqian; Wei, Pingfang

    2015-12-01

    The effects of ultrasonic irradiation, the chelating agent modified Fenton reaction, and a combination of ultrasound and the Fenton method in removing petroleum contaminants from a soil were studied. The results showed that the contaminant removal rate of the Fenton treatment combined with an oxalic acid chelating agent was 55.6% higher than that without a chelating agent. The average removal rate of the contaminants using the ultrasound-Fenton treatment was 59.0% higher than that without ultrasonic treatment. A combination of ultrasound and an Fe(2+)/Fe(3+)-oxalate complex-modified Fenton reagent resulted in significantly higher removal rates of n-alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), n < 28), isoprenoid hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturated polycyclic terpenes compared with the ultrasound treatment alone or the Fenton method. The Fenton reaction and the ultrasound-Fenton treatment can unselectively remove multiple components of residual hydrocarbons and a number of benzene rings in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The chemistry of the heterocyclic compounds and the position and number of substituents can affect the degradation process.

  18. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  19. Phenanthrene degradation by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated sediment of Amlakhadi canal, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Cheturvedula, Sravanthi; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-01-30

    Amlakhadi canal, flowing through Ankleshwar (Gujarat, India) has been impinged with various xenobiotic compounds, released in industrial discharges, over last many decades. Twenty five bacterial strains capable of phenanthrene degradation were isolated from sediments of Amlakhadi canal. The best strain amongst them was identified as Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selected for further studies. Experiments were carried out for optimization of abiotic parameters for efficient phenanthrene degradation. Strain DMVP2 was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene completely in minimal medium containing peptone (0.1%, w/v) as nitrogen source with initial pH 8.0 at 37°C under shaking condition (150 rpm) within 120 h. Strain DMVP2 was able to consume 1,600 mg/l of phenanthrene even at high initial concentration (4,000 mg/l) of phenanthrene. Identification of phthalic acid as major metabolite on GC-MS analysis and detection of protocatechuate dioxygenase activity revealed that phenanthrene was metabolized by phthalic acid-protocatechuate acid pathway. Strain DMVP2 was also able to utilize other xenobiotic compounds as sole carbon source and degrade phenanthrene in presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. Consequently, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 has potential applications in bioremediation strategies.

  20. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  1. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  2. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-12-31

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  3. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  4. The Influence of PAH Concentration and Distribution on Real-Time In-Situ Measurements of Petroleum Products in Soils Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    resource damage assessment," in Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C., 1991; pp 363-369. 10...Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C.; 1991. Douglas, G.D., and A.D. Uhler. Optimizing EPA

  5. Spatial distributions of sulphur species and sulphate-reducing bacteria provide insights into sulphur redox cycling and biodegradation hot-spots in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Pilloni, Giovanni; Ruth-Anneser, Bettina; Lueders, Tillman; Griebler, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Dissimilatory sulphate reduction (DSR) has been proven to be one of the most relevant redox reactions in the biodegradation of contaminants in groundwater. However, the possible role of sulphur species of intermediate oxidation state, as well as the role of potential re-oxidative sulphur cycling in biodegradation particularly at the groundwater table are still poorly understood. Here we used a combination of stable isotope measurements of SO42-, H2S, and S0 as well as geochemical profiling of sulphur intermediates with special emphasis on SO32-, S2O32-, and S0 to unravel possible sulphur cycling in the biodegradation of aromatics in a hydrocarbon-contaminated porous aquifer. By linking these results to the quantification of total bacterial rRNA genes and respiratory genes of sulphate reducers, as well as pyrotag sequencing of bacterial communities over depth, light is shed on possible key-organisms involved. Our results substantiate the role of DSR in biodegradation of hydrocarbons (mainly toluene) in the highly active plume fringes above and beneath the plume core. In both zones the concentration of sulphur intermediates (S0, SO32- and S2O32-) was almost twice that of other sampling-depths, indicating intense sulphur redox cycling. The dual isotopic fingerprint of oxygen and sulphur in dissolved sulphate suggested a re-oxidation of reduced sulphur compounds to sulphate especially at the upper fringe zone. An isotopic shift in δ34S of S0 of nearly +4‰ compared to the δ34S values of H2S from the same depth linked to a high abundance (∼10%) of sequence reads related to Sulphuricurvum spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria) in the same depth were indicative of intensive oxidation of S0 to sulphate in this zone. At the lower plume fringe S0 constituted the main inorganic sulphur species, possibly formed by abiotic re-oxidation of H2S with Fe(III)oxides subsequent to sulphate reduction. These results provide first insights into intense sulphur redox cycling in a hydrocarbon

  6. White spruce response to co-composted hydrocarbon-contaminated drilling waste: effects of compost age and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jung; Chang, Scott X; Hao, Xiying

    2005-01-01

    There are growing interests to use co-composted drilling wastes contaminated with hydrocarbons as growth media for planting in land reclamation. However, such use of the compost may have potential problems such as inherent toxicity of residual hydrocarbon and microbial N immobilization due to high compost C to N ratios. We investigated the growth, biomass production, N uptake, and foliar delta13C of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings in a pot experiment using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old composts (with different hydrocarbon concentrations and C to N ratios) and a local noncontaminated soil with (200 kg N ha(-1)) or without N fertilization. Growth and N content of seedlings (particularly N content in roots) were lower when grown in the compost media as compared with those grown in the soil. Within the compost treatments seedling growth was affected by compost age, but the magnitude of growth reduction was not linearly proportional to hydrocarbon concentrations. Plant N uptake increased with compost age, which corresponds with an increase in indigenous mineral N concentration. Effects of N fertilization on N uptake were curtailed by the presence of indigenous mineral N (e.g., in the 4-yr-old compost) and by fertilization-induced stimulation of microbial activities (e.g., in the 1-yr-old compost). The differences in foliar delta13C values between seedlings grown in compost and soil (P < 0.05) suggest that limitations on water uptake caused by the residual hydrocarbon might have been the predominant factor limiting seedling growth in the compost media. This study suggests that water stress caused by residual hydrocarbons may be a critical factor for the successful use of co-composted drilling wastes as a growth medium.

  7. Surfactant production accompanying the modified Fenton oxidation of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Ndjou'ou, Anne-Clarisse; Cassidy, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    A hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was treated in laboratory slurry reactors using two types of modified Fenton (MF) chemistry. Liquid hydrogen peroxide (HP) with Fe(3+) was compared with a calcium peroxide (CaO(2))-based oxidant (Cool-Oxtrade mark). Bioslurry treatment served as a control. During oxidation, samples of slurry filtrate were tested to quantify hydrocarbon concentrations and bulk surfactant concentrations, using the critical micelle dilution method. The results showed that both oxidants resulted in the temporary accumulation of surfactants to maximum levels of four times the critical micelle concentration, but that surfactants were completely removed by the end of treatment. Removal of surfactants was complete within 2h for liquid HP treatment versus 2 days for the CaO(2)-based oxidant. For both MF oxidants, hydrocarbon concentrations in filtrate were 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than in the biological control. Both MF oxidants also showed enhanced removal of the high molecular weight fractions of the petroleum hydrocarbons relative to biological treatment, though this effect was considerably greater with the CaO(2)-based oxidant. The chemical treatments did not considerably reduce numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms relative to the bioreactor, suggesting that chemical and biological oxidation may have occurred simultaneously in the slurry.

  8. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  9. Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs.

  10. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  11. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  12. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  13. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  14. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  15. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard and polypropylene film.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH), and polyalphaolefins (PAO from hot melts) into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard or polypropylene (PP) flexible film was studied. Migration was monitored during shelf life (up to 24 months), through storage in a real supermarket (packs kept on shelves), conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil), and storage in a warehouse (packs inside of the transport box of corrugated board). Semolina pasta packed in virgin paperboard (without hot melts) had a MOSH content lower than 1.0 mg kg(-1). An increasing contamination with PAO belonging to the adhesives used to close the boxes was detected in egg pasta, wrapped in aluminium (1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 24 months, respectively). An environmental contribution to total hydrocarbon contamination was observed in egg pasta kept on shelves that, after 3 and 24 months, showed levels of PAO/MOSH < C25 around 3 and 10 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of POSH from PP film into egg pasta wrapped in aluminium was around 0.6 mg kg(-1) after 3 months of contact and reached 1.7 mg kg(-1) after 24 months of contact. After 9 months of contact, semolina pasta packed in PP film and stored in the transport box showed that some MOSH migrated into the pasta from the board of the transport box (through the plastic film).

  16. Olivibacter oleidegradans sp. nov., a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from a biofilter clean-up facility on a hydrocarbon-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Szabó, István; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs; Háhn, Judit; Harkai, Péter; Baka, Erzsébet; Táncsics, András; Kaszab, Edit; Privler, Zoltán; Kukolya, József

    2011-12-01

    A novel hydrocarbon-degrading, Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TBF2/20.2(T), was isolated from a biofilter clean-up facility set up on a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in Hungary. It was characterized by using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate is affiliated with the genus Olivibacter in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. It was found to be related most closely to Olivibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 060(T) (93.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Strain TBF2/20.2(T) grew at pH 6-9 (optimally at pH 6.5-7.0) and at 15-42 °C (optimally at 30-37 °C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (39.4%), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c; 26.0%), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (14.5%) and C(16:0) (4.5%). The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain TBF2/20.2(T) was 41.2 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the distinctiveness of strain TBF2/20.2(T) from recognized members of the genus Olivibacter. Thus, strain TBF2/20.2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Olivibacter, for which the name Olivibacter oleidegradans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TBF2/20.2(T) (=NCAIM B 02393(T) =CCM 7765(T)).

  17. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  18. Comparison of the effects of variable site temperatures and constant incubation temperatures on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in pilot-scale experiments with field-aged contaminated soils from a cold regions site.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Temporal atmospheric temperature changes during summers at sub-Arctic sites often cause periodic fluctuations in shallow landfarm and surface soil temperatures. However, little information is available on the effect of site-relevant variations on biodegradation performance in cold climates. This study compares the rate and extents of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at variable site temperatures (1-10 °C) representative of summers at a sub-Arctic site reported previously with those obtained under a constant average temperature of 6 °C. The biodegradation was evaluated in pilot-scale landfarming experiments with field-aged petroleum-contaminated soils shipped from Resolution Island (61°30'N, 65°00'W), Nunavut, Canada. Under the variable site temperature conditions biodegradation rate constants of semi- (F2) and non-volatile (F3) hydrocarbon fractions were enhanced by over a factor of two during the 60-d experiment, compared to the constant temperature mode. The decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under the variable site temperature mode was 55% compared to only 19% under the constant average temperature mode. The enhanced biodegradation is attributable to the non-linear acceleration of microbial activity between 4.7 and 10°C and faster growth of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations. The first-order biodegradation rate constants of 0.018, 0.024 and 0.016 d(-1) for TPH, F2 and F3 fractions at the variable site temperature were in agreement with those determined by an on-site experiment at the same site.

  19. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  20. Comprehensive re-analysis of archived herring gull eggs reconstructs historical temporal trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in Lake Ontario and Green Bay, Lake Michigan, 1971-1982.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, Ross J; Hebert, Craig E

    2006-08-01

    Herring gull egg homogenates collected between 1971 and 1982 from a colony in central Lake Ontario (Scotch Bonnet Island) and from a colony in central Green Bay, Lake Michigan (Big Sister Island) were archived in the Canadian Wildlife Service Specimen Bank. Pooled samples (N = 10) were exhaustively analyzed in 1993 for a wide range of individual chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant (CHC) compounds: DDT, mirex and chlordane compounds and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (CBzs), dieldrin, chlorostyrenes (CSs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 87 PCB congeners, including the TCDD-like non-ortho and mono-ortho congeners. PCBs and DDTs were the dominant residues in eggs from both Lake Ontario (31-242 mg kg(-1) and 9-64 mg kg(-1)) and Green Bay (34-133 mg kg(-1) and 14-91 mg kg(-1)). SigmaPCBs declined by a factor of 4-5 and DDTs a factor of 4-7 at both colonies between 1971 and 1982. Lake Ontario eggs had significantly higher residues of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0.2-2.0 microg kg(-1)), HCBz (0.1-4.7 mg kg(-1)), OCS (0.03-0.45 mg kg(-1)), three HpCSs (0.13-0.97 mg kg(-1)), mirex and mirex photodegradation products (2.1-9.2 mg kg(-1)) than Green Bay eggs. HCBz levels in Lake Ontario eggs declined a factor of 40, TCDD and chlorostyrenes a factor of 8-10, and mirex a factor of 4 between 1971-1978. Green Bay eggs had slightly higher levels of chlordane-related compounds, dieldrin and beta-HCH than Lake Ontario eggs. There were no consistent or strong trends in residue levels of these pesticides, PCDDs (except TCDD) and PCDFs in either lake, indicating that rates of input and removal of these CHCs in the lakes were much closer in the early 1970s than was the case for the other compounds.

  1. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  2. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  7. A polyphasic approach for assessing the suitability of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Eric M; Smith, Renee J; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-04-15

    Bioremediation strategies, though widely used for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, suffer from lack of biodegradation endpoint accountability. To address this limitation, molecular approaches of alkB gene analysis and pyrosequencing were combined with chemical approaches of bioaccessibility and nutrient assays to assess contaminant degrading capacity and develop a strategy for endpoint biodegradation predictions. In long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil containing 10.3 g C10-C36 hydrocarbons kg(-1), 454 pyrosequencing detected the overrepresentation of potential hydrocarbon degrading genera such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Mycobacterium and Gordonia whilst amplicons for PCR-DGGE were detected only with alkB primers targeting Pseudomonas. This indicated the presence of potential microbial hydrocarbon degradation capacity in the soil. Using non-exhaustive extraction methods of 1-propanol and HP-β-CD for hydrocarbon bioaccessibility assessment combined with biodegradation endpoint predictions with linear regression models, we estimated 33.7% and 46.7% hydrocarbon removal respectively. These predictions were validated in pilot scale studies using an enhanced natural attenuation strategy which resulted in a 46.4% reduction in soil hydrocarbon content after 320 days. When predicted biodegradation endpoints were compared to measured values, there was no significant difference (P=0.80) when hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed with HP-β-CD. These results indicate that a combination of molecular and chemical techniques that inform microbial diversity, functionality and chemical bioaccessibility can be valuable tools for assessing the suitability of bioremediation strategies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations in the intertidal seawater after the Hebei Spirit oil spill--effect of tidal cycle on the TPH concentrations and the chromatographic characterization of seawater extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkoo; Hong, Sang Hee; Won, Jongho; Yim, Un Hyuk; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Joo, Changkyu; Kim, Eunsic; Han, Gi Myung; Baek, Seongho; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-02-01

    In December 2007, the oil tanker Hebei Spirit released approximately 12,547,000 L of crude oil off the west coast of Korea, impacting more than 375 km of coastline. The seawater TPH concentrations immediately after the spill ranged from 1.5 to 7310 μg L⁻¹, with an average of 732 μg L⁻¹. The concentrations appeared to decrease drastically to 2.0-224 μg L⁻¹ in one month after the spill. The TPH concentrations in seawater fluctuated with time thereafter because of the remobilization of oil by continuing shoreline cleanup activities and subsequent wave/tidal actions. Seawater TPH concentrations were much higher during high tide than during low tide due to the resuspension of stranded oil. The variation of TPH levels in seawater also matched the spring-neap tidal cycle in the study areas for the first three weeks of the study. Comparisons of the gas chromatograms of the seawater with the water accommodated fraction and the cargo oil indicated that seawater samples were contaminated mainly by the dispersed droplets of spilled oil. One year of monitoring revealed that the oil content in seawater had clearly decreased at most sites, although some regional fluctuations of oil contamination were noted until June 2008.

  9. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  10. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  11. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  12. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  13. Geostatistics and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviewed is designed as a practical guide to geostatistics or kriging for the petroleum geologists. The author's aim in the book is to explain geostatistics as a working tool for petroleum geologists through extensive use of case-study material mostly drawn from his own research in gas potential evaluation in West Virginia. Theory and mathematics are pared down to immediate needs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  15. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  16. Case Study Of Spatial Magnetic Susceptibility Screening Within The Urban Area Of Tuebingen, SW Germany, As A Proxy For Poly-cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, U.; Steidle, D. K.; Hoffmann, V.; Appel, E.; Grathwohl, P.

    In situ magnetic susceptibility screening was performed in the southern part of Tübin- gen city, SW Germany. The main purpose of this case study was to prove the applica- bility of in situ magnetic susceptibility measurements on soils in a variably polluted and densely populated urban environment. Road and rail traffic, house heating and small-scale industry are regarded as the sources of air-borne pollutants in Tübingen city. The impact of any kind of anthropogenic input on soils was studied taking into account specific areas in the city and the topography. A topographical dependence of in situ magnetic susceptibility as well as Shot spotsT of strongly increased values & cedil;were observed. More detailed investigation on selected spots, measuring the suscepti- bility on vertical soil profiles in the laboratory, provided information about the origin of the recorded magnetic signal. Rock magnetic measurements provided additional in- formation about the origin of mineral phases in the soils. PAH (Poly-cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) analyses on selected soil samples revealed a direct link to the observed magnetic susceptibility indicating that magnetic susceptibility might be a proxy for PAH contamination in soils.

  17. Toxicity of vapor phase petroleum contaminants to microbial degrader communities

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.C.; Davey, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum products constitute the largest quantity of synthetic organic chemical products produced in the US. They are comprised of mostly hydrocarbon constituents from many different chemical classes including alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Many petroleum constituents are classified as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. Petroleum products also constitute a major portion of environmental pollution. One emerging technology, with promise for applications to VOCs in subsurface soil environments, is bioventing coupled with soil vapor extraction. These technologies involve volatilization of contaminants into the soil gas phase by injection and withdrawal of air. This air movement causes enhancement of the aerobic microbial degradation of the mobilized vapors by the indigenous populations. This study investigated the effects of exposure of mixed, subsurface microbial communities to vapor phase petroleum constituents or vapors of petroleum mixtures. Soil slurries were prepared and plated onto mineral salts agar plates and exposed to vapor phase contaminants at equilibrium with pure product. Representative n-alkane, branched alkane, cycloalkane, and aromatic compounds were tested as well as petroleum product mixtures. Vapor exposure altered the numbers and morphologies of the colonies enumerated when compared to controls. However, even at high, equilibrium vapor concentrations, microbial degrader populations were not completely inhibited.

  18. Washing of soil contaminated with PAHs and heavy petroleum fractions using two nonionic [correction] and one ionic surfactant: effect of salt addition.

    PubMed

    López, Jessica; Iturbe, Rosario; Torres, Luis G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to select the surfactant for washing an aged soil contaminated with PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons fraction, between two anionic and one ionic surfactant. The effect of the addition of salt when washing with the ionic surfactant was evaluated. Results of this work indicated the following. Soil contaminants concentration as g TPH kg soil(-1) was 17,200 mg kg(-1). All washing performances were dependent on the type of surfactant and applied doses. In general, best removal efficiencies were obtained with TW80 (59.57%), followed very near by E600 (57.67%), and at the en by SDS (39.0%), in comparison to the blank assessment (only water), where removal efficiency was about 12%. These removal efficiencies were correlated to the MW, CMC, and HLB values of every surfactant. SDS efficiencies were quite enhanced by the addition of 1% (60.36% removal efficiency) and 2% (70.28% removal efficiency) of NaCl. Its seems that there exist two reasons for this phenomena i.e., the diminution in the real value of SDS CMC (as reported by many authors) and, the capabilities of NaCl solutions to dissolve higher amounts of hydrocarbons than only tap water.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  3. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  4. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  5. Source identification of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and sediments from Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil using the CHEMSIC method (CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms).

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Fabiana D C; Christensen, Jan H

    2012-04-27

    A chemometric method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of pre-processed and combined sections of selected ion chromatograms (SICs) is used to characterise the hydrocarbon profiles in soil and sediment from Araucária, Guajuvira, General Lúcio and Balsa Nova Municipalities (Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil) and to indicate the main sources of hydrocarbon pollution. The study includes 38 SICs of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and four of petroleum biomarkers in two separate analyses. The most contaminated samples are inside the Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery area. These samples represent a petrogenic pattern and different weathering degrees. Samples from outside the refinery area are either less or not contaminated, or contain mixtures of diagenetic, pyrogenic and petrogenic inputs where different proportions predominate. The locations farthest away from industrial activity (Balsa Nova) contains the lowest levels of PAC contamination. There are no evidences to conclude positive matches between the samples from outside the refinery area and the Cusiana spilled oil.

  6. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  7. Fundamentals of petroleum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Elroy, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    It's a complete guide to the fundamentals of reading, using, and making petroleum maps. The topics covered are well spotting, lease posting, contouring, hanging cross sections, and ink drafting. This book not only tells the how of petroleum mapping, but it also tells the why to better understand the principles and techniques. The books does not teach ''drafting,'' but does describe the proper care and use of drafting equipment for those who are totally new to the task.

  8. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  9. Degradation of PVC/rPLA Thick Films in Soil Burial Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Bożena; Rusinowski, Szymon; Chmielnicki, Blazej; Kamińska-Bach, Grażyna; Bortel, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Some of the biodegradable polymers can be blended with a synthetic polymer to facilitate their biodegradation in the environment. The objective of the study was to investigate the biodegradation of thick films of poly(vinyl chloride)/recycled polylactide (PVC/rPLA). The experiments were carried out in the garden soil or in the mixture of garden soil and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil under laboratory conditions. Since it is widely accepted that the biosurfactants secreted by microorganisms enable biotransformation of various hydrophobic substances in the environment, it was assumed that the use of contaminated soil, rich in biosurfactant producing bacteria, may accelerate biodegradation of plastics. After the experimental period, the more noticeable weight loss of polymer films was observed after incubation in the garden soil. However, more pronounced changes in the film surface morphology and chemical structure as well as decrease of tensile strength were observed after incubation of films in the mixture of garden and contaminated soil. It turned out that as a result of competition between two distinct groups of microorganisms present in the mixture of garden and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils the number of microorganisms and their activity were lower than the activity of indigenous microflora of garden soil as well as the amount of secreted biosurfactants towards plastics.

  10. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Abioye, O. P.; Agamuthu, P.; Abdul Aziz, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  11. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in coastal sediments of the Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea): case studies before and after the Izmit Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Tolun, L; Martens, D; Okay, O S; Schramm, K W

    2006-08-01

    Izmit Bay and its coastal environment was strongly affected by the August 17th, 1999 Izmit Earthquake. The changes in the Bay ecosystem and its chemical oceanography have been studied in detail previously [Okay, O.S., Tolun, L, Telli-Karakoç, F., Tüfekçi, V., Tüfekçi, H. And Morkoç, E. 2001. Yzmit Bay ecosystem after Marmara earthquake and subsequent fire: The long-term data. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 361-369; Balkýs, N. 2003. The effect of Marmara (Izmit ) Earthquake on the chemical oceanography of Izmit Bay, Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46, 865-878.]. In this study surface sediments collected from the Izmit Bay before and after the earthquake have been analysed for total and individual (14 compounds) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Analyses have been performed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). Before the earthquake, total PAH concentrations in the Bay sediments ranged from 120 to 8900 ng/g while after the earthquake PAH concentrations varied between 240 and 11,400 ng/g. Molecular indices based on isomeric PAH ratios used to differentiate the pollution sources, clearly indicate the differences in molecular distribution of PAHs before and after the earthquake. Sediment data obtained before the earthquake shows that most of the contamination originated from high temperature pyrolytic inputs while after the earthquake it originated from petrogenic sources. This difference emphasises the environmental impact of uncontrolled discharges from petroleum industries after the earthquake. The LMW/HMW ratio (sum of the low molecular weight PAHs / the sum of higher molecular weight PAHs) predominance also changed after the earthquake as a result of the strong water movements. According to the characteristics of aromatic rings distributed in the bay sediments, the soluble parts of the total PAH were probably transferred to the water column after the earthquake as a result of resuspension process. The TEL

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Carbonization of petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eser, S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the petroleum cokes are determined by their crystalline structure, which principally depends on the nature of the mesophase formed during the liquid-phase carbonization of the precursors. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between the chemical nature of the petroleum feedstocks and the mesophase development during carbonization. Ashland 240 pitch and a range of petroleum heavy residua were characterized by solvent fractionation, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, H and TC Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The semi-coke (pyridine insolubles) formation from the feedstocks and their asphaltene fractions was found to be first-order with respect to the concentration of pyridine solubles over a wide conversion range. An inverse relationship was observed between the rate of carbonization of the asphaltenes and the degree of mesophase development. The degree of mesophase development during the carbonization of the feedstock asphaltenes increased consistently with the increasing hydrogen aromaticity over the whole range of the feedstocks used. The principal conclusion from this study is that the mesophase development during carbonization critically depends on the chemical constitution of the petroleum feedstocks. The molecular nature of the asphaltene fractions determines the extent of mesophase development during the carbonization of the petroleum heavy residua. In this respect, the hydrogen aromaticity of the asphaltenes appears to be a good measure for the feedstock quality in terms of resulting coke structure and properties.

  15. Report on bioventing of petroleum contaminated soils at 108-3C: Active extraction and passive injection (barometric pumping) of a gaseous nutrient

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, J.R.; Lombard, K.; Radway, J.

    1997-05-01

    A bioventing system was constructed with horizontal extraction wells and vertical injection wells in an area which had previously been excavated and then backfilled. Initial in-situ respiration rates (air addition only) suggest that hydrocarbon degradation may be nutrient limited. The rate of TPH degradation was maximum (0.8-1.2 mg/kg/day) between 10-15 ft (bgs), but dropped to essentially zero 30 ft (bgs) within the contaminated zone (even though previous analysis at this depth indicated a TPH concentration of 3800 ppm). Analysis of the soil at 17 ft showed that NO{sub 3} and PO{sub 4} were below detection limits (0.5 ppm), indicating that nutrient limitation may be occurring. Nitrate levels were highest at 10 ft (bgs), correlating with the highest respiration rates. However, phosphate levels were at/or below detection levels throughout tile site (indicating possible PO{sub 4} limitation). Viable cells increased from 3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g at 3 ft (bgs) to 1 x 10{sup 7} cfu/g at 10 ft (bgs) and remained relatively constant down to 17 ft. Cell numbers in the control area were significantly lower than in the contaminated zone (4.5 x 10{sup 3}). Gas phase nutrients (triethlyphosphate and nitrous oxide) will be injected to see if the hydrocarbon degradation rate can be increased.

  16. [Isolation identification and characterization of halotolerant petroleum-degrading bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Xie, Wen-Jun; Yi, Yan-Li; Li, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiang-Ming

    2012-11-01

    To obtain efficient halotolerant petroleum-degrading bacteria, 39 bacteria strains were isolated from 30 petroleum contaminated saline soil samples in Yellow River Delta, an important base of petroleum production in China. One bacterium (strain BM38) was found to efficiently degrade crude oil in highly saline environments based on a series of liquid and soil incubation experiments. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas putida. Moreover, a series of liquid incubation experiments were conducted to investigate its characteristics such as halotolerance, biosurfactants production and degrading efficiency for various hydrocarbons. The salt resistance test demonstrated that strain BM38 grew well at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 6.0%. Petroleum degradation experiments showed that strain BM38 could degrade 73.5% crude oil after 7 days in a liquid culture medium containing 1.0% NaCl and remove more than 40% of total petroleum hydrocarbons after 40 days in the soil with 0.22% and 0.61% of salinity, these results proved that the strain was effective in removing petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain BM38 could produce a bioemulsifier in a liquid culture medium. The NaCl concentration had the significant effect on the EI24 of fermentation broth, which decreased sharply if the NaCl concentration was greater than 1.0%. However, the EI24 of BM38 was still quite high in the presence of 2.0% of NaCl, and the value was 61.0%. Furthermore, this strain was also able to grow in mineral liquid media amended with hexadecane, toluene, phenanthrene, isooctane and cyclohexane as the sole carbon sources. Among these hydracarbons, strain BM38 showed relatively high ability in degrading n-alkanes and aromatic hydracarbons. The results indicated that strain BM38 had potential for application in bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated saline soil.

  17. Dynamics of Fe(II), sulphur and phosphate in pilot-scale constructed wetlands treating a sulphate-rich chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Chen, Zhongbing; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Seeger, Eva M; Dong, Renjie; Kästner, Matthias; Paschke, Heidrun; Hahn, Anja; Kayser, Gernot; Kuschk, Peter

    2012-04-15

    Long-term investigations were carried out in two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (planted and unplanted) with an iron-rich soil matrix for treating sulphate-rich groundwater which was contaminated with low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The temporal and spatial dynamics of pore-water sulphide, Fe(II) and phosphate concentrations in the wetland beds were characterized and the seasonal effects on sulphide production and nitrification inhibition were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pore-water sulphide concentrations gradually increased from less than 0.2 mg/L in 2005 to annual average concentrations of 15 mg/L in 2010, while the pore-water Fe(II) concentrations decreased from 35.4 mg/L to 0.3 mg/L. From 2005 to 2010, the phosphate removal efficiency declined from 91% to 10% under a relatively constant inflow concentration of 5 mg/L. The pronounced effect of plants was accompanied by a higher sulphate reduction and ammonium oxidation in the planted bed, as compared to the unplanted control. A high tolerance of plants towards sulphide toxicity was observed, which might be due to the detoxification of sulphide by oxygen released by the roots. However, during the period of 2009-2010, the nitrification was negatively impacted by the sulphide production as the reduction in the removal of ammonium from 75% to 42% (with inflow concentration of 55 mg/L) correlated with the increasing mean annual sulphide concentrations. The effect of the detoxification of sulphide and the immobilization of phosphate by the application of the iron-rich soil matrix in the initial years was proven; however, the life-span of this effect should not only be taken into consideration in further design but also in scientific studies.

  18. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  5. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  6. Production of Alkaline Protease by Solvent-Tolerant Alkaliphilic Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942 Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Habitat: Process Parameters Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ulhas; Chaudhari, Ambalal

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a newly isolated organic solvent-tolerant and alkaliphilic bacterial strain was reported from a hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel) contaminated soil collected from the petrol station, Shirpur (India). The strain was identified as Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942, based on phenotype, biochemical, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The capability of Bacillus circulans to secrete an extracellular, thermostable, alkaline protease and grow in the presence of organic solvents was explored. Bacillus circulans produced maximum alkaline protease (412 U/mL) in optimized medium (g/L): soybean meal, 15; starch, 10; KH2PO4, 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.05; CaCl2, 1; Na2CO3, 8; pH 10.0 at 37°C and 100 rpm. The competence of strain to grow in various organic solvents—n-octane, dodecane, n-decane, N,N-dimethylformamide, n-hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide, establishes its potential as solvent-stable protease source for the possible applications in nonaqueous reactions and fine chemical synthesis. PMID:25937965

  7. Production of Alkaline Protease by Solvent-Tolerant Alkaliphilic Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942 Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Habitat: Process Parameters Optimization.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ulhas; Chaudhari, Ambalal

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a newly isolated organic solvent-tolerant and alkaliphilic bacterial strain was reported from a hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel) contaminated soil collected from the petrol station, Shirpur (India). The strain was identified as Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942, based on phenotype, biochemical, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The capability of Bacillus circulans to secrete an extracellular, thermostable, alkaline protease and grow in the presence of organic solvents was explored. Bacillus circulans produced maximum alkaline protease (412 U/mL) in optimized medium (g/L): soybean meal, 15; starch, 10; KH2PO4, 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.05; CaCl2, 1; Na2CO3, 8; pH 10.0 at 37°C and 100 rpm. The competence of strain to grow in various organic solvents-n-octane, dodecane, n-decane, N,N-dimethylformamide, n-hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide, establishes its potential as solvent-stable protease source for the possible applications in nonaqueous reactions and fine chemical synthesis.